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tv   Lebanon  Deutsche Welle  May 6, 2020 7:15am-8:00am CEST

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d.w. . lebannon the only country in the modern middle east that was long dominated by christians today muslims are in the majority it's a society that has repeatedly been under threat. and just was on there have always been tensions between the different religious communities and to nominations in various ethnic groups in lebanon. suppose you don't find a spot in iran the shiite hezbollah party of god has had a huge impact on the political fabric of levanon. as follows critics would say yes that this those destabilized the region hezbollah supporters would say that hezbollah's ministry strength is an asset for loveman because that keeps. israel away. in the civil war in
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syria the hezbollah militia defended the assad regime now they're back and levon on in stronger shape than ever. the more the there are fighting to defend is the model of bashar assad which this is it's a she. bought just to watch the extent dance has split a term in the course of politics in the banana. beirut the lebanese capital still bears the scars of a civil war that for more than 15 years crippled the city and the country as a whole see and saddam was among those who fought back then he was just 16 years
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old when he 1st held a weapon in his hands. the civil war erupted in 1975 like virtually the entire country beirut became a battlefield. the war initially saw christian militias fighting against the palestinian liberation organization and p.l.o. which was threatening to take control of beirut. in. the hostilities and then escalated into a broader conflict between christians and arab nationalists finally the israelis invaded and occupied southern lebanon in order to expel the p.l.o. from the country it was in this time that hezbollah was formed. the war claimed tens of thousands of lives and left the country devastated.
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bad thing for us was a person who where might if the they know but they don't speak about it. that's why every 1520 years something someplace will have to go. they know how to destroy the buildings and they don't know don't make a smaller house where they don't they don't know or anything about their life except fighting. here in the middle of a favorite in the no man's land between muslim and christian districts ziad sahaba and his former comrades in arms and meeting up in a cafe they want to break the silence surrounding events in the civil war there are lessons to be learned they say also including the conflicts with israel the last of which again shocked the country in 2006 ziad screw pulse meetings where all participants can talk about their wartime experiences. with
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out you know. who it is. but i don't feel about that a friend of mine was driving his car when a shell exploded behind him in. he looked in his mirror and saw a woman collapse he drove back to help her it was then that a 2nd shell exploded and killed him as you. listen to this. a just. a growing number of people are eager to talk of how it feels to be at the mercy of tanks and missiles. they also reflect on their own deeds. but. they were hurrying to use their guns to solve our problems is the biggest mistake of shooting and maim fact or why we. do this is us and no it was
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a civil war itself. actually it was us who believe that by violent we can change the situation. what we did we destroy our cancer. among the biggest losers of the civil war were catholic christians the maronites in $943.00 france had relinquished its mandate power over 11 on and the country became independent for years and decades afterwards the maronites held sway you never non muslims druse orthodox christians and other religious minorities had to accept the political and economic supremacy of the maronite christians defeated in the civil war had far reaching consequences from various groups as middle east analyst daniel gal explains live in order to form lebanon was created in order to guarantee a christian majority it's an absolute exception in the history of the middle east
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a state was created with the help of the west and also with the help of the league of nations in which christians were in the majority and the word thus able to determine the political developments in the country and before the lebanese civil war the christians had a joy guaranteed privileges including a majority in parliament after the war and through the agreements that were signed in its wake this change and not today the christians no longer have those privileges you need now. after the civil war the cards will reshuffled the former warring parties agree to a strict system of proportional representation that at the same time took into account the needs and interests of the muslim population each religious minority was granted posts and privileges that they have defended right through to the present as a result however this multicultural society has been gradually disintegrating into its separate parts. over a 1000000 predominantly muslim refugees from syria
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a further upset. social balance politically and economically lebanon is in a deep crisis that is further dividing the country. a division of manifested in the road blocks which are found not only throughout the irish but also the entire country some of them date back to the civil war and the syrian occupation which lasted until 2005. the headquarters of the could tie party resembles a fortress. the party of the maronite christians formerly known as the fair lounge is led by sami gemayel a cylon of one of lebanon's most predominant political dynasties his uncle and brother were both assassinated and the less gemayel believes in lebanese democracy . we have a history of 80 years of democracy the only maybe country in the region where you
