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tv   Doc Film - The Renaissance Factor Part 2  Deutsche Welle  January 16, 2022 4:15pm-5:01pm CET

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ah, we're all set to go with, we're all live as we take on the we're all about the stories that matter. whatever it takes to leave and follow with w. fire made for more. ah, the renaissance was when people started keeping track of time. locksmith pizza, hinline, invented the pocket watch in 1510. it soon became a powerful tool, merchants and a fortune with it. and it allowed seafarers to navigate the distant oceans. shortly before christopher columbus had arrived in the americas and the known world tripled in size,
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people began to understand our planet in new ways. and an empire arose on which the sun never set. this was all thanks to the new portable time pieces. scholars could measure and calculate the parts of the heavenly bodies more accurately discovering the mechanisms of planetary motion and ultimately placing the sun at the heart of our solar system. the way to the stars was opened, at least in the mind, the pocket watch, and the other inventions of the renaissance. how transform europe and the world ah, florence in 50 no fool knew not it had been, she was a towering figure in an era that became known as the renaissance. when the best known painting of all time was created. the mona lisa,
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the mysterious beauty with the inscrutable smile. it's probably a portrait of lisa del geo condo, the wife of a cloth and silk mentioned from florence. apparently or not, it took years to finish it. the artist always struggled with his works. he was never satisfied with them and was always trying to perfect them. ah leo, the 10th one said of him, this man will never accomplish anything. oh wrong, he was not. it was a polarizing figure, charming, and erudite. he was also described as focus and vain. a man who was openly homosexual at a time when gay men were persecuted, even burned at the stake. they nodded of n, she is considered one of the most versatile geniuses of
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o towing. the star of the renaissance was much more than just an artist. he was also an architect, anatomist sculptor, mathematician, iconoclast, inventor, for the brilliant creator of the mona lisa painting was perhaps just a necessary evil in me. a 15 paintings are attributed tilly, not i to day. most have been lost because he was constantly experimenting with new paint mixes, many of which decomposed over tell him. he had more about his inventions than he did about painting. deal not of off the license bus, assign enestus when it came to his innermost desires. leonardo was a seeker, an explorer window, some one who was interested in new ideas, mystery hydrated rather than a painter who laboriously tended to his craft every day. brush stroke after brush
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stroke, gleason hunted tuck, i thought i was a good, pretty good. the reason we know that he sometimes made just minor corrections to a painting and that he wasn't in front of a canvas all the time. i think that's an extended i'm but maybe he just painted to make a livingston as his paintings were in great demand, after all, anything the one of the egg of cock receive on. they were extremely well done. i think for at least those that he finished before the inevitable dog. maybe he just painted to earn the money he needed to have the freedom he needed to pursue his scientific research. think only for i, i to homicide. it isn't off the can portals with time. in the 15th century, italy was ravaged by numerous conflicts, venice defeated, padua and florence conquered pisa in 14 o. 5. in 1413, the neapolitan attacked rome. in 1444, florence went to war against both naples and venice. the italian cities had an
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insatiable appetite for conquest that they constant battles field progress, wool had become the promoter of aunt creek. other than the souls newton were they got the bills war didn't just have negative effects . and the renaissance in the only kid ensured that huge sums of money were mobilized to the conduct deity. the military contractors came out the line and said they were often based in small cities or towns from where they waged the wars of the big players for big money. i was my london in the office. all that meant well from florence, milan, naples, venice and rome flowed into smaller places, foyt under fingers, toward the side of if you go to italy and enjoy the beauty and diversity of these small towns, you get an idea of what it meant back then to turn war an iron into gold and gold, into art quotes from the school girls, milan, in 1485 leonardo, his employer was low to be costanza,
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who ruled the city state you know, to apply to word for him as a military engineer and maker of weapons. only mentioning his painting and sculpture in passing, that the vehicle had great expansion plans and was reading himself full wool. and suddenly another ended up building high tech weapons for the sports us. inspired by and t pretty, he combined the idea of an enclosed chariot with a tortoise formation used by the roman legions in siege warfare. it was supposed to be an ahmed vehicle with incredible fire power, but it failed in practice. it was too heavy to move easily and the steam engine hadn't yet been invented. the codecs atlantis contains more than a 1000 pages with sketches by leonardo. he designed to perpetual motion machine,
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a gearbox and vehicles powered by springs. but many of his creations still puzzled us even now. ah, some think this cock device was a mechanical calculator, although critics say that interpretation goes a step too far in the renaissance, there was no way of actually constructing a mechanical gear train like this. of course, leonardo knew that, but that didn't stop his theoretical innovations, and some of them were groundbreaking. ah, you not as love of mechanics, chimed with the spirit of the tines. like him? many pioneering minds was searching for machines that might save people. the earth and the universe in motion clocks were the most mechanically elaborate devices of you not as time. ready when pace
