tv PBS News Hour PBS August 6, 2015 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> ifill: good evening, i'm gwen ifill. judy woodruff is on assignment. on the newshour tonight: commanding the spotlight. republicans prepare to stand out and narrow the field in the first primary debate. on the 50th anniversary of the signing of the voting rights act, where does it stand today? plus, produce and stocked shelves in what was once a food desert. how to build grocery stores in underserved neighborhoods. >> i think we should have about a thousand civil markets. there is 25 million people that live without a grocery store today that don't have a practical means to get one. >> ifill: and... >> i agree with you, jon. we should be able to shoot people. no! >> ifill: jon stewart says
farewell to the daily show, the end of an era of comedic commentary on the news. >> jon stewart's ultimate enemy is hypocrisy and phoniness. >> ifill: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org
>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: it's debate night for the republican presidential field, and the hopefuls spent today getting ready. in all, ten g.o.p. candidates made the cut for the fox news face-off. it takes place in cleveland, at 9:00 eastern time. the seven other candidates met late this afternoon, at the same venue, in a kind of undercard event. meanwhile, democrats announced their own schedule of primary debates. they begin october 13 in nevada and end with an event in wisconsin, hosted by the pbs newshour. we'll take a closer look at tonight's republican roundabout, after the news summary.
the attorney general of pennsylvania, kathleen kane, was charged today with leaking grand jury information to damage opponents. the 49-year-old democrat allegedly hoped to embarrass a former state prosecutor. today's announcement in norristown detailed charges of obstruction of justice and perjury. >> to arrive at the charges we filed today, we simply followed the evidence, applied the law and made the decisions that were right under the circumstances. and our actions here today make one thing crystal clear beyond any doubt: that no one is above the law-- not even the chief law enforcement officer of the commonwealth of pennsylvania. >> ifill: kane has been in office for three years, and has come under increasing fire over her job performance. but she said today she will not resign. fire crews in california neared a turning point today as they continued to beat back a huge wildfire burning north of san
francisco. the rocky fire has blackened more than 107 square miles in the last week. it is now 40% contained. still, governor jerry brown warned today that firefighters face much drier, more unpredictable conditions after years of drought. >> this is really a wake-up call because of the way this fire performed. it's not the way it usually has been. it's going in lots of different directions, moving fast, even without hot winds. so it's a new normal. we're going to get ready. we have resources and we'll need more. >> ifill: elsewhere, crews also made headway today against wildfires burning in washington state and idaho. in saudi arabia, a suicide attack at a mosque killed at least 15 people today, most of them police. a new islamic state affiliate claimed responsibility. the target was in the city of abha, close to the kingdom's border with war-torn yemen.
the mosque was used by the interior ministry's special forces. officials said trainees were in the middle of friday prayers when the bomb went off. the people of japan marked 70 years today since the united states dropped the atomic bomb that obliterated hiroshima. newshour correspondent william brangham reports on the day's ceremonies. >> brangham: peace bells tolled this morning at what's known as the atomic bomb dome-- a memorial near the epicenter of the blast in hiroshima. their haunting sound mixed with the whir of cicadas, as tens of thousands of people stood for a moment of silence and prayer. >> ( translated ): it's the 70th year and i feel it's a landmark year. my grandfather died here at the time and i keep wondering what he felt then. he was just 21 years old and it pains me to think he died so young. >> brangham: the solemn ceremony was followed by the release of doves, symbolizing peace, this,
in the only country to ever be attacked with an atomic bomb. it was 8:15 in the morning-- on august 6, 1945-- when the bomb nicknamed "little boy" laid waste to hiroshima. in an instant, the city of 350,000 people was turned into a vast, radioactive ruin. nearly 70,000 died that day, and by the end of 1945, the death toll rose to 140,000 from radiation poisoning. in the years since, another 160,000 have died from cancers caused by that radiation. for some, this has been too painful a memory to relive, until now... >> ( translated ): i did not want to see this for a long time. when this was registered as world heritage, i thought about coming here. but, still, i did not want to see this place. >> brangham: the u.s. bombing of hiroshima was followed by another bomb being dropped on nagasaki, just three days later. 40,000 people died there in an instant, and within days, japan
