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tv   European Journal  PBS  October 20, 2013 1:30pm-2:01pm PDT

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>> hello and a farewell want -- a warm welcome to european journal coming to you from dw studios in brussels. good to have you with us. these are some of our stock -- top stories this week. switzerland, the melting memorial. and slovenia, the greedy priests of my old -- margot gold. europe was shocked last week when 200 refugees drowned off
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the island of lampedusa. it was not the first such tragedy. many people risk the dangers across the mediterranean in crowded boats. for many, it is the only way to make it to europe in search of a better life. entering through the land route has become virtually impossible without papers. the borders are heavily protected against illegal immigration. those who do try often end up stranded in greece. private organizations there have been taking care of many of the children who get separated from their parents on the way. >> he makes his living in one of the most beautiful conservation areas in the balkans. the river delta is home to countless rare bird species. it is also part of the border between greece and turkey, a dangerous transit zone for people fleeing to europe. >> these are the remnants of the
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boats and -- that the refugees used. apparentlythe ather was bad and the people would -- the people drowned. only the boat remains. there is the ever us river and beyond that is turkey. it is just 50 meters wide, but crossing is dangerous because the current is very strong. those who cannot swim drowned. >> aside from those who survive -- those who survive end up on the outskirts of this town. if ty're luc. children ranging in age 2-16 live here. they have lost their parents, some for good, because they have died trying to get here. others were separated from their families on the way and are waiting to be reunited with
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them. that includes this 12-year-old from afghanistan. for the past six months, he and his two siblings have lived in a home where they are learning to read and write in greek. clicks we came here to greece together, but then my mother went ahead to germany to see if it was safe there. we are waiting to see if we can join her. >> if their parents have been located outside of greece, the children can only see them on internet video chat. even within the eu, the hurdles for reuniting refugee families are very high. very asylu procedures in different countries are difficult to reconcile, even when minors are involved. the homeworkers look for foster parents around the world for the children. for the director of this home, the greatest reward comes when children are reunited with their mothers.
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but when refugees die, as in the latest incident in lampedusa in italy, it hits everyone here hard. >> that was shocking news for all of us, a huge tragedy. but what i keep thinking about are the reasons why people flee their homes and the risks they take. the sense our government recently put up along the border with turkey increases the risk for refugees, because now they will try more dangerous routes. >> the greek government has closed out most of the gaps on the border along the river, with the help of fences and the eu border control authority. athens is healing it as a success. -- hailing it as a success. but others think the drop in refugees in the area comes at a price. >> part of the problem has simply shifted to the greek
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islands in the aegean and they are not as easy to patrol. but you should not forget the evros was previously the easiest entry point into the eu. until last year, 95% of the refugees ented throughreece. noit is only 30%. that is a huge drop. >> the children here are lucky. after thousands of kilometers on the run and being separated from their parents, they have found help in greece and they have renewed hope. >> i want to get to germany as soon as possible and live with my mother. i am just waiting for permission from the authorities. i don't want to go back to afghanistan. i have not forgotten the war there. >> he also cannot forget. he has seen too many bodies floating in the delta and too much indifference to the refugees plight.