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a headline invented his pocket watch in the early 16th century, people started believing themselves the masters of time. but those who and money with time by loaning money for set periods while charging interest were committing a mortal sin. ready ready tine still belonged to god alone with her board friends and from him stating that the prohibition on charging interest is in the christian bible consists. it's one of the really important biblical prohibitions almost as important as thou shalt not kill and with that's because people believed that humans shouldn't profit from time because time belong to god. it worked good. but in the late middle ages and the renaissance, the economy had come to play a totally different roles and all that money had to be available in the economy and making money and time available was beneficial would use. so you had to make it worth your while site and full time dean one good to be of. as a result,
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there were more and more ways of getting around the ban on charging interest in practice and from groomed us since for board fucked. to show our confidence as the imperial decrees of the 16th century now allowed christian money lenders to charge a maximum of 5 percent interest on money loaned until then, the credit industry had been solely in the hands of jewish money lenders. this now changed martin luther still denounced the practice of charging interest, but the swiss reformer john kelvin, had quite a different opinion. durham is curb emerging from your fortune i was come. and madam calvin said that people could determine from their economic success, whether they were predestined to salvation or damnation route. so that meant people didn't just sit around to see whether they would be chosen with group architect. they worked incredibly hard for me, so on, on the great. so c, ologist,
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mox vega said that calvinism was the father of capitalism. his arc dec. i live in this most is there part of this cup and tell us what we know that other religious movements of the 16th and 17th centuries did just as much to spur the economy for you to put evo traffic to tom. hm. it was really the overall forces in society at the time, along with technical developments that led to the incredible economic boom out through one peak orientation. different entry chrome the city of zurich started setting up official currency exchanges. in 1419, the money changes tended to be goldsmith's or coin mentors because they had to be able to tell the value of the coins. they changed currencies and they also made loans. lacey with this thing, leon and calvin is traditions. switzerland became a banking pioneer. and affluence became a symbol of divine favor. measuring time is
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still inseparably tied to exploring the heavens. renaissance thinkers had already set their sights on the stars. many made evil time pieces were astronomical clocks . the exact measurement of time is a necessary requirement for studying the motion of the sun, moon, and planets. it was the start of an age in which scone is began to challenge the church as wold view, saying that the sun didn't revolve around the earth. and the earth was not the center of the universe from bulk and poland in around 1540 nicholas, copernicus was a cannon at the cathedral there as well as a high ranking government official. he was also a lawyer, physician, and mathematician, as well as an economist who wrote a highly regarded work on the theory of money. but his real passion was astronomy.
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his astronomical observations and calculations contradicted the generally accepted muddle originally posited by the ancient scholar claudius ptolemy. namely that the earth was at the center of the solar system. this geocentric world view was essential teaching of the church. copernicus believed the son was at the center of the solar system. but even though he spent 30 years working on his theory, he kept quiet about it. his friends and confidence, including some high ranking clerics, tried to persuade him to publish his work, but without success. capone was had it in the pad, it was announced, copernicus was scared of publishing his theory because he was afraid he would make himself a laughingstock, was shown. did you build an educated people knew that the earth wasn't flat as any, but it was a sphere of well known midco panic when copernicus is world view the this sphere
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was also moving for you me oxy spun on its own axis with and also orbit at the sun at high speed in this case on you. so people believe that this would have unforeseeable consequences if, even if the earth would be subjected to strong headway and objects would tip over blast and things like that. gig extended. and then there was the theological aspect that martin luther threw into the mix teosha as picked him up. and he told copernicus that the bible said that the son moved around the earth visually and not the other way around. so copernicus was wrong and that scared copernicus into keeping quiet, most unsanitary, has evolved to her from blue martin luther cold, copernicus, a fool. and his money was dismissed. not so much as heretical, but morris fantastical. it was only 70 years after his death that galileo observations provided, convincing arguments, but the physical proof had to wait for another 300 years. nevertheless, nicholas copernicus,
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had provided the astronomical model of our solar system and refuted the ancient scholar ptolemy. and that in itself was revolutionary. ah, the earth was ultimately removed from the center of the universe and classified as an ordinary planet that orbit at the sun along with others. copernicus so how the apparent motion of the stars in the night sky was really the result of the earth's own rotation. ready everything over to the sun, so the actual center of the solar system had to be near it. hardly any other discovery has had such a great influence on our time. our voyage to the stellar's began 500 years ago. without copernicus, they would be no space flight or satellite communications systems. and our lives
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today would be very different. ah, so, and so did had the indigo from coop. the calculations performed by copernicus have had a real impact on us to day home shins. we sent our space ships into space knowing where the planet's worth. if ptolemy is world view had been correct. we would have reached none of those planets of land in it. all would have been a waste of time. it's very al is marquilla tuan. actually, the advent of the cross staff, also known as jacob stuff made it possible to determine latitude at see using astronomical calculations. this breakthrough in maritime technology made it possible to navigate on the high seas. a further achievement came with the f, a mary these astronomical tables calculated by the german astronomer and mathematician. johan, his milan, who was also known as league, jo, montana's, his tables recorded the location of celestial bodies from 147521506.
