tv PBS News Hour PBS November 11, 2011 6:00pm-7:00pm PST
captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> lehrer: on this veterans day, president obama urged americans to hire service members coming home from two wars. good evening. i'm jim lehrer >> brown: and i'm jeffrey brown. on the newshour tonight, we look at the ceremonies to honor veterans at a time when the u.s. is pulling out of iraq and winding down the conflict in afghanistan. >> lehrer: plus, paul solman updates the rise in unemployment for returning troops and the efforts to help them find work. >> for iraq and afghanistan veterans, so celebrated in uniform, another battle once they put on civvies. finding a job. >>.
>> brown: we assess the occupy movement with the mayor of portland, oregon, who wants to shut down the camp in his city, and a protest leader there. >> lehrer: mark shields and david brooks analyze the week's news. >> brown: and from nicaragua, ray suarez reports on a new vaccine combating the number one killer of young children, pneumonia. >> how do you get the cost of a vaccine down from about $100 a dose to $5? by guaranteeing all the children in a country will be vaccinated. >> lehrer: that's all ahead on tonight's newshour. major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> i mean, where would we be without small businesses? >> we need small businesses. >> they're the ones that help drive growth. >> like electricians, mechanics, carpenters. >> they strengthen our communities. >> every year, chevron spends billions with small businesses. that goes right to the heart of local communities, providing jobs, keeping people at work. they depend on us. >> the economy depends on them.
>> and we depend on them. >> intel. sponsors of tomorrow. and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> lehrer: the nation honored its veterans today as two wars wind down, and returning troops
face new challenges. judy woodruff has our report. ♪ ♪ >> woodruff: there were all the traditional notes of respect and remembrance on this veterans day, but this time, overlaid with hopes of homecomings. >> we can stand here today and say with confidence that the tide of war is receding. >> woodruff: president obama spoke at arlington national cemetery after laying a wreath at the tomb of the unknowns. >> in just a few weeks, the long war in iraq will finally come to an end. ( applause ) our transition in afghanistan is moving forward. my fellow americans, our troops are coming home. >> woodruff: in fact, after ten years in iraq, all american armed forces are due to leave that country by the end of the year. and 30,000 troops are expected
home from afghanistan by next summer, with the remainder scheduled to leave by the end of 2014. but as the commander in chief also cautioned his audience today, with the homecomings will come new challenges for new veterans-- a shortage of jobs. >> at a time when america needs all hands on deck, they have the skills and the strength to help lead the way. our government needs their patriotism and sense of duty, our economy needs their talents and skills. >> woodruff: indeed, the economic obstacles facing many veterans may underscore a sense that their sacrifice has not been shared by most of the country. according to u.s. census figures, fewer than 1% of all americans are now serving in uniform-- active duty, national guard or reserves-- and only 7% are veterans. that's not quite 23 million americans out of a population of
over 310 million. military families were also angered this week at revelations that remains of the fallen were mishandled, and even lost, at the dover air force base mortuary in delaware. a year-long air force investigation revealed evidence of "gross mismanagement" in 2009 and 2010. three senior officials at dover were disciplined, but not fired. the whistleblowers who revealed the problems said today they believe the situation has now been put right. ♪ meanwhile, this was also a day for honoring the troops, past and present, in europe. bagpipers in ypres, belgium, marched in a ceremony marking armistice day, the 93rd anniversary of the end of the first world war. ypres witnessed some of the worst fighting in the war that
left more than eight and a half million troops killed. in paris, the president of france, nicolas sarkozy, laid a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier that lies beneath the arc de triomphe. sarkozy announced that, from now on, november 11 will also be a day for his countrymen to honor all french soldiers who've died in uniform, in addition to those who lost their lives during world war i. >> brown: later in the program, we'll look at the difficulty veterans have finding jobs. also coming up: a push to close one of the "occupy" camps; shields and brooks; and the campaign against pneumonia in nicaragua. but first, the other news of the day. here's hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: wall street finished the week on a high note after heavy losses earlier in the week. the dow jones industrial average added nearly 260 points to close back above 12,000 at 12,153. the nasdaq rose 53 points to close at 2,678.
