The Office of Indian Education (OIE) helps support local education agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, postsecondary institutions, and other entities in their efforts to address the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) so that these students can meet the same challenging state standards as all students. The Office of Indian Education has worked with the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) to identify issues for study and to design surveys that will inform these issues of concern to the community. This work has meant increasing the numbers of American Indian and Alaska Native children in study samples in some surveys to be able to report on the population. In the case of the National Indian Education Study (NIES), NCES has conducted a separate survey focusing on Indian education and the role of Indian culture in education. Other studies and reports make information on the educational status and progress of American Indians and Alaska Natives easily accessible from NCES and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The Executive Order on American Indian and Alaska Native Education is designed to assist American Indian and Alaska Native students in meeting the challenging student academic standards of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110) in a manner that is consistent with tribal traditions, languages, and cultures. This order builds on the innovations, reforms, and high standards of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including the following: stronger accountability for results; greater flexibility in the use of federal funds; more choices for parents; and an emphasis on research-based instruction that works. Section 3 of the Order states that the Secretary of Education, in coordination with the Working Group, shall conduct a multiyear study of American Indian and Alaska Native education in relation to the challenging student academic standards of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This publication introduces some of those studies that have data and that can be used to examine the education of American Indian and Alaska Native students.