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tv   Tomorrow Today  Deutsche Welle  September 23, 2019 5:30pm-6:00pm CEST

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friends of mine known caria enjoyed none more than the law even if it's not by us i was at 12 in the morning. by choice in this card because given their way to transmitted patrols. and in a gosh mom which and i was. did i. welcome to tomorrow today the science show on t.w. coming up. our research in oxford who's found the world is not as awful as many think. how do colors affect us experiments to shed some light. and we head to peru to meet some amazon manatees.
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the world is in a sorry state and getting worse right a look at the news might make you think so but the data show many positive developments a research project in oxford anxious to make the move his appeal to the public at large. oxford university in england is one of the best in the world and one of the oldest. it's tranquil beauty contrasts with the intellectual dynamism of it scholars. here it's a tradition to challenge tradition overturn received wisdom and extend the boundaries of knowledge. meet hannah ritchie research focuses on global development and environmental sustainability part of her work is to gather and publish not. of data. really of what we try to. understand
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ensure the world as it is i think it's vital that most of the developments we've seen in terms of human wellbeing have been positive hannah ritchie works at the oxford martin school a research unit founded in 2005 she and her colleagues work into disciplinary teams on ways to enhance the wellbeing of people across the planet and to find solutions to the world's urgent challenges such as climate change and child mortality. they also gather and present research findings on a platform called our world in data for all to see. and i think a lot of the questions that people have researchers know where they are they started this stuff every day that it was there but it's kind of what's an academic paper. and really kind of quantitative is that no one of our friends so really what we bring together are either academic research from publications or these kind of
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international data set. the world bank. and then we kind of tried to bring it to life to take an example literacy in 1900 most adults around the world could neither read nor write 100 years later the number of illiterate adults had fallen significantly today only 14 percent of the world's population is illiterate in other words nowadays 86 percent can read and write. vaccination today the percentage of infants immunized against diphtheria whooping cough tetanus and measles is 4 times higher than it was 35 years ago. in 1990 few infants were vaccinated against have the tightest be now 80 percent. so things are better than many may realize. yet it's hard for people to access
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comprehensive and reliable information on the state of the world these were 2 key findings of hans rosling the swedish physicians and statistician who died in 2017. it's not that he was an optimist or pessimist for that matter he was really into facts i have one little humble advice to. everything else look at the day. look at the facts about the war undeniably face huge challenges but the good news is that the future may not be quite as gloomy and that mankind already is doing better than many of you. 2015 survey of 17 countries did indeed find that a clear majority of people there think the world is getting worse rosling identified a key driver of global pessimism the media you said they were not to be trusted and fail to provide the big picture the oxford martin school website also says that
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popular misperceptions reveal a failure of our media and our education systems news outlets tend to focus on horrible or particularly dramatic advance. drawn i think just from a psychological perspective we want to know what's happening right now. and even i suffer from this even though i try to take a long term perspective i want to know what's happening right now in the world so i'm kind of drawn to these single events so i can't so. much as. documenting positive developments is not meant to encourage complacency progress requires hard work and the oxford martin school is busy developing solutions to humankind's great and terrifying problems.
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when it's about common sense tends to fly out the window too much food or too little healthy or unhealthy psychologist habits is subject to all kinds of surprising influences how we ate depends on. and with at the time. everyone has experienced it regardless of your plans to eat only healthy food hardly anyone can resist potato chips at a party. when food is involved we are very much influenced by those around us. other people may influence how much we eat. if a slim person next to us eats a lot we are more likely to tuck into after all it doesn't seem to harm but if we're next to an overweight person who eats a lot it can actually put us off our food. the healthiest influence would be skinny people eating small or normal portions. emotions
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also play a role in eating we compensate our feelings by rewarding ourselves with food our favorite foods activate the brain's reward mechanism incidentally people suffering from obesity are likely to need more of a stimulus than people of average weight when it comes to feeling that reward and if we know what our idols like to eat that can also influence us and that begins very early in an experiment kindergarden children were asked to imagine a favorite superhero eating lots of fast food and immediately they all wanted more fast food. but it's better not to have idols when it comes to eating those who commit to a healthy diet voluntarily get the most benefit people who are forced to eat healthy rather than sweet get hungry again after a shorter time than those who choose to eat healthier. conversely those who are
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made to eat sweet experience less skilled and are more creative and concentrated than those who voluntarily soon with sweets. but be careful if you weakness specially healthy food for lunch you could have a relapse in the evening psychologists call this the licensing effect you could also call it fooling yourself when it comes to eating were easier to read than one might think. but how do we read khaled's. the significance of colors varies between cultures in many western societies death and sorrow are indicated by the color black. in bali in indonesia it's white. while in mexico it's yellow and other bright hues but what effect 2 colors have on the human psyche . colors captivate us they stimulate and evoke
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emotions. there are many beliefs about the specific impact of colors for example on people's cognitive performance or their emotions. red is said to be invigorating blue it helps us concentrate green is relaxing but is there solid scientific proof for this to find out we're going to observe 3 experiments. ecologist daniel to still wants to know if his test subjects respond physically to color to do this he's going to measure their skin conductance it increases for example when her hands wet due to emotional arousal. he shows his test subjects for colors it's not just the hue that carries red green blue and grey but also the saturation and brightness of the color.