for the week, the dow gained nearly 1.5%; the nasdaq fell a fraction of a percent. the securities and exchange commission has penalized eight employees for failing to spot bernard madoff's ponzi scheme over 16 years. the agency said today the measures ranged from pay cuts to suspensions. no one was fired. madoff's fraud was finally exposed in the financial crash of 2008. it cost investors at least $50 billion. madoff himself is serving a 150- year prison term. there were new signs of political progress in europe today, after a unity government took office in greece, and economic reforms made headway in italy. but it remained unclear if the worst of continent's debt crisis is over. we have a report from richard edgar of independent television news, reporting from frankfurt, germany. ♪ ♪ is. >> reporter: in a week when there have been few answers, the greeks turn to god as their new prime minister is sworn in. in italy, too, rocked by the
debt crisis, the beginnings of change as senators approved the first austerity cuts of many. france and germany are at loggerheads over whether to allow the european central bank to bail out failing countries. the bank is the only snrugz able to step there, say the french. the germans, who would bear the brunt of any losses, object. >> one thing is clear-- what we don't have is confidence in the financial markets. and confidence will only regain if there are qingsing answers to the problems. and the root of the problems is the fact that we have too high sovereign debt. >> reporter: day after day, headlines across europe have called into question the fitness of the european central bank, the stability of the entire financial system and what has become for many the symbol of europe-- the euro in their pocket. there are signs of hope, but europe's problems are far from over. >> it's a very, very difficult and dangerous situation in the euro zone. britain is impacted by what is happening. there's no doubt that britain
has been hit by what is going on in the euro zone. >> reporter: there is talk of a two speed europe. >> sreenivasan: president obama spoke today with the leaders of germany and france, and with the president of italy. and treasury secretary timothy geithner issued a statement, saying, "it is crucial that europe move quickly to restore financial stability." there was more violence in syria today as security forces turned their guns on protesters after friday prayers. activists said at least 16 people were killed. amateur video showed running battles in the streets of the capital, damascus. it also showed security forces dragging the body of a man down the street. it's estimated more than 250 syrians have been killed just in the last two weeks. and human rights watch accused the syrian government today of crimes against humanity. heavy new fighting also swept across yemen. government forces pounded the city of taiz with tank and artillery shells. at least 14 people were killed. 120 miles away, thousands of people in sanaa held competing
rallies for and against the yemeni regime. there were no reports of violence. the yemeni uprising against president ali abdullah saleh has raged for nine months. the palestinian bid for u.n. membership went to the u.n. security council today, but it appeared to have little chance of winning approval. from all indications, the palestinians were short of the nine votes needed on the 15-member council to be recommended for admission. in addition, the u.s. has pledged to veto any resolution supporting palestinian membership, if it seems likely to pass. those are some of the day's major stories. now, back to jeff. >> brown: and we return to the subject of veterans on this day honoring them. now, the problems many face in finding a job back home. newshour economics correspondent paul solman updates a story he filed earlier this year. it's part of his regular reporting on "making sense of financial news". >> if i owned a business and somebody took a bullet for me, i can at least give that person a job in my corporation. >> reporter: edmond sheffield worked as a military policeman while in the service.
he got out in 2010. >> i applied to maybe 100 jobs. >> reporter: erik vadalma served in baghdad, left the airforce in 2008. all he could find, a part-time gig at ikea. >> i didn't have enough money to make ends meet. >> reporter: debra bain did a six-year hitch. >> you feel like you've lost who you are as a person, your value. >> reporter: just three of more than two million iraq and afghanistan vets. over 12% were jobless last month, compared to 9% for the total population. for vets aged 18-34, the rate was 16.6%. the problem took center stage in washington this week. on monday, president obama outlined a plan that offers veterans personalized career counseling and new web resources to assist them in their job hunt. >> unemployment among veterans of iraq and afghanistan
continue to rise. that's not right. it doesn't make sense-- not for our veterans, not for our families, not for america. and were determined to change that. >> reporter: yesterday, in a rare show of unity, the senate overwhelmingly passed a jobs package which includes employer tax incentives to hire unemployed vets, part of the $447 billion jobs bill the president announced in september. under the plan, firms that hire jobless vets would get a maximum $5,600 credit per veteran, and a maximum of $9,600 for each disabled veteran hired. paul rieckhoff founded and runs i.a.v.a., iraq and afghanistan veterans of america. >> they're coming back from serving our country, sometimes multiple tours, and their welcome home is an unemployment check. >> reporter: rieckhoff has been urging congress to do something all year. we spoke with him in march as he and other vets stormed the hill to ask members to help thin the jobless ranks.
>> so if folks want to support the troops, want to support veterans, hire them. >> reporter: himself an iraq vet, rieckhoff says it's an outrage-- you learn the key job skills while serving your country-- selflessness, loyalty, teamwork, leadership-- but to employers, you've fallen behind. >> it's not like folks are waiting back home saying, "hey, buddy, let me explain to you what you missed while you were gone." you feel like rip van winkle, like you woke up and everybody has been moving on with life and you've been sleeping for a year and a half. >> reporter: programs like the veterans curation project have been trying to ease the transition by teaching vets current computing skills-- for example, to archive artifacts found during army corps of engineers projects. corps archaeologist sonny trimble had the idea after a tour in iraq digging up mass graves. >> the people that kept us alive and guarded us all the time day and night were soldiers, marines, 24 hours a day. they were around us while we
were working, guarding us while we slept at night. i wanted pay these individuals back. >> reporter: a job that pays up to $14.50 an hour, funded by the army corps of engineers, a quiet alternative to the sudden jolt of the job market. >> it's a complete 180 turnaround. >> edmond sheffield joined the archaeology program last november after beating the pavement for months. >> just going throughout your whole military career, it's structure, structure, structure, instructions, instructions, instructions. some people just can't just snap your fingers and go, like, "hey, i'm a civilian! i'm no longer in the military." >> in the military, there's a sense of security, you know, financial security, and there's also a sense of community. when i separated, i lost all that. i was isolated out here in maryland, and so that made going to school incredibly difficult. >> reporter: erik vadalma was one of the half a million vets who've used the expanded g.i. bill, which pays for public college tuition, housing and books.
