Skip to main content

tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  February 18, 2020 10:15am-11:01am CET

10:15 am
infirmed in a document leaked to d w d w investigation concludes that we are not attending vocational training camps but are being imprisoned because they're muslims. we have more news coming up at the top of the hour i'm brian thomas for the entire team thanks so much for joining us . it's all happening to children in a free country join linked to news from africa and the world story links to exceptional stories and discussions can you and will come to the debuts after coming program tonight from funny to me from the news of easy to our i would say demi to come smash africa join us on facebook at g.w. africa.
10:16 am
most of our come out he calls himself ataturk father of the turks and catapults turkey into the modern age couldn't go in and of going of his greatest achievements was making women visible. he knows no mercy for himself or for others i'm not the traitor i want to rule by capturing the hearts of the people not by breaking up a controversial hero both loved and hated is present day turkey still divided by the turks revolution. the 1st world war the ottoman empire allies itself with the german empire and
10:17 am
austria hungary against france russia and great britain one of modern history's most brutal battles takes place all turkey's mediterranean coast allied warships attempt to pass through the dardanelles straits and reach istanbul but they fail this gives rise to a new allied strategy and an opportunity for most of our kemal ataturk. the allied forces attacked the deliberately peninsular with infantry sparking a static battle that lasts for months. the young ottoman officer mystified kemal is in command of an entire section of the front. one of his orders from the trenches goes down in history. all right mas' gave all this a lot of. ah the new. rock
10:18 am
you attack our you. can that's how i am that it takes up to die august 1 right up to take our place. that's john. fox i was. glad i was. although his troops are outnumbered. ataturk is able to hold his position until reinforcements arrive. fish. there's no doubt that he was decisively involved in repelling be invading troops to significant positions. but the overall military strategy was developed by the german general lee months on sundays only. gets aged and.
10:19 am
to this day turkey celebrates ataturk as the great hero. there are many monuments to his bravery across the country. intellectually the ottoman empire achieves one final victory but at great cost almost half its soldiers foreign battle. their sacrifice cannot stop the inexorable downfall of the empire. the ottomans rule southeast europe and large parts of the arab world for centuries in the 1900 centuries the empire becomes known as the sick man of europe in $1008.00 the ottoman empire loses bosnia and herzegovina to the hapsburgs that same year declares its independence. 3 years later in 1000 the latin trickily is lost to
10:20 am
the italians and in 1914 egypt officially becomes a british protectorate. to usis the disintegration of the empire was not in doubt with the question for the government in istanbul in the autumn and people laws could this process be stopped or prevented. puts us on the hook for him that. the future most of kemal ataturk is born into the crumbling multicultural empire in $881.00 in a house infested on a king at the time the city is known as selling nick and is under ottoman control the death of his pro european father at an early age deeply affects the young man and he enrolled in the military academy against his mother's wishes he soon develops a reputation as a good student and is given the name kemal which means the mature or the
10:21 am
accomplished almost. the extraordinary thing about mr fox is that he became aware of the difficult situation women faced at a young age i knew his mother was a single parent. and he had 2 sisters he knew the challenges his mother faced because of his experiences he became an officer preoccupied with the rights and equality of women. you should learn this. lesson on the remains of part of the ottoman empire until $912.00. the harbor city on the mediterranean attracts jews turks armenians greeks the british and italians. the liberal atmosphere of this city leaves a lasting impression on most of. the so. it had a newspaper industry a publishing industry and many foreigners there were even journal. it's unfair
10:22 am
saloniki who had their own breweries and bowling clubs as well as it was a very multinational western oriented society vest. of. ataturk continues his career at the renowned autumn and military academy in istanbul. training at the academy is heavily influenced by depression military theory as the germans have been responsible for modernizing the ottoman empire as military schools. this environment gives rise to the young turks movement based around an ambitious nationalistic and western oriented military elite. now a young officer mystified come out becomes part of the movement attracted by its ideas of liberal reform he's fascinated by the ideals of the french revolution. with a focus. saw and felt the overwhelming technical
