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tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  February 26, 2020 6:15am-7:00am CET

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22 schools will feature with badminton and taekwondo having been added. oh i'd like to go and cheer for our paralympians state but i know it'll be difficult to get to take that shit but at least i want to cheer for them on t.v. living all my dimly. 6 months to go and the excitement still outweighs any fear. you're watching w.'s duck film the shot and the ayatollahs up next thanks for watching. and for. telling which of course is. video audio. anytime anywhere. w. .
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979 shah mohammed to raise our pocket he was overthrown by a revolution that put an end to a monarchy that was more than 2500 years old. it's true nature i didn't believe it was an uprising at 1st. you know. that's where 13 regimes fall 1st gradually and then suddenly. the shah's mistake was to want to do too much too fast mohammad reza pocket he was the last shah of iran and a key figure in world politics during the 2nd half of the 20th century. is our own and was the shiite ayatollah ruhollah khomeini who became a beacon of resistance to the shots room. he by groups
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who got to see the 2 of them were polar opposites both in terms of social image and personality by then bells on they became very fierce antagonists absolutely and the shock developed. and almost of session with. their rivalry lasted almost a lifetime eventually the shah was defeated and with the ayatollahs victory came islamic fundamentalism a new challenge for world politics. in september 941 at the height of the 2nd world war the iranian parliament swore in 21
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year old mohammed a raise of hostility as the country's new head of state. his father razor sharp levy had declared iran neutral but make no secret of his sympathies with the nazi regime the allies demanded his abdication. since hitler's invasion of the soviet union in 1941 the british and americans had been transporting heavy military equipment through iran to aid russians in their fight against the german reich. i say 5 and up to one raises abdicated and fled iran he left his son behind president mohammad reza stayed in iran raise a shot told him to remain there and take over last year. mohammed race has father
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had prepared him for this moment from a young age his crown prince had always had a special role among his siblings his father chose his son's playmates and sent him to an elite swiss boarding school to receive a western education. he also dictators who he would marry. the egyptian princess. a union that ultimately would end in divorce razor sharp wanted this arranged marriage between the 2 ruling families to strengthen the power of the path luvvie dentistry in iraq. and he was of very very powerful charismatic figure who completely dominates the son's life. 300 kilometers southwest of the capital tehran lies the away says city of hama and the youngest of 6 children ruhollah khomeini was born here in 1902 and
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a house on the outskirts of the city. his father was murdered when he was just 5 years old. the case was officially never solved but khomeini always held razor sharp responsible. until the end of his days at a lawful may need so that there is a shop a surly have intervened to say the bear this was the bitterness lived in him because in his writings you know every now and then uses those whose fathers have been killed but it is a shock. growing up without a father which shaped the rest of how many as life his mother put him in the care of a wealthy aunt who made sure he got a good education. common and started school age 5 a village school teacher taught him to read and write and he proved to be a quick learner far more capable than his classmates while the children play and he
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studied and read the koran. before razor sharp was forced to abdicate he had launched a comprehensive program of reforms he wanted iran to become a modern country and one of his moves was to ban women from wearing the traditional veil known as the shadow or the clergy accused him of meddling in their affairs and a wave of protests and chewed. khomeini was now starting islamic law and he also felt that this was a fundamental violation of the principles of islam. it must have come as a relief to form a need when razor sharp was pressured by the allies to abdicate khamenei demanded that iran should return to being governed by islamic law but his demands fell on deaf ears. died in exile
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in south africa in 1984 or eyes were on his son when he took over. people were intrigued to see how he would solve the conflict with the clergy that he had inherited from his father up until then his public image had always been rather reserved. but the young sharon our showed surprising determination like his father he wanted to modernize the country and it society but he also wanted to end the religious dispute. khamenei had by now started teaching as law and he found a willing audience among young students who were becoming increasingly radicalized one shiite fundamentalist group called itself. islam the devoted ease of islam it still exists today. its members came from poor districts of tehran and campaigned
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for a theocratic state based on the koran they wanted all western influences banned and to force women to cover up in public. be deemed a couple of years the really big a very important because the 1st or their assassinated of intellectual missive i'm not just robbie who campaigned against islam as a whole then they proceeded further and assassinated the prime minister general russel mara. for many was. the cleric who gave them. cover the president. you just killed somebody unless. the rights of us for example. in early 1949 unknown attackers tried to kill the shah many believed the devoted
