tv Covid-19 Special - How do the vaccines differ Deutsche Welle February 4, 2022 7:30am-8:01am CET
ah, researchers and scientists all over the world for in a race against time, they are peers and rivals with one daring goal to outsmart nature. more life starts february 16th on d, w. d. ah. turkey has developed its own vaccine called took her back. how effective is it? welcome to this coven, 19 special on d, w. also on the show, julia fergie gives us the run down on the various corona virus, vaccines. how do they work? and how do they differ?
but 1st, who are the unvaccinated? and what motivates them? we talked to a german woman who doesn't want to get vaccinated and even accepts the risk of dying of cove at 19 sheesh michel gun from to day. sabina scooter is working as an alternative practitioner. she offers her patients homeopathy treatments. on other days, she works as a nurse in an intensive care unit. when the pandemic started, she volunteered in a covet ward. even local newspapers reported on the story. as mcleana, lindsey starts young of eden fawn above and it is a small intensive care unit. but over 50 percent of it was occupied by corona virus patients. lucas have during my shifts i've really experienced how desperately patients were struggling for. and that really got to me really puts in god look as album loft thing. and from her own experience,
she knows that the disease has cost many lives. however, she doesn't want to get vaccinated against cove at 19, even though it will be compulsory for health care workers and germany from much. and that ammonia instead of being vaccinated with the vaccine who's effect, i can't assessable. i'd rather catch the virus. naming. of course the at that could go badly, but then i would rather accept death on my own. tom and i ran kind video man taught a phone call from him. lawmaker and dr. paula p shutter voted for compulsory vaccinations. she wants to prevent patients from being infected by nursing staff. this one's a anna. it moves for all of us working in healthcare. it is our job that we do not put our patients at unreasonable risk on. and the cove at 19 vaccination is extremely safe, which is why it is acceptable to enforce it. to protect our patients. chosen,
sabina believes an alternative therapy not in vaccinations, despite all the scientific prove that they work. most health care workers are vaccinated, but sabina could now lose her clinical job lighted a focus of common them on our by should that really happen and my employer would say city, but we are a danger to the patients, vaughn, then i will accept that and then i will not work there anymore and mail out all biden veneta. she would then be missing out on several 100 euros a month, but that won't change her mind. she says she will remain unvaccinated. why germany's health care workers have priority for receiving the new nova max, maxine, which is a protein sub unit vaccine, was 2 years into the pandemic. there are now over 20 call that vaccines on the market. how do they compare our counter?
julie affairs has more sh, perhaps we have all heard these terms before and are in a back door and in activated vaccines, or maybe even protein supp unit vaccines, such as the one from nova vax. but what distinguishes these vaccines from each other and how exactly do they work? what are the pluses and minuses? no idea. that's ok. we have prepared something for you. how does a protein supp unit vaccine work in the protein supp unit vaccine? the surface proteins of south covey to known as spike proteins are inoculated in order for the body to recognise the spike proteins as a pathogen, and something to defend against active enhances at it. the body produces antibodies against the spike proteins, and thus neutralizes the virus. the effect enhances,
also called events, are part of every in activated vaccine. they are called in activated vaccines because the pathogen or the parts of the pathogen that are vaccinated are no longer capable of reproducing. what are the advantages of protein supp unit vaccines for people who do not want to be vaccinated with m r n a or vector vaccines? the novak's vaccine may be an alternative. they are also easy to store and transport. what are the disadvantages of protein subunit vaccines, protein sub unit vaccines take a long time to produce? and with an infectious disease that spreads rapidly and globally, speed is key. lacto vaccines from astrazeneca and johnson johnson offer another option for immunization. how do vector of vaccines work? these vaccines use a virus that is harmless to humans as a carrier,
to transport that genetic information of the corona, spike protein. they introduce the blueprint of the spike protein into the body cells using this blueprint, the body cells, and then produce the spike themselves. and in turn, initiate an immune response in which antibodies against sauce coffee 2 are formed. what are the advantages of vector vaccines? like vaccines are easy to adapt and can be produced quickly and large quantities. the combination of vector and m are in a vaccines, by the way, results in particularly good antibody production against cells covey to what are the disadvantages of that vaccines. the bodies immune response may be directed against the harmless vector virus, rather than the spike protein of the corona virus. this weakens the effect of the vaccine. in addition, thrombosis may occur in rare cases. this is