but the time and place were out of joint. >> i remember walking out into a courtyard and i smelt marijuana. you know, that sort of thing, for me coming out of the military, that's absolutely unacceptable. and that also creates kind of... you know, it makes me feel a little more isolated because i don't fit into that group. >> reporter: vadalma dropped out. though so many of her peers do not, debra bain has a b.a. she began her masters at community college, but had to continue her studies online. >> there were individuals that were forming their own little class when the teacher was conducting the class, and i felt that was just disrespectful. it was disruptive behavior that i just couldn't tolerate. >> reporter: this program helps vets ease back into civilian life, instead of hero one day, nobody the next. >> being in uniform, it's like, "hey, you like a sandwich?
thanks for serving our country. handshake." you know, but you walk around with your little veteran i.d. and it's like, "oh! you served the country. that will be $5.50!" >> reporter: another issue-- today, less than 1% of the population has served in iraq or afghanistan. so most civilian employers may not understand military experience. >> when an applicant applies, has a bachelor's degree, the employer knows what the employee knows. in the military, they probably don't know what we've done, they don't have a good idea of our skills. >> reporter: employers admit to other fears. in a survey last year, 46% of human resource managers agreed that ptsd-- post-traumatic stress disorder-- and other mental health issues were a challenge. emmanuel riley left the army after returning from afghanistan in 2005. he lives in a housing unit provided by a nonprofit.
>> i was a combat engineer. along with that is we can detach landmines, i.e.d.s. >> reporter: so your job involved disarming explosives. >> yes. and i lost some friends that were a part of my unit due to my particular job in the military. that sometimes can define your life after service. >> reporter: like what? >> alcohol abuse, drinking a lot. sometimes nightmares, a lot of those, a lot of nightmares. >> reporter: riley didn't know he had ptsd. he wound up homeless, living in a storage unit. >> divorced, i lost my family, lost quite a bit. >> reporter: now sober and in treatment for his ptsd, riley's looking hard for a job.
according to a 2008 rand study, nearly one third of iraq and afghanistan vets had symptoms of ptsd, major depression, or had experienced a traumatic brain injury. debra bain is still haunted by the iraq morgue in which she volunteered. >> when you see certain things in life that makes no sense, you pretty much lose a sense of self and it tears you apart. >> reporter: even corps archaeologist sonny trimble struggled with ptsd. >> you don't realize that what the war has done is kind of whittled you away, it's kind of sanded you away like with fine sandpaper. and you can't do a lot of the things you could do in the past. i wouldn't come out of my house on the weekend for over a year. >> reporter: is it illegitimate, then, for employers to harbor some fear of worst-case scenarios, like flashbacks or becoming violent, "going postal"? >> the military doesn't have a problem with us being postal, and we carry guns!
>> as far as ptsd goes, are employers asking the same questions if someone is blind? ptsd, it's an illness, but it's manageable. >> reporter: the vets told us they're grateful for the program. >> reporter: the vets completed the program this spring. bain is now in culinary school. vadalma worked at the bureau of economic analysis until last month. he's now looking for another job. sheffield is, too. he decided against a commission- based insurance gig and is temping to get by. >> thank you for your service >> reporter: hundreds of thousands of other iraq and afghanistan vets are jobless, too, and thousands more are slated to return in the months ahead. >> lehrer: and there's more about the economic and emotional problems facing returning veterans on tonight's edition of the pbs program "need to know."
>> brown: next, city officials confront the question of how to deal with the "occupy" movements amid reports of problems and conflict at some encampments. as the "occupy wall street" movement approaches the start of its third month, demonstrations have spread from new york to more than 100 cities nationwide. while most have remained peaceful, strains are beginning to show after a number of recent incidents. in portland, oregon, the people who've camped in two parks for more than a month received an eviction notice yesterday. portland's police chief mike reese. >> we're going to communicate very clearly to people our intentions. we're starting that today to give people notice that we're going to start enforcing park rules effective 12:01 sunday. and at that point, they're going to be subject to all of the
authority that the city has around park ordinances and violations of state statutes. >> brown: police said the sites have been plagued by a series of problems, including multiple assaults and two fatal drug overdoses. and on wednesday, a man was arrested on suspicion of throwing a molotov cocktail the night before, doing minor damage at the city's world trade center. the building is located one block from the two parks that have been home to "occupy portland." in oakland, california, police today investigated a fatal shooting last night outside the "occupy oakland" camp. they said it resulted from a fight between two groups of men. protest organizers said the attack was unrelated to "occupy oakland." but the oakland police officers association issued an open letter, appealing to protesters to go home. it read in part: "please leave peacefully, with your heads held high, so we can get police officers back to work fighting crime."