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behind the attempted assassination although that was never proven the iranian parliament accused the pro moscow today party and banned it a move the shark proved off because he wants answers species of communism as he was of radical islam his political path was leading him toward the west. american. here you go. here and the great of the market is enough for you. u.s. president harry s. truman and the people of america gave shar mohammed a raise or an exuberant welcome when he arrived in november 949 of course this wasn't a purely selfless gesture america was looking to gain access to the immense oil
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reserves in iran. the shah also needed support for his plans to modernize the country and was interested in technical innovations like the hoover dam but not everyone shared his enthusiasm for the west. the slanderer took a page the country was totally dependent the shah is dependent on the americans and the british but we wanted to have an independent state. a country that was in control of its own fate. one that made its own decisions and shy that. the post-war global economic boom was fueled by one thing in particular oil the largest refinery in the world was being built in a dan not far from the persian gulf oil production had been a predominantly british enterprise since the start of the 20th century the anglo persian oil company in iran was like a state within
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a state. in march 951 the iranian parliament decided to nationalize the oil industry and britain cut off its supply to iran many skilled british workers had to leave the country the state takeover of the oil facilities was popular but the oil embargo soon caused an economic slump extreme part is like the communist today party. exploited the crisis for their own ends. and the shah even briefly fled into exile to escape the line of fire. several camps were now fighting for power in iran including the mullahs and their followers and various political groups like the communists who wanted to abolish the monarchy in favor of a people's republic the shark it only hold on to his power with help from the us
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the american intelligence service the cia gave him money and helped him to set up his own secret police called some back. to. the shah was willing to team up with any ally who would fight against the influence of communism from the soviet union the clerics were traditionally anti communist and pro monarchy so he tried to win them over to his side but it didn't work. he certainly thought that that ideological backing was religion. and that again another mistake that he made. the region. particularly as incarnated boyd the shiite clergy could never have because. the ideological framework on which to build more there now is
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a sham that was for nitish. in december 1959 tehran witnessed huge celebrations press photographers from all over the world fought for the best picture of mohammad a razor park lobby and his new wife. after 2 failed marriages his 3rd wife the new queen would soon give birth to the much awaited heir to the throne and ensure the future of the park lobbied in a state. with the shah by her side far apart harvey became an influential figure in her own right she accompanied him on his trip to america in april $962.00 by the couple warmly received. together with john f. kennedy as president bashar intensified iran u.s. relations the 2 of them agreed that only a strong military could fend off the latent threats from the soviet union the us promised aid to strengthen iran's armed forces and in return for weapons america
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would get home while. it. was. already doing what the else them but often the americans gave the shah modern weapons to build up his armed forces. there were countless military advisors in iran who decided what would be done and what wouldn't you ask him to. do it and the things they did was certainly not a service to democracy bush diminished a democratic. in the 960 s. iran was still very much a developing country most people were tenant farmers with most of the land in the hands of feudal lords and big landowners including numerous mullahs and religious foundations. was. on january the 11th 963 the sham put forward
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a comprehensive reform program aimed at significantly improving the people's living conditions he called it the white revolution. and you know this if you can link the white revolution that his majesty decided to undertake was truly his idea and his decision that he wanted his country and his people to develop the vision j. lo better a nationwide referendum was held on the vast majority. today in favor of the ambitions program it aimed to abolish the feudal system privatized state owned companies combat illiteracy and give women the right to vote they want allowed to vote in the referendum but were allowed to fill in unofficial ballot papers to register their support of the rakyat he wanted to run to modernize the white but lucian was intended to make iran better and it did in many many ways it ended feudalism in iraq that's not an easy thing to do. the starting point of the
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white revolution was a land reform which met with staunch resistance from the clergy the shan gave more than 500000 hectares an area twice the size of luxembourg to $30000.00 poor families. yet there really would fit me. there were rumors that the sharks reforms who carried out under pressure from america which would have meant they would only have served colonial and imperialist interests and not those of the iranian people. in other words they were being carried out on foreign on american orders. so-called educational soldiers were sent to village schools to teach children how to read write and count . adult farmers and nomads also had to go to school the shot included people from all social classes in his campaign.