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have ex-president living in peace in their own country you have every 4 years in the election you have. governments are being formed even if it takes time even if it's difficult to do it every time but at least you are doing it and it's a democracy process and this is a model that we. that you are willing to defend. but the political system in lebanon is now under greater threat than ever before the shiite hezbollah the party of god is growing in strength many of its supporters despise the lebanese state. and the last friday of the fasting month of ramadan has been less celebrates could see all she grew slim day which goes back to the time of the arabian leader ayatollah khomeini an event that centers on the joy of the rock
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injuries. hezbollah calls self the party of resistance resistance to its own allegedly powerless state and resistance to israel. oh i learned started resistance has proved successful but by hezbollah not the state this resistance movement emerged the moment it became clear that the state was powerless to do anything. for you the state allowed us in the south of the country to be humiliated by the occupying israelis on a daily basis and the resistance movement consists of all of these people here and now you know stay is an international day not just for us but for every country and with god's help in the near future we will put an end to israel's existence as long. as bill as grassroots space is made up of many poor shiites who constitute roughly one quarter of the population and 11 on the general secretary of hezbollah
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house and nostra is their idol. for decades he's been the head of the party and the armed militia it's been years since no one has appeared in public she's at the risk of assassination the list of enemies is long israel regards him as a primary terrorist target this evening his supporters only get to see him on a big screen he said to video message from a hiding place in the mountains. we have precision missiles capable of hitting all essential targets in the zionist entity. today on this 40th anniversary of jerusalem day let me state once again and tell the whole world that we have perception missiles in lebanon on and in sufficient numbers to change the entire region once and for all. that carried and it
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was the fear i know what was the nice rollo we will follow you chant the crowd the that and. let me tell the world that if the americans continue with their current policy we will build a factory in lebanon for precision missiles. no surveillance video appearances eye closely monitored by governments in many other countries because hezbollah does not make empty threats it has a track record of carrying out attacks on the us france and in particular israel hezbollah has been declared a terrorist organization by the us and israel the european union gives that designation only to its military wing.
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over the years hezbollah has mounted numerous attacks on northern israel near the border with lebanon abducting soldiers targeting and killing civilians with missiles and using suicide bombers. israelis abroad have also been the victims of terrorist attacks attributed to hezbollah a bombing in bulgaria and 2012 claimed the lives of 5 israeli tourists and their bus driver. works at the institute for national security studies in tel aviv. hizbollah's definitely the most dangerous organisation but it's not only organisation this is a political party it's a social network it's a religious party and it's also an army it's
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a very well equipped. army advanced army was sophisticated weaponry which were provided by the iranians and the syrians so we're not talking only about an organization. hezbollah was formed in the 1980s in the bekaa plain on the border with syria today it also controls part beirut and the south of the country. during the civil war the hezbollah militia force against israel offered on the south of the country faced with a guerrilla war of attrition the israeli army eventually pulled out of lebanon in 2000 has claimed victory. nicholas blanford is a british journalist at the time he was writing for lebanese daily newspapers.
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to go back to the lines in line to. then israel was occupying a strip of south lebanon and hezbollah was engaged in a daily resistance campaign fighting israel is back then there was a general consensus within lebanon to support hezbollah to support hezbollah as resistance activities including from those that view has followed with some distrust obviously and there's alarmist organization with links to iran but the resistance of credentials helps hezbollah game popularity across the country. many towns in southern lebanon on about 100 kilometers from beirut every year tens of thousands of people flock to the open air museum here. is a kind of hezbollah pilgrimage site celebrating the fight against israel it was
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opened in 20. 10 on the 10th anniversary of israel's withdrawal from lebanon on it boasts on a range of hezbollah war trophies including captured tanks and artillery guns. yet hezbollah was originally founded to defend the shiites against their then dominant muslim rivals the sunni. iran provided help in the form of funding and expertise but then the israelis invaded and occupied the south of the country. youssef ours has worked as a tourist guide ever since the museum opened he says it's his wife offering resistance the museum we found to begin with just to cherish the memory of the martyrs that they gave their lives to for this country or from the invaders.
