tv Kulturzeit Deutsche Welle March 21, 2021 1:00am-1:31am CET
this is home and massive churches with towers that pierce the clouds like skyscrapers are created. contest of the cathedrals stars people 12th on d. w. . this is the w. news and they say top stories thousands of people have protested in turkey after the government pulled out of an international accord protecting women from violence the council of europe accord known as the istanbul convention is designed to combat the mystic violence and promote equality conservatives in turkey said he meant threatens traditional family values. tens of thousands of people in cities across europe have taken part in protests against a run
a virus restrictions including in the case finland and and germany in the german city of costal demonstrators clashed with police who then used pepper spray and water cannons to disperse the crowds in fiction rights are spiking in europe and tougher restrictions expected. international fans will not be able to attend this summer's olympic games in tokyo because of the pandemic the games would you to take place last year but were postponed due to the virus now in the japan by fans will be allowed to attend around $1000000.00 of us a fans who have already brought tickets will now get a refund it's ok. this is datable the news from berlin you can follow us on twitter and instagram d w news or visit our website to be found at b.w. dot com. they are part of every society yet they needs are often overlooked. worldwide there are more than
1000000000 people with a physical or mental disability. what scientific developments might improve their lives. we're taking a look in this edition of tomorrow today the science show on t.w. . it's great to have you with us welcome to the show. of this record is about hands or rather if we lose them how we can replace them it's not so easy because with our hands we can grasp tightly move smoothly and work with great precision. it takes children several years to learn to grip properly. this only works thanks to coordination of the brain nerves and muscles.
and how does that work. when a movement is to be performed the brain sends commands to the muscles via the spinal cord. the signal arrives and the arm is raced. the nerve cells in the spinal cord also conduct stimuli back to the brain the impulses flow in both directions. and that's at the core of modern prosthetic technology. this robotic hand can learn to cooperate with it where are they to artificial intelligence. busy. is its teacher and also its owner today but i can use his robotic arm to carry out amazingly precise and fluid movements for him the ai based technology has opened up
a new realm of possibilities. and reason for an interesting one huge advantage of the system is the fact that is adapts to me instead of me having to adapt to the system. it's a game changer i don't have to think about what i want my robot arm to do. it just does it automatically of the matter. is a farmer who lives in bavaria in southeastern germany tending to his crop and livestock is all he's ever wanted to do. but after an accident involving a crop top or blade his lower arm had to be amputated to continue farming he needed an artificial limb. the worst part was pulling out the arm unseen the open bones muscles and fibers that were covered in blood it was a terrible sight. despite surgery hours arm couldn't be saved to
avoid having to give up his dream of being a farmer he urgently needed to replace the hand he lost his search led him to the prosthetics manufacturer audiobook into the shot. there therapist danielle defiled teaches patients like our how to use their ai based robotic limbs the initial training process takes several weeks this special a designed cuff is fitted with 8 pairs of electrodes. they recognise tiny movements in the muscles of the upper arm and apple visualizes these tiny movements and stores them as movement patterns. as. the cuff and connected by. inside the cuff there are. there's tiny impulses involved guns muscles will be transferred on to the out. or is learning how to use his robotic limb. it's crucial that the tiny muscle impulses he's learning are
as distinct as possible that way the prosthetic can link each impulse to a specific movement. he's not starting from scratch even after an amputation the brain remembers the patterns of movement needed to do things like open or close at hand. once muscle impulses become associated with specific movements the robotic limb will use ai to learn specific movement patterns the electrodes inside the robotic limb register the muscle impulses from the upper arm. the app matches these muscle patterns to specific movements and stores them. while vulcan bower spent weeks learning the basics the company's engineers were building his robotic limb now it's ready to learn and adapt to bowers movement patterns. 'd and all the patient has to do is imagine carrying out movements with the missing hand this is them can distinguish among
those imagined movements and then carry them out and the food. from our his robotic limb means a major increase in quality of life for them and then controlling the movements is just amazing that all you have to do is imagine an opening in your hand and the robot hand opens imagine closing it and it closes with the same rotation in the percentage arm just carries out these movements as. german prosthetics manufacturer auto body is charting new territory currently the technology only works on foreign prosthetics but that might change soon other intelligent systems that control other limbs could soon follow. researchers are working on these and other. development. but right now we're working on systems that could provide tactile signals to their wearers so what percentage that can actually feel at some point i'm sure we'll be able to provide feedback on temperature or the information about the surface of the
object being touched off the shelf not just gotten engaged on. and that will help the researchers emulate a real hand as accurately as possible. what prosthetics have already made possible is on display at events like this i both want insurrection it's a sporting event where people with physical disabilities from all over the world come together every 4 years to compete in different disciplines the competitors demonstrate what today's prosthetics are capable of. all done by our will need many months and there'll be sessions to continue refining his work with his intelligent self learning prosthesis he's making progress quickly . but even with the help of artificial intelligence he needs a lot of patients and stamina to get used to living with his ai prosthesis. the 2nd member you just have to keep playing with it when something doesn't work