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as god i know i read so i voted to see if there was an army for literacy but not for real education. i mean of course it's a good thing that people are literate but literacy doesn't equal political education there's a big difference for it it should be legal. and segue also into shit and or political education was banned in schools and in universities. from wharton. khomeini became the spokesman for a group of mahler's who rejected this policy as being pro western. news that was a model law for many on one of the at the time the ayatollah khomeini was someone who represented the people and the opposition more that is on the hollow fundal was
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he bravely articulated their demands which is why we supported him. as i told our khomeini him i asked me to go for many votes of the at that khomeini was now very much in the public eye he was no longer the young clergyman he had been in the city of course complaining about razor sharp and holding back out of respect for his teachers so on and mel he was the grand ayatollah he gathered a considerable following and had much more potential to mobilize the people and buttons. so many took advantage of his enhanced power imagine from the shadows and adopting an. gress if stance towards the shah's policies for the 1st time he publicly want him against continuing in the ways of his family. forming you send a couple of letters directly addressed to the shah and the shah gave a couple of lectures speeches directly responding. i have quoted those at
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length in the shop and they're remarkable khomeini for his defiance. telling the shop boy. don't do something so that i throw you out of the country like your father and the shah saying these little. the world is like ants like the who survived in feces we are not going to let them rule this country. the key elements of the white revolution was to strengthen the role of women in iranian society. iranian women enjoyed their newly acquired rights and the self-confidence that came with them not only could women vote they could even run for political office. it was a milestone on the journey towards female emancipation.
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khomeini and his followers believed the foundations of their faith while under threat from the new role of women in politics and society and head back how many denounced corruption state violence and the torture employed by their son back secret police threatening what he called the tyrants of our time with a black reaction to the white revolution. die. ziad the karl drama back then khomeini was the only one who spoke out against the shah. to go out. he threatened to patrol him as a sinful person than men's. a religiously sinful person to mention and to organize a revolt against him. and i stand here you mean through orderly.
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demonstrations and counter-demonstrations swept the country the shah sent the army into the holy city of qum and khomeini was arrested and sentenced to death. the sentence was mitigated after intervention from the clergy but khomeini was forced into exile in a jaf in iraq. meanwhile the white revolution was running into problems in the country signed. the farmers now had their own fields to cultivate but they often lacked seeds water and modern farming equipment. that he usually is that adds the 7 for. the land reform resulted in people having to move out of their villages and into the cities such as terror. but they couldn't
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live in the city centers so they settled on the outskirts. it was these marginalized communities that became the soldiers of the revolution was decided was on and a lot for that when khomeini arrived in not just the stronghold of shiite islam in iraq he initially withdrew from public life now aged 60 he was isolated and believed that his time was coming to an end many iranian clerics wanted nothing to do with his political activities he started taking a renewed interest in the study of the holy scriptures and talked to is just a few of his students to keep up to date with the situation in iran. the family members who had accompanied him into exile were amongst his few supporters. when and why. when it was this distant figure very little interest in anything other than his
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mosque and his books and never went once 2 blocks from his house to the other side to see a river. went to his mosque and came home for 14 years. back in iran the shah had always maintained that he wanted to achieve something for his country before he finally ascended the peacock throne now he finally allowed himself to be crowned in a lavish coronation in october 967. he knew how important it was to display the dynasty's religious foundations and it always involved the clergy and his public appearances so he had passed support as he took up his rightful place as the new shah one shot the king of kings. years. he also had his wife
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crowned empress and elevation unprecedented in iran's long history. to me a moderate candidate had to do beside him i would urge when his majesty placed the crown on my head it was as if he put it on the heads of all women. it was a very important moment in the history of our country. i didn't think that i had become important in my own right. i saw it as a sign of progress and respect for women. earlier in 1967 the glamorous couple had been on a state visit to the federal republic of germany where they were greeted by president col hina luca and chancellor court keeping up. the visit focus primarily on economic ties between the 2 countries the shop visited the big steel companies along the rhine and he needed help to industrialize his country for example
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building new dams for agricultural irrigation it was a lucrative opportunity for german businesses. but the ugly side of the shah's regime was revealed during the couple's visit to the opera and ballet and when members of savak attacked demonstrators protesting against oppression and torture in iran the situation escalated in the shah's visit and the protests against his policies became a turning point in the history of west germany. i to drive his white revolution forward the shah used capital from abroad to upgrade his country's technology he invested billions in electrification and in various industries. he wanted iran to catch up with the modern world and become the global power it once was.