a side effect that mainly affects younger people. again, cells co v 2 m are in a vac scenes are in use for the 1st time. here to the body must produce the spike protein of the corona virus itself. how do m, r in a vaccines work, the genetic information that is the blueprint for the spike is transported into the human cells as m r n a. the m r n a is coded with lippard, substances which ensure that the m r. n. a remains sufficiently stable and can finally be red out in the body cells and translate it into the spike protein. this is followed by the immune response and the formation of the antibodies. what are the advantages of m r n, a vaccines? one of the most significant advantages of m, r n a vaccines is that they can be produced and customized very quickly in the lab . what are the disadvantages of m r n? a vaccines? many people remain unconvinced of the safety of this novel vaccine. nevertheless,
the technology is a great hope for science also with regard to other diseases. ah, more than 10000000000 cobit vaccine doses have already been administered world wide but in many countries, especially in africa, less than 10 percent of the population has been vaccinated. one reason is vaccine inequity, inadequate access to cove, it vaccines, something that south africa is determined to change it's the 1st for the continent. this inconspicuous building in an industrial area of cape town is the base for africa's own the vaccine technology. with vaccines in short supply in africa, the w h o and co vix initiative, let the drive to set up a local technology sharing platform. that's one of the positive legacies of
clothing. we now, in the last 8 months have seen this, this, this massive funding available now for by technology in south africa inc. i've done and also it in africa, f region as the company task with developing and producing affordable emron aic seems these are relatively new, but highly effective fixins that so far, only 2 major companies have commercialized buy and tech, and would dana, bio and tech will start production of it succeeds in south africa next year. so african was counting on cooperation with more, dana, the model was that we will, that is c for technology chance to in key technology transferred. but that didn't happen. so the team now is jumped in with al university partners and the knowledge base in south africa to develop that and vaccine. one of the key partners is in johannesburg. the antiviral gene feeder a pre research unit at which what us runs university. they have been working on em
are in a technology since 2015 as one of the only research units on the continent then are sharing their skills and knowledge with african. we have been able to, to take information which is available in the public domain to work out how the madana him or renee is produced. so we have the sequence and we have the context of that sequence which we've been able to reproduce. but of course, the purpose of that really is to uses a reference rather than as something which we want to try and use as a, as a product. so we would like to develop our an ideas and we are infecting that already. and compare that to the madonna vaccine. the team also has the job of developing a vaccine that is efficient against the new army kron variance. professor abdulla ali and the lies as the sequences of amik run cases that other laboratories discovered. we would be given. i file such as this,
and we will then have to make that into a physical dna sequence. what we want to do is perhaps in a few months have something ready to be able to test in mice. ah, once we know once we have a candidate that we know works well, it is, then i'm going to be to take that out to african. and for them to translate this into something that i can be produced at a much larger scale. this process includes clinical studies and we'll take yes, they can kept on peer to have launches, still hoping more, dan, that comes on board as this would speed up the process. or the anna has announced a pated waiver wild, the pin their make as the ongoing. but afterwards, no commercialization will be possible without its approval. we would like to have a voluntary license to be able to charles of this technology to other low and middle income countries, to use the platform for other vaccines. h i. v. tv. a bo law flew this hub and,
and the capacity capability building here is it is beyond cove. it. so this, this in fact is part of a strategy for, from africa to produce 60 percent will vaccines by 2040. so this is part of building an industry to day most vaccines use on the continent are imported. ephra janet, its partners aim to bring the 1st home grown products to market within 3. yes. ah, r d w science correspondent derek williams has been monitoring development since the beginning of the pandemic, and answering your questions if you're vaccinate it or recently recovered, how long will this protection last in and what if you're vaccinated and recovered? youtube, you are saber has a question about that. ah,
how effective is hybrid immunity? oh, okay. before we go any further, let's define this term. and my spring researchers began reporting on a phenomenon that they'd spot, which was that people who've been infected with sars, covey too. and then subsequently been vaccinated appeared afterwards to have kind of a, a turbocharged immune response to the virus with extremely high anti body levels. and they called it super immunity. and it was often postulated that super immunity was the strongest, longest lasting defense you could have against contracting the virus again, or at least for a good long while. then with the advent of the delta variance and and even more so since i'm a chron head,
