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tv   Conflict Zone - Guest Shafiullah Azam  Deutsche Welle  February 11, 2022 11:30am-12:01pm CET

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coven 19 special. next on d. w. ah! what secrets lie behind these walls? discover new adventures in 360 degrees. and explore fascinating world heritage sites. d w world heritage 360. get the out now. oh, many countries around the world are using their measures to curb the corona, virus pandemic, with more liberties and fewer restrictions. again, spain is one of them. and so is the south africa hopes are rising here, that the pandemic will soon become endemic, promising an end to restrictions. so how my coven 19 become endemic?
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and what would that mean? our topic on this week's coven. 19 special welcome. to day is an important day for c panel, honey. born in 2 years ago, financial problems and the pandemic forced him to close his bond dress to rent and cape towns, kylie cha township. but now he's fine in the re opening over the quote that's a little things that we need to put your eggs and different buckskin. and also we need to try and think outside the building. because i mean, for me, i don't test the storm from whatever bed situation that i mean, i always new proposal. 2 things that i can do, instead of complaining after nearly 2 years, most lockdown restrictions were lifted, including in that liqueur. few tourists have once again been pouring into the country. they had been mass cancellations. lowering the discovery of the army crohn
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variant life is slowly getting back to normal. here in cape song was decreasing numbers in you cove. it infections data from south africa suggests, although all micron is much more infectious, the amount of people that were admitted to hospitals was much lower than during previous waves. many. yeah, hoping that we're seeing the beginning of the end of the pandemic. i saw ways that i won't even hear, but the, the name holbert, that is what we're wishing for today, and i see everyone is going out and about connect thing going outside of been love exec data. now this will how long now i hope that only god is actually defined seen over this merit to see slash enjoyment. this i should happen as the i'm so happy that the business is booming. people to start making money out. kind of officially open when last with us, these tyesha says hit with him business. i'm glad that we can get to come here and
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enjoy. many scientists are also optimistic despite the low vaccination rate by religious to wolfgang plaza. says that many south africans had already been infected with the corona virus before the only crone waif. hospital data show that a prior corona, virus infection or vaccination, provides protection against severe illness. also with the army kron variant them and on on when you arrive at a situation like the one we have here now where nearly everyone is recovered from an infection or has been vaccinated, and then you can relax hamilton off edge, fall under as i'd of course it's summer here on during much of the 4th wave here. our schools were on holiday valley in big ed equals in europe. the school holiday was much shorter under schools starting again at the companies that took an annual holiday or back at work to. and of course, it's winter when people spend much more time together in doors was on for playing. does efficient draws are major differences. there's. that's why you can't just
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expect things in europe to go exactly the way they have in south africa. wifi, as you'd africa, pies or hopes that the pandemic could become endemic s with other corona viruses. if most of the population has a basic immunity from previous infection or vaccination on heger to gun ocoee or flu dust v, i still have hope that will be able to avoid the need for regular booster shots coming. good fortune, thus fear in, let's say that everyone is fully vaccinated and boosted and, and perhaps also gets an omicron specific booster during the coming year. and a shitty fish on me called booster hom on fe, not really hits. they still have new blue ashland also say we don't suddenly find ourselves confronted with a nasty surprise in the form of another new variable team, cuz then we might be able to maintain a decent level of immunity with regular re infection. the so catchment in buells early because no one wants to think about more mutations right now in the middle restaurant and bar. certainly not illness. he believes he already has big plans and
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wants to expands to other cities. he believes that the prospects was on the africa once again. the good and what about germany and europe? here, the rate of new infections has hit record levels. tens of thousands are catching kelvin 19 and passing it on. we seem to be at its mercy, and we're sick of it all. here in the newsroom talk, revolves mainly around one question. will life ever return to normal loc, down's contact restrictions? schools, opening schools, closing, and a series of new south covey to variance each in some ways, worse than the last. when will this pandemic end? when will the virus become endemic? and what does that even mean?
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that we can go back to our pre pandemic ways. nice thought, but it's still a pandemic out there. so let's take a look at where we are right now. in a pandemic, a disease spreads across national borders and continence south covey to affect the entire world. opened m x eventually end, but no one can say exactly when the current one will be over. the spanish flu is an example of an influenza pandemic that's thought to have killed between 50 and a 100000000 people. it lasted around 3 years. the 7th cora pandemic began and south asia in 1961 and continues to this day. it leads up to $140000.00 death annually. after 2 years of a nonstop cove at 19 pandemic, with millions of people dead, and billions more vaccinated, recovered or both, there's increasing talk of the corona virus becoming endemic. what does that mean?
