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tv   Tomorrow Today  Deutsche Welle  November 25, 2019 5:30am-6:00am CET

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world. power and boundless ambition have caused the middle east into a crisis. the moslems of the gulf states nov 27th on t.w. . get into tomorrow today the science show on d w coming up. europe's new launch rocket is due to take off in late 2020 what's up with having on the 6. will be doing a little experiment how natural does the digitized voice sound. and we look at plants they may seem new but they have their own ways of
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communicating. the official opening of the of a young 6 integration hole in braman. at the un 6 is the european space agency's new launch vehicle its upper stage is being built here europe is trying to consolidate forces in its space program to counter the growing global competition the new heavy lift rocket will also be carrying the hopes for future space missions . using well you know high tech sector and high tech is never finished i think is we always have new ideas for improving the rocker's. what innovations does of ian 6 have to answer here's an overview. of. europe's new launch vehicle will stand more than 60 meters tall. building 6 rocket posed challenges for the european space agency. these engineers and
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technicians. huge fuel tanks were produced using a technique called friction star welding it softens the metal edges by christian to create smooth and durable seals it's a solid state process that doesn't melt the material it works the temperatures as low as $500.00 degrees celsius compared to the more than 2000 degrees for the usual arc welding technique. though in knowing what. the new materials we've used to contain a large amount of lithium. and mostly i'm cannot be joined using arc welding. features alone melting temperature so it would quickly evaporate yes men felt that . the lightweight alum many i'm living on tanks are part of the engine that powers the upper stage of the rocket. that engine has been named vinci in honor of the great inventor and artist leonardo da vinci it special feature is that it can be
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restarted 5 times during a mission. that way arianne 6 will be able to release satellites destined for different orbits at different altitudes. the rocket is expected to play a part in many different projects. for example to create a network of satellites spanning the globe to enable fast internet all over the planet. the restartable vinci engine would enable the precise positioning of the necessary swarm of satellites. pots that were developed for this purpose include this adaptor the support structure is designed to carry more than a dozen small satellites and deliver them to their place in space.
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at launch booster rockets will provide ariane with the necessary thrust. at this advanced production facility the boosters structural casings are constructed out of lightweight carbon fiber materials and other rockets the casings are still made of metal. the boosters have to withstand enormous strain they're filled with solid propellant fuel when it's ignited it will produce tremendous heat and pressure in the interior. area and 6 has yet to be launched but engineers are already working on improving it they want to reduce its weight to increase its frost. so the plan is to develop a new upper stage by 2025.
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we call it a black about steps because it will be. a stage and as you know cow bunnies merged they're never made taller called by nuts and this is why it will last a while up to 2 tons mock up by bt focused on us. it currently takes about a year and a half to build an engine like this by using 3 d. printing production time could well be slashed to just a few weeks and the costs reduced by a factor of 10. in 2018 a printed prototype of the engine was tested at the german aerospace center in southern germany. in the future the idea is for the ariane engine to return to earth after its flight to be reused up to 5 times. it's an important building block for a reusable rocket in an on going green. search project a demonstrator
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a model prototype version was built to test how fuels performing differently usable engine designs. if tomorrow's a market is going to expand and to be blowing but don't it is important that we have to get by bt to match it with a reusable orkut it is not the case today because the market today does not so does not to go totally into direction but we must be ready and this is why we want to must also technologies which could the lowest one day to go for reusability. but 1st this edition of the arianne 6 rocket has to prove itself. the launch is planned for late 2020. the universe is a piece with particles that traverse entire planets stars and galaxies neutrinos
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their monk the most common elementary particles and a source of fascination for scientists in the antarctic an entirely observatory has been built to detect these mysterious objects. in 2015 to physicists shared the nobel prize for demonstrating that neutrinos have met but how much mass to find out researchers have developed the world's most precise scale. tree knows are born during nuclear fusion in the sun countless numbers of solar neutrinos arrive on earth every 2nd and that's just one source of this mysterious particles they're so puny that until recently scientists believed they had no mass at all. today we know that this subatomic particles do have a mass an extremely small one physicist magnus lesser is involved in experiments to pin it down they've already yielded initial results. these measurements allowed us to narrow. down the estimated mass slightly the upper limit was previously to
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electronic votes but now we've cut that in half with we now know that you treat those have to be lighter than one electron volts massacre it's hard to picture how small that is grams it busier 0.0 followed by 36 more zeros and better ones that's an incredibly tiny mass is getting. closer as part of an international team of more than $100.00 researchers here at the crowds who institute of technology they're using a giant neutrino scale and operators called catherine to investigate one of the biggest mysteries in physics cutting was built in southeastern germany in 2001. but it was too big to be transported by land instead it went on a 9000 kilometer detour down the danube around europe by sea and up the rhine then came a tight squeeze the last few kilometers in karlsruhe or to the research center where it finally got down to work. a big effort for such tiny particles.
