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tv   Journal  PBS  October 6, 2011 6:00pm-6:30pm PDT

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>> hello and welcome to "the journal" in berlin. >> thanks for joining us. >> here is that the headlines as though the world's tennis -- here are the headlines. the world remembers and mourns steve jobs. the man of images and metaphors, the swedish poet tomas tranströmer wins the nobel prize in literature. the world of computing and technology is mourning a major loss, the co-founder of apple, steve jobs, died on wednesday after losing his battle with pancreatic cancer. >> tributes have been pouring in
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from around the world. president barack obama said that the world have lost a visionary and a great american innovator. >> the ipod, the iphone, and the ipad were all brainchild's of jobs. >> a tribute to the man read, "to those of us that have been fortunate enough to know and work with steve have lost a dear man and inspiring mentotor." he he revolutionized the world with these products. he said that this was more than just personal computing. >> in 2010, we added the ipad. >> jobs was and innovator and a
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self-made millionaire. it all started in this california garage. at age of 21, he assembled the first apple computer promptly drummed out of university. this was the beginning of a skyrocketing career despite some setbacks. in 1985, jobs was forced out of the firm after an internal power struggle. he went on to buy the company that became picks are animation studios. films like "toe toys story" set the standard for computer animated movies. he returned to apple. the company was on the verge of bankruptcy. he revived its fortunes with revolutionary products starting with the ipod. it is now one of the most revolutionary firms. many were moved when they reflected on his death. >> i am really really sad about
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this. he has been a great visionary and he revolutionized their communications world. i am sad to see him go. >> around the world, mourners paid tribute to the man behind a revolutionary company. >> it was a revolution for all of us. apple took us to an amazing world. >> his ideas were always very forward looking and he always knew what kind of ideas and steps people would be taking next. >> closer to home, neighbors and fans gathered to honor him outside of his residence in palo alto, california. >> joining us to talk about steve jobs, his like to see and so on is our technology analyst. thank you for being with us. steve jobs is being hailed as one of the best american
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businessmen ever. let's talk in terms of technology. do you think that he closed or open to the gap in terms of his product? the products were very expensive. not everyone could afford them. >> it is true when you pay a premium when you buy an apple product. he made computing in whatever way you want it and much easier to access for people. computing used to be work and something that people are having a hard time to understand. with an apple, especially with an ipad, things like this don't happen. it is fun to use them and this is also a nice accessory. >> as a person and a manager, steve jobs was notoriously difficult to work with.
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apparently it was worth it because he was a visionary. >> he has sat and maintained the high standards for his products which actually contributed to their success. these always had to be the nicest and most elegant ones. i think that we should not mistake and the easy-going public figure with steve jobs for the real one. he said that my job is to not make things easier on people, my job is to make it better. >> the ceo has huge shoes to fill. can apple continue their success without him? >> i think that he is doing pretty well. his products are flying off the shelves.
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the development but apple is revolutionary. there are no big things on the horizon. the competition are just one step behind or basically two steps. >> we thank you very much for your analysis. >> turning now to efforts to avoid a crisis in the banking sector, angela merkel has been hosting is leading figures from the financial world to discuss ways to prop up your's banks. she is discussing ways to keep banks afloat if they cannot do it themselves. >> some of the most influential figures met with chancellor merkel in berlin including christine lagarde and the head of the ecb and the world bank. merkel said that the eu would not hesitate to intervene in the markets.
