tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle December 24, 2019 4:15pm-5:00pm CET
script images were 1st introduced into the christian's assembly rooms where they were concentrated at the far end of the simple hole told the acclaim. but once the wolves were adorned with images they told a story. how did these images arise how did these stories come a badge and what role did angels play in the stories of conflict between power and order heaven and.
angels on the messengers of the one go all of whom know image exists and upon who know schuman will have a set of eyes people worship god's words words that were brought by angels who were closest to him. they are spiritual beings just like him beams of light. the angels proclaim what god wishes to tell people. they're cold and they were imagined to be all new president always talking guiding advising and judging people and so they became a central theme of the pictorial history that week old west and. christianity
became the state religion of the roman empire at a time when it was already beginning to collapse the city of rome the capital was a civilized metropolis of millions whose standards of living and ops represented the pinnacle of human history. the roman emperor has placed themselves on the same level as the gods even today we
talk of their buildings and legacies as monumental which also means overwhelming. different baptists cause 2 of the christianity whether it likes it or not is also an add to the roman empire they were temporally contingents the roman empire had a claim to universality to christianity also claims universality and translated it into the commandment to go into the world and preach the gospel to all creation because the indian. the 1st images the 1st pictorial symbols arose alongside the script when the christian or a trees in rome was still hidden underground in the catacomb. these pictures were different from those of pre-christian and take routine and portrayed angels wearing halos instead of winged messengers with laurel reeds but in the beginning there
were very few specifically christian images. and take all measures who have your hats can dogmatically antique roman religion didn't develop any dogma and for that reason provided no order from our order 1st becomes apparent in christianity for instance in the hierarchy of the angels who we can see as the successor to the mynah functional gods of the romans one of those by the continuity and transformation volatile. but what were the models for the superhuman images in christendom where they the heroes of antiquity early christian imagery has its roots in the assyrian babylonian period with its anthropomorphic creatures for example the firy and winged cherub.
but decent because if let's take a. the concept of demons which in the greek hero were neither good nor bad the morning demons were only intermediaries between the dead is and humanity in christianity they are rico defined as unclean spirits the new testament teaches us that they are the repudiated and resentful gods of the greeks freak devious and then i'm delighted to christian. instead of adopting the pictorial world of antiquity christianity chose to take a detour through demonic beings which took on an idealized human form copied from the n.t. god's angels are based on models taken from antiquity and the babylonian demons even their name reflects these roots anger loss is greek for messenger and the chair of bears a resemblance to the early demons. certainly you see as is the pseudo
dionysius is the ideal author because he imagines the angels heaven as a world organized according to 3 sets of 3 it's made up of spheres nested in each other until they reach the highest mystery god i'm got. 1000 person to hand from this highest mystery received only as a sea of light divine glory is radiated to the world below so now it consists not just of visible light but also of the knowledge of who god actually is this is based on the 1st level of angels the seris from them to the cherubs who pass it on via an almost visible spiritual connection to the throne of the political masters in south side it's a vital. and thus the portrayal of angels in the late middle ages is above all an indication of the primary thing communicated by christian images order.