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together with the jacob's stuff, they guided sailors on their journeys hydra, montana's hut, adama xavier montano, made people in europe aware of trigonometry. he published his own work lead to taking advantage of the new invention of printing hook, touched goldenberg's, adventure the printing press. arguments are poor talk, fishnet baffled by trigonometry is still central to navigational calculation to lose and to gps receivers around the world. and i'm in yada and bring out union, so you can type on for trigonometry was the key to navigation. and the search for new trade routes emboldened the explorers of the renaissance, besought new sources of wealth. people started pondering completely new questions. what lies beyond the known world, and how can we get there?
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europe's merchants realised that it was cheaper to bring large quantities of pepper, cinnamon and soaked to europe by the portuguese shipping ruth's men to transport them along the overland route, controlled by venice. that made to the collapse of the venetians spies, monopoly. many trading establishments of the renaissance invested in shipping portugal and spain became leading trading nations. i'm from randi cultural european merchants. wanted to get their hands on exotic, luxurious and beautiful things, and sell them for as much profit as possible. the gift is really, these things could be found in the mediterranean, and especially in the far east, was with msd co floating. and so merchants like marco polo set off to search for spices and silk and incense and other luxury products cited by ha, ha,
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ha ha. lucas was still on fire. they travelled the world and flew into me. so they were followed by missionaries and sometimes by warriors, some common. and then came the artists, thinkers, and explorers. so they all fueled each other, hoping to transcend their own horizons with you. i know it's wanted superstring lisben in 14 ac fool. 33 year old christopher columbus was just always away from his life's dream. coming true. he had an audience with the portuguese king john the 2nd. columbus was a professional seafaring from genoa, with profound knowledge of mathematics and could talk a fee and a passionate defender of aristotle's belief that asia could be reached in just a few days by sailing west from europe. the ancient scholars had estimated that europe and asia covered roughly half of the earth circumference, but columbus believed that eurasia was much bigger than that. in fact,
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eurasia only makes up around a 3rd. mm. columbus also believed the earth was very much smaller than it really is. only half its actual size. he thought the western re, to china and india was 4500 kilometers long, a challenging voyage, but a manageable one. in actual fact, it's a journey of 20000 kilometers far beyond the capabilities of his telling me. so columbus was not only taking a risk, but also a miscalculated one. king john's advisors suspected columbus was mistaken and refused to give him financial support. he only received it 8 years later, from the spanish king 3rd, and on the 2nd ah,
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after 6 weeks at sea, on the 12th of october, $1492.00 columbus made land full in the bahamas and then went on to cuba and his spun yona. he still believed he had found the western route to asia, and that has been yolo was the chinese coast in his records. he promised the spanish crown as much gold as it needed. and as many slaves as it asked for, columbus had discovered the new world and plunged it into catastrophe. as a gloom with 1st front is shipping to fuel your muscles from columbus was good at navigating ships through difficult waters. but he was a very poor manager of the blank. he wasn't able to keep his all men together and ultimately spanish crown took away his powers. a hot do sign in thick home as was wanting unfroze. america was already populated when he discovered it. so it wasn't
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a real discovery in that sense place, but his arrival opened the door to unprecedented disasters to you and talk it through. millions of indigenous people died at the hands of the germs that the europeans brought with them yawning for indie gain. and when the european explorers were interested in gold on and yet more gold caught the little bit and god, but more so in spices side and eyes. and from columbus, his voyages opened up the newly discovered lands to foreign conquest and brought disaster to their indigenous populations. ma hi dick. from on that side in economic rights until his death, columbus believed that he had found the sea roots to the chinese mainland. but his discovery, none the less changed the world. spain and portugal became imperial super palace. columbus thus was also the 1st and a line of cruel congress. what drove him, a lust for adventure?