10:23 am
and scientific superiority of europe every day and her whole boss the model for him was not a single country like germany france or england but the west as a holes. in schism. the young turks are determined to save the ottoman empire led by envy pascha they demand political and military reforms. in 1008 the young turks take power in istanbul as sting sultan abdul hamid to the 2nd and replacing him with his brother in order to stop the collapse of the fragile empire and pascha joins forces with the germans in the 1st world war. in the course of the war ataturk becomes an adverse array of the ambitious war minister he sees and bipasha as an obstacle to his own advancement. both are patriots but while enver
10:24 am
assumes an elitist approach ataturk believes in winning the support of the masses. resigned. under difficult conditions. many years later he recalls those days only a turkish nation in arms can overcome the country's crisis. soldiers not acquainted with him more than the scar on an atenolol han will prove useless in combat. while ataturk becomes a hero at the war minister and pascha suffers a catastrophic defeat of the ottoman russian front. by the spring of 1917 there is no longer any doubt that the world war will bring about the end of the ottoman empire. and orders most of our kemal to accompany the crown prince on
10:25 am
a visit to the german allies. the delegation stops in strasbourg on the way to inspect the western front. the autumn and allies meet with an icy reception from the german imperial gov hans found out its who is incensed by recent chapter of ottoman warfare. your highness general. sas 2 years earlier the young turks under the leadership of enver pascha had used problems along the ottoman russian front as a pretext for brutally persecuting the armenians they accuse them of collaborating with the enemy and ordered they be deported to the syrian desert. our goal there were armenians and an attorney a before there were turks there. we know this. or good people
10:26 am
speak of genocide but the ottomans and the armenians were of the order list so i thought this remains the official turkish position to this day however a majority of those deported are civilians women children and old man almost all of them die on the forced marches internationally it is deemed genocide but how does ataturk feel about the treatment of the armenians. they took. from ataturk was lucky that he was fighting english australian and new zealand soldiers in 1915 and he wasn't sent to anatolia so why that imad he was the only prominent figure among the young turks who was not contaminated by those of fans their. content media. your highness disturbing news has reached my yes the armenians are good gentle
10:27 am
people your countrymen have been engaged in terrible assaults. how could you possibly presume to take the side of the armenians who claim to have existed as a nation and now hope to prove their own worth again thereby harming the turkish empire one hears disturbing things split he did not come here to discuss the armenian question. but rather to determine the strength of the german army we stick our lives on your troops we are relying on you were gentleman police. does it's one of the few politicians who speaks up about the deportation of the armenians. the german ambassador in istanbul also lodges a protest. manhunt vague the german chancellor merely replies i only am is to keep turkey at our side until the end of the war irrespective of whether it cost
10:28 am
armenian lives or not. most of. your last mostafa came i knew that nobody would deny that the armenians were subjected to incredible suffering. like. order or for the storm whether it was controlled by. local gangs members of the military or the police. that was clear. most of our command returns to central europe shortly before the war and travelling to college or carlsbad in bohemia to recuperate from a kidney infection in june 1800. despite the war has remained an important meeting place for europe's high society the therapeutic qualities of the thermal baths are not the only attraction in the
10:29 am
city. the cosmopolitan atmosphere in cars bad leaves a powerful impression on most of. this is how he imagines a modern society must be. the war hero is particularly taken by the city's women they're confident independent and they do not wear veils. we must be bold when it comes to the question of women they should feel less sure it's with art and science that has teach women the value of education and that she so that they may men. tain there are no. shortly after our tax return the ottoman empire participation in world war one ends in defeat allied forces occupy large parts of the country in november of 1918. the peace treaty of santa signed on the 10th of august $920.00 reduces the once mighty empire to
10:30 am