surrendered, bringing world war ii to an end. today, only about 180,000 aging survivors of both bombings remain. >> ( translated ): my father and sister were in the blast, and i am in my late 70s nearly 80. so i don't know how much longer i can come here, but i am here to pray for peace. >> brangham: japanese prime minister shinzo abe met with some of the survivors today, and at the service, he renewed japan's appeal to abolish nuclear weapons once and for all. >> ( translated ): this year marks the 70th anniversary since the nuclear bombing. at the meeting of the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, unfortunately we were unable to reach a final agreement. and i am determined to step up efforts in order to realize a world without nuclear weapons. >> brangham: and, as night fell over the city, in a final tribute to the dead, thousands of colorful lanterns were released on the river in front of the hiroshima memorial. >> ifill: today's anniversary
came at a time when japan is divided over whether to expand the country's military role abroad. that's partly in response to china's growing power. secretary of state john kerry said today that china should stop causing territorial tensions in the south china sea. kerry spoke at a summit of southeast asian nations in malaysia. he said he challenged the chinese foreign minister on beijing's aggressive moves, despite its promises. >> on the security side i expressed our serious concerns over the developments in the south china sea including the massive land reclamation and the potential militarization of land features. i reiterated america's strong support for freedom of navigation, overflight and other lawful uses of the sea. >> ifill: china claims most of the south china sea, but has overlapping claims with the philippines, vietnam, malaysia, taiwan and brunei. secretary kerry also denied today there was any deal with malaysia on a human trafficking
report. last month, the state department upgraded the country's standing in an annual report on fighting slavery. some senators have charged the move was made to ensure malaysian backing for pacific trade negotiations. kerry denied any such connection today. with pomp and circumstance, egypt officially opened a highly touted extension to the suez canal today. military aircraft flew overhead as president abdel fattah al- sissi rode aboard a refurbished yacht, that also sailed the canal when it first opened, in 1869. at a ceremony later, el-sissi highlighted cairo's struggle with islamist terror groups. >> ( translated ): the egyptians put a lot of effort into presenting to the world, and to egypt, a present for humanity. egypt also faced the most destructive ideology and terrorism, an ideology that if it captures the land it will burn the land. instead, we show buildings and prosperity to the world, not killings and destruction.
>> ifill: it took just one year to complete the new shipping lane along the canal, at a cost of $8.5 billion. wall street had another down day, fueled by concerns over falling cable tv revenues. the dow jones industrial average lost more than 120 points to close back near 17,400. the nasdaq fell more than 80 points, and the s&p 500 gave up 16. and, a long-lost, priceless violin has been reunited with the family it was stolen from, 35 years ago. the ames stradivarius was made in italy in 1734 and belonged to renowned violinist roman totenberg. it disappeared in 1980, as his daughter, npr correspondent nina totenberg, recalled. >> he had given a concert in boston at the longy school of music, where he was the music director at that point. and he was greeting well-wishers after the concert. and when he turned around to go
retrieve his violin from his office slash dressing room, it was gone. and it was a crushing blow because it had been, as he put it, his musical partner for 38 years. >> ifill: roman totenberg died three years ago, and the violin surfaced two months ago, when a woman had it appraised in new york. it had been left to her by her ex-husband, but she told investigators she did not know it was stolen, and she returned it to the totenberg family. still to come on the newshour: the stage is set for the first republican debate. new challenges, 50 years after the voting rights act was signed. and much more. >> ifill: tonight in cleveland, 17 republican candidates are facing each other in a pair of highly anticipated debates sponsored by fox news. donald trump leads the field
heading into the night, and the other candidates are hoping to use the event to steal a little of his thunder. political director lisa desjardins is in cleveland covering it, and she joins me now. lisa, do we know what donald trump's strategy is? there's been much, much talk about his appearance on that stage in a few hours. >> well, much like everything else with donald trump, his campaign is giving a different take than you might expect. they're saying donald trump has not prepared at all for this debate and they're boasting about that. but if you talk to other campaigns, gwen, his opponents, they will tell you, on background, not giving names, they frankly don't believeñr it. trump wants to put it out he's a man who says what's on the top of his head. >> ifill: what are the other candidates trying to do and who has the most riding on finding a way to stand out? >> right.
