>> he was trying to emulate his father. >> mcarthur created the famed 42nd rainbow division by dividing various national guard units from 26 different states and the district of columbia. when they sailed that october of 1917, colonel douglas mcarthur was its chief of staff. >> movements of men rather than machines. >> mcarthur was a dashing man. >> mcarthur did not look like anybody else. he wore an enormous scarf that his mother had knitted. the thing was about 10 feet long and wrapped around his neck. he was happy to take whatever the supply sergeant gave him. >> not everyone was e na enamor
mcarthur's style. >> he would often upgrade him with the way he dressed and everything like that. >> describe his experience in combat? in world war i. >> mcarthur was, to my mind, was the greatest combat soldier the united states has ever produced. he was not simply brave. he was very smart. he was a problem solver. [ explosions ] >> october, 1918, on a hill known as shat toe, american forces were slaughtered by machine guns. >> it was trying to take a very small and well protected hill. that division had to be pulled up to the. . >> it was then that mcarthur had to devise a plan. >> he was the only survivor.
the one weakness in the german defense. and the hill was patient. it was an absolutely brilliant piece of combat leadership. >> as seen in this film, now awarding the brigadier general the distinguished service krcro for his bravery. >> well, mcarthur wasn't happy. he figured this was his only chance to get the medal of honor. he didn't think it was right for a general to be giving the big one, the medal of honor, to other generals. >> that winter, douglas recovered to exposure to poison gas. he also fell in love with his nurse. >> i think there was a florence nightengale-type of romance. >> back from the war, mcarthur's next assignment was to
>> does he make any changes in the way things looked? >> mcarthur felt that west point was not just behind the times, it was at least a generation behind. >> did they resent what he was trying to do? >> there's some things, cadets and faculty found bewildering. he had cadets writing poetry. he said, look, you've got to read a newspaper every day. he brought civilian instructors into the faculty. mcarthur loved innovation. >> now, in her 60s, pinky was living with douglas in the superintendent quarters. >> his mother was a possessive woman. there was no getting around that. no one was ever going to be quite good enough for douglas. >> she goes to a football game at west point and meets douglas mcarthur. >> louise was a vivacious, 31-year-old american heiress whose industrial stepfather was worts moworth more than $150
million. mcarthur was clearly submiten. >> a vol luminous set of cards. >> did mom interfere at all in the day-to-day relationship? resented it? >> strongly. >> and there was other interference from general blackjack persing. louise had served as his "ho "hoste "hostess" in paris. >> mcarthur married louise brooks who percy intended to marry off to one of his favorite aides. and mcarthur came along and ruined that relationship. >> they were definitely exiled to the philippines. and the whole army knew mcarthur's been fired.
mcarthur was not being taken down just one peg, but half a dozen pegs. >> that september of 1922, unwilling to command a post unworthy of his rank, yet dear to his heart. >> douglas gets a wire. mother is sick. she's near death. come home. >> mcarthur immediately packs them all up again. >> pinky recovered. in 1923, douglas' surviving brother, a navy captain died of a burst apen digs. their marriage was collapses. >> she always try today get him out of the army. louise is also like the mother, had a lot of personal pull, used her father's connections, as well. got to the point where he saw the wealth as a very sickening thing. >> but mcarthur's general obstacle is gone.
percy retired. he became army chief of staff in 1930 wearing four stars. during those last days of the jazz age, mcarthur's term ended. >> louise wants to be a flapper girl. mcarthur wants no part of it. >> he immersed himself in work and built his own war department family, k4 included a young major, dwighten hower. he also fell in love again. >> when he first started dating her, she was 16. >> she was a young philippine. he's living with his mother at ft.myer who would just be a agassed that not only does he
have a mistress, but that she's philippine. by 1932, unemployment hit 20%. especially hard hit? the veterans of world war i who were promised a thousand dollar bonus who were demanding pay. >> mcarthur was a victim of molsey, the assistant chief of staff. her bebert hoover knew that it would be a terrible mistake to have the army go across the river and into the main camp. and he had an odd sense telling him do not cross the bridge.
