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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  January 10, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for saturday, january 10: the latest on the investigation into this week's terror attacks in france-- what those attacks mean for france's nearly 500,000 jews, europe's largest jewish community. and the former deputy director of the c.i.a. weighs in on the terror threat from abroad. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
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corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios in lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening. thanks for joining us. france's prime minister today declared war on radical islam following two terror attacks that left 17 people and three terrorists dead. authorities now believe a 26- year-old woman wanted in connection with one of the two attacks left the country days earlier and might now be in turkey or syria. hayat boumediene had been sought in connection with the fatal shooting of a policewoman and the capture and shooting of hostages at a kosher store in the french capital.
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her boyfriend, amedy coulibaly was killed by french police who stormed the store last night. meanwhile, in the small town north of paris, residents were celebrating the killing of the two terrorists who shot up the offices of charlie hebdo, a satirical magazine, and later fled to dammartin en goele where this siege ended yesterday. i.t.n.'s jonathan rugman is there. >> reporter: in dammartin en goel's main street, no sign of the trauma which gripped this town yesterday. the two brothers who terrorized france and killed 12 people are now dead. french police filmed their own account of the fierce gun battle which ended this siege. the brothers, cornered in a print company on the town's industrial estate. one man was hiding beneath a sink upstairs and secretly texting the police messages this photo shows him, a graphic designer, being led to safety.
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>> still under police guard mr. catalano appeared briefly outside of his home. the brothers let him go before the battle started. but he was still struggling with the enormity of hosting france's most dangerous men. >> ( translated ): i saw a kalashnikov and a rocket launcher, and i understood everything immediately and i thought i was in a film. >> reporter: it's now believed that both cherif and saif kouachi had traveled to yemen and before they were killed one of them told french television that he was part of al qaeda there.
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so the journey from these fighters in the yemeni mountains to a small commuter town near paris seems to be chillingly shorter than anyone here dared think. jonathan rugman, channel 4 news, dammartin en goel. >> sreenivasan: the siege at the kosher supermarket in paris ended when heavily armed police stormed the building last night and killed the hostage taker. many of the would-be hostages there had been hidden in a freezer by a muslim employee. still, the attack has raised alarm in paris' jewish community. cordelia lynch of i.t.v. reports. with curiosity. some tried to return to normal life yards from the bullet holes and a supermarket that will never look the same.
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neither the lives of the families now in mourning. the victims named today is 22-year-old yohan cohen on the left, and 21-year-old. phillipe braham, a husband and father in his 40s also died, alongside francois-michele saada who was in his 60s. and anyone else was here. he spoke to the manager at the kosher shop, running out, crying for help and his arms bloodied, and here you can see what looks like his blood. amazingly, he survived. yohan sitbon, who saw him struggle quickly posted a message on facebook warning people to stay away from the area.
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>> he was bleeding everywhere, i asked him what happened. he said he had been hit by a bullet from a kalashnikov. >> reporter: and what did the man say? >> ( translated ): he said his employees inside will be killed he said his wife was inside. >> reporter: he tells me france is over and he wants to leave. nearby, the next generation are greeted by armed police in the synagogue but many people have been left to fend for themselves for far too long. do you feel protected enough? >> no not at all. i don't have faith in it at all it is not about me, but i have children and grandchildren. i am worried for their future. it is terrifying. >> reporter: israel receives more immigrants from israel receives more immigrants from france than any other country. and here in paris, this minority community is growing ever more nervous, unsure of its place in
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the country. >> ( translated ): the police asked me to close my shop, i didn't want to because i still had clients coming. >> reporter: it is a community that feels that it has been forced to cower behind closed doors in a country where it doesn't belong. channel 4 news, paris. >> sreenivasan: a 19-year-old from the chicago area has been indicted on a terror charge. the government alleges that mohammed hamzah khan tried to travel overseas to fight for the islamic state. khan was arrested at o'hare international airport in october while trying to board a flight to turkey. khan's lawyer calls the indictment announced yesterday "politically motivated" and an effort to justify what he described as "the hysteria over isis." the hacker group known as
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anonymous says it intends to do all it can to shut down web sites and social media accounts linked to terror groups. the organization released a video yesterday declaring war on terrorists who it says violate what it calls the "sacred right to express opinions in any way." in the past, the group has made headlines by launching cyberattacks against government and corporate web sites. federal prosecutors reportedly have recommended that felony charges be brought against retired four-star general david petraeus. petraeus is said to have shared classified information with his lover while he was the director of the c.i.a. he has denied the allegation. attorney general eric holder had been expected to decide by the end of 2014 whether to try to seek an indictment. george zimmerman, who, in 2013 was acquitted in the shooting death of trayvon martin, is in trouble with the law again. he was arrested last night for aggravated assault in connection with a domestic violence incident. during a court appearance this morning, bond was set at $5,000.