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in engine greek and demos means among the people. so if sas coffee too is endemic, it's come to stay. however, and demick viruses are not equally present everywhere all the time. although endemic viruses circulate nonstop within particular populations, the number of infections can fluctuate based. for example, on the seasons. other cold viruses demonstrate this winter time is cold season. this will not change next winter or the winter after that. it's predictable. malaria is an example of an endemic infectious disease. that's a major problem, particularly in certain african regions and malaria. it's also a good example of a popular misconception that an endemic pathogen is automatically alison dangerous
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pathogen. it isn't. according to the world health organization, malaria killed 627000 people in 2020 alone. on the other hand, there are several and demi corona viruses that usually only cause fairly harmless, cold like symptoms. so what will happen with soft copy to the only chron variant of the virus has many people hoping that in the future the majority of covet infections will be mild. however, we don't know what variant might be just around the corner. what is clear, though, is that we'll have to continue to live with south covey to in the future. ah, nonetheless, some european countries including denmark, spain, and the u. k, have already decided to roll back anti virus measures. most are aware that it's something of an experiment along the lines of let's see what happens. we take
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a look at what's happening in the spanish capital madrid here in madrid. cafes are full to the brim with people enjoying the afternoon sun. no one seems to be worried that a guest at the next table could have cove it. a number of corona virus restrictions have already been rolled back here. but most importantly, we have to free ourselves of this fear. you can't live in constant fear of you. the most it is that you're gay out of viruses become quite a bit less dangerous. reasonably alcohol, all by sunday they'll go say it, him. we're learning to lay with the virus other than just as we have with the flu and with other viruses. they know the address. my name is gavin, on data meant in this relaxed mood is partly due to the success of spain's vaccination program. more than 80 percent of the population has received at least 2
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jobs and hospitalization. rates are also on the decline. that's also why the spanish government has announced it's planning to lift a series of other restrictions that includes ramping down corona virus testing and easing quarantine rules. it flew instead of a deadly pandemic. this is how prime and is thus sanchez wants to treat the corona virus in the future and he sees them serve as a pioneer in europe. but they're also critics that say that it's too early for such experiments. they points out that many spanish clinics continue to work at their limits. one of spain's leading corona virus experts, ease of as sola is also urging caution. she's a researcher at spain's national center of biotechnology color, vito's white muslin gun can must stay prepared for surprises. young, the way the virus will develop is something we can't predict. the virus wants to
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keep spreading. what asked the guns. so that might mean that infections will become less severe over time. but the exact opposite could also be true. yeah. my series of what the asshole of adequate for the moment many in spain seemed to welcome the easing of restrictions almost 2 years into the pandemic. they are ready to believe that the dangerous past many experts in germany are also urging caution d. w reporter stephanie sobel. spoke with professor hi o z 8th. the bremen based epidemiologist has earned the reputation of being a voice of call in the pandemic storm. professor. hello sir. hi old st. louis. thanks for talking to us. many hope the coven 19 will become endemic, and all the suffering under the pandemic will end. would that be the case esl and immunized mish does the stung him damage? doesn't mean that it's entirely over or that it's no longer a threat depending on virus mutations. the situation could change and covert could
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become an epidemic again and spread at a higher rate again, even if this doesn't happen, even if the infection rates don't suddenly search much when the house and then demick disease still means people will still be getting him affected and getting sick, i will have to take appropriate measures to deal with that and make sure that our hospitals can cope. so our precautions, our public health and hygiene measures of it will still be a part of everyday life. in an endemic scenario, the emissions which was shown very soon my talk is and it's an endemic sars virus, less dangerous. you my lunch would say it might be less dangerous. yes. but that would take 2 things. first, the biological severity would have to be lower, meaning there would be fewer serious cases and lower mortality rates. you'll see that change over time through biological evolution. where and 2nd,
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tell you our response to the virus is also a factor that includes the immunity we achieve through effective vaccination campaigns, as well as the immunity achieve through infection. martin soon done ice and 3rd, there are also various counter measures like social distance things, wearing masks, and so on or can all of those would help level out the infection rates were authorized. your history book. and we held, the pandemic become an endemic scenario and and minutes released. yes, we can. of course, 1st of all, by building up our immunity, especially by way of high vaccination rates and high rates everywhere, small dozens of movies. that's how we might be able to achieve this endemic stains . we're like, ma'am, when you teach, by knocking sure that our immunity is robust enough to prevent sudden epidemic outbreaks on da saxon nation is key. can i know? is it possible to maintain an endemic state in a globalized world? l?