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considered by every getting big centimeter of the universe still has about 300 neutrinos left over from the big bad with the use other sources like the sun supernovas all those also produce huge amounts on the team a lot of new tracers arrive on earth and pass right through our bodies few of these are so weakly interactive if we don't even notice them not feel familiar there's gas through every square centimeter of our skin every 2nd of this and we don't even notice from those. weighing neutrinos it's very complicated and requires some clever tricks catchin measures some 70 meters long. at one end of the device the scientists put tritium a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. the base of decay of the radioactive tritium nuclei produces an electron and a neutrino the 2 particles share the decay energy which is a known quantity and that allows the researchers to determine the. neutrinos mass
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the neutrinos aren't detectable but the electrons are and their energy can be measured only a few highly energetic electrons end up in the giant spectrometer the researchers measure their energy and then subtract it from the decay energy to arrive at the neutrinos energy and thus its mass. now the researchers want to make the measurements even more sensitive. but must if the mass is here and we keep increasing sensitivity will come a point where we'll be able to actually measure a mass right now the sensitivity is here and the mass is somewhere between 0 and this limit we can't measure it yet but we're getting that the good old us to do the project will continue through 2024 giving the scientists 1000 days of measurements in all that. is the saddest thing about what we're doing here is that we're working right at the scientific frontenac and at the cutting edge of stuff we've got our team with all these experts because i working to push that boundaries even further
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. the girls who are researchers now know that the neutrino scale works and what they discovered with kathleen over the next few years could revolutionize the world of physics. neutrinos are a top candidate for the mysterious dark matter that's thought to account for most of the stuff in the universe most astrophysicists believe that dark matter exists but they still don't know what it consists of. the problem is red white are great but only very mutilated if you have a science question send it in as a video text oh voicemail. if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you. can on just ask. this week's question comes from severe appear in columbia. why do animal horns vary
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so greatly. saw a small. others big. point upwards or downwards. but even though they look very different they all have. the same structure the bony core of the horn protrudes from the skull. then comes the sheath which is usually hollow and made of keratin similar to hair feathers fingernails and hooves. but not all animals with horns come from the same family rhinos are what's known as odd as they have 3 toes and they're the only ones in that family to have horns. the other group is the brother di family they're even told uncle let's which nearly all have horns they include cattle sheep and goats but also antelopes and gazelles
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. by contrast moves and deer don't have horns they have antlers which are bony structures the elephant tusks by the way are neither horns nor antlers but actually teeth are made of dental. but what's the purpose of horns. in all cases it's their sharp weapons to fend off enemies. but perhaps their most important function is to impress the males with large attractive horns will have an easier time finding a mate. and a stablish in themselves at the top of the pack in order incidentally they rarely enjoy each other seriously as the horns fit together well. in short horns vary so much because they've adapted over time to become more and more specialized to ensure the survival of each species. if you're in the mood for more science stories visit us online at v.w.
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dot com slash science and you'll find us on twitter and facebook. now we're going to talk about an instrument we use all the time without giving it much thought our voice. that was a computer generated voice but here tomorrow. the day we boys everything ourselves tell now at least some understanding having to do some extra it's bad boys and 2 young people who let us borrow their voices for a very interesting. hello when hello i'm mariana i'm 29 and i'm a film student. on this by mach's 28 and i'm just real designer. max and i gonna have been selected for an experiment we're going to steal their voices or to be more precise reproduce them digitally with the help of the french company
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candy voice. we can imitate all voices very naturally and that's your. first language specialists need voice samples from max and ariana vine gardens who spoiler. and they speak 500 sentences which contain all the sounds of the german language defenseless and i'm fluent nama talk in. ducking behind also. the sentences are recorded in a radio studio and sent off to paris. did you receive the files. yes i have everything get to work and we'll see each other in 2 weeks in paris. will they really be able to create convincing copies of max and arianna's boyce's and what are digital voices actually good for canadian software company lyrebird has found at least one yes they've
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cloned the voice of donald trump using original sound bites but now they can make him say whatever they want. i am not a live generation is always different and how they want i am not a robot the nation is always there for not a robot it is obviously fake but what will happen in the future when the technology is improved and you can't be sure whether the leader of a country really said something or not. it's not going to be. one of those of the nature of. liar bird is a free program that anyone can use but currently only in english arianna is testing the program. to do that she needs to record 20 sentences. james put his hand in the pocket of this rope if you bread crumbs remained 10 minutes later the program can say any sentence in ariana's voice. in and
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29 years old engine. it's not totally convincing but perhaps it's only a matter of time before artificial intelligence becomes a master impersonator will we be able to tell the difference between a real human on the phone and a computer clone of their voice will telephone recording still have any legal weight in court it's too early for experts to predict what hazards the new technology will bring but despite that lots of companies including banks are planning to replace pin numbers with voice recognition. the phone hoover institute and dom start is testing how secure these systems are project manager flowing on kish shows us how it works minus to me my voice is now my password. is for the company keeps voice samples of their customers on file its software creates