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the promise of power wealth will fain cologne was wrong to see her. i mean, sheer go. columbus was definitely someone who wanted fame and fortune over about, but he was also a very devout person. he'd see at the house how he thought he was helping countless individuals by bringing their souls to the christian faith. tyler was seen of him, but there are many indications that he might have believed that at the end of the 15th century, the world was nearing its end. visit us as it relates to call you seen in faith in from sydney, a wounded. this markesha from such as was so often the case, the rational considerations and desire for profit and fame were mixed with medieval motivation. ccbh table of dines, i don't all begin with dummy. the renaissance had 2 sides to eddie and his also. and so to did, columbus was emo, thanks to the discoveries and discover is king charles the 1st of spain established
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an empire on which the sun never set alongside large parts of europe. it included colonial territories in north and south america. and in asia, when the sun went down in mexico, it was already day in the philippines. in 15, ceci, the pope crowned him holy roman emperor charles. the 1st became charles the 5th. he saw himself as a universal monarch, defender of the faith appointed by god. he issued several decrees in an attempt to counter act, the enslavement of the indigenous population. and in 1540 he even ordered the liberation but the colonies were far away and in the end, charles's need for gold was too great. charles's empire was greedy for
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silver and gold. between 154115. $6067.00 tons of gold and $480.00 tons of silver reached spain and triggered an economic crisis in the middle ages, jews were the only people in europe who were able to issue loans and charge interest. jewish businessman controlled international finance and many saw them as properties. brutal pogroms took place on the iberian peninsula. the jewish population was persecuted, killed, or expelled the jewish financial system collapsed and the european money market had to re orient itself. at the heart of this sea change was a small town in bavaria. oak spoke. it became the financial capital of the known world and the headquarters of the forgot dynasty. between
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14951525. the thick of family business which had been founded by jacobo foger, europe's most significant merchant mining entrepreneur and banker, grew into a pan european financial empire. forgot in stock finance, yet it was equipped with cassock to start up in. you could say that jak foger funded the state and the state gave him unique opportunities to use or exploit the land cordell song. and i'll support the us and seek optical of the unknown site and further didn't do anything by have a chance to forego. he invested a lot of money in the properties and land that are still at the heart of the folk a foundation. so it begins, i include log in for word from cisco and often whatnot. so of he took calculated risks to make money and he worked with those in power and go up to it. but he also always invested in safe real estate beginning to steal. as we ought to be, he always diversified his investments and he had
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a good eye for what was feasible or so he was very successful with bleak off to small barbara incomes. goals of steel gifted sugar who was both pious and one of the most powerful men of his day, wanted an aristocratic title. blue with one foot still in the middle ages. he was none the less a manager with a modern spirit named z, i brief, bugles, buick tank dearest, famous portrait of jacobi foger, stick to cities and money in put this man in a gray suit and take the gold cap off his head. holmbsee, and you've got a modern c e o of i am operation the globe. he was a tough and incredibly efficient manager. lately that's undoubtedly true and but he was also a repentant christian as best its weakness, the fewest,
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the best proof of that is that he built an entire estate for the poor in his home town of alex bore, got o me the full garage, a 1516 dog life and so we see a rich successful businessman balancing his books with god, investing in the well being of his soul. m act plays a big role here to undecided the course of photo was active around the world. he gave loans to princes and the church, and in return, negotiated mining rights and trading privileges and bought up estates. the income he generated was much higher than the cost of borrowing. another product of the renaissance, the rise of the global player. but foot combined, his entrepreneurial spirit with social commitment in $1521.00. he founded the figure hi. it's a renaissance time capsule. in the heart of alex book,
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the full i is the oldest social housing project in history. and it's still in use. it's 67 houses are now home to a 150 catholic residents of ox book. the entry conditions are still the same as they were in the 16th century. anyone wanting to live in the frugal hi has to be from ox book, a catholic and of good reputation and its still maintained by the fortune managed by the foger foundation. a financial instrument set up in the renaissance and still operating to day. the annual rent also remains unchanged. one vanish gilder or 88 euro sense. compared with the living standards of most people in the renaissance, the houses in the foot high with positively luxurious
