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tv   Projekt Zukunft  Deutsche Welle  December 26, 2021 8:30pm-9:01pm CET

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central to the idea of post him tis amid to strip away all of the accretion which christianity got over one half 1000 years and to go back to the christianity as it was in the bible. and one of the things they agree on is that the cult of saints has become dangerous, that the saints are in, in peril of replacing god as the object of one's prayers. so they abolish the cult of saints and wisdom go saint nicholas. saint nicholas disappears as a christmas gift bringer in many parts of europe. by, by saint nicholas, at least they didn't burn you, but you will be back because as the l a say, hiding a things doesn't make him disappear. yes. so at that point, traditions that were taking place on december the course back that will push back to christmas. the date when the baby jesus was born in germany in particular,
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the figure of the baby jesus christ, kendall is the germans say, was invented in strasburg. the rules of the reform or applied in $1570.00 a pastor, spoke out against the practice of giving gifts to children on saint nicholas de the saint nicholas market which is held on december 6 was renamed. the order was to call it the market of the child, jesus or christ kindled, marked in our station the figure of the baby. jesus is a wonderfully theologically correct, but it's a difficult social act to perform, to imitate the acts of saint nicholas saint nicholas was good, but he was also frightening and nobody is going to be frightened by the baby jesus . and saint nicholas can carry huge sacks or baskets of goodies,
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a baby can't. mm. and so we see in the 15 hundred's the development change in the shape of the christ child. and the appearance of frightening helpers. european folk lore is full of beasts that appear at christmas and you don't know whether they're going to kill you or give you a gift. ah, just a fee. there were fairies, lots of characters. so for instance, you have before now in italy, she was an old with a lovely fina head up is really gotta kill me now that to be fina is portrayed as an old woman
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who's a bit of a witch school. she flew in the sky on a broom. bang only had a hood on her back, containing the presence with which she filled the size that children left near their windows. it might cost of looking at if kids weren't good, be fun. i knew it to me. and she would give them ashes co community, it kind of boring if looked at all for it. if they were good, she would then bring licorice and interior, which looked like a soft coal was born, but was made of black sugar lining thought. kind of bully deutscher, he do settles needle each country has its creature meant to frighten children. compos connect to hooper spot the peat. gaila should see ah, the protestant reformation and its religious precepts now prevail in
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a large part of europe. in england, the winter figure referred to as father christmas, was even the object of a trial for some protestants, the new doctrines were not respectful enough of the strict teachings of the bible. these puritans decided to leave europe and settle in a new land where they would be allowed to live in accordance with their faith. these pilgrims 1st set foot on the american continent in $1620.00, and started new colonies. according to their faith, christmas was not worthy of celebration and was therefore abolished. it became a regular workday. any one celebrating christmas in the colony could be punished with a heavy fine any reference to the saints, including saint nicholas was forbidden. busy but other migrants coming here from
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other countries brought with them their own religious faith and traditions. the situation in the cities at christmas and new years had become a social problem. it became dangerous to be out on the streets in boston, and philadelphia and new york gangs would take to the streets. they would bang on pots and pans and blow horns, they would jostle decent middle class folk. they would interrupt church services at a time when police forces were um, just in the beginning and, and could not deal with this. in 1800, the situation in new york city became dire. the city was flooded with new migrants . the puritans considering them barbarians, abandoned part of the city. in manhattan barricades were erected to protect law
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abiding citizens from unruly gang organisations, such as the new york historical society were founded with the goal of creating a more respectable city. since america had no shared history and no shared culture, this new historical society was looking for a common identity. and surprisingly, it's members decided to turn to saint nicholas. john penn tarred was the founder of the new york historical society. he was a member of a masonic lodge, made up by descendants of dutch families. it was penned hard who rekindled the flame of the center cloth, the dutch saint nicholas. he presented him as a grumpy bishop with a whip, standing behind a high masonic symbol. santa was now a freemason, john pinto tried to make santa claus, saint nicholas, the patron saint of new york. and so one thing spend,
