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tv   Journal  PBS  October 20, 2011 6:00pm-6:30pm PDT

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>> this is "the journal." our main story at this hour. libyan officials say that ousted leader muammar gaddafi has been killed and sirte. protest outside of parliament become violent. "germany and france lot horns over bolstering the european bailout fund. >> you have one at your revolution, president barack
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obama's words to the people of libya. muammar gaddafi was trying to escape rebel forces besieging his hometown. the images which we are about to show you and our report might be disturbing. >> shortly after the announcement that sirte had falling -- had fallen, rumors circulated that gaddafi had been killed. the final downfall had come. then came the first reports that he and his sons had been killed this video is said to have been shot by a rebel on his mobile phone. it reports to show gaddafi's body although no independent confirmation is available. the new libyan government can
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now start rebuilding the country. >> gaddafi is dead. >> we have waited a long time for this historic moment. >> information on how the former leader was killed is sketchy. in one version, he was attempting to flee the city by vehicle heading west. his convoy came under attack. reportedly, jets were involved. the defense ministry confirmed that one of the planes had stopped his convoy. the end conformed reports say that his attempt was to hide in these water pipes but died from wounds received in the attack. rebels say the defended himself with a golden pistol but none of this can be independently confirmed. there are versions that say he was shot to death at close range and that he was captured alive
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and died afterwards. despite the confusion surrounding the circumstances of gaddafi's death, libyans are celebrating the end of an era. >> it is not clear exactly what role nato played in today's events. this has been crucial to the fight for freedom. the operations will and when the country is officially declared liberated. nato air strikes systematically dismantled the fighting ability of the gaddafi regime. the alliance has flown almost 10,000 missions in libya. this was a security council resolution to protect civilians. this led to rebel success. >> the air strikes really did destroy the infrastructure. they certainly hit the armed forces.
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this allowed us to get organized. >> with the help of trainers from some nato countries, groups of volunteers with kalashnikov were molded into fighting units. they eventually managed to capture the capital. >> nato was a decisive factor. they were able to sweep gaddafi out of the sky and then to control the way the conflict on the ground was developing. i think that nato decided it. >> it remains to be seen whether nato will play a role inside of libya in the post khaddafi era. the peacekeeping mission would require the deployment of ground troops. >> there will be great reluctance on the part of cash- strapped nato governments including the united states to actually put troops on the ground because this is much more
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might expensive -- much more expensive. this raises the question, how do you get them out again? >> the timing of the killing of gaddafi will be crucial for libya as well as the alliance, nato. >> recently, many have cast doubt on nato's future. it has proved that it is still capable of something. >> the success could mean an increase in moral pressure. muammar gaddafi was not the world's last dictator. >> this is an opportunity to turn the page on four decades of authoritarian rule. world leaders have been responding to the news of colonel gaddafi's death. >> in brussels, the european commission president said that libyans should now look to a future free of repression. >> the hope now is that today
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the people of libya can brace freedom, building a new democratic future. that is why we are calling on the national transitional council to pursue broadbased reconciliation that can reach all libyans and enable a peaceful tradition. >> those calls were echoed by u.s. president barack obama. >> the quick formation of an interim government and a stable transition to libya's first free and fair elections. >> the international community has already promised to support the transitional process. the german foreign minister of germany -- the german foreign minister made a pledge. >> we stand on the side of libby on the way to a better and peaceful future. we will help to relieve suffering and we will help the
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reconstruction effort. >> all the rebuilding libya will not be easy, the final downfall provides the opportunity to steer the country towards a positive future. >> let's bring in our washington correspondent. we just heard from president obama. what else did he have to say? >> well, apart from congratulating the people of libya, he said that a long and winding road was ahead of them to get to democracy. he said that america would be there to help them. then he said a warning to all the leaders in the region saying that the events on thursday proved that the rule of the eye and fist had to come to an end. all experts see that as a clear warning in the direction of syria. >> the u.s. was involved in the nato campaign against gaddafi. they offered logistical support
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and provided intelligence. how do ordinary americans feel now that gaddafi is gone? >> well, most of them feel this is a success for them and for nato, although americans feel probably this is the truth, without the americans, this would not have been possible because the americans had a great deal of responsibility, especially in the beginning of the operation. they are glad that this has not turned into a full-scale war unlike iraq or afghanistan so that american responsibility will be able to get out of this treaty early. they feel happy for the libyan people but are still anxious of what is to come because there is one thing that was good for america under the dufty regime and that was that he kept in check islamic tendencies. that is the one thing that americans would like to keep that way. >> thank you. let's move on to some other international news.