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i have cried a lot. i sympathize with these people. my grandparents fled istbul and had to start a new life in greece. i heard similar horror stories from my grandparents about how they got here. i see these refugees as people. but othe don't re about them. >> a fisherman and a children's eight project, both trying -- aid project, both trying to make a difference along a fortified border. >> throughout history, european countries have not exec recovered themselves with glory when it came to dealing with people from other countries or cultures. fortunately, the times of brutal wars between neighbors are over here in europe, but prejudices
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still persist, especially regarding ethnic minorities. swedish police kept secret lists of members of the roma community there, for no other reason than they were roma. that is illegal. police are only allowed to register people's data to deal with crimes and ongoing critical -- criminal cases. >> afternoons spent with their children and grandchildren are more of a distraction than a pleasure these days. they are among the 25,000 roma living in sweden, and they are among the 5000 who have been included in a secret lease registry of roma without their -- secret police registry of roma without their knowledge. >> they said it was a registry of criminals, but that would
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mean all were roma are criminals , me, even our children, even our youngest grandchild who is only two years old. she is supposedly a criminal. she does not even know what that is. >> 12 years ago, roma were officially recognized as a minority in sweden. just like the finished speaking minority. -- finnish speaking minority. but they still have a difficult time. it is not easy for them to find jobs. >> when you apply for a job, you still have to let them know you are roma. here in sweden, roma tend to have names like dmitri. it is hard for them to find a job even now. it is not that people have to -- people have to deny that they are roma. it should not be like that. >> the secret registry in sweden
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was exposed a few weeks ago by a major daily newspaper. it turns out there were only a few criminals on the list. but their circle of friends and family has also been carefully listed. that is exactly the argument the swedish police is now using to justify its actions, saying that the roma registry is not actually a list of roma. he heads the serious crime squad in his city. he is av hammond elector of the data will stop he says such lists are a normal part of investigative work and says it is just coincidence that only roma are listed. >> people are asking how it is possible that only roma are registered in -- listed in this registry. for me, that is nothing unusual. if you are investigating a criminal network of roma, it is normal but only roma are it. we use this data for our intelligence needs.
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but he -- >> but he cannot really lane why they list includes only -- also women and children. and the -- and the explanation is not satisfactory to authorities. to this man, it is based on ethnicity. >> three weeks ago, if you had asked me if i thought the swedish police had a registry- based. on ethnicity, i wou have said no. i was angry and upset to find that it does exist. the roma have existed in such registries in the past. it is a huge setback for integration efforts, though we do not want to use the word integration because the roma are a national minority. they have been part of swedish society for five centuries. >> a part of society that nonetheless has always been on the fringes. especially in rural sweden. in those picturesque
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scandinavian landscapes, roma families have been shunned and persecuted for centuries. they have never been welcomed here, and even in progressive sweden, prejudices run deep and last for generations. >> the swedes saw themselves as the whitest of the whites in europe and the whole world. this unique feeling of racial pretty -- racial. he has led to everything they have done to maintain it. -- racial purity has led to everything they have done to maintain it. >> a race biology institute at the university research supposedly show characteristics. the university libraries digital archives still has photographs displaying allegedly typical roma characteristics. tobias has studied sweden's treatment of minorities. he said much of the racist
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ideology lives on today even though the research is no longer carried out. >> the authorities have tried to keep the roma separate from the ethnic swedes as much as possible. they seek to keep which roma children out -- to keep roma children out of schools and away from ethical care. we should not forget that up until the 1950s and 1960s, this group was to live release -- deliberately discriminated against. >> roma have been holding demonstrations across the country in recent days. they are protesting against the police registry and the discrimination they say they still face. marcello and his family are now calling for a special investigation into the matter. they should -- they say it should be independent to prevent the police from covering anything up. >> we have to find out the real
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reason for the registry, how extensive it is and who else has one. we have to make sure these lists do not exist and we make laws forbidding them. >> i don't trust the police at all anymore. i am offended and saddened, and i'm scared. it is very difficult because we cannot feel safe. it makes us very sad. >> they point out that sweden has the rule of law, so they hope that one day soon they will be able to go to a playground with their children and grandchildren and feel like normal swedish citizens. >> in its latest world climate report, the united nations warns that the sea level is rising faster than expected and the glacier melt is also on the rise. that has the manager of one swiss mountain lodge worried. her hut is situated on one of europe's most impressive glaciers and what -- and she
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wants people to finally start noticing all of the drastic changes the glacier has been undergoing. >> we are at an altitude of 2600 meters. this glacier is located in a swiss town. in the middle of it is a structure of snow and ice. it is about two meters high and 250 meters long. but it is not a natural work -- natural wonder. it is a work of art. is -- it was man well of fisher's idea. she works at the lodge. when the season starts in late june, the effects of climate change are visible here. >> years ago, there was still snow everywhere on the ground at this time. it was usually snowing when we came up here. but over the years, we have seen the snow melting away earlier.