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this is a good, that's a good question. one of the big ones we conditions for that would be eliminating these huge, drastic disparities in immunization rates around the world. that's why the world health organization, for example, is constantly emphasizing that we need vaccine equity. high vaccination rates in all countries. distributing vaccines as evenly as possible will help us achieve this endemic stadium. when a few countries have extremely high vaccination rate, but other countries are very low rate. that's where the conditions are right for the virus to continue to spread and mutate and done. that's what helps create problems. which in a global context could lead to a resurgence of the epidemic over and over, which would sweep around the world. moby done oil switching way if you didn't know what it is, all good, whatever scenarios are there, the skin, there are several well turning of scenarios. one would be to actually defeat to
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eliminate the corona virus. take china for example, which is sticking to its 0 co policy. they are pursuing a policy of keeping cove it out of their country in the short term and especially in the long term. and it's easy to see why that's not a particularly pragmatic approach or not. they would have to steer clear of all sorts of global activities or build very high walls to keep the virus out. sheet medical bags rags me is very difficult. as an illusions below in human history, there are only a few viruses we've managed to eradicate when launched for sale. it's mentioned on, on the soil. we did it with smallpox. i'm with the global vaccination program, but that's one of the rare exceptions regional fus name on the loan about us either being awesome. professor hyatt same thanks for joining us today. thank you to now to d, w science editor derek williams, who's been following developments and answering your questions since the onset of
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the pandemic this week, you tube user one pedro sierra asked why did the spanish flu pandemic end, even though they never developed treatments or vaccine all in 1918, just as she manatee began to, to stagger towards the end of what, at that point was the most destructive conflict in human history. a new flu virus appeared that would later be called the spanish flu. now that name was an accurate and since the disease didn't show up in spain 1st, it was only the 1st place that newspapers began to report on it. the virus that caused the new flu was a sub type called h one and one. and thought that during the pandemic that rolled over the world and the following couple of years around one in 3 people were infected by the
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pathogen. we don't have records good enough to make exact calculations of the destruction that it caused, but, but most estimate say the virus claimed between 50 and a 100000000 victims of that would have been around one in 25 people on the planet at the time. then 3 years into the pandemic, the spanish flu seemed to fade away without any clear explanation. it just sort of trailed off, no one at the time really knew why. now, experts postulate that it was because without vaccines, that's how long it took to acquire a measure of global herd protection through infection. when enough people grew immune enough to the pathogen,
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to stop spreading it to others. transmission sputtered and died. or did it really? that's a really interesting aspect of the narrative experts say, because even though mass death, due to the pandemic, ended in the early 19 twenty's, the virus that caused it didn't just disappear. instead, they think the immunity developed by large swaths of the population drove the pathogen to mutate and it mutated into less deadly forms. in fact, researchers who analyzed genomes and flu viruses that circulate today have identified genetic similarities that link them to the h one n one virus. that 1st appeared in 1918. that original virus has been sequenced from, from long samples taken from people who died from the virus back then. in that
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sense, the spanish flu virus is, is still with us today. it's just evolved to be less virulent, but it also occasionally then evolves further and can throw out a deadlier variance and strains, though, at least so far. never any as, as deadly as its distant ancestor. boom. and now for some animals with superpowers, such as sharks, camels and their cousins in south america alpaca as scientists have found neutralizing antibodies to the corona virus and its variance in these species. good animals help bring in end to the pandemic. that probably began in an animal at 1st glance, this south american alpaca looks like an ordinary animal. but to scientists
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think could help us fight the corona, virus pan demik with a herd of 19 alpaca as a living on the campus of austell university in val dea, southern chile biochemist. alejandro. who house is conducting research, working with the l pack? has it been this mail alpaca is called buddha. yes, he is developed neutralizing antibodies against a number of coven 19 barons including oma crocker, lincoln. the scientists 1st vaccinated the alpaca with surfaced proteins from the cove. it 19 virus. then they took a blood sample and found nano bodies that can neutralize sas cove to viruses. nano bodies are much smaller than normal antibodies. their structure is also less