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later used to be a refuge and base for hezbollah fighters it was here that they dug themselves into the mountains and wage to guerrilla war which has split tent into a success story. how the media and the world are controlled by the zionists. so. why not teach the generation what the resistance all about. this is all war just to give these people our side of the story. has been his version of history is that israel occupied southern lebanon and that hezbollah pushed up assistance into the israelis withdrew and in fact hezbollah also mounted repeated attacks on its ocho enemy after that time. in 2006 hezbollah fired missiles at northern israel and in a cross border right abducted 2 israeli soldiers.
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israel hit back launching a ground invasion and a series of air raids reaching as far as beirut. more than 2000 people were killed most of them lebanese. the war also cemented has been a status as being one of israel's principal enemies. israel is faced with and is challenge by an army that is using those guerrilla tactics that's why i call it an army of thought. and it is a very well trained very well equipped. with my intentions and it jeopardize the stability of the region and it may create
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a war between israel and lebanon on the state of living on which has basically i had in the last couple of years israel has declared that hezbollah is the greatest threat facing israel so we're not talking about a conference or talking about syria or even iran but are non-state organizations such as there's now a perceived as the greatest threat was from the. united nations troops had been stationed in southern lebanon since $978.00 their mandate to guarantee peace and security in the contested region but it proved an impossible task for a un force that was far too small. in a beautiful state after the civil war and controlled by different religious groups the lebanese army existed in 9 only when 6 of its peacekeepers were killed in the war of 2006 the united nations changed its policy.
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since 2006 the un forces have had what is known as a robust mandate which allows the use of force if necessary since then there have been only rare armed confrontations at the border both sides are upholding the cease fire agreement to this day however a state of war still exists between israel and lebanon there are no diplomatic relations between the 2 countries. and the most serious crisis since the last war erupted at the end of 28 saying un troops have the job of securing the blue line the demarcation line between the 2 countries the israeli army discovered tunnels leading into israel evidently dark by hezbollah to render them a new. the israelis poured concrete into the tunnels watching events from the lebanese side of the blue line a number of young men with has been
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a flags the militia has continued to store weapons in the area despite abaddon posts through a un resolution. lebanon has never recognized the state of israel there is no mutually accepted border between israel and lebanon on the blue line serves as a temporary solution. another unresolved issue is who the sheba farms belong to. they were an expired israel but lebanon lies claim to them exits to the hezbollah tunnels were discovered nima toula inside israel. television 150 kilometers south of the border with lebanon is israel's biggest city . and it now lies within the range of hezbollah missiles one of the
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factors behind the israel defense forces locating this center of operations deep underground beneath the headquarters. of. israel's slender that's analyses show that hezbollah has grown in strength partly through the experience it has gained through the war in one evening syria. the israelis see hezbollah in a wider strategic context in their eyes the shiite militia is 1st and foremost a proxy for the implementation of a rainy and plans. in the opinion of numerous observers iran is trying to establish a land bridge from its own territory to the mediterranean with the aim of projecting an extended zone of influence in. clued in hezbollah the regime into iran now has close allies reaching from iraq and syria through to lebanon.