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todd was trying to do was to get a tradition that wasn't english. there was another member of the new york historical society, and his name was washington irving, and he was a comical writer. he was a satirist and he found pins hard to say nicholas very, very funny. and so he wrote a spoof history of new york and in his parody history, saint nicholas santa claus keeps appearing and helping the settlers to build the houses, sort of appearing after the sky smoking a pipe. washington irvings booth, history of new york was a massive best seller. it was a huge, the huge pocket book in early america, and people loved these stories and they started telling them to the children as truth. and for the 1st time, a new name appeared in a drawing. ah santa claus, a name and
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a story destined for a bright future. the that was a 3rd member of the new york historical society called climate club, moore, who wrote a children's poem called it, twas the night before christmas and it was a very, very popular poem. the santa claus is on a sleigh, which is drawn by reindeer, and he comes down the chimney himself and comes out into the fireplace with the presence and wishes everybody a merry christmas it was the night before christmas when what to my wondering eyes should appear. but a miniature sleigh and 8 tiny reindeer. as i drew in my head and was turning around down the chimney, saint nicholas came with a bound. the stump of a pipe held tight in his teeth, and the smoke encircled his head like
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a reef. he had a broad face and a little round belly that shook when he laughed like a bowl full of jetty. he was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf. ah farewell bishop saint nicholas. here comes an elf. later in the 19th century, there is a guy called thomas not to as an illustrator. and he's the guy who really sets down the santa claus that we know and that we still see on christmas cause in that santa claus, the children. imagine of the jolly fat man with the bed and the pipe. me ah,
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ah, and during the american civil war in the 800 sixty's, he drew a series of patriotic drawings for a magazine that featured santa claus on the side of the union. ah, and the face she gave them was that of the kindly grandfather that had been suggested by twas the night before christmas. and whatever else santa claus wears around the world now and whatever country he's in. he will look like the face that thomas nast gave him an old aspect of santa claus. it's very much that he's a house breaker. he's an old man who sneaks into your house and he actually breaks that family bubble to some extent. ah,
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it's very strange when you think about it. we tell our children that there's an old man who's broken into their bedroom and that they should be happy about. ah, the point, i mean, when christmas would come santa would always show up that only he would come in the evening around 6 o'clock after sonoran dinner. he always made a lot of noise knocking on the wall, knocking on the door. good. this amy i your god like diet sick, the said only he had a cane and he would shake like an old man only gather lucas b as it had santa claus would ask. are there any good children here harsh tagged up and we were very scared. oh. 2 that thou bod koya, hiding behind. now mother the lawyer
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isn't emmy santa claus would come and sit with us and ask if she had been good cuz i live down. gosh, got yellow guilty. and i would answer. yes, i hadn't been good the yeah. i wasn't crying glove and the new yeah. ah with the industrial revolution christmas and santa claus soon became associated with a profound change in that social order. the boers was opposed to lower class values . the communal traditions associated with christmas like was sailing buying on
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people's doors, demanding alcohol. wearing masks is replaced by this inward looking family, as opposed to community your table as opposed to the street your foss site, as opposed to the whole city. this new om inward looking, i'm celebration. oh, yes i am. why should you mind me said loophole people were really being sent to the distance it and the bourgeois family became a very important part of society having grown rich at the expense of the working class that mark was described to martha addiction for the bush were family christmas became one of the great annual gathering, conjuring which people honored their own members if it showcased this social success and boosted their children's ambitions for charlotte. oh, it will now be showplace awful. ah!