tonight in prime time the other nine candidates who may have the most riding on this is marco rubio and rand paul came out strong before the announcement. a lot was expected of them. right now in the polls, we see them not living up to that expectation. so i think they have a lot riding on this tonight. also, jeb bush. jeb bush wants to be the reasonable and alternative to donald trump, but right now, frankly, i think his campaign could use more momentum. as for strategy, jeb bush, he came out with a video today talking about his experience, but one we'll want to pay attention to is ted cruz. i was standing with him in a crew of other reporters and he says he's running as a populous. he kept saying phrases like the working man, steelworkers, that's who he's fighting for. he has a strategy tonight where he's going for blue-collar
workers and i think he's not going after donald trump. >> ifill: we're talking about ten people on stage, a minute to speak, only a few seconds of rebuttal afterwards. the three moderators. how's all that going to fit? >> you know, i have my questions about that myself. but from looking at the early debate, the one that just finished a few minutes ago, they did actually seem to get in some substance to these questions and, in fact, they didn't have to use much rebuttal time at all. we'll see. i believe, going off the first debate, the fox news anchors did seem to want to encourage candidates to challenge or go after each other. if a candidate names another candidate on stage by name, the other candidate being attacked will have time for rebuttal. we're not sure how that will work. but given the earlier debate, a one-minute answer, the candidates clearly got a lot in and prepared. >> ifill: the earlier debate, seven folks didn't make the cut
off for the big debate. >> carly fiorina had a strong moment when she was asked by donald trump and she went straight for him. she said donald trump -- she asked, did you ever get a call from bill clinton? she seemed to be the most aggressive on stage. she had a big moment. other than that, honestly, we heard a lot of stump speeches and things we've heard before from the candidates. >> ifill: circus on one end and server on the other, what are the atmosphere in cleveland leading to the faceoff? >> we came into this debate thinking what an amazing atmosphere, 17 candidates, never has happened before, but i will tell you, being in this arena, there is really not that sense of drama. talking to candidates and their campaigns, there is almost a sense of the unknown, a sense of
hesitancy about what's ahead and how to handle it, not a dramatic sense but a questioning sense and that, frankly, is surprising me. also talking to republican aids outside of the campaign, there's a concern about tonight's debate, they don't want it to become a circus. they hoped to hear would be a little bit more stress-freer, be more organized than past years and they're concerned this could go off the rail with so many candidate and so many unpredictable candidates. >> ifill: maybe if they bring in lebron for a walk through that will bring some excitement. lisa desjardins, thank you very much. >> my pleasure. >> ifill: 50 years ago today, the landmark voting rights act was signed into law by president lyndon johnson. mr. johnson called the right to vote "the most powerful instrument ever devised by man for breaking down injustice."
president obama marked the occasion today by hosting civil rights leaders, including attorney general loretta lynch and congressman john lewis, at the white house. half a century later, he said, voting rights are still at risk. he singled out a 2013 supreme court decision that allows 15 previously-monitored states to change their election laws without federal approval. >> in practice, we've still got problems. on the ground, there are still too many ways in which people are discouraged from voting. some of the protections that had been enshrined in the voting rights act itself have been weakened as a consequence of court decisions and >> ifill: for more on the significance of today's anniversary, we are joined by kareem crayton, a voting rights scholar and consultant, zoltan
hajnal, professor of political science at the university of california, san diego. he's co-author of a recent report on voter participation. and, imani clark. she is a student at prairie view a&m university, a historically black college in waller county, texas. she is a plaintiff in a challenge to a texas voter i.d. law overturned by a federal appeals court only yesterday. zoltan hajnal, i want to talk a little about the findings in your report. 50 years later, how do you quantify the effect of the voting rights act? >> well, it's quantifiable in all sorts of different ways but the main ones are in terms of voter registration. when the act was passed in 1965, only 15% of blacks were registered to vote in several states. after the act was passed, the registration went through the roof and they are now on par with whites in registration in the south.
only a handful of blacks were in office across the south before the act was instituted. after the act was instituted, the number of african-american and latino-pressure officials grew to the point where blacks have about 10,000 elected positions across the nation, latinos have about 6,000 and asian-americans. all this is in large part to the voting rights act. >> ifill: imani clark you were at the white house when the president, john lewis, were eke spueing about the 50-year anniversary. i want you to tell us your story. you wanted to vote. you had voted before. >> yes. >> ifill: but the law changed. tell me what happened. >> my freshman year attending prairie view a&m university, i was able to vote during the city election with my student i.d. card and soon after that, you know, this law was going into effect that was preventing students like me, and it also
was targeting minorities, and it just prevented most of us from voting without a texas i.d. license or a concealed handgun license. >> ifill: so why tinted your student i.d. count for that anymore? >> that's a good question. that's the question we're all wondering. >> ifill: what happened as a result of it being upheld yesterday or overturned yesterday? does this mean that you can vote? >> as of right now, yes, that does mean that i can vote. but, you know, we know how the game goes. most likely, they're going to appeal, and it's just going to be this ongoing fight. so we'll see. >> ifill: here's the other question people ask about voter i.d. cases which is why not get the state-issued i.d. what's the barrier to that? >> for me, i'm a student, i'm in many organizations, i have a job as well and i just have commitments. so being in rural texas, it's hard for me to find time to go and get the form of identification i need, plus i