doesn't leslie through one of these or reflections on question. jensen how can i portray god how can i portray what is holy and purely spiritual without it becoming sensible and being dragged down to the level of antiquity which the christians termed paganism. rustam because now are not in. the picture of a hierarchical order in heaven is the key to christian imagery order is the prerequisite for perfection. the 1st step towards a self-contained christian iconography of angels didn't take place in rome in the 4th century a.d. the roman empire collapsed into 2 hobs rome and the western part of the empire was overrun by the goths then reconquered by eastern roman by xantia in the mid sixties
century rome became a provincial city of the buys an time empire with as its capital. this is where the 1st systematic pictorial history of the still young christendom as a synthesis of greek philosophy and the christian doctrine of salvation was developed. private love as it is of youth as a simple way to get it typed up of your number 3 is normally reserved as a symbol of the day it is this but in the old testament we also have an angel often a sign and the prophet is a kilo isiah allowed to look up to heaven they see being surrounding god it will fit either ordered in groups of 4 or have 4 facets for example equal light lion like all human like beings and all of figures. equal
a few it is something that was imported from the babylonian iconography and integrated into christendom god is surrounded by groups of 4 figures when seated on his throne and that's why alongside the number 3 which symbolizes gaunt there is a number for an extension symbolizing his rule in all 4 worldly spheres and eras i feel. since that's also why the derivatives of 341224 endowed with a wholly systematic significance system that should be taught to. the oldest most acts of christian iconography out to be found in the sacred buildings of ravenna opposite a series of martyrs there's a series of holy virgins that individual expressions are not important that the series and the number. 16 prophet stand above them which signifies 12 plus 4 and the fact that they are placed above the virgins on the martyrs expresses
their place in the hierarchy and they're all foraging within christendom. even higher up scenes portraying christ's passion even this position denotes hierarchy order here in revenge of the hierarchy is formulated and translated into a system of images. the beginning and the end of this mural are reserved for the key figures of holy scripture mary and christ they are positioned formally alongside each of them are 2 angels that look out directly on the view of. the angels all the courtiers whole body guards of mary and jesus christ. her. this simple picture oriel system became a canon upon which everything else was based from then on the churches became
larger and the at ces and jones expressed the unity and perfection of the christian cause mass. in the way of the rangeley its image its the christian pictorial system took over and transcended the by sam time court order and its core trail of power and representation. if you read the 30 year jubilee unity on constantine the great we can discern a formula for order in the art one god one empire one emperor constantine was an advocate of egalitarianism not clear hierarchy order to system of subservience this reflected socio political relationships. and. the are. was where the synthesis between the systematic thinking of the greeks and the christian doctrine of salvation became translated
into imagery. amidst the ruins of rome new churches were built and the ancient roman buildings repurposed by christians the pictorial canon of ravenna made itself felt in some time out here in trust there where the larger the church was the more imagery could be depicted. here for the 1st time mary was depicted directly alongside jesus christ as his companion the mosaic still expresses representation directly but the angels are missing. thus the picture clearly indicates that the central figure of the new testament jesus christ the redeemer is superior to the angels in the hierarchy even
though he was a human being. the upper basilica of san clemente in rome was built at the beginning of the 12th century in its the buys and time courtly order is a band and the christian cross dominates the ordering of the spheres still expresses numba and older but more important is the concentration on the christian visual symbols they signify the opposites of power christ as the holy land the center of his flaws. and. all of this is god as the angel of peace among us a full god it's a different pictorial message from those of antiquity all the buys and time empire . will.
around the turn of the millennium the church order as expressed in images went through a profound crisis of increasing worldliness and corruption the authority of the pope and with it the message of salvation through the one church was substantially shaken. the radical return of the liturgy to the original message of salvation took place not initially but in france i am in a small chapel now only all the founding motifs of that message of salvation are represented on it's by sand timers say. above 2 small 6 winged chairs 2 other angels dominate the done. they represent the old and the new testament which in the language of the mosaic were delivered by angels to humankind. the suggestion of a hand tells us that they have delivered the scripture upon god's command and that
the path to salvation can only lie in following god's will. this new system of christian liturgy and message of salvation comes from cluny abbey founded in 1910 by the jew come back retain as a benedictine abbey clooney was not only the center of the christian cosmos during the middle ages but the largest and most powerful church of the christian world it was only supposed later by st peter's basilica during the french revolution almost 900 years later cluny was destroyed as being a symbol of an absolute monarchy that claimed divine legitimation. but today even amid the ruins the pattern significance of this order with its many of the churches and ministries throughout burgundy is still palpable
