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tv   Slavery Routes  Deutsche Welle  April 4, 2021 10:15am-11:00am CEST

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it's safe we need people to come back. these kings and queens of ancient egypt have lain in wait for thousands of years but they may have to wait a little longer before tourists flock back. you're watching the news coming up next dot film follows the history of slavery don't forget you can stay up to date with all the latest headlines on our website dot com and follow us on twitter and instagram i'm michael oke thanks for watching more news at the top the hour. in mexico many forced. us right now in the morning climb a tree to get off a story of faces my place from where i'm from goes one week. before it's going to really just. we still have time to where i'm going.
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'd over the centuries the slave trade forged new worlds and devastated others as violence subjugation and profit imposed their own roots the slave system created the greatest accumulation of wealth the world ever. to that moment of. the late 18th century saw the slave trade reach its pinnacle with over 100000 captives abducted and deported every year. at the extremes of human domination even in slavery we find there is always resistance there is always tension and there's always struggle. at the dawn of the 19th century the brutality of the transatlantic slave trade brought about its decline europeans had to find alternative means of accumulating wealth. drabble ition they expanded the limits concept of slavery.
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brazil bears the legacy of slavery is finally years right as the slave trade was banned a 2nd wave of captives from africa were swept up in the bay of rio de janeiro over to 1000000 slaves landed there during the 1900 centuries making rio the largest slave trade port in the world. people in brazil robert anderson makes it very clear that brazil is. the 2nd largest african country in the world the only country
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where as more people of african descent. brazil is my jury a. better in certain neighborhoods however simply being young black and poor can get you shot dead in the middle of the street over the past decade the rio police have been carrying out regular raids in favelas on the pretext of ridding slums of time these operations have made brazil the world leader in police violence against the black population. supersede the it for them will always be paul black for valid people they'll never see is any other way. it is good for them we're all criminals people stare at us because of our hair because of our we live that are prejudiced but i think it's tough because they've got. and will always be
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a minority community. and with. 130 years after the abolition of slavery africa brazilians are still by far the country's poorest community 2nd class citizens in a world divided along color lines. i think it's very important for people to realize that for 1820 for every european that traveled across the atlantic there were probably 4 africans. but i don't think anyone had any idea about the whole of the history of the americas is written in terms of european settlement. in the late 18th century africans and mixed race
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creole descendants constituted the overwhelming majority of the population in brazil venezuela and the caribbean the only presence of africans in this society was depicted in watercolors by a french botanist during his stay in rio among the white population this massive presence of slaves fed fears of conspiracy poisoning and murder. everywhere whites were a minority they had slaves in their kitchen in their living quarters everywhere they were the majority so there was this constant fear that they'd collectively mobilize to kill the whites. and here at the heart of the congo new world those fears were actually materializing in the form of uprisings among the slave population by 791 center men had become a powder keg primed to ignite and potentially destroy the entire slave system from
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the america all the way back to europe 45000 new african captives landed every year on the coast of this french island colony where slaves made up 90 percent of the population. after the $789.00 revolution in france the declaration of the rights of man rang out like a rallying cry for the newly arrived captives. their slave loot is coachman for minute cetera he felt that the whites were no longer in control of the situation but their power headway and they were only a few troops left the time had come to rebel. and rebel they did it began on august 22nd 791 with accounts from that night describing a tempestuous storm. slaves gathered at a man to. listen to the prayers of a voodoo priest does and plan for insurrection. although it's unclear whether this
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clandestine ceremony actually occurred the date nevertheless marked the unleashing of a revolution that would sweep aside the entire plantation system. god who created. who created the sun gives us light. god who holds up the ocean. makes. god who has ears to hear you who are hidden in the clouds who watches from where you are. you see all that the white has made a sucker. the white man's god asks them to commit crimes but the god within us who wants to do good. and who is so just orders us to revenge are wrong. he who will direct our arms and bring us the
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victory it is he who will assist us we all should true away the image of the white man's god who is so pitiless listen to the voice for liberty that speaks in all our hearts. let's say and we need to wait till i'm all also ramoni called upon it and some strong african day to us. it's important to know that ruutu was present in each stage of the struggle against the colonial slave system that's you want to see. it was the brutal religion that eventually united all the slaves because of clearing a loss on this is discovered the war of liberation would last 12 years the resulting slave army was led by usual. duty. man and floss want to sound the former coach driver was dubbed into their tool for his capacity to open up enemy lines the
