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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  October 16, 2013 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> woodruff: the senate is poised to pass a last-minute bill averting default and ending the shutdown and speaker john boehner said the house will vote on the deal with just hours to go before the debt-limit deadline. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. we get the latest from capitol hill. plus, analysis of the political standoff that brought the nation to the fiscal brink, from stuart rothenberg and susan page. >> woodruff: and an international take on the budget battle in washington. we sit down with the italian prime minister, enrico letta, in an exclusive t.v. interview. >> ifill: then we head to new mexico, where thousands of wild horses are straining natural resources and prompting a debate over whether some should be rounded-up for slaughter.
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>> these horses are sacred to us. we love our horses. but we love our land, too. >> woodruff: those are just some of the stories we're covering on tonight's "pbs newshour." >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> ifill: our lead story tonight: the end is finally in sight, in the political stalemate that closed part of the government and threatened national default. senators crafted a compromise today, and house republicans threw in the towel. "newshour" congressional correspondent kwame holman begins our coverage. >> the majority leader... >> ifill: senate leaders took the floor at mid-day, deal in hand. the chamber's top democrat harry reid: >> this legislation ends a standoff that ground the work of washington to a halt this fall. madame president, this is not a time for pointing fingers or blame. this is a time of reconciliation. >> ifill: the leader of the republican minority mitch mcconnell said both sides had to give. >> for today, the relief we hope for is to reopen the government, avoid default, and protect the historic cuts we achieved under the budget control act. this is far less than many of us had hoped for, frankly, but it's
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far more than some had sought. >> ifill: the framework came from a bipartisan group of 14 senators, led by republican susan collins of maine. >> this great country deserves a congress that can govern. and that was the unifying theme of our group. >> ifill: the agreement they worked out, funds government operations for three months, at reduced spending levels already in place. and it raises the debt ceiling through february 7. the deal also calls for a congressional panel to negotiate a long-term deficit-reduction package. and it requires that americans verify incomes to qualify for subsidies under the new health care law. that was the sole section related to obamacare, after republicans spent weeks trying to block or delay parts of the law. last month, texas senator ted cruz-- a leading tea party conservative-- filibustered over the issue.
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today, he said he'd vote "no", but would not try to delay action. >> i have no objections to the timing of this vote. and the reason is simple: there is nothing to be gained from delaying this vote one day or two days. the outcome will be the same. every senator, every member of the house is going to have to make a decision where he or she stands. >> ifill: arizona republican john mccain, meanwhile, had opposed the shutdown, and he voiced relief today. >> i think it's obvious that we are now seeing the end of this agonizing odyssey that this body has been put through, but far more importantly the american people have been put through. it's one of the more shameful chapters that i have seen in the years that i have spent here in the senate. >> reporter: senators resurrected the deal late yesterday after competing proposals-- floated by house republican leaders--failed to gain support from conservatives. by then, the pressure to act had ratcheted up sharply, with the financial world warning about the effects of a default, including a possible downgrade in the government's triple-a
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credit rating. on the other hand, there was pressure from outside conservative groups to oppose the plan. much of that pressure was aimed at house republicans, who met this afternoon to evaluate how to proceed with the senate proposal. going in, speaker john boehner told a cincinnati radio station that his side had done all it could. >> we've been locked in a fight over here, trying to bring government down to size, trying to do our best to stop obamacare. we fought the good fight. we just didn't win. >> reporter: after the meeting, boehner issued a statement saying house republicans would not try to block the senate bill. at the white house, president obama waited as the hours until >> the american +*r american people have paid a price for this. >> holman: wall street applauded the breakthrough, the dow industrials gained more than
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205 points on the day while the nasdaq rose 45 points. >> ifill: we go now to capitol hill, and lori montgomery of the "washington post," who has been following the day's developments. yesterday, lori, there was a dealing n the morning, it collapsed by evening, today it looks like there's a deal again. everybody's about to vote and now they have a deal, the senate is getting ready to vote. what's in the deal? >> so the deal does virtually nothing republicans wanted it to do and virtually everything president obama wanted to do which is it turns the lights back on on the federal government through january 15 and it would prevent a default by the treasury department by raising the borrowing limit through february 7. there's one small concession to the forces that were trying to undermine president obama's health care initiative and that is a requirement that the health secretary, kathleen sebelius, certify she is able to ensuring there's no fraud in the distribution of tax subsidies
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for people who want to buy insurance. but it's a very small fig leaf to cover what were very large ambitions to try to defund or delay this law entirely. >> ifill: just to be clear: after the senate vote when this is expected to pass it goes to the house and those people holding up in the house have folded or changed their minds or they don't have the votes? >> well, it sounds like there's a bit of a backlash developing in the house. yesterday there was a very strong movement against doing this kind of a bill after some conservative groups like heritage action for america run by former senator jim demint said "don't vote for this." today as the deal was struck over here in the senate by mitch mcconnell-- republican leader-- and harry reid you began to see sort of it dawning on republicans in the house, geez, we shut the government down for 16 days and this is what we're left with and maybe this wasn't such a good idea so some republicans are telling us
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today we're going to vote for this measure just to signal to everybody that we're done with this kind of divisiveness. it's time to start working with democrats and make washington work again. >> ifill: it does beg the question, lori, about why is it happening today and it didn't happen 16 days ago? what changed even overnight? >> well, i think you have to sort of credit president obama here for the prediction-- especially by some senior white house officials-- that the 2011 debt limit fight was a terrible thing for the republican party and in the end they would not go over the edge and the white house bet on that the whole way through, they tse we're not going to negotiate, you are going to give us a clean debt limit with no strings attached and hire 24 hours before the treasury runs out of borrowing authority that's exactly what we're seeing >> ifill: we know this deal would allow for the debt ceiling to be raised through february and the government to be funded through december. >> january 15.