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a home for an entire family with a round 60 square meters. spacious and well lit, at least by renaissance standards. in return for the symbolic rent, jacobo figure placed another condition on the residence of the forgot hi, regular praise. every day they were to say one, our father, one creed and one hail mary, full finger and his family. the praise for him and his family paved his way to paradise. all so people believed in the middle ages. another investment in the salvation of his soul was the construction of the forget chapel, a diagnostic burial place, and a prestigious statement of the family social standing yup. forgot, hired important artists. first and foremost,
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i placed dealer who designed the tombstones for his brother's guilt and oldish foger. the saga chapel in saint anna was the 1st church interior in germany to be built in the renaissance style. this is where yackel and his brothers found their final resting place. lou, this donation says a lot about jacobi, his commercial full size and his personal beliefs. he apparently believed that even the salvation of the soul and the afterlife had a financial solution. yup foger, pious christian, and financial genius and one of the richest men of his time. who go often, jojo foger was incredibly rich with the the gap was immense. erica market. if you consider the some that foger and a consortium stumped up to fund the imperial election of charles the 5th,
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it was more than $800000.00 guilders. and ordinary craftsmen would have had to work 32000 years to earn that logo. so i will die 6000 you already dealt with. forgot also made money with the fear of hell. it's terrible. torments were omnipresent and full time the church preached that it had been grown to divine powers of remittance to reduce the punishment people would have to suffer for their sins. but this indulgence, as it was called, didn't come for free. as soon as a coin in the box does ring the soul from purgatory de spring, these were the words of the dominican fry johan tete so. one of the most notorious sellers of indulgences. he even sold indulgences for blasphemy and murder. in the autumn of $1511.00, the 28 year old augustinian fry and martin luther was in rome. he too was seeking
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indulgence. he climbed the sacred stairs in front of the latter and on his knees to obtain forgiveness for his sins and to free his deceased relatives from purgatory. since the time of emperor constantine the latter, and had been the official seat of the popes, the latter and palace is a 16th century renaissance building, built by pope 60th, the the renaissance pope's money spent. it was the sale of indulgences women about this hospital. so when we talk about the renaissance pope, we often hear terrible stories and you get the impression that they triggered the reformation with their immoral behavior home at 2. and i was good. but that's a very one sided stories mom would. they were modernize or islam. they were renaissance men, they were princes who held court in line with the european standards of the time and bolts. and who few thomas, i'll see that image minister in laguna in 50. no 8, have julius the 2nd commissioned to 33 year old michelangelo bina rossi to cover
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the interior of the sistine chapel in frescoes. but michael angelo didn't want the job painting wasn't his strength. he primarily saw himself as a sculptor. he said. but julius more a warrior than a man of god got his way michelangelo asked for artistic freedom do what she want? julius replied with 520 square meters of frescoes to be painted overhead. it was a tortuous work of epic proportions. the frescoes and the vaulted ceiling of the sistine chapel and not his mona lisa. are indisputably the most famous paintings of the renaissance, if not the whole of our history. and the interpretation of the creation of adam is the most reproduced work of art in the world. portraying
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a god reaching out from the clouds to form humanity and a lost judgment that depicts the heavenly host as naked as the gods of mount olympus . it was a courageous work of genius made possible only thanks to his paypal patron. we had been kind of, we wouldn't have st. peter's, we wouldn't have all this wonderful art in rome. we wouldn't have many pieces of music if these renaissance popes hadn't existed. renaissance hopes are ambivalent, like the whole of modernity. and they have admirably good trades and they also behaved like princes, like machiavelli be unrestrained and confident. been. and sometimes they put their responsibilities to the church on the back burner or even forgot about them altogether. arc wickersham in order for lunch to go for it. but julius,
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the 2nd oh is to keep them as the romans called him. the architect at his side was donato bermonte, who was known as maestro v. 90 the master of destruction. the 2 men put their stamp on row. julius had buildings torn down and squares, and notched and roads rebuilt. fremont. he had gained his status as a leading architect with the cloister at santa maria del apache. the key was throw the bermonte in rome. his client was cardinal olivia, or cut off on an influential prince of the church. romantic came to fame with the temp yet. so d bermonte his little temple. inspired by the round temples of ancient rome. it's considered a paradigm of hi renee dance architecture of julius the 2nd disregarded the protests of his cardinals,