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so-called black jacobins named after the revolutionary movement in france inflicted a 1st defeat for new french leader napoleon. slaves also repelled subsequent british attempts to reconquer the island in $180.00 for the 1st black republican history was born in haiti derived from the indigenous arab walk named for the island the word freedom now resonated throughout the world and with it fears of the revolution spreading across the americas. it was a revolution made by slaves that had world historical consequences that slave real revolution in send the main destroy the most productive colony in the in the world in a time when there's demographic growth and increasing demand for slave produce commodities half the world's production was withdrawn from the world market by the haitian revolution so not only is there expansion there's
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a huge hole in this horse sources of supply so that reconfigured the hole that led to the economy. by the time durham woke up from the haitian nightmare 10000 white inhabitants had already fled the island. plantation owners quickly found new lands to settle in and partners eager to capitalize on their knowledge of intensive farming. sugar in cuba cotton in the us and coffee in brazil. the freedom slaves had acquired in haiti had a paradoxical consequence it consolidated slavery all over the american continent. in rio's hinterlands the power valley used to be covered with impenetrable primary forests today the mountain sides are bare trees were cleared on musts in the early
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1900 centuries to make way for intensive coffee farming a new source of wealth. as goods by the others a vote by the e.u. by the large fires and the farms about i have a valley had up to 90 percent 1st generation african slaves. maidens basket that went in a very short time a practically uninhabited area was very rapidly populated with countless slaves working on the farms will hop in them eat. some plantation owners possessed up to a 1000 slaves all applied
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a scientific organization of labor rigorous accounts were kept of each day's activities output per slave became the fundamental principle guiding plantation organization. everything. it's built around the coffee drying grounds the slaves had to go out in groups in the morning to plant or to pick and the big plantations they had slave quarters enclosed barracks with one entrance and so it looks like a car so situation was really hard to escape but the other reason is you could get the slaves up all that once in the morning and then as they marched out the gate you could give them their tools. so the space organizes the flow of labor. every thing has a function so that you don't even have to watch the slaves because you know what
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they're supposed to be. so it's a kind of industrial production producing industrial raw materials for the factories of britain and new mass consumption markets so there's a huge transformation of production which means for the slaves it's much more exploitative the output pro-slavery goes up 10 times an average in each of those crops from what i've been in the 18th century. 9000 kilometers away from europe these men and women with a hidden face of the industrial revolution. the world was changing in the early 19th century europe was urbanizing and amassing more and more wealth money flowed freely and london was now the world's economic at
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the center in the british capital a growing middle class flocked to the new department stores over looking at the satin dresses combs ivory umbrellas and sweets they purchased with the fruits of slave labor. there's a distinction between what's happening in the colonial societies and what's happening in the metropolitan societies and the metropolitan policy makers begin to disavow what's happening in the colonies in some ways and they stop recognising that kind of violence as their own violence slavery is the opposite of liberal freedom so britain as the bearer of freedom has to say slavery is wrong british abolition of the slave trade is the greatest justification say well we're really disinterested it's not 4 inch economic motives but for ideological motives we're for freedom.
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but this world was looking for less precarious investments buying stakes in british cotton mills was indeed far less incriminating. there was no plan in setting up the global economy as we see it today they were just you know manufacturers in britain developing new machines these machines suddenly needed much more cock so they tried to buy this in some way they didn't really care where it came from but the place where they found it where they were able to buy huge quantities ever had cheaper prices this was in the americas and this was eventually in the united states. in this new industrial society the supply of raw materials was the key to success from an economic perspective the
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world's leading financial power no longer needed the slave trade. in 1807 britain resolved to abolish the transatlantic slave trade. the thing that i think also needs to be said is that this was not simple as. truism on the part of great britain in other words it wasn't simply the humanitarianism of the abolition movement it's that britain did not want other imperial rivals to have the benefit of slave labor when in fact they didn't. in $815.00 armed with its naval supreme britain imposed the cessation of the slave trade on its commercial rivals as abolition took effect among the leading european slave powers the decision gradually shut down the northern atlanta slave trade routes but it also set off fresh deportations too and within countries where slaves ownership was still prevalent by grouping together the captives born on its soil
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the united states was also about to enter a new era of slavery a fairly small percentage of the people brought over to the americas in the slave trade actually came to north america probably 345 percent and yet another time you get to 180825838 very large percentage of the a slave population is in the united states because of natural population growth so that is a very important part of the story thomas jefferson for example who advocated closing the slave trade did so at least in part because he knew that the slaves that he was going to sell from his plantations into the new plantation regions would become more more valuable with the closing of the slave trade.