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and away this is shift from a religious celebration to a family celebration, whether it was in england and france or in the us. there wasn't a family reunion at christmas before that. ah, the protestants band, catholic religious songs and replaced them with new testament psalms. so when english writer charles dickens wrote a christmas carol, he describes a society that is divided between rich greedy misers and poor, but generous people. the christmas tale tells the story of how one of these misers becomes a better man. thanks to ghosts that visit him. they make him realize that charity and generosity can save him from doom if he did it,
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tell them how he was giving readings of his tale in boston, paris, and in london, of course of christ. and people would rush to see him in paris. people described a huge line in front of the british embassy in the middle of winter. low income people were in t is yet in boston. a wealthy businessman called fair banks, showed up and reading. after listening to the christmas story read by the author himself. so he decided to offer a turkey to each of his workers for christmas and gave them the day off to celebrate christmas. and when you are here, don't happen. it wasn't a holiday at the time. didn't sit say, daniel, her, yes, one more legs. kimberly this present the diesel club concept in england is a very interesting one of the, a lot of when you, because the bosses force their workers to save money during the year. so they could celebrate christmas with dignity. and by the famous goose, which was the english dish, or this notion
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of a christmas that is reconnected to morality, reconnected to religion and the american gift of a santa claus figure is going to combine in the 19th century. authentic, in fact, gifts were a part of this to begin with, i see more if i need to be someone to bring again it well at 1st to carry to bringing a gift, dependent on with jeff, but gradually it became the same one. it was sad to close. he brought the kids once it became known if he laid organ. ah, the american style sounds close also became a major commercial figure who invaded the advertising sphere. santa became universally famous thanks to guess what the department stores. they were becoming
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very popular at the time, and they enrolled santa as their number one sales clerk. ah, alternator j between the 2 world wars eldric or santa claus became the ideal partner to promote new products to add up. so you should have both. then he also became bit naughty on the edges, palpable bit of a scum back. do you know who was used to push big cigars? liquor and easy women vertical pho, exempted from leisure. ah, we'll do so. yes. santa claus was indeed exploited by advertisers and brandon body among which the best known as coca cola would use. but coca cola certainly didn't
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invent santa claus. feldwood, santa claus are so powerful, christmas are so powerful that they call forth enemies. and one of these enemies is totalitarianism. in the soviet union, after the revolution, celebrating christmas was considered bourgeois, thus discouraged. so the communist party decided to revive a non religious figure, dead. moreover, the slavic wizard of winter, under the soviets dead morose, was made to look like a blue santa who came to offer gifts to the children. not at christmas, but for the new year's holiday. of course, dead morose as imagery was soon used to praise the revolution and glorify the working class of the new regime. another totalitarian party that also decided to exploit santa's image for its own benefit was the nazi party. when
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um the nazis take power in 1933. their 1st thought that the nazis had is just to co opt christmas. so they will try and associate naziism with all of the good things of christmas. and so the ss tries to pagan eyes christmas, they want to move the celebration from december 25th to december 21st, the winter solstice. this is met with a good deal of resistance by the german population and in the aftermath of world war 2, department stores hired santa's by the thousands. but 1st, the santa has had to take classes at newly created santa claus schools. oh fit my mom up in france. santa claus only really becomes important after world
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war to go. now she get with the adoption of a more american light star after the war. people don't to soil they kid. so by me. the 1st high school christmas eve, tina rossi sings the son the premises. little children, gifts by the 1000, in 20 factories open up every way. for young you industrialized production methods produce more affordable toys to spoil the children wiffle. ah, but where does santa live? it is? rumored that he lives near the north pole. but where exactly is it in canada, in greenland, or in lapland? what is certain is that the official santa claus village was opened in 1985, near the finished town of ravone, emmy. right on the arctic circle. it's become the largest santa theme park in the world. more than $500000.00 visitors come here every year from all countries and
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religion. hello, please come here. good morning. how are you today, sir? hello, country. good, don't, don't, don't be afraid. don't be afraid shortly. here just take it easy to say, so let's start with default and so again, in 1951 and an under privileged parish of dijon, france, a group of parishioners rejected santa for his consumerist attitude and for up staging jesus. so they dressed up a mannequin at santa and set it on fire. in the next 48 hours, these images were seen all over france, so because the big scandal a really big scandal, everyone saw that the church had burned some totally booked. ramirez wrote, as it turns out, the mayor of dijon, felix care, who is also a religious model vivian on to prove the burning. so the next day he staged an opposing spectacle. the 1st thing which santa was lowered from one of the tallest