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she said that there could be some help for troubled banks with high exposure to sovereign debt. >> i think that this is necessary and a reasonable investment. we should not hesitate to help because otherwise the resulting damage would be far greater than if we had advised the banks to have capital on their own. >> the chancellor added that the expanded rescue fund has enough money to help banks. merkel did not mention the eurozone's biggest problem, greece. the summit made it clear that politicians are determined to resolve the debt crisis. >> there is some good news on that front, interest rates. >> no big change there will be a new captain at the helm. the european central bank has resisted calls to cut interest
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rates leaving its benchmark rate at 1.5%. the ecb had been under pressure to step up efforts to stop the contagion. they were looking to help banks weather the storm. the ecb did unveil some new measures to make additional liquidity available. outgoing ecb president jean- claude trichet made firm on interest rates. >> it was jean-claude trichet's policy -- last policy meeting. he warned of an impending threats from the debt crisis. there are two new injections of all trips team funding -- injections of much needed funding. >> we urge the banks to do all that is necessary to reinforce their balance sheets, to retain
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earnings, to ensure moderation in enumeration and to return to the market to strengthen the capital braces. >> his words reflect his concern over a possible banking crisis. many banks are in an urgent need for a boost as risks increase. >> the economic outlook is subject to particularly high uncertainty and intensified downside risks. >> he left interest rates at 1 and 1/2% due to a recent surge in inflation. he is stepping down on the midst of what he called the worst economic crisis since world war ii. his successor is not likely to have an easy time of it. >> the european commission is proposing a coordinated recapitalization of the region's banks. this came after france and belgium agreed to bail out
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dexia, the first and dragged down by the crisis. the european commission president said the proposals would be made to member states which would include removing toxic assets to keep banks afloat. he said this protect citizens savings deposits. he would not speculate on how much money would be needed. shares in dexia have plunged to penny status. the suspension followed reports that the sovereign wealth fund of qatar is in exclusive talks to take over the luxembourg facility. the belgian army is to be nationalized. the healthy divisions will be sold off to help finance a bad
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egg floated with troublesome assets. barack obama has warned europe's problems could have a real impact on the u.s. economy. he said it was therefore even more important that congress pass his 447 billion job creation bill. >> our economy needs a jolt right now. this is not a game, the time for the usual political gridlock. the problems that europe is having could have a real effect on our economy at a time when it is already dragging. when this jobs bill can help guard against another downturn if the situation gets worse. this will boost economic growth, put people back to work. >> let's take a look at their day's market action starting off in frankfurt where the blue chip dax finished with gains of more than 3% up at 5645 points.
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the euro stoxx 50 following suit. it is up by more than 3%. the dow finished trading. it put on nice gains come up by 1.7%. on the currency markets, the euro is trading at $1.34. in a sign that the eurozone crisis is beginning to take its toll on europe's biggest economy, germany's economic industry says that industrial orders were down by 1.4% in august. this was the second monthly fall in a row. there was a bit of good news. foreign orders for german products increased marginally. that is your business update. >> it has been nearly 10 years since the start of the u.s.-led
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war in afghanistan. more than 130,000 foreign troops remain in that country, the majority from the united states. with the defense budget under pressure is, the u.s. and other nato countries are keen to reduce those numbers, but how fast should they go? that is what nato defense ministers have been discussing in brussels. >> hundreds rallied on the eve of the 10-year anniversary. they shouted slogans condemning civilian deaths and calling for the immediate withdrawal of foreign troops. defense ministers insist that the pullout is not be rushed. >> he want to complete this in a responsible manner. that includes withdrawing troops at the same time as the afghan security forces grow in strength. we need to employ something you might call strategic patients. this is more difficult to climb down a tree than to climb up.
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>> u.s. plans to withdraw 10,000 troops by the end of the year. they say that the security transfer is on schedule to stop the violence. >> there are areas where the taliban is in control and we have also witnessed some spectacular taliban attack. this should not overshadow the fact that we have seen an improvement of the security situation. >> the alliance is trying to make the transition as safe as possible. >> we will have more on the challenges facing nato and the government coming up in our in- depth portion of this program, so don't go away. another day, another nobel prize
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winner and the academy has awarded the prize to one of its fellow countrymen. the swedish poet tomas tranströmer. he is one of the most foremost poets in the world today. >> joy at the end of a long wait. tomas tranströmer had been on the list for years. the announcement from the swedish academy still came as a surprise. >> i think he was called four minutes before the announcement. he had a very nice chat with a member of the academy who told them the reasons for awarding the prize. >> the academy said they use condensed translucent images to give a new access to reality. tomas tranströmer is also a
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psychologist. he uses this to describe the inner lives of relationships. he was born in 1931 and stockholm. 57 years after he published his first group of poetry, his dream has finally come true. >> don't go away. we will take an in-depth look at afghanistan and the situation. our reporter traveled and sent as a very interesting report. -- and sent us a very interesting report.