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the farming concentrated most of the country slave labor along the banks of the mississippi by foot or by boat sold or brought by their owners $1000000.00 slaves from new york baltimore washington and st louis were deported down south of new orleans and natchez became massive slaves. markets. after brazil the united states became the new land of industrial slavery. most of the people were between 14 and 22. they were sold single e. and there were roughly a biased i'm a shouldn't have men have women so if you think about that here young people taken out of their families out of their communities ship a 1000 miles away to really a very exploitative place where they have to form their own communities and their
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own families from scratch because that all the cut nobody that they had in their lives with such as it was was taken away. plantation owners saw 2 options for increasing their human life stock buying captives of both sexes and inciting unions so that they would reproduce. the reproductive capacity the conception of children the bearing of children to term the raising of children has many meanings one of them is an economic need for slave holders and for the slave economy in general. ringback women's wombs were now part of the production system as their masters enjoyed complete dominion over them . rape is very common. one of the most important stories that we have is that of
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a young woman named celia celia lived in central missouri on a small farm and she was brought there at the age of 14 and endured 3 years of rape sexual assault by her own or poor 3. children she eventually kills her own or and is tried for murder there in central missouri and while she is ultimately convicted of murder and executed she's convicted because by law she's not permitted to assert self-defense as an slave woman but no one disputes that she was raped. to procure slaves resilin had to opt for another strategy perpetuating the slave trade but this time by what we're now illegal means. despite britain's
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efforts to put an end to the slave trade it mushroomed in the southern hemisphere within 35 years over 2 and a half 1000000 men women and children were transferred from west africa to plantations all over the world they were soon joined 540-0000 captives from the continent's eastern coast where the main market was in santa barbara. if you look from 815 to let's about around 85855. there were actually more slaves transported across the atlantic that at any equivalent time in the whole history of the slave trade at the time is supposed to be done. the indian ocean is one of the oldest commercial exchange zones in the world africa and the east have been trading here for over 2000 years ivory food products and
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clothes changed hands along these routes as well as african captives. driven by western demand zanzibar became a strategic crossroads it was here that one of the world's last slave trade ports was about to develop. zanzibar developed in the 19th century largely as a major center of trade. but also became the center of a large commercial and by the something of the lines of control not only zones about but tried to control the whole course of light. by 18 sixty's something like 20000 slaves water coming through the answer. but of these slaves 800-6000 maybe. what
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exported out. in the eyes of philanthropists from the biggest slave trading nations britain and france others were now to blame for the cruelty and ignominious slavery. in zanzibar the others were arabs and swahili traitors. and then slavery became the criteria for creating a hierarchy the states of the americas including the united states were less than britain because they could live with slavery the brazilians the cubans were morally corrupt because they weren't bothered by by coexisting with the evils of slavery so
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they were they were on a lower standard than the british. africans were ruled out. the world map was redrawn to distinguish and lightened powers from what were considered half civilised countries barbarian kingdoms and lands populated by savages religions political regimes and degree of cultural development made of a value system used to rank peoples around the world according to these standards slavery had become a backward practice unworthy of a civilized nation merely fighting the slave trade was no longer enough slavery itself had to be eradicated with this global surge in abolition slavery and institution as old as humanity found itself on the retreat it began in the former spanish colonies. then came the british colonies followed by the french
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and finally dutch territories. and all the victory of the abolitionists saw slavery become a foreigner issue for the united states. how could they renounce slavery when the american economy was dependent on southern plantation owners. this wealthy elite often considered themselves as the heirs to greco roman civilization which legitimated slavery many were eager to make the connection expressing it in the architecture and interior decoration of their lavish homes for them slavery was a mainstay of the social order. eventually the clash over slavery became one of the primary factors that saw the south attempt to secede from the united states in 1981 the country was plunged into a devastating civil war nearly 200000 african-americans and rolled in the northern
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union army. for african-americans the war is a war for abolition from start be they enslaved people who watch who wait who take their opportunities at every chance during the war to further the union's interest or free african-americans a half 1000000 of them in the north many of whom will raise troops volunteer themselves for the union forces raise money and care for black soldiers when the union army fails to do so. hard. that. $865.00 after