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greek lawmakers have passed another austerity bill in light of international creditors -- to the delight of international creditors and the dismay of those on the streets. the country was nearly brought to a standstill. the government has not been able to persuade people that there is no alternative to the cuts. >> greet lawmakers approved the austerity measures after hours of emotional debate. -- greek lawmakers approve of the austerity measures. they warned that failure to approve the bill could cause efforts to keep greek solvent. one of the protesters died of the cause was not clear. the demonstration has started peacefully. some 50,000 people gathered to protest the cuts and layoffs that the government was proposing. >> there's no way that we will stop this battle. this government falls. it was voted on is one thing,
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its implementation is another. the people will tear it apart. they will dismiss it in practice. >> meanwhile, a general strike continues country. public transport, schools, and many government offices remained closed for a second day in a row. >> we have a summit on the eurozone debt crisis and then another one scheduled for wednesday. >> that does not mean that we will be stopped talking about it. two summits and a whole lot of meetings but will this bring a solution? germany and france said that european leaders will discuss the global solution for the crisis but no decisions will be made until the second gathering next week. the main reason is that paris and berlin are divided over the rescue fund. this was a point of discussion at the high level talks that for the leader of france away from an urgent situation of his own.
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>> nicolas sarkozy saw his wife and his daughter. negotiations with berlin and head of the summit forced him to keep his visit short. france and germany remained at odds on how to use the financial stability facility. france's idea is to turn this into a bank funded by the ecb. that means increasing the scope of the fund, not its size. >> some people seem to think that leveraging means increasing the guaranteed some but that is not going to happen. germany agreed on a 211 billion euros and that will not change. >> the german government would like to boost to the appeal of government bonds for troubled nations by using the fund to guarantee a part of the investments. that could mean that investors and taxpayers share the risk. behind the scenes, negotiations are in tents. the public as well as investors
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would like to see this -- results at this weekend's summit. >> there were talks that the summit could be put off. i will let you know with the reaction is in the markets. >> the market is really only interested in one single topic these days. will there be an agreement on the rest to find for the eurozone debt states? what will the eu summit decide upon this sunday? the rumor came to the trading floor that the eu summit might be postponed and viscerally direct german stock market. the german stock index dax went deeply into the red. investors were encouraged to buy stocks despite a strong earnings reports for example of the stock exchange. the stocks ended the day on the downside. >> let's see just how far down
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stocks closed. it was not just frankfurt, the polls exchanges right across europe. things are not tragic over in the states. the dow was fairly flat but did enjoy a rally before closing. the euro is trading in positive territory. officials from the european union are discussing a ban on credit regions -- credit ratings for countries that have been bailed out. critics claim the credit rating agencies for plunging beast debt ridden countries further into turmoil. some say it exacerbates market swings. >> rating agencies like standard and poor's wield huge power. their assessment of credit worthiness can raise a borrowing cost and further damage the country's ability to get spending under control. in brussels on thursday, the european commission suggested
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that it might began rating agencies from judging the credit worthiness of countries that are receiving assistance from an international bailout program. >> this is legitimate that states should enjoy special treatment if they are in the middle of negotiations or involved in international monetary fund program. >> details about the reforms are to be proposed in november. the commission also would like to rein in financial markets, strengthening rules against insider trading and cracking down on computer-based trading. many eu parliamentarians believe that speculators are using the markets. >> a -- art of using the markets. >> these provide services for citizens. these are not areas for speculation where did you can earn money at the expense of everyone else. -- where the few can earn money at the expense of everyone else.
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>> the basque separatist group eta says there and in their struggle for a basque homeland. the international mediators including leading figures who brokered reconciliation agreements in south africa and northern ireland met two days ago to pressure the groups to announce violence. this would mark the end of four decades of violence in spain. turkish troops are continuing an offensive against kurdish rebels in northern iraq. air force jets bombed the jets overnight in response to attacks which killed 24 soldiers. they provoked outrage in turkey. hundreds of people gathered chanting slogans against kurdish rebels. on wednesday, turkey is matched commandos in pursuit of the rebels. 's dispatched commandos in pursuit of the rebels.
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this is the heaviest use since 1993. -- turkey dispatched commandos in pursuit of the rebels. there was a big win over efk. they were completely outclassed with their opponents running away with a 5-0 victory. in other soccer news, it is no official, rio de jeniro's perino will host six games including the biggest showdown in world soccer on july 13th. four weeks early, sao paulo will have the honor of opening the tournament. fifa criticized brazil's progress for the soccer venues.
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construction workers went on strike for three weeks over pay and conditions. you are watching "the journal," i will be back after a short break.