a fairly populated section of land in anatolia. the greeks have preemptively occupied is near and continue to advance inland. so it would slows to a good site. is the turkish west side however at least according the germans the potential to be a large power. this was not the case with says that which demanded the dismantling of the empire. said signified the end several billeted. ataturk considers the 7 to go ca sions an unmitigated disaster long before an agreement is reached he launches his campaign against the dictated freedom from the coastal town of some soon. ataturk already has a plan for
10:31 am
a future turkey laid out. ataturk had been sent to some soon with orders to supervise the demobilization of troops instead he refuses to follow the orders of the government in istanbul and calls on the muslim population to resist the greeks this provocation leads to his dismissal from the army. in absentia he and his comrades is mad pascha later is met a new are sentenced to death by istanbul's military court. ataturk refuses to give in he calls on his supporters to attend congresses in as a room and save us in order to establish an alternative government. after our victory the country will be governed as a republic. the sultan and the dynasty will be dealt with as necessary when the time comes the veil will be abolished as well the famous people will wear hats
10:32 am
as they do in civilized nations. there were a lot of man like after talk military leaders who became politicians between world war one and world war 2. in hungary there was admiral hawtrey or and inspiring you had general franco. but ataturk was the only head of state with a military background who cut spending for the armed forces and invested the money in education and health in order to heal the nations ones. the. new state requires a new capital city a small largely insignificant of ministers of center becomes the anchor of the modern era ataturk remains a powerful presence in the city. on the 23rd of april
10:33 am
$920.00. opens turkey's 1st grand national assembly the new parliament declares the treaty of 7 avoid and the government representatives in istanbul guilty of high treason. the opposition parliament then signs a contract with the bolsheviks in russia. the soviet union is the 1st country to recognize the new government and sends money and weapons for the fight against the greek occupiers. 2 years later most of troops will have recaptured most of turkey. in july 121 ataturk assumes command of the war against the occupying forces once again he proves himself a master strategist he declares general mobilization demanding that every turkish citizen contribute to the production of arms and ammunition. even women transport
10:34 am
shells to the frontline. this highly motivated army under most of our commanders command. eventually defeats the greeks resoundingly at the battle of south korea. as attack is given the honorary title ghazi the conqueror. in 1022 attack and his war against the greek occupy as in on the edge in khost this also marks a significant turning point in his personal life. the city falls to the turkish army without resistance using breaks out in christian areas of the city. a fire begins in the armenian quarter and becomes
10:35 am
a conflagration forcing local inhabitants to flee. 10 days later the christian areas have burned to the ground could ataturk have prevented this. these are when ataturk arrived in israel and he had defeated the greeks my opinion is this why would a person who enters a city victorious then set fire to that city as far as i can see the fires could only have been set by those escaping and there are documents to back this up however it is not an indisputable claim. de clichy which goes to nobody can now denies that not only the greek inhabitants of izmir sort also between $1.20 freak refugees were literally forced onto the ships. of us here however we've been unable to establish conclusively who was responsible
10:36 am
for the destruction of the city by arson that constant storm. does most of the fact that most of the came out himself for man silent on the issue suggests that the army was involved in the it's. the army. just walk. in is man most of our command establishes his headquarters in a villa owned by the shack is that a family successful local merchants. lot effect the families daughter had pledged to marry the man who freed is near from the greeks. such a beautiful elegant woman whereas the image of a 1000000 sold you know around home and my passion. i had it made early recently.
10:37 am
in the early god monsieur day or 2 of the met was very dramatic there was the great fire and the beginning of the love that after yet to be asked is that you know the . house of your family affected by the fire yes many get all we earn so ban my passion. we have defeated the enemy and under your leadership we will build a new isn't it. the couple are drawn together by passion and patriotism. turkish sources suggest that the events in izmir cost $10000.00 lives while greek sources claimed there were as many as 100000 deaths possibly one 3rd of it is now as total population of the armenian inhabitants only a few individuals survived. some desperate people are able to escape to the greek islands the allied ships in the harbor refused to intervene or come to their aid.
