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tv   Projekt Zukunft  Deutsche Welle  August 31, 2020 6:30am-7:01am CEST

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the 1st beethoven is for. plato is for the. beethoven is for cause plato is for airplane beethoven 2020 the 250th anniversary here on display oh ho. in the workings of a virus this scientific illustrator makes the invisible visible. something all too visible all the traces of climate change in german forests. not so obvious but real the connection between muscle and mind.
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well come to you tomorrow today the science show on t w. a group followed why didn't you know he's already which. in turn means. you have covered bridges all over is back with the mouse didn't think the scary grethel really existed. until the mid 100 who seeing as they say is believed to grow from. brothers ben and ffion have planned to be with their grandparents in england right now the coronavirus pandemic made that impossible so what is the virus which is making so many people frightened actually look like. them it's going to play. things on it and it looks cheeky and no way next. here.
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you know it's very. scientific illustrator not a major thinks the drawings are pretty good though he finds many depictions of viruses problematic. this children's book is actually quite nice it's a very simplified depiction which is totally ok but it shows the main features and song but what i sometimes get a little bit upset. it is illustrations that are used for online articles for example like this one because they use the pictures that do not resemble the violence at all and they often taken from stock image sites like this one as you see all of these are supposed to be one of each and every depiction is completely different from one another and none of them resemble the actual violence. splats just knows exactly what the virus looks like researchers email the raw data to him that includes information about almost every atom in the protein the size of
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a number of spikes on the surface hilo the data into a molecular viewer and then export it into a state of the are 3 d. software which is also used by hollywood for special effects. scientists uses illustrations for their publications in popular and scientific magazines these graphic illustrations for the scientific community are a valuable resource in the fight against the corona virus epidemic. the scientific data that they try to show can often be very confusing and hard to grasp for example here we have the structure of the protease in a molecular view and as we see it's really hard to see what is going on here the white thing in the middle is an inhibitor that can potentially disable the whole potence so therefore it's a good drug target but it's kind of hard to see so what i do is
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illustrate the same data in very clear way that makes it easy to understand what exactly is going on here in this binding pocket for example. this gives other viral a just a precise idea of what their colleagues are working on let's just say as a doctor of biology during his studies he was often irritated by how many graphic illustrators had no clue what they were depicting. you decided to fill this gap and so he became a scientific graphic illustrator he loves his job largely because of the artistic freedom that exists despite the rigors of science. here we have my destruction of the corner virus and here is the illustration of another scientific illustrate and as you see we chose very different colors and slightly different styles of how to depict them even though the overall structure of the vials of a similar. regardless of the color ben and shawn aren't afraid of the virus if
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they're able to see the invisible virus they know how they'd react. i would tell him to go away. should push off. the 2 youngsters understand there needs to be a vaccine against coronavirus before they can start playing here again with all their friends and before they can finally get their grandparents in england. by to make the decisions we make psychologist type had to take does research on the topic we asked him how important is it for us to see something in order to react appropriately. if you talk about the risks and a lot of our decisions are related to the risks that we perceive in the world one general finding in research and reception is that things that we can see are actually often perceived to be more risky i mean it's just a for instance of walking in a dark forest and you hear
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a rustling and of course it makes you afraid and that feels very different then walking through the same forest during the day and we see no it's just red so the things that we do not see tend to make us more in sheeps. many people have stopped wearing masks distance why is fear of the virus fading. nor like you that there are many different to motorists come together and you can think princes of convenience i mean some of these measures are really quite you could be used in particular to our weather and they're certainly not the only reason there is probably also something in play it is called the prevention paradox meaning that if the provisions were successful and a catastrophe if you will that this accident happened then one question is well maybe the risk wasn't that big to begin with that as long as the reaction in your
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own is of course you say well actually the prevention was slow moving some of this is not happening and some people seem to have to question that the risk is possibly not as big as it was often sat need yaar. like must be done so that people take the virus seriously. going through our course and i think it has a lot to do with. talking about this as a crisis and even the framing of the crisis to. crisis. i mean crisis is really not use law and it wasn't news that we need to be changed or mental model of the problem you need we need to adjust our expectations. weeks months. on. the
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novel coronavirus spread swiftly symptoms of the disease that causes cavite 19 range from none to mild to severe to massive what happens in a really bad case. when the corona virus is reached the lungs that's the start of what can be called the virus face these as sacs or alveoli normally transfer the oxygen we breathe into the capello race. but now immune cells respond to the infection leaving a mass of dead cells and fluid in the a.s.x. making it harder for oxygen to reach the compelling reason and to the blood. breathing oxygen in rich dad can help. but if the inflammation continues to intensify the distance between the out the airline and the blood vessels grows. some of the as sacs collapse. others fill
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with fluids. a ventilator may now be needed to push into the lungs to inflate the collapsed alvey a life that involves new risks then comes the 2nd phase of the disease the immune phase. too many immune cells have been activated and this can lead to blood clots in the tiny palmeri blood vessels and that means even less oxygen in the blood making the heart work harder to pump it around the body. as a method of last resort to the blood can be enriched with oxygen outside the body and then returned to the bloodstream. if the immune response remains in overdrive the situation escalates now it's not so much the viruses that are the problem but the cells of our immune system. they flood the body with inflammatory signaling substances. that leads to cracks and leaks in the blood vessel walls fluid
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escapes and blood pressure drops. more and more cells adhere to the walls of the blood vessels blocking them and triggering mini strokes in various organs such as the liver kidneys heart and lungs blood pressure permits the heart rate rises but that no longer helps the organs are not being adequately supplied the result multiple organ failure. the health of trees and forests is also vital to our survival the great green wall in africa is just one of many reforestation projects. at the same time more and more existing forests are succumbing to wildfires from california to siberia. climate change means more intense droughts in some countries including germany its forests are in great danger.