he made sure that that wire did not reach mcarthur. >> what was mosley smoking? >> he felt that he should be driven out of washington. >> people believed that the army burned down the camp. it didn't. the washington police had burned down the camp. >> his very abled, a, dwight b. eisenhowerely exonerated the army. >> when the japanese attacked the philippines, mcarthur was the philippines, mcarthur was forced to
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franklin delanor roosevelt in 1954. after the bonus march disaster, the first lady and the press viewed mcarthur with suspicion. and things didn't improve when he sued columnist drew pearson to the tune of $1.75 million. >> and at that time, they became apparent in pearson. they were intrigued by a bunch of letters and came to him and said either you drop the suit or we're going to counter sue and put her on the stand. >> mcarthur paid his former mistress 1$15,000 not to take te stand. the public was fascinated with the colorful general. what f.d.r. really needed was to help put america to work. >> mcarthur definitely thought of roosevelt as an intellectual equal. >> mcarthur mobilized 275,000
citizens f they were put to work in a civilian conservation corps. but inside the army, morale was dwindling. mcarthur was furious when the private salary was cut to $17.85 a month and only 16,000 soldiers stood combat ready. emperor hito and his war lords were in the pacific. douglas' own friend knew his fledgling nation was a target. the now four-star general needed a new job. his term as chief of staff was over. >> mcarthur was highest in overseeing the creation. >> is he still on active duty as an army general? >> he goes onto the retired list, but he's being paid by the government of the philippines
and roosevelt knew what mcarthur was getting. >> on a long voyage, mcarthur met a petite woman from tennessee. >> jean, as a young girl, was very independent. she made several round-the-world trips. >> i found a lovely basket of flowers from general mcarthur to me. >> pinky fell i'll. and happiness had to wait. >> the general's mother died. >> with jean's help, he slowly
began to return to his old self. >> she was the one he could sound things out on. >> mcarthur spent his days working with his chief of staff, dwight eisenhower. jean grew especially closeeis r eisenhower's wife, mami. >> i drew down to mami's apartmentmented and we talked for hours. >> one day, mcarthur had an aide escort jean to his office. nearly everyone was surprised when they married in new york on april 30th, 1837. eight months after marrying jean, he fully retired from the u.s. army. he was now a strict military advisor to the philippines.
>> people would say i didn't think you had it in you. and he said i didn't think i had it in me, either. >> the f.b.i. called mcarthur back into service. douglas referred to it as his destiny. >> i can remember it. >> when pearl harbor was attacked, mcarthur ordered reconnaissance flights in the philippines.
>> mcarthur made an assessment that the philippines, it matly, cannot be held. >> everyone knew that the philippines could not be held. >> i remember the number. >> i remember the confusion. i think i've seen enough. >> the news was tightening, but mcarthur rallied his troops. >> it starts out your men are to hold out because thousands of men and hundreds of airplanes aren the way. >> you do everything you can that's possible. >> by march of 42, the japanese
juggernaut overwhelmed the exhausted and under-fed philippine troops. 78,000 on the pe fins la. a very reluctant mcarthur was ordered to the safety of australia. >> mcarthur wanted to die with a gun in his face on the ground in front of the enemy. >> the president also left, but before he did, he settled his debts with mcarthur. >> there's a philippine that causes great controversy. >> yes, but mcarthur had a ten-year contract. so the president said it's not your fault and he paid mcarthur for the whole ten years. $500,000.
it would be like $5 million now. >> and they had a conference. >> what they decided was that general wayneright would be in charge of the philippines. mcarthur assured him he'd come back as soon as i can with as much as i can. >> he felt like he had been betrayed for washington. >> he was put up with the medal of honor. as eisenhower said, the medal of honor should not be given to someone staying in a tunnel. >> wayneright surrendered brigadier on september 6th. >> when he is released, there's a very emotional embrace between him and mcarthur. >> wayneright had not really
handled the defensive camp very well. if he died, then he should have gotten the medal of honor. >> it's become a strategy. it was superb. he left the enemy die on the vine. finally, october of 44, mcarthur made a triumphant return and his enemies used the occasion to spread a vicious rumor. >> why did mcarthur believe it would take several takes? >> absolutely false. >> absolutely false. >> you're
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that brought japan to her knees were delivered three days over august, 1945. >> how does mcarthur end up with if detail of what happens on the deck of the missouri. >> they felt that we had, indeed, done most of the fighting out here. the ma leans always claiming that the army brings rank. and mcarthur had the rank to do it. >> was there any discussion of proprie propriety? >> i think there may have been a little matching in the white house. >> i now invite the representatives of the emperor of japan. >> the nine member japanese delegation watched in stony silence as two newly-freed prisoners of war stepped forward.