10:38 am
centuries of multicultural multiethnic existence in the city come to an end is near becomes a turkish city. the victory sell it. nations across the country represent a triumph for the young state mr becomes a shining hero in the eyes of turkey's population once and for all. the reconquest of turkey's former territories makes the treaty of sapphire worthless forcing the allies to return to the negotiating table. eventually turkey's new government signs the treaty of lausanne which negates many of the several conditions on the 24th of july 123. the treaty effectively legalizes the expulsion of unwelcome sections of the
10:39 am
population in order to turn the former multi ethnic ottoman empire into a turkish nation state. this leads to the greatest population exchange the world had so far witnessed. hundreds of thousands of people are affected. large columns of greeks who have been citizens of the ottoman empire she turkey while muslims from phrase and macedonia make their way to the new turkish state. and many more nationalities are affected. without the fergus's go 01 mustn't forget that there were also large numbers of refugees and people resettled from the balkans and the caucasus who made up the new nation soon it wasn't only people born in anatolia script fair experts who claim that in turkey it wasn't the people who formed the nation but the state which effectively created the
10:40 am
nation from the top down. but for all. should. ataturk's government in ankara banishes the last sultan mcmath the 6th and subsequently all members of the house of. the republic is declared on the 20. 9th of october $923.00 and ataturk is named president. however most of our command has not yet achieved his ultimate goal a cultural revolution within turkey. as president he is determined to make his cause bad ideas a reality. the 1st step the long term bachelor takes is to marry latin for her name his ideal of what a modern woman should be despite the fact that you as a head scarf in public out of respect for local traditions. ataturk's plans for a western style civil marriage ceremony are dashed by the laws of the ottoman
10:41 am
empire which are still in effect however he immediately changes the position of women in society with lots of friends help. bandits finnan poor narco latin phase role in the reforms consisted of her company came out wherever he went up until this point all male leaders or went everywhere alone without their wives most of our commercial and latin went everywhere together i think that was the biggest reform and i am a little sorry that this is often ignored reformers so. that if i had studied in paris and speaks fluent german she transforms ataturk's former bachelor nights into european style middle class dinner parties.
10:42 am
women are also invited to attend. but probably not the rabble. few of ataturk's cultural reforms have quite the long term success of his efforts to introduce gender equality. in modern day turkey women are to be found in all professions and they are far more emancipated than in other muslim societies the foundation for today's equality lies with turkey's adoption of the swiss civil code in 19255 years later women are given the vote in turkey long before france and switzerland introduce universal suffrage. couldn't that in the sort of. city the most important changes that women hoped for with the abolition of polygamy and the right to divorce their husbands. after the introduction of the swiss civil code men and women enjoyed the same rights as. all women benefited
10:43 am
whether they preferred the western or the eastern way of life whether they were for headscarves or against. many women campaigned for these rights and even fought for the salad. let sutton book. the picture. of. the civilized evenings of piano recitals and victor hugo quotes soon vanish. replaced by the iraqis soaked men's nights must have a come out is renowned for. to the republic to our independence to the republic.