the demonstrators were asked to vacate their encampment voluntarily within 24 hours. the goal-- to avoid a repeat of last month's violence, when police raided the camp to expel protesters. the mayor later allowed them back. elsewhere, a 35-year-old military veteran fatally shot himself in the head in burlington, vermont, last night at the anti-wall street protest there. while in utah, authorities have ordered protesters camping in a salt lake city park to leave after a man there was found dead inside his tent. and dozens of people were arrested at the university of california in berkeley on wednesday as riot police clashed with protesters trying to set up tents. calm was restored today after students voted not to erect those tents for now. meanwhile, back in new york, two dozen activists have left manhattan's zuccotti park, the site of the original protest, to march south to washington, d.c. they're supposed to join the
"occupy d.c." encampment by november 23, the deadline for a congressional super-committee to agree to a new deficit cutting plan. and protesters in pasadena, california, say they'll occupy the rose parade on january 2. in portland, where, as we said, officials have called for an eviction this weekend, both sides appear to be facing a decisive moment, one that is being watched around the country. we hear from portland's mayor, sam adams; and a representative of "occupy portland", jim oliver. he serves as the group's city liaison. mayor adams, fill in the picture as you see it. why have you given an ultimatum to clear the parks? >> well, our krnlz have not been with the occupy portland organizers or facilitators, i should say. it has been to the other folks that have also gathered at the encampment, and our concern is with growing 20-- 20% increase in crime around occupations.
it's the concern about two nearly fatal drug overdoses in the camp. it's concern with someone who lit-- ignighted a molotov cocktail in a building nearby that you mentioned in the lead-in and used the camp as sort of camouflage for his activities. those are our concerns that, you know, the camp is unsafe. >> brown: jim oliver, what's the response? what is the plan? are you planning to abide by this deadline? >> the mainstream media has been talking a lot about these everyday actions and petty crimes committed by economic refugees in an effort to detract from the message of the occupy movement. we've been staying focused on our message of social change, trying to call attention to who the real criminals are in our society, people like jamie diamond, the c.e.o. of jpmorgan chase gave himself a $19 million raise last year while thousands
of americans are being thrown out of their homes. banks talk about the benefitsef home ownership and use it as a way to enshare americans into unsustainable mortgage payments. it's time to begin a conversation on how fair homeownership opportunities and a housing disagree stray driven by profits -- >> brown: jim, we've talked a lot about that on the program and i appreciate you bringing that up again. i do want to ask you, the incidents that have happened, do you just see them as it isolated and, again, i want to ask what is the response going to be? are you going to clear the parks on saturday night at midnight? >> absolutely they're isolated incidents. each of these individual incidents has nothing to do with occupy portland or the occupy movement as a whole. again, the mainstream media has been very clear about their attention intention to distract from our message by focusing on the action of individuals. we intend to maintain our solidarity with occupy wall
street and americans being thrown out of their homes all across the country. we have seen an effort by many different city governments to try to shut down different facets of the occupy movement. we've seen the occupy movement standing strong for several weeks dismow we as occupy portland will continue to stand strong. >> brown: so, mayor, adams, it sounds as though you're facing a group that is going to stay there. how far are you planning to go to clear the park? somen some cities we've seen officials back off. in others we've seen some violence. what are you planning to do? >> well, from the very beginning i've talked about the need to balance free speech with the need to keep a city exphufg to do all of that in a peaceful manner. we've had to take three police actions to, one, prevent an expansion of the overnight frost and another to assist the federal government in an adjacent park. i think the portland police bureau has done a great job doing those enforcements in as peaceful way as one could imagine given the general, in those situations, the general sort of pandemonium that can
occur. the important part of the occupy wall street movement, the founding reason that the occupy wall street movement took place, you know, i agree with a lot of the economic justice, the bringing to account a lot of folks that have driven our global economy into the ditch. and i think occupy wall street has done a lot to raise those issues. as a mayor, i have to balance, you know, that freedom of speech and the desire to protect freedom of speech with just basic protecting, you know, people's lives and i can't-- i'm not going to wait until somebodyidize of a drug overdose and i'm not going to wait until someone is seriously hurt. every occupy is different around the nation. i only know what's going on in our occupy. >> brown: mayor, one of the questions people would have is the question of scale and
appropriate response. i mean, some of the things that happened would happen-- might happen in a city in any case so the question, i guess, they're raising is are these things enough to shut down the whole demonstration? >> well, you know when the details of the drug overdose, the details surrounding the individual that ignited the molotov cocktail, when i have homeless and homeless youth advocates telling me this is a very unsafe situation, you know, i listen to that. i have to weigh that against the fact that they might be isolated or there's something about the camp that is inherently unsafe. and in the end, i had to make that judgment, and my judgment was the camp itself is inherently unsafe, and the folks that have added themselves in to the original organizers of occupy portland and there are foiks like jim and others who have stood up and given a lot of effort, put a lot of time and