you just have to keep trying there's some movements work right away while others require more time and more practice and for type after and for us like many things practice makes perfect that's the only way the intelligent prosthesis can continue learning including therapy the cuff in fine tuning the devices cost around 60000 euros which are covered by his professional accident insurance. and with everything from quite honestly i can't imagine my life without this person he says i mean i use it all day long depend you know what i'm currently doing that. i used to produce for everyday purposes at home too for things like eating there are so many things i use it for it is a. thanks to his prosthetic arm. you can continue to follow his dream. contrasts to purely physical disability there are developmental disorders that are not immediately apparent and often go unrecognized. spectrum disorder for
example is usually only noticed when a child has a toddler but the earlier it's detected the better the chances of it being managed and treated. at frankfurt university hospital are trying to find out. what is autism interpret in these symptoms correctly is quite a challenge even for experts. 2 and a half year old lucas is taking part in a study by frankfurt university's academic teaching hospital he's not affected and is being used as a control subject so far he's been developing quite normally. so what are the 1st signs of autism in a toddler. to find that out scientists at the hospitals autism therapy and research center truck children's i movements they want to find out if autistic children see
their world through different eyes. what we're trying to find out is how the eye moves list seems to be certain differences between children with autism and those without. the. we know for instance that children with autism play much less attention to social stimulus like emotional faces or biological movements we know that only too well. but we don't know is why that's the case. so therefore. time for an experiment using and i tracker. while lucas follows the images on the screen in front of him. the eye tracker logs how long his gaze rests on the various figures and faces shown. how quickly do his eyes respond what holds his attention longest and which emotions
appeal to him. and michelle results indicate that children with autism stare at certain images longer and they have difficulty refocusing their attention they lack a broader view. what we're hoping to achieve is to get a better insight into it to perhaps detect autism earlier. so that we can say we found a marker of the eye movements and continues a diagnosis from. right now we can only reliably make a diagnosis on the basis of behavior in the 3rd year of life. the earlier autism can be diagnosed earlier with medial therapy can be applied besides i movements the frankfurt team has found other signs in the brain clinical director christina high top manages the autism research center. her team uses brain scans to investigate the cerebral anatomy of people affected by autism
it seems that their new ronal networks are woven differently could early diagnosis improve life for those affected confronting what is the if we are there is a hypothesis that the earlier support begins the more elastic the brain is and that up to a point can compensate a little bit. but recognising the minimal differences in brain structure is not easy to do it neuroscientist christina uses a software which recognises patterns it's algorithms compare hundreds of brain scans to calculate the probabilities of accurately predicting autism before her 4 years that early prognosis is especially. important for instance when someone in the family is already affected that increases the probability many times over and it would be an interesting scenario if a sibling had autism then you could start scanning very early on and make a forecast based on our models. bozza stanwood lives on the floor here zog.
but for now computer diagnosis is just a pipe dream and i movement analysis requires a lot more intensive research as well but the sooner the early signs of autism can be deciphered the faster therapies can be developed to help the children affected. the majority of people with disabilities live in developing countries often in poverty. mell nutrition a lack of sanitation and poor medical care often lead to disabilities that could be avoided. it is estimated that 2 thirds of visually impaired people could actually regained their eyesight using simple measures as this report from rwanda show. it's 9 in the morning in the clinic in rwanda as usual the waiting room is already
teeming with people. little angelo is waiting with his mother. the 2 year old has already undergone his 1st operation that was 2 months ago when doctors had to remove his cancer stricken left eye. but ghani i clinic is an oasis of hope for patients across the country it attracts large numbers up to 170 people can gather here as they wait to be examined the treatment cabins are all occupied staff work around the clock there are only $7800.00 doctors in all of rwanda compared bad with $8000.00 in germany now it's a little angelos turn doctoral koori studied medicine in germany he removes the child's dressing carefully the wound from the operation is healed well doctor wants
to try and save angelos other eye he examines it closely and discovers a tumor is already growing here as well unfortunately angela was initially taken to a so-called miracle healer for treatment a custom that is widespread in rwanda valuable time was lost as a result. yes the 1st sign of an unusual white reflection on the eye or luko korea was it 6 months old now he's 2 and a half meaning they came here 2 years too late after the i had already grown out and was being pressed out the mother only brought the child to us when the same thing happened with the other eye cancer of the retina or retinoblastoma is curable but 70 percent of african children contract it because they're diagnosed too late for effective treatment doctorow corey uses a special of
a scope to examine angelos retina it allows him to see how far the disease has progressed he decides to treat the right eye with chemotherapy. believes public health education is required to prevent suffering of this kind. we have to raise awareness about it and get treatment closer to the patients localities because of a patient comes to us too late the tumour can be deadly if they come here early enough we can save the eye and possibly their vision as well. that's why dr corey and his colleagues regularly visit the country's more remote villages. he's seen a lot of the world born in levanon he grew up in tubing and in germany and worked in paris he arrived in rwanda in early 2019 once a year he comes to this outreach clinic where he performs operations for days on end here he comes across patients who can't afford
a trip to the city i hospital over half the people here live in extreme poverty there's no expensive laser technology in this operating theater every move has to sit perfectly. treat 50 to 60 patients a day here a mere drop in the ocean a day later in the cup guy-i clinic. the operating team works relentlessly 12 hour days are the norm almost 80 percent of the country's eye surgery is carried out here. in the meantime angelos mother neil get go prepares for food in the hospital kitchen. mother and son have been here for 8 weeks now but near draco hasn't given up hope. learned of his income and i need to i believe the doctors here can help my son or see.