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>> pelley: for three months. january 15. how do we know we won't be here again? >> that's an excellent question and one i've been asking people this afternoon. we're going to, in the meantime, have a conversation committee of the budget committees and paul ryan, the vice presidential nominee for the republican party and patti murray, the democratic budget committee chairman here in the senate are going to convene a conference committee and they're going to talk about all of the big things we've been fighting about for the last three years. we're going to talk about the tax code, about medicare and social security, they're going to talk about whether the roll back these deep automatic cuts known as the sequester and they're supposed to issue a report by the middle of december. but i think what -- nobody really expects these problems to be solved given the atmosphere here. so once again i think when january hits democrats are going to be betting that republicans don't want to relive this. >> ifill: except for ted cruz who's on the floor saying he still thinks it's a bad idea. was he the ultimate loser in
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this. >> well, he certainly raised his profile so did he lose? >> ifill: that's the question, isn't it? lori montgomery, thank you for keeping track for us up on capitol hill. i know it will be another long night. >> thanks, gwen. >> woodruff: what is the political state of play after 16 days of the government shutdown? two close observers of it all join us: stuart rothenberg of the "rothenberg political report" and "roll call and susan page, washington bureau chief of "usa today." welcome back to the program. susan, any doubt that this deal is going to fly? is going to pass tonight? >> it's clear that it's going to pass. it's going to pass easily in the house, this that had been a question. and i think that everyone's going to declare victory and go home and have that this fight over again in a few months. >> woodruff: stu, no doubt in your mind this is going to pass? >> no doubt. it's going to pass and the pragmatic conservatives in the
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republican part gee seen the writing on the wall for a long time and the uncompromising conservatives are out of options. -z >> woodruff: so what substantively did republicans get out of this? >> they got nothing. this was a disaster for them. they picked a fight they couldn't win and, in fact, all the political benefits accrue to the president and to the democrats. the republicans caved. the president didn't have to compromise so the republicans start off with a weaker hand when they have to engage again. the democrats are -- are gonna benefit from recruiting in congressional races. republican money may dry up. i mean, there's a -- this is a mess for republicans. >> i would disagree on one thing. i think they got one thing they don't seem to recognize which is they got the sequester budget levels. >> woodruff: lower spending. >> lower spending levels that democrats six months ago were saying were completely unacceptable. that's the new baseline. now, remembers didn't note that and claim victory with it, but the fact is that did happen and that is a republican victory.