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>> a decade of fighting in afghanistan and what is that -- what is there to show for it? that is the question in america and in europe. in october, 2001, british and american warplanes began air strikes against the taliban and al qaeda. their attacks came less than a month after the 9/11 attacks. the taliban quickly fell from power. stabilizing afghanistan has proved to be a bigger challenge. president hamid karzai has failed to impose his authority across the country and the taliban has regrouped with a violent campaign against international troops and their own people. the government has been trying to reach out to taliban fighters and get them to lay down their weapons with promises of money. it seems that some of those promises are empty. >> this is not how they unimagined ending their war.
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until recently, the taliban commander and his men were fighting the afghan army and foreign troops in northern afghanistan. now, they want to lay down their arms. the government has promised them money and jobs as part of a rehabilitation program for former taliban fighters. these men are waiting for some response. just don't start fighting again, he says. don't let yourself be provoked. be friendly to the villagers. we have to be careful. the mood in the headquarters is grim. after years of repressing the locals, the taliban are worried about what will happen to them. they say they are being threatened by other militias and the government will not protect them, say the former taliban fighters. >> we put our faith in the government because they promised
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us a lot. now the other taliban sees us as enemies but the government is not helping us. things are getting dangerous for us. >> he would like to complain to the government representatives next week. we agreed to meet up then. now, we are heading to couple -- to kabul to meet a taliban official. he was the voice of the taliban as the ambassador to pakistan. now, he lives somewhere in western kabul, but he is reputed to have excellent contacts with the taliban leadership. >> the taliban are demanding the
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withdrawal of foreign troops and the government is demanding that the taliban laid down their weapons. if there is no compromise, the war will continue. >> we showed a former ambassador video footage of a press conference he gave in pakistan in september, 2001 when the taliban refused to hand over osama bin laden, war drew closer. suddenly, and he has become suddenly facebook -- philosophical. >> you should not look back because that makes you sick and sad. it is useless. sometimes i asked myself, what was our mistake, what did we do wrong? what could we have done differently? >> after the american invasion, he was interrogated at guantanamo bay for four years.
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that happened to hundreds of other taliban members and that is what makes the negotiations difficult. >> only god can forgive them for what they did to me but he will never forgive the horrors that americans oppose the many innocent afghans. >> now we are heading back north to meet back up with the commander at the office of the regional representative of the peace council. the government appointed him to help taliban fighters who want to start a new life. these men have been waiting for help for months and they are starting to get inpatient. the taliban and other militias want to attack us, says the commander. if you cannot protect us, he tells the group, you will need
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to start fighting again. the head of a local peace committee tries to calm them down, but he does not make any firm promises. nothing is resolved but they say goodbye politely. once outside, the commander suddenly loses his temper. they indirectly threatened to return to the taliban. >> the government is not delivering. they owe us money but they haven't gotten any. no one is going to lay down their arms for good. we want either. >> they set off. they are tired of fighting but if they cannot return to their villages as farmers, they will have no option but to take up arms once again. >> to talk more about afghanistan and the situation there, i'm joined in the studio with an official from the
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institute for german security and international affairs. according to that report, when you see that, you don't get the impression that much progress has been made on the security front. would you agree with that assessment? >> yes, absolutely. an insurgency has started in the country which has prohibited any stabilization of the security situation. the government is practically nonexistent in most parts of the country and the taliban, although they have suffered defeats in recent months, are perhaps a strong grip than ever. they are confident that they will win this war. >> what are available to hamid karzai to help him diffuse the situation? >> they are not up to the task without the help of the americans, canadians, and other allies and they will not able to
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control the situation. that is part of the reason why president karzai has tried to enter talks with the taliban. they are on the winning side, at least they think. there is no chance for a political solution right now. >> we no foreign troops are beginning to withdraw from the country. -- we know foreign troops are beginning to withdraw. what is the future look like in terms of security? >> it seems like civil war will break out in the country. there will be alliances and they have already hinted at this possibility. they are preparing for this fight. the taliban are preparing for this fight. it is not clear where the government will have its place in the future configuration but
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the future is extremely bleak. >> for the international troops that stay there under the assistance force, what can they do to provide greater security in the future? >> they cannot a lot anymore. there has been success is due to the new strategy in the past two years. now, the american troops are withdrawn and the taliban are doing their up the list to show that they're withdrawing under fire. -- the taliban are doing their utmost to show that they are withdrawing under fire. if this is the case, it is very likely that our troops will suffer heavy losses. >> we will leave it there for now. we thank you very much. that has been our look at afghanistan on the 10th anniversary of the conflict. thank you for joining us.
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