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the test subjects also have to write down how they feel relaxed and calm agitated or aroused are they uncomfortable and happy or do they find it pleasant and feel happy. finding and sometimes even with a very intense colors i immediately had a more unpleasant feeling. but did these feelings correspond with their test subjects physical responses we'll have to wait for the results in the meantime we move on to the 2nd experiment. that's a welcome to our test on which temperatures are comfortable will vary the temperature throughout and every 10 minutes ask you to rate how you feel. what the test subjects don't know is that the ambient light of the room they're in has a particular color temperature one group is sitting in light that's comparable the bright sunlight with strong red and yellow tones. the 2nd group is
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placed in a light with a strong bluish tone similar to the light conditions on a cloudy day with both groups the room temperature is lowered steadily from 24 to 20 degrees celsius. that's all examines whether the lighting influences the test subjects responses. to comply assume this experiment wouldn't show any influence at all why should the color of the lighting affect the way people perceive temperature. doesn't warm red light make us feel warmer than a cool blue light. at what temperature will they test subjects reach for a sweater or jacket. back to experiment and the question of how colors affect our emotional state there are 3 clear results. already have test subjects felt most comfortable with colors of medium intensity regardless of
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whether they are red green or blue. highly saturated intense colors elicit the strongest physical response skin conductance increases showing that they test subjects are feeling around star even agitated the researchers still don't know exactly why that's the case. on current one possibility is that highly saturated colors are relatively rare in nature so maybe they're especially eye catching and have a particular significance. highly saturated red has an especially pronounced effect . that. because red is often used to signal danger or strong emotion and that's what we've come to associate the color with. consider something like a flushing meaning when people become red in the face that can be due to arousal or stress due to physical exercise for example or intense anger or possibly due to sexual arousal. so it might be plausible that when we see the color red we are
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reminded of that kind of situation and that reminder in turn elicits physical arousal as a response. a 3rd experiment is meant to determine whether ambient color has an impact on our cognitive performance according to the lighting manufacturer these colors have a direct impact on our emotional state this pink is supposedly relaxing the blue enhances attention and concentration the red is stimulating the neutral white is the control. and this experiment 170 high school students are given a battery of tasks that assess their spatial skills short term memory and logical skills so did the students notice any effect did they feel unusually concentrated focused or relaxed. i'm not really it's a pleasant color but i can't say i noticed that it had any effect. so i didn't notice anything special. and they were right and this test at least the results
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showed that none of the colors had a significant positive or negative effect. so this experiment showed that color doesn't have an impact on cognitive performance or emotional state. what about the results of the room temperature experiment. i $24.00 degrees celsius both groups were comfortably warm at $22.00 degrees most of them started to feel chilly and put on a sweater when the temperature dropped even more something unexpected happened for the. in the cool blue light sweater wasn't enough for the test subjects and the one red like it was only 6 percent put on a jacket. for the subjects under the blue light it was 60 percent. so it would seem that when it comes to cool and warm light we do feel what we seen. him to imagine you're sitting in direct sunlight the color temperature will be more
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red and yellow. when you're sitting in the shade or under a cloudy sky the light will appear a bit more blue and usually it's colder outside vent to my assumption is that we've learned to associate color temperature with the ambient temperature of our tour warm likely it's a warm thoughts that would seem to still a lot to learn about the impact of colors but they do appear to affect us sometimes we're aware of it but i think we're not. if our blood is red why our latin even made it do you have a science question you always wanted answered when happy to help out send it to us as a video text or voice mail if we answered on the show we'll send you a little surprise come on just ask. this week have you in tanzania sent in a question. or be such a thing as
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a time machine. little jim would love to visit ancient greece. or hang out with our early human ancestors. or see dinosaurs up close. he's not the only one who'd like to travel in time the british writer h.g. wells popularized the concept with his 895 novel of a time machine in which an inventor travels to bleak worlds in a distant future. in 1905 albert einstein published his special theory of relativity showing that space and time are not separate quantities but aspects of the same thing and shrink and
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expand relative to one another. 10 years after that in his general theory of relativity einstein showed that gravity is the warping of space time that means for an observer approaching a massive object like a black hole clocks run more slowly. let's send him on a trip a thought experiment on the basis of special relativity. we dispatch him to a star and bring him back. at a speed close to that of light from his point of view jim needs say 10 years for the trip but meanwhile on earth half hours and years have passed. so jim has effectively travel to the future because of his speed time passed more slowly for him than for people on earth so what about travel to the past some physicists think it is indeed possible but it's hardly practicable nobody is going
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to set off next week luckily imagine if jim fell in love with his great aunt have children with her and rewrote the course of his family history. better to send him in a present to the us a comma desert in chile where the our radio telescope array picks up signals emitted billions of years ago in far reaches of the universe or to orbiting telescopes like hubble and planck they are the real time machines that tuned to look into the past. as much as 39800000000 years ago the early days of our universe when a mass of hot gas began to condense into all the galaxies we know today. for more science stories check out our website or visit us on social media.