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i think that our country in the next 10 years will be what you are today. in the next 25 years according to other people i'm not saying that would be among the 5 most prosperous countries of the world. the iranian capital in particular had started opening up to western culture and was quickly becoming a modern metropolis very few women still covered up in public and young people could travel freely and get an education abroad terence people enjoyed all the advantages of a cosmopolitan city where they were free to express themselves. but as far as the political structures were concerned nothing had changed embodied by the shah himself the monarchy remained an all powerful and unaccountable avoid to israel and then showed us through our dear fear that he wanted to decide everything
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all by himself for good that was the mistake behind all his failures. and what ultimately led to his demise and that the shooter. was didn't. they've been caught by changes. in crime murder. the country with today. there was a. trashed. in time seem to have stood still. giving lectures to a small circle of students and thinking about how an islamic legal system by the clergy played a leading role would look he condemned western shallowness and had an ism he attacks the colonial powers and israel and he called for an end to the separation
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of politics and religion. the transcripts of his lectures were published in a book entitled islamic government. i think i was one of the maybe 1st people to read it i was shocked. but i like a lot of other simple people like me thought this would never work this is a medieval idea they're run and has had a constitutional revolution in 1000 or 5 or 7 is not going to let the clergy come and cut off people's hands in public squares it's not going to lead the courage to rule because they know sharia. i was wrong as were a lot of other countries and forces. iran wanted to stop the spread of radical ideas and theological demands from shiite clergy and band harmonies book but this censorship only made it more attractive to
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opponents of the ruling class. anyone who opposed the shah's regime could expect to end up in some back cells where torture and executions were commonplace there was no escape from this dreaded prison in tehran which german architects had built in the 19 $130.00 s. this is what the students in germany were protesting at during the shah's visit. even some of iran's current political leaders were imprisoned here during the shah's rule including today supremely. the shah's regime was totally intolerant of opposition or even dissent there was no
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open dialogue about the country's social and political development and political parties both left and right were largely stamped out. the opposition had either fled abroad or been locked up. the shah's autocratic rule meant he was increasingly losing touch with the people of his country. tehran with its modern high rise buildings had come to symbolize a belief in progress but many people were no longer able to keep pace with the shock so they turned to the institution that was familiar to them one that had always provided support in times of uncertainty. it completely went after the left. well there was the left there was dependent on the soviet union or where there was a social democratic left the only people who were allowed to build mosques build schools teach their own cadres were the religious works and you bring
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millions into the cities and shantytowns concentrate them made them easy to mobilize and allow the closure to be the only one who's active and then people are surprised that the revolution was won by the clergy. during the 1970 s. the shah renovated many of the country's mosques and greatly increase the number of qur'an schools as well he wanted to reassure the clergy that islam was fundamentally important to him that it was the very foundation of iranian society despite the orientation of his policies towards the west. through his public appearances and his annual pilgrimage to the city of mashad considered one of the 7 holy sites of shia islam he hoped to keep the clergy family on his side.
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he saw religion as his last line of defense he saw religion as his most powerful stronghold within the country and that's where he made a massive miscalculation massive strategic and either logical and political miscalculation because what he thought of as his most powerful strong and backing turned out to be his most fatal and then dress enemy. in 1978 an inflammatory article about khomeini in a leading daily newspaper accused him and the clergy of mounting a counter revolution. that. his followers took to the streets in coom. to show their solidarity. was. was this was a very moving evolution may be. the fastest revolution in human history because
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everything happened of it in 4 months with every passing day the resolve of the shah's regime to stay in power was weakening and the resolve of the opposition to demand his removal was increasing. as many as 300 people were killed at the demonstration in coom. there was a 40 day mourning period as is customary in islam but straight after that hundreds of thousands took to the streets again their numbers swelling by the day. the shah wasn't prepared for resistance on this scale it took him and his regime completely off guard and left it paralyzed. an arson attack on the wrecked cinema in the oil city of abidjan on august the 1978 killed 422 people. the opposition accuse the secret police and the shah however
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evidence later suggested that khomeini himself had masterminded the attack after it was a different story both in magnitude and anger and industry for the 1st time i heard thousands of people say death to the shah. that would have been unimaginable in 77 . the protest became increasingly violent and the military was called to intervene september the 8th $978.00 would go down in history as black friday. it's not known how many people were killed on central tehran's janice square that day estimates range from less than 10215000 in searing general strike brought the country to a standstill. chartreuse . starkers the shah had
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a strong military and intelligence services. so all the instruments of power were in his hands and this rigging. field your death off story that's why many people like me thought. let's 1st try to overthrow the regime with khomeini. and then we'll deal with him later on made in prayer to israel. the shah pressured the iraqi government to declare khomeini persona non-grata and he had to leave his acts out in najaf his aides advised him to head to europe which he had 1st rejected asking them what he would do and non islamic countries little did he know that thousands of his followers from all over the world would make a pilgrimage to his new home in new flare château a small suburb of paris western politicians and intellectuals like a sham paul sartre michel foucault and francois mitterrand also showed support for
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khomeini in france he suddenly found himself at the center of global attention. but. nobody talked about the radical ideas khomeini had expressed in his book about islamic government since his writings were banned in iran and unknown in the west now one even raised the subject with him his speeches against the shah where recorded and distributed throughout iran. ma bashfully if you would in the ya it's a lot we spread these speeches around in every form possible that we handed the takes out all over the place and we even took them to the villages i meet a. man the generals in iran were waiting for mohammed razor to order them to take action against the insurgents but nobody realized that the shah was suffering from cancer and was physically weak without orders the military held its file.