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each year, there is less snow when we come up are. >> fisher wants to make the great hall visible within our project that points out climate change. filmmakers are documenting the project to show the changes in the alpine landscape. six weeks earlier, they filmed the beginning of the project. this was early july. it had snow. the lodge keeper and her friends covered 1500 square meters of snow with a special fleece. it reflects the sun, protecting the glacier below it. warmth does the rest.
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six weeks later, the glacier around the fleece has melted away. now the fleece covers a kind of glacier table. one geologist says the work shows that glaciers are melting too much in the summer and not growing back enough in the winter. that has consequences because glaciers store a lot of water. >> the models show that in 100 years, there may be practically no more glaciers here. the summer melt off will be greatly reduced, affecting both urban and agricultural areas. in the summer, which tends to be drier anyway, water will be scarce in these areas. even those quite far away from the glaciers. >> water shortages are already a problem here. the lodge keeper needs the melt off water for cooking, washing, and cleaning. but the fields of snow are becoming smaller every year and thawing earlier. what would happen if they disappeared entirely?
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>> that would mean we would eventually have to fly water in, which i think is questionable from a neck logical point of view -- and ecological point of view, or else in the future lodges like this at this altitude will have to be closed. >> the lodge shows how in the future, glacial valleys may turn into stony wastelands. fisher often works to secure the paths, so that hikers can reach the lodge safely. permafrost holds the mountain stone together like glue, but it is thawing. the slopes are becoming more state -- more unstable. falling rocks and landslides are more common. it can be thrilling for tourists, but are the result of climate change. such effects are increasing, even if the earth rise in
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temperature is stopped, the glaciers will still react decades later. >> in germany i get the reaction -- the impression that people react to climate change depending on how the weather has been. here you can see that the landscape has changed fundamentally. >> this is the seventh summer in a row that i have come up here. it is painful to see how rapidly this glacier is melting. >> when you see so clearly what happens every summer in a place, then you don't need a lot of explanations, whether political, geological, or glacier logical, the objects speak for themselves. >> fisher's glacier art will disappear in about six weeks. until then, it stands as a temporary warning about climate change.
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>> when communism collapsed here in europe more than 20 years ago, slovenia embraced capitalism with ease. there was an economic boom, people had jobs, and slovenia became an eu member. slovenia look like the model country and everyone wanted a piece of the pie, including the catholic church. it had only just regain property that had been confiscated under communist rule. but some churchmen wanted more, especially at the dart -- the archdiocese in the district of marble. they were seduced by the prospect of even more power and money. now the parish is close to bankruptcy. >> she often wonders what she did to deserve this. she worked all her life as a music teacher. the little bit of money she and her husband managed to set aside when his to a fund managed by
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the archdiocese. it was called the bell in slovenian. >> we decided to invest everything. after all, it was a church initiative and we said, the church is honest and will pay attention to how the money is handled. our whole family put their money in. my husband and i, and our daughter. our friends, too. we decided together. >> the archdiocese funded slum one and slam to shortly after slovenia gained independence. they then began to invest in telecommunications companies, breweries, and other economic firms. it went well for a while, but when the crisis hit slovenia, everything collapsed. they both went broke.
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>> we just waited it out. that was our savings for old age. and then all of a sudden, the news came that it went under and we had lost everything. >> no one knows how much money was involved. some say around 800 million euros. it is still legally unclear whether fund managers or church representatives were to blame. rome took disciplinary measuresy that the vatican was primarily concerned with making an example of the dismissed reese -- dismissed priests. >> i don't think they were involved to the extent of what they actually deserved what they got. there have been cases of brain crept diocese in germany, but no cardinals or bishops were forced to resign.