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4 years of destructive warfare the us declared the abolition of slavery. at last they would claim their place amongst the supposedly more enlightened nations of the world. will not. harm. her. so workers gain their freedom but this freedom is very. very limited and it's especially limited economically and of course then the reconstituted state governments of the american south they are deeply repressive and they are deeply interested in fixing workers to places not allowing them to work in other sectors
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of the economy. freedom essential in name only in the u.s. as well as in france or jamaica laws for bidding equal treatment are freed slaves were promulgated they were denied their right to vote to legitimate self-defense and denied freedom of movement many of those who protested were killed those who refused to work were jailed and sentenced to forced labor. race itself without slavery gets reconfigured through the loss through the courts through political practices and race itself is does that justify slavery race itself is the basis for confining the now freed population to the south producing the same crops under conditions that are really not free and equal they become a cheap labor force subject to social discipline control so it has
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a social dimension but also of production to measure. the concept of race bound former slaves to specific territories legally confining them to get out without any hope of escape former slaves where from then on subjugated by virtue of their skin color violence committed by any white person against any black person was permitted by law. with emancipation in the united states in $865.00 with the end of the so. the war 4000000 cotton growers enslaved cotton growers win their freedom europeans by the 806870 s. try to find ways to secure a carton and one of the places they begin to look at is the continent of africa which has a very long history of cotton agriculture. the abolition of slavery had unexpected
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repercussions in africa in the eyes of europeans the emancipation of former slaves concentrated along the coast of africa justified sending in their armies the belgians then the french settled on the western coast the british followed in nigeria and on the eastern coast all in the name of progress and the good of humanity. about the of the fight against slave trade in zanzibar led to control than occupation seen as although initially there was no intent to colonize this fight against the slave trade almost inevitably led to colonial occupation. wherever britain intervened it applied pressure to put an end to the selling of slaves. in $873.00 it negotiated the
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abolition of the slave trade with the sultan of zanzibar. this is in some ways ironic that the british came in to abolish slavery and slave trade but by doing it it really forced people to say well if we can't exported slaves we will use the slaves within to produce things that we can export. it. spurred on by these grand moral principles a number of europeans went off in search of adventure ready to invest in the raw materials that their continent needed the missionary dr david livingstone became the figurehead for abolitionist explorers the people who supported these missions
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businesspeople people with money so they probably had some idea of why the interested it's not just interested in finding the stock. of africa but when it comes to missionaries livingstone was actually quite clear he knew or what the capitalists what interested in. the missionary organization he told them that this is philanthropy plus 5 percent the research and interest for you as businessmen and he said quite openly philanthropy joined us to fight against slavery. abolish slavery because there is an interest for you you will produce cloth to sell to the people. some explorers made the most of the local merchants advice and logistical support among the latter was to
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put it one of the most important slave traders in central and eastern africa he controlled an immense territory along lake tanganyika with the help of tippoo tib henry morton stanley went up the congo river and coerced the traditional village chiefs into signing contracts that stripped them of millions of acres of land for the benefit of the belgian king leopold the 2nd after landing in bergen more yo henry stanley penetrated deep into central africa and renamed the cities of kiss on ghani and kinshasa after himself and he was soon joined by other european explorers who entered africa from the west these expeditions marked the transition from evangelizing missions to imperialism. as a young boy began to trade along the central route into iran the congo he traded over a large area and was the most powerful figure there. also
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had his own almost no army. although now in a state of neglect to putin it's house in zanzibar tells us much about the fortune amassed by the powerful merchant in his autobiography he recounted his negotiations with stanley and a belgian diplomats. stanley arrived with a dozen europeans we met at the consul's and he told me. we wish you to accept to become governor in the name of belgium and that your voice the belgian flag in the districts or under your rule. i hosted juan it's time he falls when i arrived on my men did the same wherever we came. former slaves were enlisted in the conquering armies weapons in hand the french the belgian and the british went deeper and deeper into the equitorial forest.