>> mcarthur gave the men signing pens. it was an emotional moment. >> i thought if the old man can do it, i can do it. >> frank sackton went to work for the supreme commander. >> i think we accomplished that pretty well. they were going to be very kind to the people. and that's the orders from here. >> but there were also war criminals to prosecute.
>> despite thousands of documented atrocities, only 28 japanese class a war criminals stood striel. >> you cannot run a country without the occupation of the people who lived there. >> the emperor, his likes, dislikes. moffered the emperor a cigarette and he took it and he said i want you to know that i am responsible for everything that occurred in the war. >> another west point graduate remembered bringing prime minister yoshida to the general.
>> he had come out of mcarthur's office bowing because he just couldn't imagine a system anything other than the democratic way. >> if he didn't like you, urn out. he let it be known very early on when he first arrived, that all of these were his ideas. >> i am the boss. >> so this message should be given drektly to general mcarthur. >> then, a 27-year-old war officer was a long way from kansas when he became mcarthur's
chief administrative officer. >> the next thing i heard general turf was on his way to korea. that's when we decided to move forces into korea. how many forces in japan were available to go immediately to korea. system. >> without support from washington, mcarthur conceived a daring plane. >> dispatched from jcs to compel mcarthur that he could not execute on base. the first response came saying what a cockamamey plan.
he put his pipe in the ashtray and walked out of the room. >> 70,000 troops indicated mcarthur as a genius. president truman deteriorated. >> truman's staff could not hear a thing. >> 300,000 were in north korea. on april 10 vt, 1951, mcarthur was the last to find out he'd been fired. >> mrs. mcarthur called me and she said lieutenant, are you listening to the news. i said yes, ma'am.
she said you must have a message on your desk. and i went into his office and he said what? and i said that's the best i recall. >> you are relieved of your core commanders. he put his hand on my shoulders and said son, you will learn to accept changes like this. >> he may have been fired, but america still loved mcarthur. coming up, the retired life of an old soldier.
less than 24 hours after being fired, mcarthur returned to the united states. he received a hero's welcome. >> he came. he saw. he conquered. >> he gaf an address to congress. and he ended it with a surprise. >> those soldiers never die. they just fade away. >> a lot of people were looking to him to come back and not only denounce the truman administration's ideas of what to do, but to give his own ideas of what should be done. >> mcarthur settled in new york city. home of one of the city's most opulent hotels, the waldorf towers.
>> the largest tower in the waldorf. he had a lot of space to pace. >> at 71, he became chairman of the board of remmington rand corporation. >> he very seldom went out. >> in may, 1952, he made his final visit to west point and, perhaps, his most famous speech. >> i bid you farewell. >> all the the cadets in there, you could hear a pin drop.
>> he never waivered that the real soldiers were the fighting men. up until the very end, the president still sought his advice. >> johnson came to visit mcarthur in the hospital. and he said don't get involved. >> he was a great general with almost every medal you can get in the world. he's just shrinking away and dying. >> with jean and his son, arthur, at his bedside, the 84-year-old warrior died on april 5th, 1864. >> the body was moved to the rotunda down in washington. >> jean would remain in the public eye, active in various charities. and, in 1988, president ronald reagan awarded her the presidential medal of freedom and the devotion of her only child, arthur, never faltered. >> he would have dinner with her every single day undill stil sh passed on at 101.
if peace is a time when one waits for war and war is a time when one waits for peace, that is certainly the way it was in the 52 yearlong military career of douglas mcarthur. though he had been accused of being a warmonger, he said nothing could be further from the truth. he said i know wars few other living men now know it. and nothing to me is more revolting. there's no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end. in war, indeed, there can be no substitute for victory.
from the u.s. military academy in west point, i'm oliver north, good night. >> mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. stossel: they soon did. but now some americans say things like this. >> capitalism is an evil system set up to benefit the few at the expense of the many. stossel: really? how is the alternative working out? >> there is no fresh bread or meat on sale. stossel: presidenpresident obams us to open relationships with cuba. >> we will end an outdated approach that fails to advance our interests. >> what are our interests? many americans think communism is just fine. >> who is on your shirt? che. >> communism versus capitalism, th