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>> woodruff: but as both of you have just referred to, we're going to see come january, february, just a few months from now you're going to see the same argument again over spending levels and over the debt limit. susan, what's to stop this play from just being enacted all over again. >> i think the one thing that might change it from just being another repetition in a few months is the way the republicans got their clock cleaned in this one. and so they may choose not to have another kind of showdown over the debt ceiling like they did this time. i mean, that's one -- if you want to count barack obama as a big winner-- and i think i do believe he's a winner from this fight-- it's -- he made his point that he wasn't going to negotiate on the debt ceiling and he didn't and the republicans ended up caving. >> i think one question is about the survey data. what the polls show after the first of the year. if the republican numbers have rebounded then ted cruzs of the world will say "see, this was not permanent damage and we can have another fight." if it looks like there was considerable damage and it's long-lasting i think a lot of
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conservatives will say "maybe we better move on." >> woodruff: but they were insisting on these early dates as part of this language, right? january and february. the white house wanted a later debt limit rise. >> all the rational people wanted later deadlines so we don't have to go through this so soon, so we don't have to go through it during an election year. that will be another calculation when these fights come up. that's the year these people -- all the house members and a third of the senators will be running for reelection. >> woodruff: stu, you touched on some of the effects on the republican party. how do you see it? how much of this is the republican party broadly? how much of it is confined just to ted cruz and some members of the tea party? >> oh, no, i think the damage is to the republican party and it's -- in all these areas the democrats are emboldened, they're recruiting candidates, they've already recruited a candidate in nebraska against lee terry who wasn't running but now is involved. >> pelley>> woodruff: based just on what's going on? >> i think so, yes. the fact that the republicans are now more easily demonized
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and defined as the guys who are against anything and everything. republicans are worried about small-dollar fund-raising and big-dollar fund-raising. they're concerned with the small-dollar folks because those are the true bluegrass roots tea party conservatives who have nothing -- there's no benefit from the republican -- the republicans caved. they didn't get anything. the big donors who are more pragmatic are petrified at the thought the republicans are going to drive the party and the country off the economic cliff. not only that, judy, if you looked -- you also have to look at what the republicans gave up. they gave up arguments over the past few weeks about the roleout of obamacare and what a mess it was. and they're just in an inferior position now. >> there's also two republican parties, now. the party is really split in half and meanwhile the democrats are now newly reunited. the democrats had some fractures going on over drones and over the n.s.a. disclosures and some unhappiness with president
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obama. they are together now and that is a real strength for a party. >> woodruff: so in other words it's not just the republicans are hurt, you think the democrats are strengthened as a result? >> i think that's right. >> a month ago we were talking about syria and the president's problems and making decision there is and all that stuff is wiped away. i think susan is exactly right. the dealts are now energized and unified and the republicans are divided. >> woodruff: so who gets the credit for this? is this -- was this understood to be a white house strategy that paid off? is that what we're talking about, susan? >> the white house had a strategy that was good, that worked out. i think senator reid and mcconnell deserve a lot of credit and i would give credit to women in the senate. we've had -- we have only 20 women in the senate but still it's a record. 20 of the 100 and the women in the senate starting with susan colins of maine who pushed for a bipartisan compromise and that is something we know from academic studies that women legislators are more likely to seek compromise, to be willing to talk across party aisles. not every woman office holder but as a group women tend to be
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more willing to do that and you definitely saw that in play in this fight. >> woodruff: how about speaker boehner, stu? where does he stand? >> i think he's going to emerge -- not that he's undamaged but he is unchallenged. he is unchallenged. what we're hearin hearing hearim conservatives is they're saying, well, john boehner gave us the chance to fight this and he played along with us, he led the fight and we don't blame him. so i don't think there's going to be a challenge to him. there aren't a lot of republicans in the conference who want somebody else so i think he's going to survive okay. i think mitch mcconnell is the big question mark. >> that's because of the difference between the politics back home in kentucky where he's got a challenger and a primary and a significant challenger in the general election. >> woodruff: how much does this affect other issues? we're already hearing from the president that he wants to push immigration reform once this is done. >> after the last shutdown in 1996 i was covering the white house and it was a big opportunity for bill clinton and newt gingrich. they got big legislation through in 1996 after a shutdown where the president was empowered.
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but it doesn't feel that way to me with this one. for one thing, in the 1996 shutdown, there was a lot of communication between newt gingrich and president clinton. there was a certain -- even though they battled, there was a certain relationship of trust. you don't see any of that now. but it's possible. i suppose it's possible that this opens the door to more compromise. i just don't think it's likely. >> i can't imagine house republicans going along with anything the president offers at the moment. >> woodruff: despite the weakness you just described? >> yeah, they have one thing. they can continue to vote no. that's the one thing they have going for them and if it's something that the president wants i think they will be inclined to oppose it. unless he reaches out to them and they really feel-- rightly or wrongly-- that he has not reached out to them. >> woodruff: on that note we are glad the two of you were here. stu rothenberg, susan page, thank you. >> ifill: in other news, investment bank j.p. morgan chase will pay $100 million and admit its traders acted recklessly. the announcement today stems from disastrous trades in the
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bank's london operation that lost $6 billion. the settlement is with the u.s. commodity futures trading commission. the bank is also paying $920 million in a separate deal with other regulators. a federal jury in dallas has acquitted billionaire mark cuban of insider trading. the owner of the n.b.a.'s dallas mavericks was accused of selling shares in an internet firm based on insider information. the securities and exchange commission brought the civil case. cuban denied any wrongdoing. a court in russia today decided not to imprison opposition leader alexei navalny. the 37-year-old has led protests against president vladimir putin. he was convicted of embezzlement in july and sentenced to five years. today, the court suspended that sentence, but upheld the conviction, which bars him from running for office. navalny said both the original prosecution and today's decision were politically motivated.