if outlook is right why are they laughing even if they. do you have a science question you'd like us to answer. them get in as a video text ovoid if we featured on the show you look at a little surprise from us as a thank you come on just ask. you'll find us on our website oh on twitter. now here's a question from a viewer in nigeria. how do you fish see in morta. underwater everything looks blurry to humans that's because water has a higher density than act so light waves bend as they pass from at a water and a slow down that means an image isn't focused exactly on the retina as is the case
out of water but behind it hence the blur diving goggles compensate for that. fish by contrast have almost spare ical hard lenses and can see everything up to a distance of one meter clearly. to look further away. they are just focused by moving the lens closer to the retina. they still can't really see far but usually they don't need to. they have a wide panoramic view because of their sight facing eyes. ultra wide angle camera lenses called fisheye lenses mimic this effect. fish see more colors than we can they have receptor is not only for red green and blue light but also for ultraviolet. light in the dark
depths that helps them locate prey that sport brilliant colors fisherman use colorful bait to exploit this ability in fish. something a ship turns out to can distinguish different human faces. as a study of archer fish found. they'd shoot down prey by spitting a jet of water. in the experiment they were trained to hit a picture of a particular face in most cases they succeeded. fish vision is far better adapted to water than ours otherwise they wouldn't survive. most of our planet is covered with water. and makes up only about a 3rd of the area and of that only about a 3rd is covered with forest. and most forests humans have encroached hunting
felling trees and clearing arable land. in africa and south america in particular the forested area has declined significantly over the past 30 years. in asia and europe on the other hand some last forest has been regained through a forest station example of the varian forest national. shows how it can be done. for 150 years the glass industry and forestry methods have shaped of a very in forest. what was once wild mountain mixed forest has become a spruce monoculture and it was here of all places that germany's 1st national park was created ringback a wager with an unknown outcome because nobody knew how to turn this kind of a commercial forest back into a primeval forest. mikail held was deputy head of
the national park for many years and he knows the forest intimately he still poking around here. as a forest scientist and local he followed the beginnings of the national park very closely. in the one finds the early years of the national park no one really knew what national park actually meant and you made clearing some of the spruce trees for example and then planted furred trees because you wanted to make it more natural it was hard to imagine that in the or natural forest would develop in the direction of a primeval forest without human influence without forestry interventions are encouraged. but 2 years after the national parks inauguration a storm fell to 3000 spruce trees the park's manager at the time dr hans the believed to decided to try an experiment. against massive resistance from the national park forestry office which was still responsible for the care of the
forest at that time he made sure that a few 100 trees weren't removed from the forest and were simply left where they fell ringback. then a process began around the dead trees that hardly anyone had previously thought possible within 10 years a new species of rich and near natural forest would grow in the nutrient rich. soil where the trees had fallen. so could it be possible that humans don't have to interfere in order to regenerate a natural force. in 1983 a violent thunderstorm provided an opportunity to test that hypothesis the storm flattened spruce trees on about 90 heck cares. manager hons people veto wanted to leave the trees in the heart of the national park and the ministry of forestry gave him the green light. it was
a revolution against prevailing nature conservation ideas. and you know you with this decision there was also a new nature conservation strategy in germany process protection as the scientists called it or wilderness as the tourism experts called it and then later people die to coin the term let nature be major for this type of conservation where instead of humans acting they just let nature get on with it you know to our acute. as hoped the forest also regenerated itself on the large when throw areas without human intervention. but the biggest disaster and with it the biggest test for the national park was still to come. in the 1990 s. the park was to be expanded that led to heated exchanges with private forced on us and the population.
then in the high areas between hostile and an area of around 70 square kilometers of spruce trees fell victim to the bark beetle. in the ninety's the national park with its principle of letting nature be was on the brink of failing i dunno even the nature conservation association. i suddenly had doubts as to whether this principle was really right for the national parks thank god politics remain steadfast on toast. because even in the tough climate of the high country between a healthy and lose and the forest regenerated itself within a very short time today it's growing with a level of density and biodiversity that humans could have never created and with the new wilderness long lost residents are also coming back. links woma national park again. and 2 wolf packs. primeval forest relics species
find habitat again in the diverse new shoes of the ecosystem. in 50 years the national park has become a hotspot of biodiversity with its new near natural forests. mikail head is grateful that he was allowed to be a part of this development. the bavarian forest national park venture paid off and today the concept of letting nature be nature is applied in national parks worldwide. that's it for this week's edition of tomorrow today. more news from the world of science and research next time until then stay safe and stake here yes.
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