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cabinet. once the soldiers had stopped shooting down civilians people put flowers in their guns and held pictures of how many and their hands in a celebration of their future leader. but then the shah used the television address to try and reclaim the initiative. man needs by you or me and all this woman like you don't do anything because when you're going to matter you don't die or you and they've got a source of calmness or see. it or let it be more. bear or the 1000000 maybe do as this to of his thoughts on how he looked weak he looked absolutely despondent he couldn't read the text. and the point that he was saying is that i have heard of the famous phrase i have heard the. call of your revolution and give me another chance. and people saw it rightly as
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a sign of his weakness if ever there was a sign that he is not going to be able to master the situation that was to me the speech. the international community was alarmed by the crisis in iran and french president of valery giscard d'estaing invited german chancellor helmut schmidt u.s. president jimmy carter and british prime minister jim callaghan to a meeting on the island of guadalupe to discuss what to do lose our culture. our talks had a twofold objective. to increase security and reduce tension around the world. we thought we needed to recognize the realities of today's world and increase our efforts to improve international relations what do you really want if you said no that's your no. western powers decided that meant abandoning the shah and his
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regime on january the 16th 1979 he left iran with his family. the shah thought the crisis would soon be over and he would be able to return but in actual fact it was goodbye forever for his rough i don't usually mean good i'll never forget the tears in his eyes when we left and the officer who threw himself at his majesty's feet. to the party and is that inducted. 14 days later on february the 1st 1979 khomeini flew from paris to tehran many fear that the shah's air force would thought khomeini's return by forcing the plane off course or even shooting it down. to the. you know the boarding that plane in spite of the danger well you couldn't feel safe of course you'd be worried about how many didn't show any sign of fear but he must have been afraid anyone would. butterfly the other day.
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khomeini set foot on iranian soil after 14 years in exile millions of people jubilantly celebrated his return and. the iranian monaco had come to an end after 2500 years and khomeini was welcomed as a savior. was nobody had any idea of the consequences the islamic revolution would have for iran. was introduced intellectuals are boarded for ranged from the right to live including those rats are bored of the shah. over all our big business you know our big
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tycoons showed our billionaires the or support so are here 3 ated the degree of unity among gad all these different factions in teheran which was impressive. first visits were to behest is on a cemetery on the outskirts of town where those who were killed by the shans regime are buried and to the holy city of qum where his fight against the shah had begun many years ago was the confrontation between these 2 could be summers to the confrontation of 2 opposing words and in such a confrontation it is always the stronger will that will win you know and that's what exactly what happened in iraq. khomeini's were was far stronger. to conquer power then the sharks were to keep power.
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after a long odyssey through various different countries the shah died of cancer on july the 27th 1980 in cairo he was 60 years old his body was buried in the ari 5 in the egyptian capital. the ayatollah khomeini died from a heart attack on june the 3rd 1989 in tehran during his 10 year reign he followed through on his ideas of an islamic revolution with uncompromising stringency and turned iran into a theocracy. and in doing so he set in motion a dynamic process that even now still keeps the wild anxious lee gassing.
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journalist also. joining us now for full complete transparency which makes whaling says it. took on the world's most powerful country and ended our line above. the law a. man who founded wiki leaks that risked his life to find the truth. 90 minutes long d.w.
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love. we're all set. to go beyond beyond. that. we're all about the stories that matter to. come true but whatever it takes. no running the to change but nothing. made for minds. frank food. international gateway to the best connection self road and trail. located in the heart a few connected to the home with. experience outstanding shopping and dining offers and trialling services. biala gassed at frankfurt airport city managed by from.
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business d w t is coming to life from berlin simply not ready for the w.h.o. warns that the world isn't prepared for a possible coronavirus pendennis. this is going to come soon potentially you've got to be shifting to a readiness rapid response thinking we'll hear from south korea.


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