10:44 am
what is this you are drinking again. your doctor and your mother have warned you you shouldn't drink so much my mother is dead but you you restrict me control every step i take. you are the president this is about tacky for me it's about my freedom of. that if they don't hurt which is why i didn't last if they just go along with everything like other women did why did she contradict him so often a lot of is independence caused consternation and irritated the people around her in addition mostafa had spent a formative years of his life alone and was a man who valued his freedom he realized that last phase was restricting him. ataturk divorces lateef in accordance with islamic law just before the swiss civil
10:45 am
code would have made this impossible. the divorced wife of turkey's 1st president spends the rest of her life living quietly in istanbul and. despite the divorce ataturk longs for a family he adopts 8 orphans in the course of his life and makes sure to raise his adopted daughters as a mancipation and patriotic women. one girl with an armenian background eventually becomes a fighter pilot and flies missions against the kurds. istanbul on the bosphorus and the sea of marmara. ataturk feels almost only present here. even though president adeline's new mosque
10:46 am
now towers above the republic monument on the city's renowned taksim square. modern day turkey is a divided nation torn between europe and the islamic world. this fundamental conflict. flic dates back to the ataturk era or the reforms the president of the new republic introduces a single goal to bring an underdeveloped turkey closer to europe this comes at a high price internal divisions within the country. as soon as the republic has declared mr falconer attempts to turn turkey into a secular country with a clear separation between religion and the state. the caliphate is abolished in
10:47 am
1024. qur'an schools and sharia courts are subsequently closed down followed a year later by syfy orders and dervish monasteries. the qur'an itself is translated into turkish. the highest sophia a christian church until 1453 was the main mosque throughout autumn and rule. in 1934 as the final flourish of his religious reforms ataturk has it converted to a museum. the protests against this move continue to this day. and for basically his answer was atheism reduced mr religion. because he himself
10:48 am
had no need for religion and no interest in mysticism he had no understanding that some people needed transcendental beliefs of one kind or another. ataturk also hopes to change the outward appearance of his subjects making turks look more like europeans his clothing reforms. forces his compatriots to abandon their fences and have towns these changes also have a religious element in the natalia the heart is seen as a symbol of godlessness. the heart law of $925.00 attracts more criticism than the abolishment of the caliphate the year before. their uprisings and some people who refused to abandon their traditional fans had where are sentenced to death. that same year parts of the kurdish population begin to
10:49 am
demand autonomy. ataturk refuses although the kurds had supported him during his war for independence. the kurdish leader shakes 8 calls for rebellion and demands the revival of the caliphate the government suppresses the rebellion brutally sending the shake and $47.00 of his followers to the gallows. secularism and the kurdish question both continue to play an important and divisive role in turkey's internal politics to this day. then. there is a 924 the regime of the guns a crackdown in the wake of the kurdish rebellion in 1925 opposition parties were silenced and the press was placed on the government control. turkey became a single party state one could call a dictatorship. often considered changing from a one party to
10:50 am
a multi-party system similar to that of the french but it simply wasn't possible. resistance against ataturk and his reforms grows even among his former associates in the summer of 1926 a group of conspirators plans to assassinate the president but the plan is uncovered and a wave of arrests takes place across the country it is the perfect opportunity for ataturk to remove his opponents whether they are guilty of a crime or not a person the death sentences have been passed the accused have confessed even ataturk's former trusted associates fall victim to his perch. there will be no mercy. not even for old comrades. 19 death sentences are carried out and dozens are found guilty of various crimes and sent into exile the opposition is significantly weakened.