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i think this was the result of an intrigue, and information that the vatican did not confirm. >> this businessman believes that the way managers of the investment company invested in holding companies. >> the bishops who had to resign were just a drop in the bucket. the directors of swans were the ones who made the wrong investment and they knew it was wrong. nothing has happened to them. >> the bishop has now been given the responsibility for here as well. he does not deny that the church played a role in the scandal. after all, tens of thousands of faithful investors lost
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everything. >> when a test like this comes, like what has happened at the diocese, then human weakness is to blame. a few people simply did not account properly, and maybe they were a bit too imaginative. >> has left the church owing banks about 37 million euros and fighting for survival. nearly all of its property, including the archbishop's residence, have an mortgage. -- have been mortgaged. the bankrupt -- the bank next door has even gone to court to get the money it is owed. at sunday mass in the cathedral of saint john the baptist, many are praying that the diocese will make it through. it is little comfort that the church leaders have said the profits from the investment firms will be used to finance pastoral work in the congregation. the moral responsibility remains
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a heavy burden. church leaders continue to insist that the diocese violated church laws with its speculative ventures. the bishop has just written -- returned from rome, where the vatican denied him a 40 million euro loan. >> they have told us that there is no chance we will get any money. we have to cope with it ourselves, with the help of the bishops conference. >> there has been an office -- an offer of aid from a navy -- neighboring city in austria. talks between the austrian city and the banks may save at least a few of the church buildings. but the loss of faith is more difficult to restore. >> the church wanted to give us business instead of worrying about morality, like a company, and that is wrong.
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>> people are losing faith in the church's benevolence, because everything is all about money. >> the church should pay back the people it owes money to. >> he agrees, but has long lost confidence it will ever happen. >> that is not a church for me. it is not god. those are just common fraudsters. >> her husband, in the meantime, has since passed away. now she has to make do with her 500 euro monthly page -- pension. she has no savings, but that is life, she says. >> and that report wraps up this edition of european journal. from all of us here in brussels, thanks very much for watching. until for -- until next time, al veeder zayne -- goodbye for now.
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captioned by the national captioning institute steves: we're in rothenburg, germany's ultimate walled city.
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in the middle ages, when frankfurt and munich were just wide spots on the road, rothenburg was one of germany's largest cities, with a whopping population of 6,000. today, even with its crowds and overpriced souvenirs, i love this place. during rothenburg's heyday -- that was about 1200 to 1400 -- it was the intersection of two great trading routes -- prague to paris and hamburg to venice. but today, the great trade is tourism. rothenburg is a huge hit with shoppers. true, this is a great place to buy cuckoo clocks, steins, and dirndls, but see the town first. most of the buildings were built by 1400. like many medieval towns, the finest and biggest houses were built along herrengasse, named for the herren, or the wealthy class. the commoners built higgledy-piggledy farther from the center, near the walls.
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hanging shop signs advertise what they sold -- knives, armor, bread, whatever. rothenburg's wall, with its beefy fortifications and intimidating gates, is about a mile around and provides great views and a good orientation. rodertor is the only tower you can actually climb. it's worth the hike for the commanding city view and the fascinating display on the bombing of rothenburg in the last weeks of world war ii, when much of the city was destroyed. but rothenburg's most devastating days were 400 years ago, during the thirty years' war. in the 1600s, the catholic and protestant armies were fighting all across europe. the catholic army took the protestant town of rothenburg, and as was customary, they planned to execute the town leaders and pillage and plunder the place. but the catholic general had an idea. he said, "hey, if someone in this town can drink "a three-liter tankard filled with wine in one gulp, i'll spare the city." according to legend,
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rothenburg's retired mayor nusch said, "i can do that." mayor nusch drank the whole thing, the town was saved, and the mayor slept for three days. and today, tourists gather on the town square several times daily for a less-than-thrilling reenactment of that legendary chug. nice story, but in actuality, the town was occupied and ransacked several times during that 30 years of war, and when peace finally came, rothenburg was never again a major player. it slumbered peacefully until rediscovered in the 19th century by those same romantics who put the rhine on the grand tour map. they came here to paint and write about the best-preserved medieval town in germany. shops are filled with etchings and prints inspired by this 19th century romantic take on the town. >> funding for this program is provided by subaru.
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>> funding for this program is female announcer: at subaru, we build vehicles like the rugged outback, with symmetrical all-wheel drive standard and plenty of cargo space for those who pack even more adventure into life. subaru, a proud sponsor of "globe trekker."


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