tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle July 11, 2020 8:30pm-9:00pm CEST
if. you don't know it's not easy to go to another country you know nothing about the wife of a young do this because we can't stay home and i know. that. closely global news that matters. made for martin's. hello and welcome to you tomorrow today the science show on d.w. coming up self taught in cars are just around the corner. once they hit the road traffic flow will have to regulate itself we told them to see to. how far along is the technology for that and is it safe. also on the show noise as a stress factor. how
harmful is noise to our health and what kind of effects can it have. a sinking city bangkok is desperate for solutions to its flood problem. traffic jams and backed up street could be a thing of the past with self driving cars. with a computer at the helm they could smooth the traffic flow by up to 30 percent but he was officially intelligence systems know what's going on around them. the also official intelligence systems that drive autonomous vehicles have to interpret what computer scientists call optical flight. patterns of light in official scene to identify objects in that. actuary's it's crucial the optical flow
systems get it right all the time. so do they. that's what 3 researchers at the max planck institute for intelligent systems in typically and germany want to determine. this system represents the movement of an object in different colors in different degrees of brightness depending on the perceived direction and the speed it's going in. your cars moving to the right then and then your optical is going look like yellow in the color map and the fosters move the brighter the colors so if it's moving right at a really high speed that you see like a bright yellow thing and then if it's moving slowly then it's more towards the light so we have like a color wheel representation which sort of like shows the corresponding so the lawsuit is itself like happened in the video and objects move. it on a rock run john that's one way the optical fly our it represents that in yellow. if
you go the other way it times papel. the computer vision system also predicts the 5 amusement of objects it's identified is the color of the head still moving forward or is it slowing to a stop that's key to preventing collisions for example. and it has to do all this super fast. to the computer every image is a fresh image it's like it seeing the world every 30 times a 2nd brand new an optical flow is what connects things across time and allows the computer to have a consistent representation of the world much more like we do. testing ai systems involves trying to trip them up the research just haven't succeeded at least with the one they've been working with certain patterns with certain colors which time both humans play havoc with this optical flow algorithm.
the researchers have identified several such patterns but this one has the biggest negative effect. with emotions. sparrows. if they cover the pattern up things go back to normal. there uncover the pattern and the ai is confused again the colors are not what they should be. this is them can type densify objects or track their movements any more. extent just a problem surprised us we weren't surprised that there was interference they'd already been research that identified problems with what's worrying is that such a small patch relative to such a large field of vision can have such an impact the sun shone. a patch or pattern like not only needs to occupy one percent of the visual field to
mess up the processing of a full half the field. there are people learning matters which can work in rain or it can work and in like foggy climate and stuff but 1st we can find certain noise patterns like this with tourists can be a lot worse for these you know. the scientists who designed the troubling patterns they didn't just crop up what that means is that malign hackers could probably also create disruptive patterns and cause havoc on the ropes once autonomous vehicles as a ping around free make there may be a bit of a war going on between people trying to attack and people trying to produce robust systems this is exactly what we see also with any kind of security software you know hackers find a loophole in some operating system they inform the manufacturer of the new defenses are made and then you know it's an evolving system. the point of this
kind of research is to develop optimal and optimally secure ai systems for self driving vehicles the hope is that they will eventually prove safer than cars driven by fallible humans. if the driverless cars of the future are electric they'll produce fewer emissions and that includes emissions of noise. but we're not there yet traffic still creates a lot of noise especially in cities and less isn't just annoying in the long term it can even make us sick. even when noise doesn't pose a direct threat to our body responds as if it does. the adrenal glands release stress hormones part of the body's fight or flight response. our heart beats faster
and our blood pressure rises. glucose in fact the acid reserves a pumped into the blood to supply additional energy. the immune and digestive systems are weakened. over time this physiological response can even make you sick it can lead to high blood pressure type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol and that in turn can lead to cardiovascular disease or even a heart attack. according to the world health organization or w h o one in 5 people in europe are regularly exposed to high levels of noise there isn't as much data about the rest of the world but the problem is certainly not just the european one. but at what point does sound become bothersome noise or even noise pollution that's what research. is at the technical university
of dresden in germany want to find out. badge on out and so i has created a set up that mimics the experience of traveling by automobile. he's investigating how we hear and perceive different sounds. the acoustics lab is completely soundproofed even the floor is insulated against noise the researches have to walk on a net that keeps the reflection of sound waves in this room to an absolute minimum so sounds can be measured with great precision the researches know that certain sound qualities bother us more than others. and higher frequencies always draw our attention and that makes the more problematic temporal variations are also an issue we tend to be very sensitive to sounds that aren't constant but very. so if a sound or source of noise is highly variable like the sound of
a train that passes every 15 minutes that tends to bother us much more than a continuous noise problem out into the. sound is measured as a sound pressure level expressed in decibel zz the higher the pressure caused by a sound wave the louder the sound a sound wave at 90 decibel is enough to blow out a candle. a loud speaker also generate sound waves an increase of 10 decibels causes us to perceive a sound as twice as loud 10 decibels less half as loud. the sound pressure level isn't the only deciding factor frequency the number of cycles of a sound wave in one second is also an issue. with humans tend to be more sensitive to sound at higher frequencies especially in a $1.00 to $5.00 kilohertz range. that's why there are
different ways to express the sound pressure levels. d.b.a. level is weighted to approximate the way the human ear hears we tend to perceive sound in easily or double frequencies as the most bothersome. the world health organizations european guidelines recommend that traffic noise levels shouldn't exceed an average of $53.00 decibel zz over 24 hours at night it should remain below $45.00 decibels according to recent findings many places in europe exceed those guidelines. for courts and it is estimated that about 4 percent of all cases of coronary heart disease and that means above all heart attacks are due to traffic noise. so within the european union about $50000.00 fatal heart attacks per year can be attributed to traffic noise.