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buildings in dijon in the city hall, rooftop repair. but then it gets sent out a press release. denying the center was dead and stating. learning had been a foss. ah allow his prompted a corny between intellectuals that several years we'll give a drip. you'll said be the car i fool newspaper provided a forum for defenders and opponents. the defendant, santa claus may rise, dollar go in the pro santa come. there were french intellectuals, lashaun cato, she'll burst escrow o crow levy straus housekeeper quarter, dedicated a special essay to santa phil bobby view the debates became very he for his crib pro preview low. ready
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despite the controversies of the past, the day, the enthusiasm for santa is undiminished. every year millions of children send letters to santa all over the world, santa's official post office, and romani. emmy received 17000000 letters from 100 countries in 1985 postal systems everywhere have had to adapt to this incredible situation. mitchie said ella, should you know santa, i'll tell you a secret of being. he isn't easy. i that every one once the children to be good and to work hard at school. the last your health look to forget the battery because it's always annoying to receive a gift and not be able to try it out right away. because the batteries are missing . lucky thing to follow in france, the person who was decisive in making it official to respond to letters to santa mini is a minister named jack marell. please check by it. when he was put in charge of
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supervising the postal says to do it, he felt it wasn't acceptable. that hundreds of thousands of letters were mailed to santa a never reach their destination or even look it up. so he created santa's team of personal secretary as mobiles, and he asked his sister francoise merritt to be sent us 1st. secretary, if we could go to be a good francois merritt is better known as the writer francois stole to ah, well from swans dole to understood how important it is for children to develop their imagination pool awful. by the way, that's also the reason why john called to have been so virulent and angry against francois maria in the opponents of santa claus. he told them, you break the dreams of children. you don't have the right to do that. these are doing the boxes pacifies, of which children cinders from all over the world, because growing up is about taking a stand on the way the kid said,
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saturday pacifiers, a milk bottles and a cuddle told. well another aspect of santa claus and father christmas it's, it's a bright passage for children to learn that he doesn't exist and that he's impact your father. probably just bringing the presence on all that 6 reasons at primary school at well, it's compulsory now and that's where the oldest students would mock up and say ha, they still believe in se nicholas glass and he could then after a year or 2, we found out the big secret, glinetta, gothic was all parents stuff like they need sometimes on tv, their commercials with toys on sale. so i, one day, it's sad to makes toys, or while a for sale or profound or mr. legible, your corckalone and to bring them said there's really no use in buying them, don't you think? and i think that's when i started having doubts, and i thought i'll post if they're on sale, this is that means the parents probably have to pay for the kidney or
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ah! and now santos, facing a new garage of criticism. will he survive it? the fight is on. he's targeted, it's jesus versus santa, who represents the true spirit of christmas. the original one santa is the symbol of capitalism, the destroyer of the planet, with a terrible carbon footprint. santa is all about junk food. his health is catastrophic. co lester, all diabetes, hypertension, possibly lung cancer because of his smoking habits. people want to hang him to crucify him. they criticize them of having waited years before introducing himself as a black santa. what do you expect? he's only the image of those who created him. a reflection of our society. it took him a long time to be accepted as a black man, especially in some parts of the us in the netherlands. controversy surround the
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racial implications of santa's companion black, pete. but one of the i'm absolute constants of the history of christmas is people always complaining that it's been losing its true. meaning. people have been boring that we've lost gossum the true sense of christmas. and so christmas is necessarily a nostalgic time when we look back and we worry that we have lost something i child don't think the interesting thing is that christmas has become commercial. i think the interesting thing is how worried we all the christmas has become commercial, because that is, i'll worry about the way that society as a whole is heading from time immemorial, people have either tried to appropriate his image or get rid of him. he's been banned, forbidden sacrificed, hanged, burned, but santa still returns every winter. this
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a lot of the chose to centric sees none. if it's a 100 percent, for sure. i don't always believe in santa i. ah, [000:00:00;00] ah, in hunting in the arctic circle, who has the right to do so? the land of the sweden supreme court has ruled that exclusive game hunting and
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fishing rights will be restored to one of the oldest family communities. it was a historic moment for this ami and a source of aggravation for swedish hunters. in 30 minutes on d w. o . they was today with love on banning away but i'm not even know how to work my own car and everyone with later holes in every single day. just getting are you ready to meet the gym and then do i me right. just do it on d. w. i we're interested in the global economy, our portfolio d, w business beyond. here's
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a closer look at the project. our mission, ah, to analyze the fight for market dominance. east versus west givers stood with v w. business beyond on you to ah, ah ah, this is dw news alive from berlin. tributes from world leaders are pouring in for archbishop desmond tutu who's died at the age of 90. the anglican cleric was revered as one of the key figures and the find to end apartheid in south africa


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