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europeans placed peasant communities under military control and forced them to produce palm oil rubber cocoa coffee and of course. it's very clear every single state used forced labor all of them. in some cases this labor strongly resembled slavery. or they would take people from their villages and pay them almost nothing especially for so-called public works yet. they had to provide for their own food and were later sent back home or some no longer fit in. in this forced labor system missionary's became witnesses to the farmer's abuses armies bankrolled by the belgians terrorized villagers and quassia rebellions every bullet was counted and
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to prove that they had used their weapons efficiently soldiers had to bring back the hands of their victims. a stray bullet meant an innocent could lose a limb. in funny just to feel. they had to justify domination violent military conquest the 1st civilized society. africans were therefore instilled into accepting the supremacy of europe to accept the civilizing mission europe claim to could undertake in africa. and africa. with its droves of doctors anatomists and colonial. raters europe used race as a scientific tool to justify its domination of africa became a high margin is entity relegated to the very bottom of the human scale. race and the struggle against slavery as principles with the chew pillars of colonialism.
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the continuation of racial hierarchy is often emancipation is not remotely surprising because it was all that in the ways in which the oppositionists thought the numbers of oppositionists who truly had a conception of african culture african men and women in any way equal to them was relatively small. even the most egalitarian of oppositionists assume that you know british culture is civilized evolved at such rights actual i mean that's part of that's part of our understanding. once they had progressed deep into the african interior the europeans build
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railways to the coasts at the end of the lines the capitals of the new colonies group the car blog douala punt mark luanda cape town doris. cotton oil rubber cocoa and ivory were transported to these ports then shipped all over the world. i'm what i'm going i'm not. going to. have. you. at the time of the colonial conquest african rulers with whom the europeans had been trading for 5 centuries were deprived of all their rights.
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and. brazil one of the 1st territories to seal large scale sugarcane fields flora she was one of the last to ban slavery on may 13th 1888 the princess regent of brazil ratified the so-called golden law ending 450 years of afro brazilian enslavement. movement of what is so mr v. thought yours will but as you don't know the victorious abolitionist movement in brazil was a conservative one led by whites the movement wasn't radical it didn't include black people. they do but as you essentially it said that brazil had to progress
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and civilize itself the way they have the progress of the cities this idea of progress and civilization directly dependent on the elimination of the barbarity of slavery calls up a bit of a deal most yet at the same time this movement also intended to raise black people from the history of brazil and being. they stay because in a sense they were considered barbarians at the minute in. the writings of rhyme window nina rodriguez a professor of forensic medicine at the university of buy here illustrate this point. in 891 he reflected on the destiny of slave descendants. the negro race in brazil will forever constitute one of the factors are inferiority as a people it would be important to time and to what extent this in for yards he lies in the negro populations inability to civilize itself and have on the home mixing
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races compensates this in for your currency. both the government and the planters wanted to whiten the population of the former to erase any traces of slavery the latter to reduce their dependency on these newly freed workers in 891215000 europeans arrived in brazil 3 times as many people as in the darkest hour of the slave trade human trafficking was replaced by the immigration of millions of poor europeans l n l for your racism didn't cause slavery it's the history of racism that stems from that of slavery not the other way around. over the course of 12 centuries an estimated $9.00 to $12000000.00 african captives were transported on the trans sahara and eastern brutes from $1516.00 onward in 3 and
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a half centuries $13000000.00 men women and children were deported to the americas amidst the pillaging abductions famines wars and epidemics this globalisation of violence caused the death of an estimated 15000000 africans direct and indirect victims of imperialism historians are still evaluating the demographic economic political and social impact of this human tragedy this criminal enterprise unparalleled in scale to this day. i think will truly be making progress when we all accept the history of slavery as all of our history so this through slavery is not black history and it's not just the history of white colonization but the history of human equality is the legacy for all of us and it's a legacy we all must contend with right not a white person only thinking about themselves as the decision of a slave holder but the white person thinking of themselves the descent of a slave to the black person view themselves as
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a sense of slaveholders way of thinking that we've inherited the basic structures of these societies right these basic inequalities but what we do with that is up to us that can really help us move forward as a society. what's going on here. and also if your very own from a printer. computer games that are healing. my dog needs electricity. shift explains delivers facts and shows what the future holds.
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