effort into making the camp as safe as possible. but i think events have conspired to get away from them and us to a degree, and that's why the notice, the three-day notice to evict came about. >> brown: jim oliver, one of the questions and criticisms from some over the occupy movement is the lack of clear goals or platforms. is it clear at this point what those in the park want as you face this ultimatum to leave? >> absolutely. we are petitioning our government for a redress of grievances as outlined in first amendment of the u.s. constitution. the goal of the occupy movement is to make systemic changes to the economic and political systems in this country that are failing the 99% of americans who see our wealth decreasing as the wealth of the .01% of the americans who control policy in this country increases. i'd like to add of add that all kinds of crime happens in downtown portland every single day. hundreds of people are homeless out in the street every single night, regardless of whether
occupy exists or not. and it seems to only be a crisis when it's actually at city hall's doorstep. the existence of our movement has cast light on the plight of economic refugees whose lives have been endangered and forced to sleep on the thanks to the policies of the 1%. i'm glad public officials and mainstream media have taken notice of this and i'm disturbed the city is going to be taking potentially violent action against those who have been assisting these individuals for weeks. >> brown: jim oliver, you are the city liaison, are there talks going on? center s & l some room for compromise? are this other parks you could move to for a bit? is there any way around this at this point? >> our encampment is firmly entrenched in the square and we intend to stay there. we have calledsfor an occupation-theft, 2011, starting on saturday evening. every citizen of portland is invited to join us for dancing, music, pot luck, games.
we expect thousands and we will be holding the parks peacefully in solidarity with our movement all across the country and we expect to remain indefinitely. >> brown: mayor from you, very briefly, are you worried about the reputation your city at this point if things do get violent? >> we're going to, you know, from the very beginning our goal has been to deal with this movement, this protest in a peaceful way. i feel like we have, to a great degree, up to this point. and that is our goal, moving forward to enforcing the notice of eviction. you know, those people that want to get arrested for civil disobedience purposes, we have facilitated facilitated that before. but the location and the way that this camp is set up and just other events have conspired that this is an unsafe situation and it's not just about the fact that it's on the doorstep of city hall. we take these kinds of enforcement actions all over the city, you know, all the time as
the need arises. >> brown: all right, portland mayor, sam adams, and jim oliver of occupy portland. thank you both very much. >> thank you. >> thank you. >> lehrer: and to the analysis of shields and brooks-- syndicated columnist mark shields, "new york times" columnist david brooks. mark, how do you see the occupy movement now? >> i think the message, which is people say is unclear is a log lott stronger than the messenger. certainly not mayor adams of portland, but i think some of the critics and opponents of the movement itself have tried to discredit the movement by focusing attention on the exotic, eccentric, erratic behavior of some of the occupiers. but this past week, when this question was put, the current economic structure of the
country is out of balance and favors a small proportion of the rich over the rest of the country, america needs to reduce the power of major banks and corporationing." 76% of americans, "wall street journal" poll, agree with that. 60% strongly agree with that. it cuts across partisan, religious, racial, age divisions. so i think that is a direct consequence of the movement. i think the movement, the message has been very effective in getting across. i doubt if it would have been that strong three months ago. >> that's exactly what the tea party movement has been saying. my problem with that movement and the tea party movement both of them they have no leaders. they have no institutions. you can celebrate democracy if you think it's useful to have a movement and no leaders. if have no leaders, no institution, no direction, i think you have no lasting power. you have nobody to be serious and rigorous. and say here are the problems we all agree on. here is what we are offering. politically, you're not going to be defined by your best people.
you're going to be defiend by your worst who will be the most disruptive and i think that's what happened to the occupy movement. i think a movement needs leaders and institutions to have staying power, as the civil rights movement did gl what about mark's point, all of that aside, it has raisethe consciousness of the issue. >> i think it has. the tea party movement was talking about financial concentration. this was their core message, the concentration of finance in washington, and which is the core message of the occupy movement, obviously, from a different perspective. that issue is something that a lot of us agree with. a lot of us-- i'm no occupy type but i think the banks should be broken up. nonetheless, it's not enough to just raise the issue. i give them credit for that. you have to have solutions. that involves studying the issues. things are complicated. and the final point-- and this is what the mayors are facing all around the country, you have a right to raise issues. you have a right to protest. you don't have a right to occupy parts of your city.