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>> (translated): this decision to suspend my five-year sentence was not made here. it was made personally by vladimir putin. i do not have an idea of what exactly is happening in his head and why he has changed his decision. it is clear that the authorities are doing their utmost to pull me out of the political fight. >> ifill: last month, navalny finished a strong second in the race to be moscow's mayor, garnering almost a third of the votes. the latest talks on iran's nuclear program wound up today, with diplomats calling them very important and intense. the meetings in geneva involved the u.s. and five other powers, plus iran. the next new round is scheduled for november 7th and 8th, again in geneva. we'll have more on this later in the program. in the philippines, the death toll from tuesday's earthquake rose to at least 144. rescue crews on the central island of bohol finally managed to reach some of the hardest hit areas, a day after the quake struck. they combed through the rubble of collapsed buildings, including at least a dozen heavily damaged historic churches. about two dozen people remain missing.
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this was election day in new jersey, as voters chose a united states senator. pre-election polls showed newark's democratic mayor cory booker holding a double- digit lead over his republican opponent, steve lonegan. the winner takes the seat of democratic senator frank lautenberg, who died last june. >> ifill: also ahead on the "newshour": an interview with italy's prime minister; rounding-up wild horses in new mexico; iran comes to the negotiating table over its nuclear program and a new book on jazz great charlie parker. >> woodruff: now that a deal appears to be at hand, the doomsday scenario that had alarmed the international community seems to have been averted, at least for a while. over the weekend, international monetary fund chief christine lagarde had said that a failure to come to an agreement over the u.s. debt would mean massive disruption the world over. and we would be at risk of
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tipping yet again, into recession. tonight, we get reaction to the proposed deal and the fight that led up to it from the leader of europe's fourth largest economy, italian prime minister enrico letta. i spoke to him a short time ago. prime minister enrico letta, welcome to the newshour. >> thank you. >> woodruff: so we're watching what's happening on capitol hill today. it looks as if there's a deal. if that holds what does that mean for the global economy and for italy's economy? >> i think we need absolutely an agreement. it would be very important for stability, stability in the markets, first of all. we need stability in the markets to have reforms, of course at the global level. we decided to have important reforms in the last g-20 meeting. against fiscal evasion, fiscal avoidance, on structural reforms and we need, of course, to have reforms in each country, italy's one of them.
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but to have reforms we need stability in the markets. so the agreement this evening, we hope, the agreement this night will be very important for our future. >> woodruff: and you're referring not just to italy but to the entire world? >> yes, to the entire world but i would say to europe first of all because i will stress the point that the american leadership last year was very important to help europe to start to exit from the euro crisis and obama was very important in the g-8 to help the europeans to go to step by step out of the crisis. now, of course, the american leadership is needed to continue on the path for growth because we are out of the austerity -- of the years of crisis, of euro
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crisis and so on and we have to be in the path of growth. this is why we need america. >> pelley: of course even if this deal is passed it's only until february. when the politicians have to come together and have another agreement to raise the debt ceiling. how much confidence do you have that leaders in this country right now have the ability to do that? >> i can't say anything about the internal political debate, of course, but i'm here in washington also to say the rest of the world is looking as congress men, senators and so on and your decisions are important for the rest of the world. so the world's growth needs stability and we need such an agreement and i hope also another agreement in february, of course.
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>> woodruff: do you think you understand what's happening here right now? >> it's not easy but i can understand because i have my problems at home and i know how big is the fight, debate among factions among electoral factions, political parties, individuals. it's not easy to have agreement in politics today. >> woodruff: well, speaking of italy, you have just emerged from a confidence vote in your own country. your former prime minister, berlusconi, was challenging you some political turmoil. how confident are you that your own country now on a path to economic and political stability? >> i'm confident because of this confidence vote very important because yesterday we improved the budget for 2014 and the
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council of ministers and this budget will be the first budget after years in italy with the general debt decreasing, the deficit decreasing the public spending decreasing and tax level decreasing. i hope that we'll have growth next year but i would say for the first year i would say we are out of the emergency and that is for my country, for italy, very important news. now we have to apply reforms, of course. but we are ready to have budget under control, no more debts, the best news, i think for the markets and for the italians, for the young italians is that our debt is decreasing next year. and so no more debts and i hope for reforms to having growth. so i am confident. >> woodruff: well, the entire european continent as you know, mr. prime minister, is experiencing a wave of populism right now.