10:51 am
even after the uprisings against his dictatorial reign ataturk continues his efforts to fundamentally change turkish society his last great project is the reform of language and the written word. arabic letters are placed with latin ones within a short space of time and arabic and persian words are replaced by authentic turkish expressions. as a result many turks are only able to read the newspapers with the help of a dictionary within a single generation the books of the past become in comprehensible. ataturk himself attempts to educate the people a former military hero is now turkey's teacher in chief. and to me and to many other historians of the era language reform is the most
10:52 am
significant shift the option of abolishing the use of arabic writing serve 2 purposes. break the ties to the islamic world which of course was unacceptable to ataturk's opponents through. at the same time it vastly encouraged the rise of literacy. it's an unprecedented effort despite the 1st indications of the growing international economic crisis the president continues to pursue industrialization and education reform he travels the country in an attempt to understand the daily lives of turkey's largely agricultural population and to develop a national economic program. ataturk also invites foreign experts to help turkey make the transition to a modern industrialized society. the speed of the reforms is too great for much of
10:53 am
the turkish population and many feel they are being forced to participate against their will ataturk is unwilling to accept this. i am not a dictator. they say i have power yes that is true. there is nothing that i could wish for and not make a reality. however i do not act with force and injustice and a dictator is someone who suppresses the self-determination of others. i want to rule by capturing the hearts of the people. not by breaking up. with the introduction of the surname law in $934.00 which brings turkey's naming system in line with european conventions most of all come out finally becomes ataturk father of the turks a flood of glorifying images and memorials ensues
10:54 am
a cult of personality typical of the era. ataturk statues are still found throughout modern turkey even though his party and kemal as a in general have fallen out of political favor it was absolute this year that he was convinced that he was the only person who could make this project a reality and that no one else could share this task he was convinced of the uniqueness of his missions which could not be carried out by others. and he believed he had to give absolutely everything to fulfill this mission through all so in the museo. in $127.00 ataturk moves to istanbul and begins to spend more and more time on his yacht. responsibility for the day to day business of the government is increasingly placed in the hands of his future successor is met him you know. he has battled
10:55 am
illness since the war and his health problems are exacerbated by excessive alcohol consumption. in the winter of 1937 doctors determined that he is suffering from cirrhosis of the liver. as the celebrations of the 50. in front of us 3 other a public draw to a close in 1988 ataturk lies bedridden in is some. palace his final residence he had hoped to join in the festivities. on its way back from the celebrations in istanbul a ship carrying military cadets passes the palace and the young soldiers sing the national anthem ataturk is said to have had tears in his eyes. soon after on the 10th of november 1938 ataturk dies in istanbul at 9 o 5 am turkey marks the moment of his death with a minute's silence every year the clock in the room he died and still shows the
10:56 am
time the father of modern turkey passed away. the entire country mourns during his funeral and the country's leaders prepare for a future turkey without ataturk but shaped by his guiding principles. 15 years past before ataturk's body is transferred to its final resting place the mausoleum in ankara. rarely has a politician changed to society so dramatically in such a short period of time however his reforms traumatized a population rooted in tradition and religion and the effects are still felt today walking that god take your. jerkin his revolution are currently of great significance because turkey is moving away from the ataturk's vision of a republic and towards a more presidential system. washed all it is therefore particularly important to remember the turks achievements and the effort that went into making
10:57 am
a reality that. don't necessarily have to love the father but you can't deny that he stands at the beginning of this modern nation. but the longer it can last one of his great. the chief ment's was making women visit let's not talk and i mean that. morning did your kid a good trip try to be in the room meet just. in moment right after talk has become a symbol he represents the hopes of the people who are dissatisfied with the country's current leadership and government i see many more answer can i just now than i used to troopers are you to talk visionary revolutionary reformer he made turkey the country it is today a modern vibrant yet divided nation state on the border between east and west.
10:58 am
to. kick off. for teams are still meeting the back. page when for going along and buy or make life so they can glove box got the job done. and will things calm down now occurred to berlin they won their 1st game after college clinched one quick. call. to minutes on t.w.
10:59 am
literature invites us to see people in particular that i like to see some as the kids find the strength growing up her. might object. to show. on youtube. fallen in pyongyang. the capital city of north korea is reinventing itself. but only a few can enjoy the benefits of those the ocean alone. kim jong un introduced n.c.v.s. reward system to coerce allegiance to the regime. play those who don't make it into the fun metropolis the infantile and tunbridge. kind of fun in pyongyang starts february 28th on w. player.
11:00 am
play. play play. this is d w d is live from our lead chilling new evidence of china's crackdown on its minority leader population a document leaks a d.-w. news confirms that china is a prison and members of its muslim minority based solely on their religion and culture we speak with the relatives of those being held in reeducation camps also coming up to china releases a new study showing that the number of new coronavirus cases appears to be declining but health officials also urged caution our correspondent in beijing.

32 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on