so there is a balance mayors are dealing with and i think they've been very lenient with the occupy movement burkts as these efforts mount i think they're right to try to restore order while giving them the right to protest. >> i think mayor adams was the soul of reason and restraint in his presentation with jeffrey, and i think that's probably the tradition of cities -- >> now they're going to move. >> that's right about the the point is, it's not coming in with a nine-point program and a think tank and a white paper. they have changed the debate in the country. i mean, we were not talking about this before the occupy movement started. and i think in that sense, they have changed the dynamic of the public discourse in america gl but if things turn violent, if these things continue to deteriorate for whatever reason, what then happens to the movement? >> it hurts the movement. i mean, the messenger and the message, cadsly, are-- sadly are
joined in people's minds, and the message has been dominant thus far. if the behavior-- as i say, exotic, eccentric, antisocial illegal, it ultimately hurts the cause. >> lehrer: you agree with that. >> i do. i disagree they raised an issue that has been ignored. i don't think there have been too many issues as discussed as inequality and the financial crisis. this program and my newspaper, every program and newspaper. and the problem is they're both very complicated issues, so you have to deal with the complexity. >> i think the fact that the president of the united states is basically on this issue is testimony to the effectiveness of it. and he's been living on that issue now for the past two months. >> lehrer: speaking of the president of the united states-- that's called a segue-- >> anniversary nice. >> lehrer: david, one of the many folks who would also like
to have that job of course is rick perry, the oops incident. serious matter for rick perry and his candidacy? >> year, i was going to say we should have a moment of silence for the perry campaign but he already beat us to it. >> lehrer: you didn't write that down. >> i didn't. it just comes to me. you have to have one perry joke. the problem is if he we were a fully versed candidate who had a moment, we could all say he had a moment. we all have the moment. up until now -- this was his recovery moment-- up until now he has not seemed like a fully versed candidate, a candidate who has thought about-- seriously, about say what the department of commerce does, what the department of energy does, why we should itv it, why we should not have it, what's good, what's bad. he hasn't done the hard work of trying to understand the issues. maybe that's my theme for tonight, but if you haven't done the hard work understanding the complexities, people are going to doubt your credibility. so which wh this happened it
wasn't just a momentary lapse. it was a symptom of the core problem of his campaign, he doesn't seem serious. >> lehrer: it was said on this program last night, it fit the story, the action fit the story about rick perry. >> that's right. when you have a gaffe of this proportion and dimension, you want it to be outside of what is the preexisting perception, a stereotype of you. when bill clinton went endlessly at the 1988 democratic convention in his keynote address and finally reached a point where his last paragraph was "inconclusion" and the crowd cheered. he could go on johnny carson and say that wasn't my best hour. that wasn't even my best hour and a half and he could laugh at himself because he was not known as a blowhard or windbag. in perry's case, two things have happened. one, he's introduced to the nation through these debates. and i've never seen a campaign, quite frankly, where debates have played such a dominant and influential role. i mean, they've cemented mitt romney as sort of the cool,
collected professional customer. i thought one thing about the perry mishap the other night, it did, for the first time, humanize mitt romney. he was the one that said, "e.p.a.." give him manage. >> lehrer: the wrong one. >> ron paul said there aren't three, there are five. and poor perry at that point is about to cash it in. >> lehrer: how is herman cain dealing with his problem which is sexual harassment? >> he's i think behaving badly. first of all, what i think of-- he's gone for the home run. they're all lying. and then his lawyer said watch out for the next people which was brutal and rude. and so far his polling supthere. i think this is an illusion. i think his polling will be down quite quickly. right now there's a reaction from his push against the media. they don't want to give anything to their ideological from--
perceived ideological opponents in the media but this is registry. and i think when you see the rise of newt gingrich, which is happening right now, that's cain beginning to deflate. and i think he'll be deflated very seriously within a week or two. >> lehrer: how do you explain the gingrich thing? do you agree it's part of that? >> there is a constituency in the republican party and probably david would be more familiar with this than i am that really is-- you could call them the anti-mainstream media constituency. i mean, that really is a route. sarah palin rode that horse, the lame-stream media, she called it. the sense that there are people out there believing that there is a conspiracy, that we meet in secret meetings and say, "this is the agenda and this is what the take is going to be." it really is-- they're waiting to support somebody, and that's what he's playing to. that's-- that's what cain-- that's cain's defense, blamed it on rick perry's campaign. he blamed it on the media. he blamed it on the democratic
machine. i just thought his debate performance was abysmal. everything that came up, the european banking crisis, china trade 9-9-9. they asked about declining sunday school attendance, 9-9-9. this was a thoughtless performance. i think that gingrich's rise, obviously, there's a need for a family values candidate after cain's problems and newt is going to fill that void. no! >> it strikes me as-- i still basically think there's one real candidate. that's mitt romney. suppose there were two. suppose jeb bush decided to get in the race? they said you can't do it. your last name is bush. if he were in the race i think he would be the front-runner. he would be the one person for the serious establishment types but some of the more conservative types i think would also be happy with him. one of the things that interests me is what happens if mitt romney stumbles? then where does the party go?