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some of it angry, reacting to the austerity that's been instituted, to the recession that has taken so long to begin to lift and some of it has turned violent. how serious a problem is this and what are you doing in your own country to address it? >> the problem, i think, is very serious because next year we'll have the election of the european parliament. the big risk is that this election will bring the most anti-european parliament ever. because in many countries-- like mine, of course, but also in france or in other countries-- we have the race of populist parties, anti-europe and anti-euro. that will be a big problem, of course because we had these five years of crisis, austerity, lack of growth, and lack of jobs. jobs is the true problem of
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europe and first of all jobs for youth. we risk to have a sort of lost generation, the generation of youth today. we have to help them and we have to give them opportunities. this is why hope is so important today and this is why structural reforms are so important. so my mission, our mission is to defeat populism but challenging populism with concrete answers on jobs and growth and that is, i think, the main issues today. >> woodruff: well, in connection with that you have the issue of immigration and this tragic incident of a few weeks ago, the boat of migrants coming from the continent of africa. they were headed to the island in lampedusa, there was a terrible accident. hundreds were killed.
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do you have a sense that you're able to get to the bottom of why this kind of thing has happened and to be sure that it doesn't happen again? >> it was a tragedy, of course. it is a tragedy and i will say that this issue today is one of the main issues of our mediterranean sea because, of course, we have something completely new. migrations in the past were linked to economic reasons. today migrations are first of all linked to failed states, refugees. terrible wars of the former arab springs are now not only springs but something of worst than spring. this is why today we have to change our approach. we have to be very selective, of course, but we have to help
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those who are really refugees, first of all we have now a problem in libya. libya is a state without strong institutions. the tragedy with the boat, the boat was from -- arriving from misurata, from libya. so italy asked for a european initiative and we will discuss this brussels thursday in the next week which initiative but we -- the italians, we are the main mediterranean country so we have our own responsibility and we are taking our own responsibility. so we started a military humanitarian yesterday, just yesterday. we have many ships, many planes to try to control, of course, the sea in the area around
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lampedusa, around malta towards libya and to rescue people, of course. we don't want to see other terrible images like we -- i was in lampedusa some days ago with the president of the european commission. we were there with 300 coffins. it was really terrible. with kids, with women. it was -- we can't tolerate something like that. this is why our mission, military humanitarian mission and i hope the mission will avoid other tragedies like that. but also i would like to have a european initiative. we need a european initiative. >> pelley: prime minister enrico letta, we thank you very much for coming to talk with us at the newshour. >> thank you.
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>> ifill: there is renewed controversy in new mexico over a plan to reopen horse slaughterhouses, which have been banned in this country for six years. hari sreenivasan has our report about what's triggered this debate. >> reporter: several times a week this summer, residents of the navajo indian reservation in new mexico mapped out a game- plan, they set up a temporary pen and then headed out by horseback and a.t.v.s to round up groups of wild horses that have become a threat to the livelihood of farmers and ranchers here. >> these horses are bouncing between ranchers land, eating the forage, drinking the water. each feral horse we estimate eats anywhere between five and 18 pounds of forage a day. they drink five-- between five and 15 gallons of water a day. >> reporter: erny zah, spokesman for the tribe, estimates, that
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feral horses-- that is horses that run wild but at one time were domesticated-- cost the navajos $200,000 a year in damages. there are approximately 70,000 of them in northwestern new mexico alone and zah says they are putting a tremendous strain by on the land and resources. land that is already struggling from a catastrophic drought. >> you have cattle who aren't gaining as much weight. not getting as much money at auction. so our ranchers are losing out money. >> reporter: to try to ease the problem, tribal leaders have authorized these round-ups, in which horses are chased across open land, into make-shift corrals and then loaded into trailers to head to auction. many of the horses will end up in slaughterhouses in canada and mexico. their meat exported to china or europe where, unlike the u.s., horse meat is regularly consumed. the united states shut down horse slaughterhouses in this