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zimmerman was also ordered to stay away from the woman involved. he reportedly was involved in two similar incidents in 2013, but no formal charges were ever brought. a judge in santa barbara, california, has admitted into evidence internal files from the boy scouts of america documenting sexual abuse allegations within the organization, which means they could become public. the judge is presiding over a lawsuit brought by a man who alleges he was sexually molested when he was a 13-year-old scout. internal boy scout files previously made public showed that the organization failed to report a third of all abuse allegations to police. the proposed takeover of family dollar stores by rival discounters is running into opposition. attorneys general from 20 states have joined a federal antitrust investigation into the possible buyout of family dollar by dollar general and dollar tree. the attorneys general have expressed concerns that the proposed deal could result in
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higher prices for shoppers, many of whom are poor. the percentage of americans working as government employees is now at its lowest level since 1960, back when dwight eisenhower was president. this according to the most recent jobs report released yesterday. even though the number of government employees is up over the years government employment as a percentage of all workers peaked in the mid-1970s. back then, it was just short of 20%; it's now 15.6%. turning overseas now: progress is reported in the investigation into the crash of that airasia jetliner that went down with 162 on board two weeks ago. search and rescue teams raised the tail of the airbus from the floor of the java sea. it had been in waters about 100 feet deep. however, the so-called "black boxes," the plane's flight data recorders, still have not been recovered. pings from them were detected in the vicinity of the tail yesterday. north korea offered today to temporarily suspend nuclear testing if the u.s. and south
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korea agree to scrap joint military exercises later this year. north korea has conducted three nuclear tests in the past decade, the latest in 2013. the u.s. responded, saying linking its military drills to a possible nuclear test was "an implicit threat" but said it is open to a dialogue with north korea. and spacex, the private space exploration company founded by billionaire elon musk successfully launched another unmanned "falcon 9" rocket from cape canaveral, florida, this morning. a capsule will deliver supplies to six astronauts aboard the international space station. but the firm's revolutionary attempt to land a booster rocket on an ocean barge off florida came up just short. it actually hit the target, but too hard and broke apart. a tweet from elon musk after the failed landing read, "close, but no cigar this time."
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>> sreenivasan: we want to go much more deeply now into the extent of the terror threat overseas and examine what dangers it poses here in the u.s. for more about that, we are joined now from washington by john mclaughlin. he was the deputy director of the central intelligence agency for nearly four years. so as we continue to learn more about how this attack unfolded the kind of training these individuals had, what should the u.s. be concerned about? >> well, i think what we have here that should concern us is that there are a larger number of people in the extremist movement now with western passports than at any time in history. look at just europe alone; there are more than 1,200 french men there, something like 500 germans, 300 or 400 from the u.k., and that is the tip of the iceberg. and we don't know how many americans. perhaps 100 to 200 americans,
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are the figures i have seen, somehow involved with the jihad in syria and iraq. what that means is that there is unprecedented potential for movement toward the united states and of course into europe as well by passport holders who can move freely among the 27 countries of the european union and as european union members in most cases be able to come to the united states without a visa. so that imposes on the united states and our intelligence services, our border controls and so forth, a very high standard for detecting movement into and out of this country. >> sreenivasan: isn't there... >> i am sorry. go ahead. >> sreenivasan: will the united states know who some of these people are and sort of be able to cross-check against a couple of lists saying this is a german passport holder but he's been in an area of yemen known to have terrorist training camps? >> yes.