it's no accident the burgundy was home to the most significant monastic orders and of the biggest cathedrals of the 11th and 12th centuries the most important pilgrims way to santiago de compostela took them through here. ton cathedral houses the most significant pictorial example of the transformation of christian iconography joining that period it was carved in stone by give back to a spittoon 11201135. the main portal through which millions of pilgrims enter the church no longer depicted the power of god but the last judgment christ and the elders the angels that god's throne sits and judge over human souls which in line with the general understanding of this period threatened by evil more than ever. in order to uphold
order and the perfection of salvation christ and the angels have to demonstrate that they can differentiate between good and evil from this point on the rank of the angels changes dramatically in the imagery from now on they become the most important representatives of the root of all things a god that rewards good behavior. as christ companions the angels are a lot of the role of completing salvation the angels are once again the mediators between god and humanity they fight for god and for humanity against evil. little the pilgrims moved within the great knaves as though they were in a parade and looked up into the capitals with a vivid illustrations of the evil in all its incarnations. the 2nd temptation of christ taken from the gospel of luke makes it clear what's happening here christ
determination to resist heresy and damage. the suicide of judas shows what happens when someone turns away from god the monumentally impressive knave signified to the believers that only gaunts words could help against old least temptations and human weaknesses. matter at all oh. oh my heading southwards with the manton's just visible on the horizon lies one of the most important cities of the middle ages the peace of the modern day the out said a miracle he was originally a burial place beyond the city walls the whole complex with its cathedral baptistry
and compost santo was bigger. in 1300. 1 to have the campo son joe was the notch symmetry of the christian middle ages and that's a place where death damnation and redemption played a prominent role here we find a monumental representation of the last judgment. this powerful fresco must have shocked its contemporaries it begins with the last judgment on the ruffle christ who reveals his wounds and flings his outrage like lightning in the direction of hal this anger is offset by the gentle virgin mary to his left. beneath them is an angel with us at high level with the viewer is the archangel michael with his sword. another an angel hurts frightened citizens of peace or towards damnation the faces
up terrified and pleading but no one can escape divine judgment this is a recurring motif in christendom in the face of the minds of the last judgment the wealth and grant of bishops and even the power of mana all to no avail. in the frescoes pictorial arrangement the artist has paid tribute to social status the kings occupy the top 10 even one of the angels reveals its fear in the face of the past and unavoidable ity of the last judgment announced by trumpets on the left we can see the saved these 2 up or traits of real life citizens of. their facial expressions a calm and they all look up to the must of all figure of the virgin mary into seso
before the judge their body language is relaxed the face is a clear although their expressions reveal intense concentration. pease's pious citizens are expressing their heartfelt gratitude for the victory of good over evil . the struggle. these angels receive the souls who have already been saved. it's as if in addition to the winding understood concepts of the apocalypse in the last judgment a new orientation is taking place towards the end of the 20th century not far from the russian pass on the edge of the southern alps the monastery of muddy and back was established to this day the benedictine monks there assemble in a narrow vault that or a tree. off. the.
marian bagman history is famous for its roman frescoes in a symbolic series of images they reinterpret human beings path to salvation they are brought closer to the angels by pursuing their battle against evil. the more. humans can rise in the heavenly hierarchy by successfully overcoming evil that is the message of these frescoes that. we see the end jet except sin cherubs recognizable by the 6 wings that. alongside them is the apostle peter who holds the key to heaven in paradise and on his right is a protective angel. this constellation indicates a new link between apostle and heavenly beings man and angel again come closer to one another despite the evil in the world.
over there. who. is the most important message those communicated in the arrangement of angels above the almighty in the mandorla in jesus christ appears to be standing on his hand. the real focus is this small angel smaller than all the other heavenly figures it represents the new human who are to fighting a lifelong battle against evil is seen by christ to be deserving of redemption and thus as a small angel is taken into the communion of the big angels human beings can rise into the sphere of the heavenly beings and can be redeemed heaven awaits them that's what this fresco expresses the small angel is both messenger and message a new era in the relationship between humanity and the heavenly smear has begun
whoa. further southwards we reach a place of great importance in christian iconography assisi. in burgundy joining the 12 century monasteries have adopted a strictly organized liturgy and had almost completely rejected imagery. in the 13th century new waters arose in central italy this one in assisi was to be a purely mendicant torah completely dedicated to charity and neighborly love as the most direct path to redemption. the building of the lower church began in the early 13th century together with thomas aquinas francis of assisi was considered the main renewal of the christian doctrine of salvation no building from the late middle ages baz great a testament to this spirit of renewal as that of the hyatt church of assisi.