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country six years ago when it prohibited federal funding for inspectors. but recently, congress removed that prohibition and this summer, the u.s.d.a. awarded permits to several business owners and said they could prepare to open. rick de los santos was one of them. for more than 20 years, he slaughtered cattle at his valley meat company in roswell, new mexico. but his business had declined over the last five years with the economic downturn. so he applied for the horse slaughter permit, knowing there was vast potential market, more than 150,000 horses are shipped out annually for slaughter in mexico and canada. >> the real problem here is the over-abundance of horses that are going to slaughter anyway. we thought we would provide a service and do it humanely in this country and provide jobs for people that need jobs. if i have the opportunity, i could hire 50 to 100 people
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immediately. that's a lot of jobs. >> reporter: de los santos was set to begin operations in august, but the u.s. humane society, which has long been an opponent of horse slaughter, filed a lawsuit, claiming the practice is a risk to public health and the environment. a judge ordered a temporary restraining order. phil carter is with animal protection new mexico. he says animal rights groups like his are pushing for a permanent ban, saying any kind of horse slaughter is cruel. >> you cannot slaughter horses humanely no matter where you do it. horses do not adapt well to industrialized scale slaughter. they panic easily, they have very large skulls so its extremely hard to kill them cleanly. so we have to be able to provide more humane solutions than just regressing to this slaughter that 80% of americans do not support. >> there's so many questions as they would open that chute and in comes in the livestock. >> reporter: de los santos disagrees. he gave us a tour of the
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shutdown facility, which he says uses the most humane techniques available. >> we built up the walls where the livestock comes in. they can't see out. there's no noise going on. so they don't get spooked when they're in the knocking chute. >> reporter: and he blames animal rights groups for distorting the facts about slaughter. >> a lot of people that call in and if i sit there and talk to them and explain to them and educate them, then they calm down and say well i didn't know that. >> reporter: many animal rights what to do with the overabundance of wild horses in the american southwest. groups want to see the creation of more horse sanctuaries, like this one called the horse shelter just south of santa fe. the shelter accepts horses that have been mistreated or abandoned by owners and some that are rescued from the wild. here the horses are fed and trained and most end up being adopted. >> hi, baby, hi. >> reporter: still, shelter owner jennifer rios says organizations like hers will never be able to solve the
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problem alone. >> the 75 horses we're able to help out are the tip of the iceberg. it is a bandaid to a much bigger problem. we do what we can and for these horses, it makes all the difference. but for the overall problem, much more needs to be done. without real funding and organized programs being put towards humane euthanasia and population control. the problem is going to continue to spiral out of control, even when you're not in a drought, because the amount of grazing lands is not going to continue to multiply. >> reporter: rios concedes that humane euthanasia and population control are very expensive remedies. euthanasia costs roughly $300 per horse and that's not including the cost to round it up. right now, contraception for wild horses is difficult to administer. it involves shooting darts from helicopters with a treatment that must be re-injected every two years.
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rios is opposed to slaughter, but she says its not a simple issue. she says horses are dying every day in trucks as they're shipped out of the country and on the rangeland when they run out of food. she thinks the government has been delinquent by not spending enough money to deal with the problem. >> it's inhumane to let animals starve to death, dehydrate to death, to procreate at a level that the environment is unable to support. so that's why at the shelter, we won't just say we're against slaughter. we are for humane alternatives. >> reporter: the issue has also divided native americans. >> for the navajo people, this is a hard decision for us personally, individually, as leaders, as a clan, where we
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have to choose one or the other. these horses are sacred to us. we love our horses. but we love our land, too. >> reporter: for all the debate that has raged over this issue as of late, it's unlikely that congress will allocate money for inspectors in the upcoming budget and so for another year at least, horse slaughterhouses in this country will remain closed, while horses continue to be rounded up for export. >> woodruff: talks over iran's nuclear program wrapped up this evening in geneva, all sides agreed to meet again. but as ray suarez reports there are differing accounts on how much progress is being made. >> suarez: the two days of talks in geneva produced no breakthroughs, and diplomats provided few details. but a rare joint statement
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called the meetings substantive and forward-looking. the european union foreign policy chief, catherine ashton, is lead negotiator for the u.s., britain, france, china, russia and germany. >> we've had the opportunity as i've already indicated to talk in much greater detail than ever before, to answer each other's questions. we're not going to go into the detail. what i would say is our positions have been set out on a number of issues. >> suarez: the chief issues revolve around iran's enrichment of nuclear material to purity levels that could make it easy to use in weapons. that activity has led to debilitating sanctions that crippled the islamic republic's economy. today, iran's newly named foreign minister javad zarif said he hopes for an eventual end to what he labeled an unnecessary crisis.