so it's high time for new legislation to limit noise pollution. what's your vision of the future we asked you on facebook which questions you think science should answer by 2050. rolls things the thing to solve is how to increase human lifespan while maintaining good health. 90 i would like to know the answer to more philosophical questions is our soul eternal and is death the end of our existence. gobby and is concerned about how we can transit more quickly turn veyron mentally friendly energy sources. also has an ecological concern he says that water is likely to be an expensive
resource in 2050 and so we need low tech ways of producing fresh water so that people won't lack it. thanks for your comments. water shortage is a serious threat to future life on. our planet is heating up and dry seasons are lasting longer and longer. in. the united nations' predict that 135000000 people could be displaced by 2045 because of a lack of water at home. engineers from munich have an idea that they think might help. this is a big moment for aqua hara the. islet plant is receiving its 1st supply of salt the start up wants to make fresh water for regions where it's scarce engineer and physicist philip plunkett will be using the salt solution to extract water from the
air there we've got our new salt into the unit and are keen to see how much water our evaporative can produce we've tested it in the lab now it's for real. the new process could bring much needed drinking water to the world's arid regions . engineer spend hasnain is helping to test the pilot unit in germany the basic principle behind extracting water from air is a simple one. a concentrated salt solution absorbs moster from the surrounding air the resulting more tight loop solution is then heated using solar energy to evaporate the water in that water vapor then condenses yielding distilled water the salt solution is also used as a coolant during the condensation phase. this eliminates the need for a separate cooling system and helps reduce costs.
has applied for a patent for this invention. on top of the container is the absorber unit it brings the salt solution into contact with the air. and. you can hear the salt solutions being talked into the young and then it flows down through this corrugated cardboard or. when you have an idea on how to improve the process and reduce costs it makes you happy as an engineer and entrepreneur. that awful. next the fan in the absorber unit is switched on. as are you you can feel hear how the fan is pulling edge into the unit. the system is powered by the sun one square meter of solar panels yields around 3 liters of drinking water
a day. systems are designed to be installed on rooftops no cost about $1600.00 euros for a 4 person household. as in the business aspect isn't our primary goal we wanted to invent a system to provide water in arab regions using more people that have a lot of namely the sun. the basic concept is a solid one but some of the details have still to be worked out. during the test phase the system needs to be optimized to extract as much water from the air as possible. a number of glitches keep cropping up and. this will be a recurring problem is that bubbles start to form as the water heats up that introduces an end to the pump and then we have to turn off the unit. ok extract now the water levels rising again great it worked we were able to remove the bubbles and keep the system running that's good. ultimately we want to automate
the process there were a lot of. before the testing continues philip for plan to have an appointment with a visitor from a variant center for innovation and technology transfer. over meyer focuses on energy technology we ask him what he thinks of aqua harris invention. its neighbors and it is an interesting technology with a lot of potential that's not likely to do any direct harm to the environment but it will affect the microclimate it's the same with any technologies take cars for example from a system might work in isolation but when you have a 100000 of them the impact is different this will see when it's implemented scene that's i guess it's. her it's test phase here in germany will last for 6 weeks then the unit will be shipped to morocco there it will be set up at an orphanage
near marrakech to be tested under realistic conditions. this winter so we're looking forward to seeing how much water we can extract that we need 23 percent humidity in the ethanol system to work because germany we have 4050 or 60 percent humidity so not realistic conditions in morocco will have the real thing it'll be interesting to see what happens with your session on. aqua harris test unit produces distilled water. it's free of impurities but that doesn't mean it's ready to drink quite yet. up ourself we know the water needs minerals but that easy to act by sending the water through a mineral cartridge then you can drink it or not one come and this one about there . is an essential life force but too much of it is also dangerous floods and storm surges