we began seeing many more breakthrough infections. so that people who had one or 2, or sometimes even 3 doses of vaccine that they were getting co anyway. because it's a little more neutral than, than super immunity of the term hybrid immunity is now the one that researchers generally use to describe when someone has both had the virus and been vaccinated regardless of the order in which that happened. um, so how effective is hybrid immunity? well, let's get the cardiac out of the way. first, an immunity is, of course, individual and, and some people like the elderly and immunocompromised. and them experts say, even the double whammy of a vaccine course, plus having coven 19 that that probably won't provide the kind of forever
resistance that, that one would hope. um, there's also the problem of possible new variance appearing and weather existing immunity might protect against them. as well, a young member of my family for instance, had what was almost certainly the delta variant last summer after having had one shot. then she got a 2nd shot in the fall, but she still contracted what was very likely on a chron over christmas, at despite her hybrid immunity. on the positive side though of what was true for her, also appears to be true. for most people who have some form of hybrid immunity, which is that that 2nd infection was very mild. experts say that's because the combination of naturally acquired immunity and vaccine acquired immunity, that it provokes a more powerful antibody response,
and also an in depth immunological response than that seen. and those who have either only been vaccinated or who have only recovered from an infection. so, hybrid immunity, they say, should protect most people well against subsequent exposures. at least in the short term. still, authorities born that it's a bad idea to expose yourself on purpose to the virus after being vaccinated with the goal of acquiring hybrid immunity. i'm 1st because there are no guarantees that you'll have a mild case and 2nd, because you might end up giving it to others. and, and 3rd, because we still know just too little about long coded after breakthrough infections . according to the world health organization,
some $300.00 coven vaccines are under development world wide. turkey recently gave the green light for a locally made inactivated vaccine, which is already being used as a booster shot. but there are still questions surrounding its effectiveness. barker responded eulley a ha reports from istanbul. lu, queuing for a well prim yet. at this east symbol hospital, people have been receiving the taco vaccine. since the beginning of the year. the 1st colbert 19 jap, developed and produced in turkey, took walk to do to go. i have more trust until callback than in other vaccines because it's made by my own country. it is still there to go up to more. i wish they had launched to go back sooner. i would have gotten it for all my shots school . i've looked them to believe me on the i haven't been vaccinated at all until today. i waited for turco box because i trust our turkish scientists more than
those abroad. a sham was engaged in for president reggie ty, about one took havoc as a symbol of national strength with its own vaccine. he says, turkey is one of the most innovative progressive countries in the world and no longer dependent on others. oh, there is in general from the countries independent doctors union criticizes the fact that hardly any data on to a callback has been published. that is why she isn't recommending the new vaccine. political success, she says, seems to be more important to the government than scientific accuracy formula they are, i can't evaluate how effective this vaccine is, because i don't have the necessary information. the results of the phase one and phase 2 studies have not been published. we also know next to nothing about phase 3 interview until we have the scientific facts. we can't consider this a vaccine,
but just some kind of liquid, the head argument. so just young. as in many countries, ami kron is behind the number of new infections, rapidly surging. here in turkey, the lexy nation rate is comparatively high. about 85 percent of adults have received at least 2 japs. but the uncertainty surrounding took havoc is causing concern to call o'clock. we don't know much about 2 o'clock yet. that's why i don't think it's very safe beating that i wouldn't take it because i haven't seen scientific data in studies about it. mr. mccloud, it out of the didn't saw was an old little vision router, wouldn't it? intervals me, i will get my 3rd dose of by and tech today. i don't trust the turkish. maxine, i have my doubts, stress is equal. i renewed them nor a teen yee has overseen taco vox development. he says the warriors are unfounded. the turkish maxine is a safe and effective as others. it can limit the image the bit you. we have all
figures and all studies show show. we do not have the slightest concern or doubt in terms of its effectiveness being vaccinated is better than not being vaccinated at all. if turco voc helps us convinced those who are unvaccinated, that would be one of our greatest achievements which itself will cause a loser. bullshit, over the next few months, as many people as possible are expected to also get their booster shots with turkey's own vaccine. and soon, according to the government's plan, to collect will be delivered to other countries, to help them in the fight against cove it ah reporters regularly consult experts about the latest research on the corona virus. for example, how exactly does our immune system respond when it's exposed to the virus?