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>> there are more important issues that we need to deal with and the right of iran to pursue nuclear technology for peaceful purposes including enrichment can in fact be exercised with the necessary political will without any proliferation concerns and that is what we are going to move forward and achieve in my view. >> suarez: in washington, white house spokesman jay carney said u.s. officials remain wary, but do see reason for some optimism. >> the iranian proposal was a new proposal with a level of seriousness and substance that we had not seen before. having said that, no one should expect a breakthrough overnight. i mean, these are complicated issues, they're technical issues, and as the president has said, the history of mistrust is very deep. the onus remains on iran to come into compliance with its international obligations. >> suarez: the greatest skepticism on the chances of reaching a deal came from russia, however, deputy foreign minister sergey ryabkov said
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there is movement. >> the positions of the iranian >> suarez: the next round of talks will be held in just three weeks, back in geneva. joining me now is michael gordon who has been covering the geneva talks for the "new york times." he said "i've never had such intense, detailed, straightforward candid conversations with the iranian delegation before." are we in new territory now? >> well, i think it is fair to say that the united states and iran are in new territory and that the tone of the discussions between the two sides is very different. qualitatively they're talking about issues in a technical way,
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a pragmatic way that they haven't before but they also failed to announce any breakthrough or even any short-term measures to build trust so so nobody is claiming they they've marrowed major differences. >> suarez: just a few minutes ago we heard from swra skwra +* have had a sar reef and it sounded like he was sticking to his previously held guns. during this immediating has iran stated it's ready to modify its program in some way to meet international demands? >> well, iran's position is that it has the right to enrich uranium, a point that the american officials here did not concede and that it wants that right acknowledged and it wants it acknowledged up front. it appears will be to accept some constraints, particularly on its right to enrich uranium up to 20% but a big problem is that over the past year the kwraoerpbian program has grown. they now have advanced
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centrifuges to produce enriched uranium. they're building a plant that can produce plutonium so the sort of measures that iran has talked about in the past and what seem to be on the table here may no longer be sufficient to contain the program even in the short term. and one american goal has been to freeze the program while talks proceed. even that wasn't achieved at this talk, although they're planning, as you know, to meet again in just three weeks. >> suarez: from the very beginning of this confrontation iran has insisted it is not seeking the means to make a nuclear weapon. that it is enriching radioactive materials in order to have electric power plants and medical uses. the rest of the world has been saying "if you need those things, we'll get them for you and don't want you to enrich. has iran explained why it must retain the ability to enrich to
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the levels that you've been talking about? >> well, iranian officials say they have invested so much in these facilities they can't just write off that investment. sometimes they say it's a matter of national pride. basically they say they have the right. they claim they have a legal right to enrich under the nonproliferation treaty, a point on which the americans haven't conceded, at least in these talks, although they've sometimes acknowledged it in the past. you know, the point is if there's going to be a compromise it seems very likely that iraq -- iran will have to retain the right to enrich to some degree but that it will have to be done under very tight monitoring and very close scrutiny. and so if there is to be a compromise, that would appear to be an element of it.
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but will iran agree to the rather intrusive monitoring that would be required? would they limit the number of centrifuges so they don't have the breakout capability? the ability to sprint to a nuclear weapon if they were to throw the inspectors out and refuse to be subject to monitoring anymore? those are the thorny issues the two sides have to tackle and there's a sense on both sides time is running out. it's running out on the iranian side because of the economic pressures and it's running out on the american side and the west side because of advances in iran's nuclear program. >> well, both the obama administration and other members of the u.n. permanent 5 have openly expressed encouragement after this latest round in geneva. one power that's had a lot to say about the iranian program and has the united states' ear is israel. has prime minister netanyahu made it clear to the united states where he stands on these meetings and iranian treaties?
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>> i think the israelis have made it abundantly clear. the israeli prime minister made this point at the united nations and the israelis said today that the united states is going to meet today with serbg john kerry in rome and make the point again. from the israeli perspective they don't want iran to have any enrichment capability whatsoever. what's also interesting is another state in that region is very concerned in this direction of the talks is saudi arabia which is of course an adversary of iran's. arab and persian kind of opposition. so the saudi position and the israeli position are actually very close. that said, i think white house really wants to avoid making good on its threat to use military force as a last resort to disable to iranian nuclear program and i think both sides are looking for a way out and if
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there is to be an agreement i think it's one that leaves iran with some potential capacity to nuclear weapons in the future but not a breakout capability. not one that they could exercise in a mad dash for a bomb and so i think that's really the parameters that are likely to guide the talks over the next several months. >> suarez: michael gordon at the "new york times." in geneva they'll be back in november. >> ifill: finally tonight, one of the most innovative jazz musicians of the 20th century. jeffrey brown has our book conversation. >> brown: in his lifetime and since, he was the stuff of legend. his playing and recordings on the saxophone remain influential to this day. the man-- charlie "yardbird" parker-- was the product of a very particular place, kansas city, who in a few short years would help change the sound of jazz before his death at age 34 in 1955.