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a biometric profile with more than $100.00 characteristics including pitch and rhythm. in one of my. my pos what is mine is to me when a customer logs on the program compares their voice to the one saved on their profile if there's a 100 percent match they get the green light but what happens if you played a clone for us from liar bird. to end lie of a similar systems haven't reached the level of perfection required to replicate the melody and features of a human voice in. artificial voices are also used in the entertainment industry at the french company can you voices developing software for computer games. players can have fun with well known voices. people who've lost their voice through illness could also benefit from the technology as long as their voice is saved in
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the system. after off again you know could you more. after off again you know. how technology can synthesize a voice on the basis of just 80 words thereafter a voice can say whatever the person wants to kill a video player. early on and max are eager to hear what their artificial voices sound like. i give you the microphone company founders on luke claim who has something unusual in mind for their visit he claims that ariana should be able to speak in max's voice let's see if he's right. are already on the line from germany speaking with marx's for a set of challenges very real. confirmation are similar to how i hear my record of course the book. and what about vice versa. i
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marks i'm speaking with arianna's voice it's really pretty convincing but it feels quite weird. the result is really quite impressive but still can't be mistaken for the real thing for our guinea pigs max and i'm gonna that comes as something of a really. can hear voices with a real all synthetic. study shows that they do perceive sounds that enables the roots of the piece shoots to locate a source of water and grow in the direction of the water sound. in other ways too plants are highly sensitive to signals in their surroundings. plants not only register and give off certain fragrances they can also sense whether the it is dry or. whether there's
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a gentle breeze or strong wind and which direction it's coming from. constantly measuring the air temperature they can differentiate between morning and evening light they're equipped with infrared and ultraviolet light senses and if they find themselves in the shade they can tell whether it's being caused by rock or another plant. plants collect information every 2nd they need to respond to their environment so they can adopt the right behavior to survive just like on a moles 10 years ago the idea of plant behavior wasn't taken seriously now that's changing. based on your confront and i think we can call it plant behavior because plants are able to perceive all kinds of environmental conditions process this information internally and then respond accordingly. and i would define that as behavior based on the definition of the word. on pot and. i
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want to back a plant call to make it in your 10 year displays especially complex behavior to defend itself. if attacked by pests or in this case a scientist can produce more than 1000 substances in just one hour. they all help to fend off attacks from hungry predators and repel them. but it doesn't work on every predator. the hawk-moth is immune to the nicotine produced by the tobacco plant. its larvae also resistant. so the plant changes its strategy. in the lab gives off certain sense that attract a predatory bug. it pierces the caterpillars and sucks out there. so the plant is basically drawing on outside help to fend off the pest. but if there
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aren't enough predatory bugs nearby the caterpillars continue to feed. side of the plant changes time once again. every juices digestive inhibitors which make sure the caterpillar can't absorb the food to teach us. the plant withdraws its nutrients from the leaves and stores them in the stem. these 2 strategies serve one purpose. the caterpillars stay small which keeps them vulnerable to predators for much longer. some time. that doesn't help either and the caterpillars grow into giant eating machines. which pits prices serious threat to the tobacco plant and so it tries yet another tactic. when the fans of ok this is a plant is very badly injured it changes the pollinators it attracts from off to
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hummingbirds which are active during the day. actually one of the pollination is then taken care of by hummingbirds going up runs up on information this helps the plant to get rid of the hawk moxon that caterpillars but what exactly is it doing. to the flowers change in some way. tests reveal that this is in fact the case. of the scent from the flowers becomes weaker so the scant sunset. the plant also keeps its flowers shot at night and only opens them again in the morning when the whole lots of talk that. this ensures that the plant is pollinated by hummingbirds and not wants.
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to. be described as intelligent behavior. bookish from into the consumer i think it's a step too far to call it intelligence i prefer to think of it as complex reactions . which were planted trying to find a solution to the critical to or sometimes not so critical situation it finds itself in to ensure its survival and. i do believe. these survival strategies are genetically programmed they've evolved throughout the course of evolution to protect the plant and keep predators up by. it seems we can also bribe plants with some won't grapevines grow better when they're exposed to lots of music the grapes reset and the plants are more resistant to diseases at least that's what one study claims.
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next time we'll be talking about climate research we go to rwanda to pay a visit to the 1st climate observatory on the african continent. join us till then stay curious to see you soon but by.
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brutal ritual you hold the wrist with one hand and cut it off with the other what do you cut it out words are razor blade. but do more cause. was mutilated as a child in somalia. past suffering process in germany. now she helps other victims of female genital mutilation. in 15 d.w. . or. like
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we were. when we were. the 1st american to someplace in our lives will experience hardship listen all. that matters to me once. we can start rewriting the software of sample bacterial cells. we're not creating life rafts we're rewriting. for all the software or did all of us will we can redesign them they'll have different properties i don't have a proof for all but it could prove changing the a bit o. as a top of the focus would give us better for a person who dropped out of using fossil fuel. to bake
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this is good of you news live from berlin voters in hong kong send a clear message to beijing pro-democracy candidates make massive gains as the pro beijing vote collapses in municipal elections city the vote was seen as a referendum on the territory's pro-democracy movement also coming up a sorties and would a wife order a recount in the race for the press.

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