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>> no one could have imagined a libya without muammar gaddafi. seven months ago, the spark a revolution sweeping across north africa caught fire. >> back in early march, opponents of muammar gaddafi were retreating on all fronts, unable to withstand the air strikes the government forces. gaddafi boasted he would crush the rebellion without mercy. the international community acted swiftly to end on march 17th come as a critic council passed a revlon -- a resolution that mandated a no-fly zone and
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authorize all necessary means except boots on the ground to protect civilians. >> we cannot stand idly by when a tyrant's tells his people that there will be no mercy. >> air strikes quickly stopped gaddafi's advance. they were soon able to gain the initiative. in june, the political legitimacy got an important boost. france, italy, and spain had recognized the national transitional council, now germany followed suit. for us, the national transitional council is the legitimate representative of the libyan people. >> in early august, the rebels entered tripoli and the battle for the capital began. hundreds were killed. two days later, they establish control over the capital but there was no sign of gaddafi himself.
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troopers -- rumors were many. some say he had fled abroad but there was no confirmation. some fighters remained loyal to gaddafi and they kept the resistance in the strong walls of bonnie bought lead and his hometown. they lost a major offensive and it developed into a bloody battle street by street. there were rumors that two of gaddafi's sons were holed up in sirte. the rebels denied reports that they had caught gaddafi. october 17th, after weeks of fighting, bonnie while wheat fell to the rebels. supporters of the former leader continue to hold out. it was the final battleground. the struggle would not go on for much longer.
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on october 20th, the rebels secured sirte and killed muammar gaddafi. >> we are joined by a member of german security and international affairs. >> the death of gaddafi might mean the end of the civil war but while it gives the rebels now is certainly way to reorganize the country, he was a unifying element for the opposition. there was widespread analysts part of the opposition movement will fight with each other. -- there was widespread analysis that part of the opposition movement will fight. >> the national transitional council was bickering over what comes next.
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does it mean that the viet can descend even further into civil strife? >> there is a possibility. we have seen, for example, a couple of months ago islamist members of the opposition movement killed the military head of the rebels in benghazi. it might well be that these flights between islam is the secularist -- between islamists and the secularists might now fight each other. >> gaddafi always said that he was the only thing keeping the be a safe from that particular group. do you think there is a real danger that the islamist to take control in libya? >> there will be problems in the country but as it seems, as far as we know from our experience in the last 8 months, they are
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very strong. the muslim brotherhood seems to command mass support and there are many many little fighting groups among the opposition who seem to be extremely influential. just to give you an example, the military head was a member of a jihadists group which was active in afghanistan some years ago. there is a danger that the islamists might play a role in the future. there is even one takeover in the coming years. >> oil is a massive factor in libya -- will is a massive factory in libya. outline the pros and cons. >> this will be the economic basis. in egypt and tunisia, the new government will have huge problems to cope with.
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there are only 5 million libyans who sit on a vast oil and gas reserves. as soon as there is a stable government, libya will have a bright future. this can be a very divisive factor. there is only one state which has coped with their oil and gas reserves. that is partly because norway had quite a sound political system before its oil. states like qatar, iraq, saudi arabia have had more problems that is served as an advantage. i think it would be similar in libya. >> thank you very much. >> libya's tribes wield a great deal of power. for the past seven months, they have been working on the principle that my enemies enemy is my friend. now, there is a vacuum that needs to be filled.
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we look at the regional travel players. >> showing loyalty to the new libya. several weeks ago, tribal leaders handed over their weapons. they left them in the care of the group that force gaddafi from power, the national transitional council. this is a step that people are making across the country as libya tries to shake off the old tribal divisions. muammar gaddafi exploited those divisions, rewarding those that show of loyalty and punishing others. as recently as this june, state television showed him holding talks of tribal allies. gaddafi's regime was bolstered by three tribes in particular, first and foremost, his own, which had little political relevance before he came to power. more influential groups
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supported gaddafi for years but they dropped it early in the revolution. at the heart of the revolution were those in eastern libya. they want to be rewarded for their efforts. also highly influential, the tribe which controls the lucrative oil delivery business, crucial to the applause future prosperity. one group that could lose out are at nematic people who live in western libya and other saharan countries. -- are the nomadic people who live in western libya and other saharan countries. there is now fear of a backlash. they could suffer from discrimination and exclusion from libyan society. for all the tribal differences, this land of many peoples is focusing on its sense of nationhood. the national transitional council says they are committed to unity ahead of elections
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planned for next year. observers say the success of the future government will depend on how well the tribes can work together. >> the death of a dictator. that wraps up "the journal" on the day gaddafi was killed.
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