because really there's option a., and no option b., practically. that would create a crisis of the party and then you would see people rallying around somebody not in the race right now. >> lehrer: quickly, before we go, the president's decision on the pipeline from canada down through-- to texas, the decision to delay it. what do you think? >> he didn't make it. the statement made it. ( laughter ). >> lehrer: that was the state department? in. >> no. there are two dilemmas. one is the environmental constituency. on the politics of it and the other was-- listen, a year before an election, all decisions have a strong political dimension to them. make no mistake about it. and labor unionsment those jobs desperately. so he decided not to come down on either side and to postpone it. >> lehrer: till after the election. >> yes. >> lehrer: what do you think? >> this isn't the only one. there have been a series of
environmental regulations he's kicked the can down the road. if you want to show you're a leader, it's not politics as usual, i would not say this is the way to do it. somebody said this is not leading from behind. it's cowering under the table. >> who said that. >> a friend of mine. no, i did not say it. it was a friend of mine. it wasn't me. i would have taken full credit. so, you know, it's not his finest moment. they obviously decided, hey, we'll take a hit to our leadership. we just don't want to offend the yoirnz environmentalists. >> lehrer: of course the state of nebraska is the one raising real cane about it. of course, it goes through middle of kansas as well. so what-- >> that's a real concern. those are legitimate concerns. i'm not trying to minimize it. but this is the politic segment of the show. the rest of the show, 89%, 95% of it deals with substance. david and i deal with crass, venal politics. >> i have a map of where it will go but i'm not going to share
it. >> lehrer: you agree with mark that this was a political decision made a year before the election for political relationships. >> absolutely. it's not going to be the last that pits these two constituencies against each other, by the way. >> lehrer: okay, all right. we'll see, we'll see. we'll see. okay, we'll see. thank you both. >> brown: finally, tomorrow is world pneumonia day, highlighting a disease that continues to destroy lives around the world. ray suarez recently traveled to nicaragua to look at efforts to combat the problem there. >> suarez: it's an unlikely place to see the results of a multi-million dollar business deal, a one-room church in rural nicaragua. here, children in the tiny village of timal are receiving a life-saving new vaccine, brought to market through a revolutionary business model.
the vaccine prevents bacterial pneumonia. it's sorely needed in nicaragua, where pneumonia is the number one killer of children under five. >> ( translated ): the main symptoms are difficulty in breathing, a fever, and loss of appetite, which leads to malnutrition. but these towns are difficult to access and families have a hard time travelling to a hospital, so for this illness, often death is the final outcome. >> suarez: even those babies who do make it to a hospital face daunting odds. >> ( translated ): 20% of the children in this hospital are admitted for pneumonia, and more than half of them will die. >> suarez: infants, who don't have a mature cough reflex, are most at risk. globally, pneumonia is the single biggest killer of children, accounting for nearly one in five deaths among young children, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths annually. 90% of the pneumonia deaths each
year occur in the developing world. nicaragua is poor, the second poorest country in the western hemisphere. like other developing countries, nicaragua could not afford a new vaccine like the one for pnemococcal pneumonia for its children without a steep price reduction. and that's just what it got with this pneumonia shot-- a whopping 95% discount. how do you get a vaccine's cost down from $100 a dose to less than $5? by guaranteeing pharmaceutical companies a steady stream of revenue, by assuring them all the children in the entire country will be vaccinated. the pharmaceutical companies-- in this case, pfizer and glaxosmithkline-- were promised a huge market of customers if they kept costs down. dr. orin levine runs the international vaccine access center and teaches at johns hopkins university. >> so the advanced market commitment basically says, we'll
assure that there's a market, that there is money on the table, if you make this vaccine that meets the needs of the developing countries. >> suarez: the unusual pharmaceutical deal was brokered by the global alliance for vaccines and immunization, now known simply as gavi. the gavi alliance, which includes the bill and melinda gates foundation, also a newshour funder, donated $1.5 billion. without that cash, new vaccines do eventually make it to the poorest countries, but only after years of delay. dr. seth berkley is gavi's c.e.o.. >> that takes 15, sometimes 20 years, and that usually the lag time between when these products appear and when they get into those living in the poorest countries. what gavi has tried to do is shrink that. and with pneumococcus, it's the best and first example of a product that, after coming out in the west, it was already being rolled out in the developing world.
that is a really exciting intervention. >> suarez: nicaragua was the first developing country to roll out the pneumococcal vaccine one year ago. it was a tragic case of bad timing for diana del socorro blanco guevara, whose 17-month- old daughter angie got sick and became gravely ill just as the vaccine was entering the country. >> ( translated ): my daughter got worse suddenly. she got tired, she couldn't get enough oxygen. they took her in a room and told me they had to put a tube down her throat. they put i.v.s everywhere. >> suarez: angie died in early february after weeks of struggling to breathe. >> ( translated ): i suffered when i saw my daughter in the hospital. people said we should leave the hospital, but we stayed. we slept on top of cardboard, under a tree. i don't want to see other mothers go through what i went through. i have never lost something i loved so much in my life.