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complex and they're quite easy to reproduce using yeast cultures. for example. where nano bodies are only produced by tamar leds, so our packages, lamas, camels and drama, dairies, and by sharks. even before the pandemic began, ross and his team found it and publicised an initiative aimed at combating emerging viruses. but they didn't have any animals to work with me until an unexpected visitor turned up. electro mucus in 2019 a buddhist monk who wants to help us came to visit to fiona to colorado. he gave us for our pakistan. good. kim, in one of them was buddha. then we had a deal. go below tara and pedro who were yahoo? no, the legal, they haven't just produced antibodies to fight sars. go to like buddha. oh, what against other viruses to like nepa virus and hendrick virus. me. pedro here,
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for example, a boat interpreter there is such doesn't harm the, our pack has once a year they are vaccinated by vets who then take a small sample of blood, the animals can't fall by veterinarian to raise a pinto. but i meant this uncommon if that not they like pants, they eat out of her hands, sam alone, we don't care of them and love them. you know, at 1st they wouldn't come near us. but now there will no longer strength line a presence not done. if we treat them very well, we have in the downtown as well being. it's extremely important to us sally, in val d via in southern chile, at austell universities laboratory for medical biotechnology raw has sent his team, have peyton tit, 13 nano bodies that directly target saws cove 2 viruses. now they want to use the elpac as nano bodies to develop a drug to treat coven 19 for grow. remember,
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that will know this involves mixing the l pack on nano bodies with a fragment of a human antibody, so that it is accepted by the human immune system. the drug could be inhaled or administered in the form of a nasal spray or injection, and help to prevent severe or fatal cases of coven 19. but the scientists need financial support to develop the drug. and so far, the chilean government hasn't offered funding. muscle are going to go more, come up if you it's not just about developing an antiviral. 3rd, legal research, covey tools to look at. i'm been, look up your book. what also showing that here in a remote place like southern chilling, we're capable of developing a technology that can help bring a global pandemic under control. more that go more in sort that the scientists in chile aren't the only ones researching alpaca, nano bodies. there's
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a similar initiative underway at the university of san francisco and in germany, the university of barnes and the max planck institute in getting and are engaged in nano body research. but the scientists here in chile are a step ahead. when a dealer get under with that, one of the big advantages of developing antibodies from becoming vincent schilling is that here, the al packers and lamas are in their natural habitat embargo unless emma at the university campus, the al packers have their own enclosure, covering more than 3 hectares of land where they're free to roam, sleep and feed. the scientists haven't just given the our packers names. they've also discovered distinct personality traits. we're talking about the meal buddha is a bit shy bit, and when not people around them, he won't need out of my hand. seneca widow and he's not so keen on people, he doesn't know where you are. it's in every way out there. what is him?
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blow in, but others that are like don e o for example, get out and i will eat out of anyone's hand in a committed. i know they all have different personalities. lingo betty. think that personally i despite his shyness, buddha is quite the star on social media. he has nearly $17000.00 followers on instagram alone, letterbug us, some of the alternatives provide an alternative solution to monoclonal antibodies that is much cheaper monica in the coming years will have probably seen many products developed in the immune the systems of these animals wonderful animals with the necessary funding, the al packers may be able to help us both in this pandemic and in future ones, too. alejandro has sent his team
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a convinced of that. so that's all for this week. maybe you have a question for derek williams. right to us, and join us next time for a fresh addition of our coven. 19 special. good bye for now and take care. mm hm. ah ah. with
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who to the point. strong opinions, clear positions, international perspectives. half chinese leader, she ging paying and russian president vladimir putin joined forces against the west . is democracy under pressure and how should nato and be you respond to the challenge, find out on to the point to the point with
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ah, this is dw news life from berlin. the us warns of russian invasion of ukraine to come at any time. secretary of state lincoln calls for more dialogue, even as the u. s. president tells americans to leave ukraine now. can diplomacy still be the answer to this crisis? also coming up competing claims to the post of libyan prime minister, a rift threatened to tear apart the countries unity government only a year.


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