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we are pretty good at that. the thing i would say, though is that we are dealing here with thousands of people. now, with that said, i think we have probably the best... what is called a watch listing system in the world. that is to say, who is not authorized to get on airplanes, who should we be concerned about if not to prevent them from getting on planes, to pull them out of line if we know they are there and do some secondary questioning for them. we spent so much time on that since 9/11 that we have a very finely-tuned system for that, as you may have noticed now. a couple of these individuals in france were on our no fly list, so had they gotten on an airplane and come to the united states, in many cases now we have arrangements with airports overseas to have the manifests of planes traveling here. someone would have picked them out from those manifests as people that we needed to catch at the airport for further questioning. so we are pretty good at that,
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but the caveat i would say is we are talking here about an enormous volume of people in a field of intelligence... rather, counter-terrorism, that is, in my experience, the most labor intensive part of intelligence. it is not like estimating a large conventional military force. the big change here that i would since say the cold war, back then we had to look for very big things in the world-- bombers submarines, whole army groups. now we have to look for very small things-- a single person a bomb in a suitcase, a liquid on a plane. the requirements are much higher and the potential for someone slipping through is very high. and we haven't some incidents of this in our country, attempted bombing of new york times square in new york and so forth. >> sreenivasan: what sorts of resources are we talking
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about? is the united states equipped to try to make that net as tight as possible? >> well we are, but, again, i would have to say expect someone to get through here. i think we are now in an era where the new normal is this kind of attack, and most intelligence specialists will tell you to expect something like this to happen in the united states at some point. but what we do to stop, what do we do to minimize the chances? the first requirement i think out of the event of paris is for much closer... we already have close consultation with these intelligence services, but for much closer and tighter sharing of information among intelligence services about everything. >> sreenivasan: isn't that already happening? >> yes, it is already happening, but you always have to look at it in the aftermath of something like this. i did a study for the director of national intelligence after the failed christmas bomber in 2009 and 2010, and, of course, by then our consultation with
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other services was dramatically better than it was at the time of 9/11, but there were still some barriers we recommended be removed. i suspect there are still some seams, what i call seams, what i would call them is seams where one set of authority bumps up against another set of authorities. the simplest example is in the united states where the c.i.a. is not permitted to operate within the united states legally. the f.b.i. is. that is a seam, so we work very hard to build bridges across that seam quite successfully, so you have equivalent seams that exist among foreign intelligence services say an intelligence service in europe. can that service get information from another service in europe, can that service then give that information from a second service to us? or do they first have to go back and ask the service from which they got it?