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just months ago this was a spruce forest. but now this patch of woods in peter vest falls forestry district in central germany has been devastated. storms up rooted many of the trees and the others fell victim to bark beetles. and out forthought it's really drastic for us this forest is to see the woods that we've tended to for decades basically disappear and get eaten up by bark beetles gave off of president of the forestry official in the state of hessen has already lost 300000 trees including many large old ones and similar losses are being seen in other places too. in 2018 alone 16000000 trees in germany fell victim to storms and above all to pests it's a problem that's being repeated year after year with some variations depending on
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weather conditions at the moment the bark because pete's have esperance greatest enemy the insects which measured just $2.00 to $4.00 millimeters in length feed on the dead trees lying around in the forest after storms but they also bore into living injuries especially those weakened by drought the hot dry summer of 2018 and low winter rainfall dried out the soil the precipitation that's falling since has not been able to compensate in many areas groundwater reservoirs have been too low for years the spruce here with their flat roots generally do not reach the groundwater and that makes them vulnerable to job stress and lowers their resistance to pests like bach beatles. decay of our body from the beatles boring to the bark from the outside inside they chew tunnels upwards and downwards . it's the female. els who make these tunnels and deposit their
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eggs on the sides here. then the larvae hatch and they eat out these horizontal tunnels in the soft enough bark that essentially cuts off the trees nutrient supplies. the beatles' development from eggs to adult takes 4 to 6 weeks love i had from the eggs and soon developed into adult beetles one female can produce around 50 offspring. if $25.00 of them a females and each produces another 50 offspring by the 3rd generation there will be $31250.00 young beetles just $100.00 of the pests are enough to kill a spruce tree. each infested tree is marked and documented using an app many of the younger trees could have continued growing for decades but now they will have to be felled 4 times as many
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of them as before the bark beetle infestation. other tree species suffer from the dry weather too many beech trees are exhibiting bark to. killed off by a fungus called diplopia and the launch is being attacked by large bark beetles. a section of forest in central western has been particularly badly hit at 20 hector area had to be felled at once $30006.00 more trees all that's left of these mounds of wood shavings the trees fell victim to citibank disease caused by a fungus that migrated here from north america it stalls grow under the bark of the affected trees. if the
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trees are suffering from water stress the dark patches containing the spores spread rapidly forming a black fungal layer up to one centimeter fig. the spores can also cause severe allergic reactions in humans. for weeks local forest and his team had to wear breathing masks in the woods. it was shocking because we had never seen anything of this magnitude in germany before there had been occasional cases in individual trees and parks but after the catastrophic lee dry summer of 2018 it's been breaking out here to such an extent it's a complete disaster. in some parts of his forest kessler has planted coast grand firs pines and red oak in the hope that it will be better adapted to the current climate conditions but the new species are already having
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problems. with the oaks here we already seem to have problems with the procession every month. we're not absolutely positive but you can't just throw in the towel and abandon it just because something. to give his saplings a chance to set up 20 water cannon stone so that he can irrigate the young trees during long dry periods he'll soon see if it helps forest a paid trial is hoping to fight the bark beetle from the air forestry scientists and journey specialists are developing a special unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with gas and. it can sniff out the resin released by the tree when the 1st beetle pulls into the trunk. basically we're doing with the bark beetle itself does it follows the scent of the infested tree and bores into it and we detect the tree so it can be removed.