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his story is told in the new biography "kansas city lightening." it's the first of a planned two- volume biography by writer and jazz scholar stanley crouch. he joins me now. welcome to you. >> welcome to be here. >> brown: who is charlie parker? why was so so important? >> well, he actually embodied the word "genius" which is now used as just an advertising term but he was there. >> brown: he was the real thing? >> he was there. >> brown: which mean what? >> he had a superior sophisticated find and he could react musically doing improvisation at a high speed with an incredibly high quality of melody-making, because that was what he wanted to do. he wanted to make melody on the spot very fast. >> brown: and why did he come to the saxophone and when did he -- was there a moment where he not only realized that music was his life but that he might aspire to do something important
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with it? >> he went to a jam session and wanted to play! because he just thought he could play. and he got laughed off the bandstand. and that made him so mad that he told somebody, he said "i'm gonna become the greatest at the saxophone." >> brown: the book begins with this wonderful scene of when the kansas city band he's part of come to new york, to the savoy and jazz is a competitive sport there, right? it's a combat sport, almost, right? >> right, right. >> brown: and they come into town, nobody thinks much of them and they do a pretty -- they do pretty well and suddenly there's this comet that's burst, right? charlie parker. >> well, the jazz story, as far as i can see it, over and over and over it's the american story in -- in the sense that american history and american culture is just compressed in the individual lives of people and in the context because, see, to
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actually play jazz you have to be able to hear. as great a talent as charlie parker had, he couldn't hear at the start of his career. because he had to learn that -- to play jazz, jazz is the only art that i know of that actually moves at what we call digital speed. so when charlie parker is playing, when you hear him playing, he's hearing his note that he's going to play in relationship to three or four other notes that are around him. >> pelley: that's a good introduction. we have a little clip that i want to play now. this is from the peace "hot house." ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ >> that was a perfect example of a way he could play because when you listen to that over and over you actually realize that he's playing off the drummer, he's playing off the piano player, he's playing off the bass player and he's hearing another set of notes. so he's relating to all of them at the same time. >> brown: he's listening to them all but he's also -- >> playing. >> brown: -- playing. >> right. so the speed with which he plays these notes, that is a digital speed. see, we live in such a movie-like world we think -- we don't really understand what real speed is. but when you listen to players like charlie parker, any jazz player who's great, they all play the same way.
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not style wise, but they all do the same thing. they learn to listen to the whole context. >> brown: this book is just part one of a life. it was a short life. >> yup. >> brown: and a difficult life in many ways. >> right. >> brown: there were nervous breakdowns near the end, there was drug addiction. what in the man allowed him to accomplish so much as an artist but not survive? >> well, the thing is, see, he -- see he had a -- he had enormous discipline. with when he focused on something, he would do it. now, he even kicked the drug habit a number of times. he wasn't completely incapable of getting off drugs, but the influence of the situation that he was in was a little bit too heavy for him. but, like, the other thing that's very interesting about shim that he always had very
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intense intellectual pursuits in his personality. and so throughout the book you'll find that he gets with different people and they actually are interested in the life of the mind as they call it. now, most people today don't think that black jazz musicians did that. they definitely don't think hip-hop musicians -- well, calling hip-hop musicians "musicians" is a little bit too much. but today people don't really realize that truly sophisticated artists thought a lot, you know? and a lot of times in the book you see charlie parker's relationship to lester young, to duke ellington, to louis armstrong, to all of these different people because of what they meant to him as a player and because they kept setting up -- they kept setting his expectations for himself higher. because he wanted to be up there with the guys on the top shelf.
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and their attitude is "if you can climb up here, just climb on up." (laughs) they weren't standing stomping his fingers. when his fingers got up there they said "another one coming, come on." >> brown: the book is "kansas city lightning: the rise and times of charlie parker." stanley crouch, thank you very much. >> thank you very much. >> woodruff: again, the major developments of the day: the stalemate in washington finally broke. >> woodruff: again, the major developments of the day, the stalemate in washington finally broke. senators worked out a deal to reopen the government and prevent a default and house republicans agreed to allow a vote. wall street rallied on the news. the dow industrials gained more than 200 points. and the latest nuclear talks with iran ended with u.s. diplomats saying they were the most detailed ever. >> ifill: and that's the "newshour" for tonight. on thursday, we'll analyze the fallout from the budget battle and the last-minute debt ceiling
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deal. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening. on behalf of all of us at the "pbs newshour." thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh 
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this is nig"nightly busines report" with tyler mathisen and susie gharib brought to you in part by. >>, interactive financial multi media tools for an ever changing financial world. our dividend stock advisor guides and helps generate income during a period of low interest rates. we are see congress reach a historic bipartisan agreement over a default on the nation's bills. >> it's my hope today we can put some of those most urgent issues behind us. >> striking a deal, an 11th hour agreement to reopen the government and avoid default sends stocks soaring but will this temporary fix prevent the market from moving forward and hold back american businesses from making important decisions. >> leaving a mark. some of the nation's


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