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we see iranian attempts to create a land corridor from iran through about a 1000 kilometers more or less from iran all the way to lebanon through iraq and syria when we look at events in syria we care less about if the dictator or asked by bashar al assad regains control over the country are not what we're interested in is whether the iranians will be able to make this into yet another iranian. outpost military outpost against israel and we have said very clearly that we have no intentions to allow the iranians to do so. in recent years the israelis have launched hundreds of attacks on suspected to rein in targets in syria supplies destined for hezbollah have also been bombed in
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a war that has yet to be declared. it's a shura or day of remembrance in beirut on this one of the most sacred sites on the shiite calendar the veterans of the hezbollah militia on it. this man is said to have survived and i'm successful attack on the israelis he says he would fight again. even in his state he claims it has below are planning an attack on television for his revenge for his friend bombs dropped on by rage he would not hesitate to follow the call. that many of these men forged in syria. together with the brainy and forces that have helped to keep syrian dictator bashar al assad and his regime in power it says. summated that in the process hezbollah lost more than 1500 combatants.
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hezbollah's power center is located in south beirut the die here as the suburbs are 9 has a mainly shiite population here the self-styled party of god has established what it calls a marsh a cemetery. this is the last resting place of men who lost their lives in the wars against israel or in syria they include the son of hezbollah leader hassan nasrallah. many relatives pay regular visits to the cemetery which lies close to downtown beirut. having a fallen soldier a so-called martyr in the family is seen as a distinction. and i am the head that yes i have
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family here 2 brothers and an uncle 3 martyrs in the market every mother even if she doesn't have any marjorie's must give her children encouragement and educate them to this and that is why as you know because we are fighting for our land and our honor and god willing we will set ourselves free because we refuse to live without dignity and it is a matter of either dignity or marja. yet got on the. hezbollah encourages the veneration of those the coals ma says from an early age members of the mahdi scouts organization are prepared for war when they are just 8 years old they wear headbands bearing the words actual service over hussein ali hussein bin ali is the 2nd most important imaam revered by shiites the mahdi scouts are intended to fight against the enemies of the hezbollah in his name this song mourns
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the passing of hussein who is considered a martyr he's a role model for the mahdi scout's. worry about the god. i have now closed. the door to the families of those who have died in combat for hezbollah a given financial and material support has been also run schools and hospitals and has become an important social institution in lebanon but how is the organization financed well the iranians voice been the main bankroller of hezbollah but hezbollah years ago diversified its portfolio and they have all kinds of revenue streams coming directly into the organization so a lot of it is. all donations from wealthy shia businessman who support hezbollah respect as follow the same applies on a smaller scale to has follows. but they also have a whole array of business networks around the world some of them.
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are just not but they will provide farms you know coming to to his followers coffers. hezbollah continues to grow in power and influence and this shift in the denominational power structure in favor of the shiites the sunnis who are largely better off economically the losing political influence even though it's traditionally a sunni who holds the most important things in the country back of prime minister. saad hariri who resigned in october 29th tain had hoped to cut the power of hezbollah like his father rafi careering seen with him here on the part he had tried to unite the lebanese under sunni leadership to this end he was prepared to make concessions to hezbollah. the billionaire building contractor with the lebanese saudi and french citizenship
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wanted to uphold the legacy of his father. himself a former prime minister and assassinated in 2015. most of that in the very was a beacon of hope not only for lebanon and its national agenda he was also a figure with whom the sunni's identified the man who brought the cosmopolitan sunni elites back to the country. and who also had given greater emphasis to the sunni identity of lebanon and fought on the. saudi arabia self-appointed protector of the sudanese takes a critical view of attempts at reproach me with the shiites feel he is the saudis side hariri. to exert more pressure on hezbollah if not only because of its closeness to iran the saudis likewise have their own strategic interests. if you can force the saudis were always eager to have a foot in the door to wield power and i've been on this and they've achieved this
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in diverse ways your investments your property and government bonds that they purchased the schools of. the saudis big problem was that hariri placed so much faith and had not managed to suppress the interests of other powers for the benefit of saudi arabia person curry was only able and unwilling to take power away from hezbollah while on a state visit to the saudi capital riyadh in november 27 tane he surprisingly announced his resignation with a statement that completely contradicted his previous political line. and money out of the. us now going down because i cannot accept disappointing the lebanese people over the last few years and decades hezbollah with its arsenal has repeatedly presented us with a fait accompli. the. bar has been. that is sad enough. it claims that these weapons are for offering resistors.