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the idea is to take down the tree it's an early stage before the beetle can propagate but the detector journey is not yet ready for the market vest fall for one is looking forward to its launch one with this technology will be able to pinpoint infested trees earlier which would enable us to rescue more trees that have. in the meantime have beetle infested spruce up piling up along the forest roads because the market for spruce timber is saturated if the wood stays in the forest the pests will continue to reproduce and for that reason the regional government has ordered the use of pesticides that they not only kill bark beetles but other animals too. to prepare for future climate change. wants to have natural mixed forests growing here that means letting the tree see themselves the hope is that many different species will flourish. even
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experts are unsure how the forest of the future is likely to look based on climate forecasts disproofs and beech trees in central germany look set to face poor conditions the survival by 2070 they may have vanished from german firsts altogether. the problem is red why are they why didn't you say it. did you have a science question you've always wanted oncet. send it in and if we answer it on the show you get a little surprise as a thank you. come on just ask. for most stories from the world of science go to our website or find us on twitter . or pure josiah good work asks how can i remember things better. a poor memory can be embarrassing. why didn't i
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remember the pin for my phone. and what was my new colleagues name again. not to mention all those situations at school or university when you have to learn so many facts and figures by heart. the good news is that the brain is a highly personal learning machine. and it can be trained somewhat like a muscle by game stimulated in a variety of ways as it learns that promotes strong neural connections. so out of memorize that from pin you could just repeat the numbers yourself in your head. but a better method to link the series of numbers to an action. plan is possible to do even better as recent studies show children remember words better
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if they draw the objects they represent. the method works with older people too. the more sensory input in fact it seems the more deeply the newly learned information is stored. and that principle can be applied to learning more complex subjects instead of just reading and taking notes it's helpful to structure the topic visually. in general approaching a subject with a look at news and curiosity will help you retain it better. but sometimes the best thing is to sleep on it in sleep newly acquired information is consolidated in our memory so we can recall it better when we're over. 170000000 people around the world with members of a gym in 2017. but some disciplines don't. have
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a great reputation white lifting for example that's for much or sharps right. but maybe they're improving more than their bodies. studies suggest that flexing your muscles can also be good for the brain. concentration and power are as important in music as they are in sport. at the right moment everything needs to be on. was. to look that was becoming a problem yourself and he well i noticed the toe was no longer able to concentrate for the full length of a piece of music and there would be directions from the choir master to sing from the 4th bar again saying and i just didn't hear. especially up tucked feel i was so lost in my thoughts that i didn't hear and i didn't know where to come in. this
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is just me. my fellow chorused i would have to show me where i needed to join in. most of all he would seem and most of. it wasn't just the choir that was a problem she would lock ourselves out of her home or forget appointments. i was to touch on there was another situation where i was out and about and for a brief instant time no longer knew where i was i was completely shaken i thought what's this have i got out simers is this the start of it now really frightened me . below to look up to to have tests carried out on her concentration that the german sports university in cologne . she took a hot in a study looking into how sports might be able to help with dementia but for look this isn't traditional kind of in this is looks case this is of course not the
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measure yet we're talking about early stage memory loss these are exactly the subjects we're looking for in our study i mentioned the to put it provocative lethal we want to know if a regular store and exercise program can help people who are on the cusp of dementia or delay or even stop the onset of dementia. so how can sport help stop the onset of dementia. they the discussion is looking at different mechanisms one area is growth factors these are generated by muscles when they are exercised some help blood vessels grow while others increase the levels of the protein bt and if in the brain. the t.n.f. helps the hippocampus grow this section of the brain is important for memory b.d.n.f. can even help generate new nerve cells there are numbers that temple not that hard to study in cologne seniors train their coordination power and stamina.
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but it's a tough 1st. course to be gossiping afterwards like an old steam engine and i really felt like i was completely rusty. so where can i read some bitter. trains twice a week i mean not only has her physical performance improved she's finding it easier to remember with. and she's doing better in concentration testing. those in positions and here you can see clearly that after 6 months of this program for 12 months of the sport program you've achieved that maximum level also your personal experience that you're forgetfulness is receding you can also see that from the data and. it's nice to be able to see it i can
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certainly feel it anyway so who put 2 years of honor to it that our hypothesis was that the progression of dementia could at least be stopped. so it's what you saw on pause that he was surprised and delighted that we've had such positive results here in cologne and that participants are actually getting better. decision about washington to new york or ford. even now the study is over the subjects and continuing their training programs many of them have made new friends here. some of us i always say the best training is living life to the fullest because it provides multi sensory input for the brain but to live a full life you need to be physically fit. for it doesn't matter to her not to look whether her improvement came from living life to the full all from fit to muscles she's just happy that she can now once again the full night she used to.
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speaking of brawn and brains have you ever heard of chess boxing no we didn't make it up it started out as performance art but it's become a competitive sport. that's all for now on tomorrow today we'll be back next week with more engrossing stories about science and technology until then but i.
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after. the power of pictures. the turn of events in poland that changed europe forever. at any moment someone could ask you to take out your camera and get ready for the good. dollar notion solidarity documented by
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independent filmmakers. in 15 minutes on d w. life on earth news are coming to an end. a gigantic coincidence. that tampa previously said earth was just a messy chemistry lab i thought mission. where the improbable compass come close to the top of the creation of our solar system with our flat it is a bit like winning a lot of break up there is only the beginning of. what is of earth more unique start september 18th on d w. m that's often use in my
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hands. where i come from raja order means an important moon soft transmitting. new and more mish and when i was young my country was drawing many conflicts the more prominent people most people would cause of our own drug you know you see. if one's mind to true in one of the not just say so as not everyone in the column. miss my toes again. nothing cause intrinsic to my own copy it into a month or more design. something i was i was into it and made. my choice discard because even though wayne told transmitted the truth.
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when in the gosh mom mitch and i will. do you top. this is the w. news live from berlin pressure mounts on lucas shank oh protesters in bellerose turn up the heat on the streets of mitt's free weights after a disputed election now the shank so says he'll head to russia to see president putin's health. and in formula one a champagne performance from lewis hamilton at the belgian grand prix another win puts him.


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