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those are the kind of seams that we ought to attack now. we are very good at this but i think in the aftermath of something like this you always take another look and say what happened here that we can improve? and i am sure we are going to do that. >> sreenivasan: so the mi5 said he is concerned with the increasingly level of threat and the decreasing amount of the capability and capacity he has to deal with those threats. it has got to be somewhat similar in the u.s. as well, that sort of intel speak, break that down for a u.s. audience how is it they see these threats and can't seem to fight them or keep up? >> it is a simple matter of volume. the volume of threat has gone up dramatically in the last four years, five years, in part for a whole variety of complex reasons. terrorists now have the largest safe haven they have had in over a decade when you look at the area in the valley, the middle east and north africa and the large ungoverned spaces so many things are behind it, but the volume of people participating in jihadist operations is much greater, so in order to surveil someone and many commentaries have made this point in recent
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days, it takes anywhere between a dozen and 30 people to do 24-hour surveillance on an individual so that they don't detect someone surveilling them. so it's a simple matter of volume, and you have so many... only so many intelligence officers. i would say when you compare the numbers of intelligence officers to the numbers of jihadists for a country like britain, they are far out numbered. >> sreenivasan: all right. >> they have maybe 500 cases that they are working at any given time at a very fine level of detail. >> sreenivasan: all right, john mclaughlin, former director of the c.i.a., thanks for joining us. >> you bet. >> sreenivasan: we want to return now to paris to get a better sense of the mood there in the aftermath of this week's terror attacks. for more about that, we are
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joined now via skype by rachel donadio of the "new york times." so, what is the mood there on the streets of paris? >> well, i will say it is pretty quiet. i walked this morning through an area that has a large jewish population but also a lot of shops, that are normally extremely crowded on the weekend and it was very empty, it was a little bit erie, frankly, there are people sitting in cafes reading the newspaper, trying to take stock of what is happening, colleagues of mine that have been out here where the supermarket, the kosher supermarket had hostages taken yesterday say that it is even worse. there is just a sense of siege, and this feeling that people don't feel at ease. i mean, obviously, there is a sense that there are these killers that could come at any time and it puts people on edge. also you are seeing massive amounts of solidarity and huge rallies organized tomorrow, rallies, people coming out and
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in favor of democracy, free speech, all of these values that these radical killers were opposed to. >> sreenivasan: is there a sense of anxiety that there could be more attacks, that there... >> absolutely. >> sreenivasan: and how do these guys get through the security system? >> yes, absolutely. i mean, these are people who clearly had a lot of training it seems, they were probably trained in yemen, they had been radicalized and had good training and you never know. the french security apparatus can't monitor everybody in sight. there is a big debate about surveillance, in the system of democracy but there is really a sense of who knows what is going to happen next and there is tremendous anxiety, people are talking to their kids about this, trying to explain their own anxieties, kids who are in school when this happened, the shooting happened, whether teachers should explain it to them. i mean, everyone is very, very
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anxious. it is appearing this is maybe the beginning of something. >> sreenivasan: earlier you also had written about that there is already this conversation happening about the places of immigrants in society and what their role is and how france is really changing over time. >> yeah, absolutely. many people do not feel at home, other feel the jews that were targeted in the supermarket yesterday, they do not feel very much at home. maybe some of these muslim guys who grew up in france, went to study jihad they don't feel very much at home in france and many people who live in france don't always feel at home in france. there is a sense people don't feel at home at home, whether that means you are jewish, muslim or trying to come to terms with these larger debates. you don't know what kind of clash in civilization or just individuals who go and do crazy things, and it causes a profound amount of anxiety here. >> sreenivasan: all right rachel donadio of the "new york times," thank you so much. >> thank you.
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>> this is pbs newshour weekend, saturday. >> sreenivasan: and now, a preview of a documentary from independent lens airing monday night on many pbs stations. it's called "evolution of a criminal." in it, filmmaker darius clark monroe looks back at the events leading up to his own decision to rob a bank. in this excerpt, he talks to his mother about it. >> i would ask my parents all the time about the financial situation. i would hear it and hear conversations, arguments about it. >> there are problems that we had going on in our home, even though you are as intelligent as you are, i should not have talked to you about it because i didn't realize how it was affecting you.
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>> once i began to realize the extent of financial problems, you go from being a carefree child from being acutely aware of the fact that the world is not that solid and the bills that my parents had were slowly trickling down to me. >> i don't know how many times i wished like my wish to learn was not an issue. if you are not telling me you need to rescue me, but it is like no one is rescuing anyone. >> you took the burden that, okay, well, i need to help my mom, and i wanted to take care of my mom. i am sick of putting the burden on her to take care of the family but at the time i didn't realize that it affected everyone in that way.
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>> sreenivasan: some more news before we leave you tonight. more than 7,000 nigerians reportedly have fled that country during the past ten days to escape attacks by boko haram islamic extremists. this, according to the united nations refugee agency. in nigeria today, at least 16 people were killed in a suicide bombing. the bomber was identified as a girl said to be about ten years old. that's all for tonight. i'm hari sreenivasan. see you back here tomorrow. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh
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>> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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