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more but in fact they are being used against our brothers in syria yemen and even against lebanon last i looked. to this day it's unclear whether hariri was forced to step down but it was only when french president emmanuel mccraw intervened that he was allowed to leave saudi arabia once back in lebanon hariri rescinded his resignation political machinations that boost hezbollah's position a few months later the group registered and in fact electoral victory in a government headed by hariri they would represent. if 2 cabinet posts for the 1st time. look at the party today is the only opposition party in lebanon really refused to be part of the deal that managed to get hezbollah to control the country. and today we are
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fighting alongside with a lot of independent personalities and some groups from the civil society in order to form a larger position to the to the way lebanon is being governed today. has been our representatives really grant interviews to western media. as a recourse that means talking to their allies like you're seeing yup in a shiite and longstanding member of parliament. he sees hezbollah as indispensable . as well as the woman is the seen by many people as a party that helped defeat isis that helped liberate the lebanese territories and that with all the threats continuously for the israelis that there were all of
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. that there could be a at least the balancing power. in the mid 990 s. bahn held a ministerial post he currently heads the parliamentary committee on foreign policy he puts up resistance whenever the united states or international organizations like the world bank seen here meeting you have here trying to exert pressure on the lebanese government because of hezbollah. washington has once again demanded that the government to prod has a lot of power. something you have been finds completely unrealistic. to day as well as represented in parliament. police films following the same building there was of the and in government and they have a big presentation i mean the represent the chunk of people of the country so as lebanese i mean all the lebanese. factions have stated i mean.
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raising this issue in a negative way or asking us to put pressure here over who leads to the confrontation to a conflict within the country which is a difficult position for lebanon to go into law. when it's facing so much challenges that will destroy the country completely. hezbollah is also far too strong militarily to be driven out of lebanon the militia is said to another $25000.00 soldiers the party of god originally founded to represent the interests of the shiites in lebanon is now an established power factor throughout the middle east. as well as fighting syria as well as fighting iraq as well as fighting in yemen as
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well as fighting the when it is involved in all the countries in the region and is dragging the ban on 2 problems lebannon didn't choose. it has been might have suffered serious losses with many of its fighters being killed in syria but it is now in a position to engage and take maneuvers. the war in syria has enabled it to develop far beyond the military capacity it had in the wars against israel. hezbollah is now a powerful army and not just a militia. if the army needs no enemy leads. the israeli army is already preparing for a new war with hezbollah. this is footage of a maneuver conducted in the north of the country has been a reportedly has more than 120000 missiles at his disposal all of them potentially pointed at israel. i think it's safe to say that lebanon will probably be turned into a car park in the next war but israel will be hits like they haven't been hit since
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148 the missiles and weaponry at the disposal of hezbollah now will bring the entire country of israel to. a standstill. there will be no civilian traffic you know civilian maritime traffic people will all be in the bunkers there'll be no one going to schools universities work for the duration of the conflict so this is a very sobering picture for any prime minister in israel as it is indeed for hezbollah we know what hizbullah is planning we know that they have precise weaponry that can hit with carried out a lot of explosive they are going to devastate our cities and to kill people in high numbers they retaliate must be and i'm telling it like marty even dovish point of view must be to stop with that in any cause. so far the principle of determined
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has worked on both sides. no one wants a new conflict memories of the civil war still vivid. now the lebanese too are realizing how dangerous has been its political course could be for the entire country even though up to now they have accepted the organization as illegitimate. defender against israel. laurie high tyrion is a popular blogger and activist she criticizes hezbollah's policy of sending its militia into conflicts elsewhere in the middle east she believes it increases the chances of war breaking out. you have as well loads as the lebanese hezbollah which defense lebannon this is reality if and with. the same time. there is as below which is the regional player and this is where the division comes