>> pneumococcus is a bacteria that infects everyone around the world, but the consequences are uneven. so in places like nicaragua, where people live in poverty, the consequences of the infection are more severe. they may be undernourished, they may be living in essentially more dangerous housing. they often lack access to life- saving antibiotics or oxygen therapy. >> suarez: for every one child who dies from pneumonia in rich countries, 2,000 die in developing countries. >> ( translated ): it makes me feel good to know there is a solution for those children so that mothers won't suffer what i suffered with my terrible loss. i think about her every day. you may not see it, but i am thinking of her and the memories are there every day.
>> suarez: karla maria fonseca cuadra is blanco's neighbor. fonseca saw how devastating the loss of angie was to the baby's mother, and made sure to vaccinate her three children. one suffers from asthma. >> ( translated ): he is very susceptible to getting sick. his asthma has left him weak, but i imagine now with the vaccine, he is much safer. >> the beauty of science, when we make a big breakthrough, is when it brings about social justice, when it essentially eliminates the kind of disparities in risk that children in poverty face. so by virtue of the fact that now we can get life saving pneumococcal vaccines to children in nicaragua at the same time we get them to children in newark. >> suarez: but delivering health care, bringing it to where people can get it-- when a government can only spend a few dollars a year per patient-- is a challenge, sometimes made even harder by government corruption.
so gavi also requires that countries like nicaragua show in advance they can reach at least 70% of their citizens. >> in a way, it's a kind of carrot. it encourages countries to strengthen their systems and to reach every child in order to make themselves eligible to qualify for these vaccines. >> suarez: nancy vasconez is an immunization advisor for the pan-american health organization, paho, part of the united nations. she says that promise of wide distribution is a huge undertaking for a developing country like nicaragua. >> ( translated ): it is a commitment of the government to put in place the human resources needed. and the commitment doesn't last one day or one year; the contract is for 20 years, and you have to pay the personnel and supervisors to make sure the vaccine is being used correctly. you have to take the vaccine where people live. >> suarez: nicaragua's health workers fan out, armed for battle with coolers filled with the vaccine. >> ( translated ): i know we
cant measure the cost of death, but if we measure the number of years by which we prolong life and prevent debilitating illnesses, we can measure the cost of a life, and i believe the government of nicaragua made the best investment. >> suarez: the gavi alliance plans to continue its rollout to more than 40 countries, and hopes to prevent 700,000 deaths by 2015, and seven million deaths by 2030. oh, yes, it hurts all right, but that man with the needle just may be saving your life. >> lehrer: and again, the major developments. on this veterans day, the nation honored those who have served in the military. president obama again urged businesses to hire returning veterans for civilian jobs. a new government took office in greece, and lawmakers in italy moved to adopt economic reforms.
and world markets gained back lost ground. the dow jones industrial average added nearly 260 points to close back above 12,000. and a correction: in our lead story, we said u.s. troops had been in iraq for ten years. of course, it's eight years. and to hari sreenivasan for what's on the newshour online. hari. >> sreenivasan: our reporting from nicaragua continues. find a photo essay on the difficult health odds for children there. on this veteran's day, watch "where soldiers come from" produced by our colleagues at "pov". the documentary aired last night, but is also being streamed online. plus, find our interview with two of the soldiers profiled; that's on the "rundown" blog. plus on "art beat," jeff talks to author stephen mitchell about his new translation of homer's "iliad." all that and more is on our web site, newshour.pbs.org. >> lehrer: and on this veterans day, once again to our honor roll of american service
>> brown: and that's the newshour for tonight. on monday, we'll talk with musical icon, and life-long political and social activist harry belafonte. i'm jeffrey brown. >> lehrer: and i'm jim lehrer. "washington week" can be seen later this evening on most pbs stations. we'll see you online, and again here monday evening. have a nice holiday weekend. thank you and good night. major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> intelligent computing technology is making its way into everything from cars to retail signs to hospitals, creating new enriching experiences. through intel's philosophy of investing for the future, we're helping to bring these new capabilities to market. we're investing billions of dollars in r&d around the globe to help create the technologies that we hope will be the heart of tomorrow's innovations. i believe that by investing today in technological advances here at intel, we can make a better tomorrow.
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