its name is dominated by jaw toes world famous francisco's but the real secret is to be found in the older decorated transepts of the name of what is here translated pictorially is the virgin mary's bodily ascension to heaven and her final axle taishan over the angels. in one of the men dollars held up by for an angels jesus and mary are in friend in loving devotion one of the angels is said to have called out who is she she who is raised up from the desert nestling on her love on. pain jewels profits on the saints assemble around the heavenly throne on which the virgin mary
sits alongside her son as an intercessor on behalf of humanity. what is important here overprotectiveness hamleys sent francis whose face can no longer be recognized pleads for redemption on behalf of his brothers is please convey by mary to her son who listens and gives his blessing to the franciscans. the virgin mary's role in the heavenly hierarchy is in this franciscan church newly defined. she is jesus' companion and on with the angels at the same time she remains a human being that signifies that she is the 1st human being to be redeemed and raised to heaven. the rose window in the outer wall is like
a final symbol of this new order. the shape of the sun can be construed as referring to jesus the rose to the virgin mary both forms are united as part of a circle that has only one center god. at the close of the middle ages towards the end of the 14th century tuscany became a european stronghold of progress the dominican monk from and jellicoe came from the area around florence and achieved world renown with his portrayals of angels. there's. a man in a conspicuous chapel nicko tona is home to the annunciation a popular motif. the messages depicted in the fall most visible was. the virgin
mary is face still has a generic madonna like quality but is also individually defined and this image symbolizes not only the metaphorical line between the middle ages and the modern era but also makes clear what mood become more and more important. human zone now represented as emotional and individual beings in the story of salvation. 'd 'd 'd the lower part of the painting depicts the marriage between mary and joseph what is graham breaking in this weapon from and jellicoe is the expression with which he has endowed the figure of mary reason being the archangel gabriel she is his equal she represents the human striving for salvation the face expresses humility and dignity yet is still powerful she remained self-conscious and had gesture expresses
not subservience but surprise and also knowledge awareness of what is happening she has been endowed with an individual soul and it is for that reason that we still describe her as beautiful. the impact of from a angelic owes work remained basically limited to tuscany he traveled little his main ambition was to embellish the sacred places of worship for the brothers of his own to. once again the relationship between the history of god. salvation and the world of the profane changed dramatically. the renaissance emerged 1st in tuscany then in rome it was a blossoming of trade and dot and since the downfall of the classical world had
been so prosperous that of course also influenced the depiction of the angel. the vilified in rome was commissioned by the banker i go steen no cheat me and built by by. it is seen as the ultimate expression of the high renaissance and with its perspectives hole it features a room of tom boy painting. the walls are covered with scenes from the life of an example of a great book 1st catches the eye is a writing messenger with flowing cloaks in the form of a white friend giving the impression of wings beating the messenger is part of a historical allegorical depiction of the wedding of alexander to the persian
princess roxana at the center alexander appears and hands the princess the crowd the real focus that was the heavenly messenger half and half an archangel gabriel. alexander is typical of the newly awakened interest in mythical historical figures during the 16th century the small angels which look like cupid's are borrowed from the pagan classical era. in classical times cupid's when love calls depicted a small voice. the author of christendom. makes them into anonymous angels and and celery figures they reveal the meaning and intention of the mural its aim is to move the view ascension is not spiritual.
the villa fantasy is the high point of the renaissance this work shows how far images from the classical era survived into christendom the god like figures in the hero's return in allegorical form complementing the christian images. there. at the beginning of the 16th century the foundation was laid for the new st peter's basilica in rome it was intended as a proof that christendom surprise us the classical era. in the mid 17th century a sculpture was made for the church of sometime. it had the same aim to illustrate the ultimate triumph of christendom. the sculpture. was a successor to me. whose late work
marked the end of the renaissance and the
beginning of the baroque. the motif of the ecstasy of saint teresa is a variation of the annunciation also depicted by frog and jellicoe but with benny there was a decisive transformation. to rezone is portrayed in dramatic film many many attempts to make the ecstasy tangible the mits a groan her eyes are twisted her body is open. from now on the story of salvation and the motifs derived from it were presented theatrically utilizing old visual tools available. that included classical heroes and an agrees. precisely at the moment when st peter's basilica symbolized the victory of christian imagery of a pagan antiquity the latter
returned in full force into the christian world.