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. the fact that hezbollah has become a state within a state is perhaps only part of a wider problem faced by lebannon that of politics being defined by religion. laurie hi tyin organizers meetings for women who want to bridge the gulf between the 2 nominations. here christians and muslims are sitting at the same table. only in this way she says can the country progress in the office or apart from one or 2 politicians the lebanese people have no voice in parliament with a microphone in front of them of course everyone speaks in the name of the lebanese people but in reality no one represents us. politicians are only concerned with defending the entrance of their particular religious denomination add in
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a lot of forms if you thought hey bill well it has to be possible for people to live in this country with their own convictions and there are prospects for changing things but this can only happen if we challenge the political and sectarian regime we need a secular state which also respects the interests of civil society. living on has experienced much violence and enjoyed many conflicts this could almost prove to be a strength but there also needs to be a radical break with the past. tripoli the 2nd biggest city in lebanon is proof that the religious divisions and conflicts do not necessarily have to persist. up until a few years ago crossing syria straight meant taking your life into your own hands because fighting between rival muslim factions was a daily occurrence and the people shooting at each other were neighbors.
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sunni's and alawite who used to belong to the same shia branch of islam especially sad used to be adversaries. on the mobility. now they're working together to repair their neighborhood and its power lines. these young men are under 30 years old. many of them were still minus when they took up arms of a reconciliation project called march has brought them together. they're good honestly i thought he was a terrorist. says some mia an alawite about the man next to him may last a devout sunni used to have nothing but contempt for the hour what's. in there
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i say that has commanded me to attack anyone who attacks me. even if he is my brother. because the qur'an says that if anyone sins against you so you will sin against their lot. but that doesn't apply to him for whom he's ok like all the other white guys from this district they're really fine lads really good hearted and polite to them and they will there's talk about the much reconciliation project was launched by leah baroudi from beirut. vince that the religious conflicts are i mean a facade. i honestly believe that the sectarian divides in our minds are here out of fear and simply out of fear because we are afraid that the other is going is out to get us or out eliminate us. and my ideas is this is the solution is we need to talk to
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each other we need to spend time with each other and get to know each other so that this fear that comes from you know manipulation from the past from what is it then through you know death get dissolves because we know each other the problem is that we do not know each other and we are afraid of each other. skepticism is understandable what works in tripoli might not have the same positive effect in the rest of the country hezbollah has forced hard to secure a position in which it is a decisive political economic and military factor. and as long as religious goals persist whether between christians sunni's or shiites they will continue to determine the political and economic structure of lebanon and the country will struggle to emerge from the ongoing crisis while fundamentalism becomes stronger and stronger.
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for his whole working life toiling in the mine who know his 45 year old continuous . just out over time it just gets harder and harder mary. here in kentucky one minor after another contract black lung disease. or see a more cases they'll ever have an honest answer. leaving the victims to food for themselves global 3000. and 30 minutes on d w. deprived of their child and their future.
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tens of thousands of children by spiders were orphaned in the. could become darius. since the fall of mosul they've been refused papers. and the chance of going to school. what will become a. close up. 90 minutes on d w. europe and the end of world war 2. 1945 brought an end to the destruction suffering and death. and it marked a new beginning of european cooperation. d.w.m. celebrates the 75th anniversary of the end of the 2nd floor a mate on t w. this
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is d w news coming to you live from berlin germany takes more steps to please lock down restrictions it's expected the government today will announce further measures to. open the economy and parts of public life we look at what's next for germany. and could the closely give be back in play that's also up for discussion by government ministers a green light would make it the 1st of europe's 5 big soccer leagues to return to the pitch plus the delicious way to say thank you one couple of the living.

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