our reporter stephanie tolbert, spoke to immunology, reinhold foster, a researcher at hanover medical school, to find out more. professor reinhold foster, thanks for joining us. we're going to be talking about the immune response towards the corona virus and how it differs depending on whether you are vaccinated or recovered. what's the difference between the immune response after vaccination compared to someone who's already recovered from the disease? no, not intrigues. you said see, to see moon justine read after an, an since the immune system taxes the virus in its entirety. in essentially we develop immune responses to law. the virus has components viewers, which give us a fairly broad based immunity. i english lake right also. what exactly do we need the immune system to respond to? he? oh, man on the moon, on, on the hatton young, yet sidney, that snyder hope yon when see him over the last year and
a half. and we've been busy trying to induce her sponsors against the spike protein and data. and our vaccines are based on that. and, but an info from become of your swarm in were an immune until the vaccines only give us an immune response to this relatively large high protein, but not against the other virus components. unhappy says spike protein, dis, hugginsville. well does this protein was selected because the virus cannot infect cells without it and the cell it will include seo and, and if you develop neutralizing antibodies hope and they'll have the ability to suppress an infection of cells to infect your fun. saelens will not, he hadn't yet you mentioned a previous infection providing a broader immune response in one and but what provides the greater immunity, any of the vaccination or natural infection and recovery the phenomena. and are there individual differences or cedar talking? sure, relative clauses. wonder where the differences are relatively big. now i live on
the one hand. busy protection after an infection is broader, but not very deeply feeling fujian is i have been a range of studies looking at the immune response among people who have recovered from the virus nice and comparing it with the response among vaccinated people in even at warden. he info to her on diocese and we do see that overall people who are triple vaccinated have developed a far higher response to at least us by protein mentors than people who have recovered from an infection isis dimension. dina, a crown colby denise's, easy design. how about combining different immunization options deal now such as cross vaccinating with different vaccines most often, or a previous infection combined with vaccination, victo until and why is hybrid immunity considered particularly effective on her stock? the hour to an important issue. we don't really know. i live,
we have observed that cross or hybrid immunization is far better than 2 or 3 doses of the same vaccine as shown in our own studies and others to get signed under the studio type is class that we've also seen that people who got infected early on and have then had one or 2 vaccine shots have an extremely good immune response. but even when you see it dusty and extreme quarter, one does have life damage. this might be because there was enough time after the infection for memory, so for memory. so i was, and the 2nd or 3rd immunization. so you can then cause these memory cells to multiply very quickly, you know, x 3, enabling them to give the body a very high level of protection. don't stick. what explains the high infection rates with alma kron? and if someone is vaccinated or recover or does that make a difference from the mission fighting on this, we have to make
a distinction here between catching the virus and becoming seriously younger, had the gun. since i'll make con very and had a whole range of mutations to the spike protein, the virus needs to infect cells, fit in the in want to seal immunization creates antibodies. but those are now no longer as effective for inhibiting an infection with omicron min, omicron, to pin. that's just a cfc that mention. and that's why a lot of people are getting infected by the triple vaccination. that's, we've seen studies showing that protection against micron disappeared around 10 weeks after the 3rd vaccination is you want me to the big difference compared to the unvaccinated or was it what is the progression of the, on the ground cut dice? and that's what trip vaccinate people are extremely well protected compared to the unvaccinated. like to meet him, professor foster, thanks for talking to
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