in the immense st peter's we find the legend of its foundation expressed in the sentence and so i say to you you peter and upon this rock i will build my church. the new building claim to be nothing less than the greatest monument in the history of the world time and again the builders dishpan it and down to it whether the immense vault would be capable of bearing the enormous. but will. the spirit of the age demanded a massive triumphant check. as an old man received a commission from pope clement the 9th to design the entrance to the cast as some
tangent of. the building was the most a limb of emperor hadrian and the triumphant entrance way over the bridge was lined with statues of the classical gods of victory many replace these with angels converting a pagan monument into christian. the angels hones the instruments of the passion christi in their hands. the road becomes a symbolic way of the cross or via dolorosa like the one wont by the pilgrims in jerusalem. converted it into a triumphal procession and the angels bear with. as to it with the symbols of christ's passion. the angel with a crown of forms was sculpted by many me himself the newly sculptor dangerous stood in the sequence of statues with the apostles peter and paul who were on it as martyrs and the here to proclaim the victory of christendom.
the mausoleum of cast down sometimes a low but always dominated the entranceway to rome if people looked around now they saw the miracle of st peter dedicated to the triumph of the holy roman church but this triumph was soon called into question by knowledge and science. the battle began for the right to interpret imagery and after bernie's death it was no longer fought in italy but in the hapsburg empire on the other side of the house . nancy understand how far tear down the house book again if you visit the headquarters of the hapsburgs in piano the hoff org you'll see on the left and right
a representation of how austria ruled the world's oceans and much of the world ordered the great didn't behalf dentist are going to see it as a plagiarized version of the full of the rebel angles associated with michael and they says austria personified defeating the enemy forces with a lance exactly as we know it from michael he frosts lucifer into the jaws of hell and nowhere is this triumph ass clear as in the michael motif of the christian tradition the church is celebrating its own triumph that's why the church directly adjoining the hoff org is dedicated not just to any old saint but to michael the hero the general of the angels with his soldierly demeanor the inheritance. often than any skin that i. this full of the rebel angels was completed in 726 during the reign of the austrian emperor col the sings. the michael motif had become much more than merely
a central christian motif it also signified gaunts forgiveness and the emperor as grand. the church of st paul as the most significant baroque edifice in vienna makes that very clear. it is a sacred building with imperial aspirations the church was intended to symbolize the connection between rome and by xantia between the west and the east roman churches that is why it looks rather like the haga sophia in istanbul and contains its imitation trojan columns this too has to be understood in an allegorical way the absolute monarchs of the modern era wanted to appear as glorious as the roman emperors. in the copula is the ecclesia with an allegorical figure representing the one true church she wears a gorgeous cloak as the holy grail in her hand and holds the eucharist over the
grammy having the last supper positioned at the center of the coca-cola in the patron church of emperor charles the 6 was intended to signify that his empire would uphold the supremacy of the christian world view. as an borg abbey is only one as journey away from vienna towards the end of the reign of col the 6 the baroque painter paolo tolga was commissioned to decorate the central rooms of the abbey with frescos. even the architecture of the imperial stack case has symbolic significance to flights of steps merge into a single one that implies that 2 separate spheres can be seen as a unity. religion
with its helo's sits alongside science as allegorical figures on the heaven make copra and they are reconciled with one another. all figures on the arched roof have both allegorical and sacred meaning the heavenly virtues of love and hope are depicted as symbolic female figures faith is shown as masculine and posing victoriously. the angels fill this heaven and serve as a norty and they seem as though they're about to applaud the harmonious order the happy dance and. the painting a bump the imperial stack ace tries to illustrate to the viewer the reconciliation between the sacred and the scientific worlds angels have no significant role anymore in this harmony.
that's the end of this history of angels more than one and a half 1000 years of a dominant religious interpretation of the world with a single center god gave way to an age of absolutism succeeded by the age of reason and the era of industrialization. the angels as messengers of an inscrutable god lost their significance but as advocates for and counselors to humanity they are an eternal reminder of humans yearning not to be alone and as a perpetual changing motif of they are a central aspect of western religious culture.
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