are among the consequences of climate change it's. temperature rises by 2 degrees celsius 360000000 people could be affected by floods. rising sea levels are a threat to asia's large coastal cities mega cities that are home to millions. this is a buddhist temple one of many across thailand. what sets what can somewhat chin apart is that it's now out at sea the coastline has receded a kilometer over the past half century. he added some look at the pioneer takes us on a tour. there used to be a school over there where the water tank is now on but everybody looked at nobody thought about prevention or solution. the erosion of the land has
a number of causes human activity storms and the rising sea level the other tells us they're experiencing climate change directly here and he's amazed by the indifference he encounters or die nobody shows any interest when we talk about it people just carry on as if it were business as usual even when i tell them about global warming nobody cares. they're. just 20 kilometers from the coast is the thai capital bangkok built on marshy ground in the delta of the child prior river 14000000 people live in the metropolitan region much of the land is just a metre and a half above sea level. climate change scenarios for c. the gulf of thailand being hard hit under an optimistic scenario the sea level could rise 3 meters over the next 3 centuries. in the worst case it could rise 7 metres. so does bangkok have
a future persistent extensive flooding is already a problem and it's set to get worse fast. the city has been the country's capital since the late 18th century but there's talk about moving it geologist tunnel while their opponents are called has been tracking coastal erosion for decades nor is it shows us photos of what can somewhat chin temple taken in 1974 when it was still on dry land. which is a 1000000 people living near the coast are under imminent threat yet. if you ever think you're about to protect the ethic of that in a way. that runs foolish you have to think about to adapt. he says planting mangroves along the coast would help combat erosion but what about bangkok itself. people will still be able to live there but they will have to
change their way of life there will be more rain and floods and nightmarish traffic if we just carry on the same way but i don't expect bangkok to just sink into the sea like the temple. currently the sea level is rising half a centimeter a year. and the city is sinking 2 centimeters a year. bangkok used to be called the venice of the east because it was crisscrossed by lots of canals but many of them were filled in as the city grew. the sunset canals still runs through the center of the city. the remaining canals helped drain the area but they're often overwhelmed. in 2011 floods devastated much of thailand parts of bangkok were under water for 2 months. but your mayor the city has flood barriers
pumps and drainage tunnels and work is underway to improve the flood control systems. we're going to continue to have this under control and we already have the technology to monitor the situation technology will advance and we'll still be on top of things our 150 years from now . at the temple in the sea the monks have to enter via a window the floor of the prayer room has been raised. despite the trying to dish and this but some look at it on you is determined to stay. if i leave there will be nobody left who remembers what happened. what erosion has done here. or. people in bangkok just don't care anyway. he says the temple should serve as
a warning to all but we must treat nature with respect. mangrove forests could provide some protection to bangkok's coastline. and planting more trees in general is good for the climate because the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere but they only have a limited capacity. if you're in algeria has been thinking about the alternatives and sent in a question. could artificial trees help mitigate climate change. real trees on important ally in the fight against climate change they slow down global warming by absorbing climate killing c o 2 through the natural process of photosynthesis c o 2 is used to produce glucose and oxygen.
researchers in switzerland calculated that 900000000 hectares of additional forest could absorb 2. of the c o 2 generated by human activity that could help limit global warming to 1.5 degree celsius. but critics say it's unrealistic to plant a forest on an area about the size of the united states. and existing forests will need to be preserved instead they're being destroyed for example to make room for agriculture. some scientists say that one day artificial trees might absorb up to 1000 times more c o 2 than their natural counterparts they wouldn't even need to look like natural trees. fans like these could suck c o 2 out of the air using special filters but the world would be $250000.00 of these
systems to remove just one percent of the world's c o 2. then the carbon dioxide would need to be stored underground because the artificial trees don't convert the c o 2 into oxygen like natural trees can. so replanting forests is necessary in any case what. but artificial trees might one day do their part in mitigating climate change. if outlet is right why ave but even if it. did you have a science question that you've always wanted oncet we're happy to help out and send it to us as a video text over a smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. do you find us at d w dot com slash science or top of the line at d
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