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and had the venerable basilica of constantine demolished. he wanted to build the biggest church in christendom in its place. saint peter's julius the 2nd, had a passion for the huge and spectacular his basilica was also intended to house his monumental tomb and mausoleum that would be bigger than anything the world had ever seen. donato bermonte got the commission and started work in 15 o. 6. 40 years were to pass before the sculptor, painter, poets, and scientists, michelangelo bin rattie, became the architect and site manager of saint peters. he was 72 when he took over the supervision of europe's largest building size. in 1547,
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the dome of saint pieces is the tallest freestanding masonry structure in the world . and the rib dome was michelangelo's idea, and its construction was the pinnacle of his autistic career. his creative life lasted 70 years. he saw himself as a sculptor, but he also created it pocket works as a painter and architect. he spent years enquiries constantly setting pl materials, sometimes literally moving mountains, michelangelo at live 9 popes and worked until his final breath. he died at 89 a biblical age in his day. michelangelo died on the 18th of february 1564, a date, many art historian, c as mocking the end of this era. he was the last of the great scholarly artists of
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the renaissance. but even this, when his sons masterpiece was funded by the fear, christians had of eternal torment in hell. it was pope leo, the 10th who supported the cell of indulgences to fund the new building. martin luther was appalled by the moral decline he believed in counted in rome for luther. this was a transformative experience and he mentioned it frequently in his nature, writings and speeches. he fall mandated against the trade in indulgences which he saw as synonymous with the moral decline and greed of the church and its pope's. this mark, the birth of what would go down in history as the riffle nation. luther
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wasn't a revolutionary but a reformer. a simple friar who defied the emperor and the pope and split the church . just 2 generations off to luther, europe would be shaken by a conflict more vicious than any that had gone before the 30 years war. the fighting between catholics and protestants devastated the empire. martin luther publicly condemned the practice of selling indulgences in his $95.00 theses in just a few months more than a sea of luther's treatises and collections were published, which were eventually reprinted in more than $600.00 editions. luther became a media star and the printed word. the 1st mass medium in history. escape came over format, so there wouldn't have been a reformation without the mass media of the 16th century. martin martin luther wrote theses about a relatively abstruse theological problem, who indulgences been,
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but these theses spread all over southern germany in just a few weeks of them. impact of give them your door true home for it was printing. it was fly sheets and pamphlets that spread all over the empire and mobilized people on the doorstep. guns people read them now. they may read them to others in truth and debated the issues with those who couldn't read manhattan organism or manhattan men from the mechanism court with asking these and the disco to you. how did people really tick? what drives us? these were questions that scholars could now discuss publicly through the new mass medium. global communication started in the renaissance. now for the 1st time, thousands of people could refer to the same content at the same time. and for the 1st time, the future could be depicted and planned in a realistic fashion. people understood what moved them and copied themselves. the 1st humanoid machines were created, precursors of
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a future in which robots play football. with in just a few generations, the known world tripled in size. global transport and global trade became a reality for the 1st time in the renaissance, merchants and seafarers did not only travel the earth. they also laid the groundwork for the expiration of the universe without a bit of in his soul, since the legacy of the renaissance has never died. did it still alive today, august us. we could say that the industrial revolution and therefore, our modern world wouldn't have been possible without all the things that were invented in the renaissance. unfortunately, at no other time in its history, has human kind experienced a comparable search and development. the renaissance even outstrips our own foss, changing age, never before was so much developed, invented, moved, changed,
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revolutionized, and rejected. in such a short span of time. it was a development driven by people who most of the seemingly impossible, because they had understood their own world. the renaissance was a plea against closed mines and the cult of experts. it gave room to intellectual curiosity and the courage to set forth on new paths. it's a story of people who did not wish to believe, but to know and to accepted no limits to their quest. ah m ah. oh,
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africa. natural cooling without leaving the environment where the sophisticated design chips in our new tech zera alba t t has been focusing on green and affordable housing. and so whether the harsh desert climate, pico africa in 30 minutes on d. w ah, t w's crime fighters are back with africa most successful radio drama series continues. all episodes are available online. and of course you can share and discuss on d, w, africa's facebook page, and other social media platforms, crime fighters, tune in. now, sometimes
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