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we asked you on facebook if you had a time machine what time and place would you travel to. market album i would go back to the time of the $969.00 woodstock music festival. and tony about davy i would go back to his early life to correct some errors. allem which at marco from indonesia would like to return to a time when everyone was a cool without. ethnic differences and migration. our own silver brand would take a journey far into the past to find out what dinosaurs sounded like and whether they had feathers. richard around sour would also like to return to the age of the dinosaurs to find out for sure why they died out thanks for all your answers.
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maybe a trip to the distant past might clear up the question of whether these 3 animals the manatee the elephant and the rock hyrax shared ancestors in africa. scientists can study their genealogy without a time machine with the help of genome analysis. amazon manatee is now found in south america but it's under threat in the peruvian town of a key toss people are working to save the gentle creatures. in. the amazon manatee lives in freshwater along the river of the same name its tributaries and nearby lagoon. it can weigh more than $400.00 kilos and grow to almost 3 metres in length. even so many people here have never spotted one in the wild. in monotheist the
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manatee is the biggest species of mammal in the amazon basin but it's probably the least well now when we started working here 80 percent of the people in e.q. thoughts had never heard of the creature. if he stands here this this space here. this stretch of the amazon in peru looks indelicate. but there are environmental problems here too. and many species are under threat. from. manatees are classified as a vulnerable species that's one step before endangered. not a cyber quantum and we don't know how many amazon manatees there are here it's really hard to determine the number because the water is so mucky elsewhere it's easier you just fly over the area in
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a little plain you can just see how many manatees there are along the banks and shores what we do know is that in many places people used to see manatees but don't anymore and every year there are more and more places where they are no longer to be seen in the yard not be monotheist so the amazon rescue center in a key toss looks after several species of animal and it may be the world's only nursery for manatees preparing them for a future in the wild the babies have to be bottle fed every 2 hours until they're 2 years old they're lactose intolerant so they're given special milk imported from the u.s. . bringing up baby can cost more than $10000.00 a year. manatees are under threat for several reasons the ban on hunting ban isn't always observed their meat is considered a delicacy some get trapped in fishing nets and drowned when they can't come to the surface to breathe another problem is that people like to keep manatee babies as
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pets because there's a cute. i want sometimes babies get caught in fishing that and are then taken home. or people keep them in their fish pond or in a tank. but under these conditions the little ones always die. manatees have no natural enemies apart from human beings they're trusting creatures and don't shy away from people which makes it all the easier to hunt them for their meat skin and. when they come up to brave a hunter will stick 2 plugs of wood up their nostrils it's an extremely cruel way to kill such a noble creature which is so important for nature. manatees do indeed fulfill an important function in the environment they're vegetarian and have to consume huge amounts of aquatic plants as they're not very nutritious up to 70
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kilograms a day they're grazing helps clear waterways and lagoons. manatees eat aquatic plants like this or water lettuce and other plants that grow on the surface in areas where manatees have been killed off the plants just grow and grow and spread across the water surface. the light of the sun can't enter the water about reduces the growth of plantain which affects the entire food chain and reduces the number of fish that in turn affects the people living along the amazon they have fewer fish to eat and can't even go fishing if the water surface is overgrown. it's a real problem aquatic plants on the waterways and lagoons of the amazon are spreading even to other countries such as colombia where there are no hungry manatees keen to meet them and the water hyacinth for example is toxic to some of
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the animals living there horses and cattle can eat this plant but there simply aren't enough of them to control the spread. back at the amazon rescue center in the ketones there's been an unexpected but very happy development . i think every 6 months we gather in the manatees to weigh them before we release them we were totally surprised to find 2 babies among them in the prerelease pool that's amazing news for peru because it's the 1st time that manatees had offspring in captivity. in the center has so far rehabilitated 25 manatees every release is a complicated procedure and a big event the staff and friends all join in. the manatees are taken to a suitable location before the final farewell. to the lagoons and rivers are interconnected so manatees stand a good chance of meeting fellow creatures in the wild. the efforts of the devoted
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team at the rescue center are contributing to the well being of the adorable animals and the stabilization of the ecosystem. the. plants of the genus and some are often seen as waves but it turns out that some varieties absorb nickel from the soil now scientists are trying to recover the metal sources i'll focus next week on tomorrow today join us for that by.
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this is it every news life from berlin and then passions it's a great up to burke as the u.n. climate summit the cries of the inaction of world leaders we are seeing the beginning of a mass extinction and all you can talk about is money if genitals of challenging economic growth health data to the popular young activists powerful message challenges the german chancellor and other world leaders convening at the united nations all.

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