don't have a car, and there's no public transportation either. so they don't make it easy for us to get the necessary identification. >> ifill: kareem crayton, i want you to tell me about another voting rights act case hanging in the fire, in north carolina. this is what you call a voter suppression case? >> indeed. the legislature in north carolina after the republicans took over in 2010 adopted a series of changes in the voting system in the state and it included limiting access to same-day registration, narrowing the availability of early voting, and in all of those cases, there are others as well, the effect was to limit the opportunity of people to cast ballots. that was challenged in a lawsuit that was heard in the winston-salem part of north carolina in the federal district court. the trial just ended, and the
district court judge is pondering a decision, so we should hear back i suspect in a few weeks or even months on that decision and as in the texas case, i think everyone expects an appeal. >> ifill: so when you talk about early voting, you're talking about voting on sundays or getting people to the polls early? >> correct. and these were implemented during the '90s in a time when the legislature understood there was a good thing to expand opportunity for people to cast ballots. other changes included allowing people to pre-register before they became of age, and all of these things were thought to be go good government measures. there is really no explanation for why it was rolled back under the republican regime other than they claimed it was to protect the vote from fraud, notwithstanding the fact there was no evidence of fraud. so the plaintiffs were arguing to the court, it makes no sense to roll back these provisions, particularly when there are very clear indications that they're going to have significant
discriminatory effects on a lot of communities including young people and racial minority groups as well. >> ifill: i guess that was my next question is why does it have a disproportion impact on minorities or young people? why wouldn't it have the same impact across the board? >> ms. clark from texas gave a pretty good example of this. if these provisions were made where it really did apply to everyone equally, i think very few people could have a very strong argument against it. but the reason these voting restrictions are troublesome is because they're very selective. so you can have a gun license, and that automatically counts for the required i.d., but you can't have a student i.d. the same-day registration, again, the limitations of early voting are all seemingly burdening people who seem to fall into these groups that a lot of republicans don't tend to think that vote for them or that like them, and their friends are
otherwise protected. but more important than that, the voting rights act is designed to protect these communities because we have a long history of excluding and marginalizing them, and that's really a concern here and the argument that's being presented to the court. >> ifill: zoltan hajnal, why is it that this hasn't been more a success than failure over the 50 years, or has it? >> well, i would say it has been a success. we've come a long way from where we were in 1965, for sure, but we still have a long way to go, and the voting rights act can be part of that and there are other elements. but if we look at the number of elected officials, there is been tremendous progress, but if we look at the halls of power, they're dominated by white americans. 90% of all elected officials across the country are white. if we look at all kinds of different aspects of the vote, it still and maybe even increasingly racially divided. so you have a majority of white
population in a lot of the outcomes and often to the detriment of racial and ethnic minorities and as you have been talking about, there are signs of moving backward in terms of reducing access to the vote, strict voter i.d. laws and things like that. so we need the voting rights act, we need it beefed up and in addition we need extra provisions that allow minorities a full say in american democracy. >> ifill: here's the landscape. the president today said the supreme court rolled back a section of the law which was considered a setback by voting rights activists and you're also waiting on the cases that couldó be appealed and end up at the supreme court and today we saw senate majority leader mitch mcconnell who is is a supporter of the voting rights act or at least to renew it say the voting rights act is in tact and fine. so i want to ask you tboat the question, is the voting rights
act in tact? >> no, and i think senator mcconnell -- i take him at his word of being a supporter of the act -- if he really understood the impact it has on communities that have to wait years for litigation to finally conclude to determine what is and isn't legal, during which there are elections and policies adopted, that is lost by not having section 5, the pre-clearance provision that stops acts a legislature might have that has negative effects before they're enacted. under the current regime you have to go to the supreme court to resolve the legalities of the rules. >> pre-clearance is the key to the voting rights act. with the supreme court striking it down, the burden is now on individuals and organizations to prove that an act is discriminatory. that cost as lot of time and money. whereas before, the federal government, the justice
department had oversight and could prevent any disenfranchising laws from occurring before they were put into law. >> ifill: imani, are you optimistic for the benefit? >> i'm staying hopeful. i really wish that students my age and younger people will really understand the significance of this and how important it is to vote. mainly people, you know, have the right to vote and can vote but don't vote, and i just wish that i can. i have been waiting years just to be able to participate in something like this. >> ifill: in the end, if you have the right, you've got to use it. >> exactly. >> ifill: zoltan hajnal, imani clark, kareem crayton, thank >> ifill: online, we put together a special project using the voices of the people who were affected by the voting rights act fifty years ago. you can learn their stories on our home page, pbs.org/newshour.
stay with us, coming up on the newshour: a deadly outbreak of severe pneumonia spreads in new york city. jon stewart says farewell to the daily show. and, michael lewis' brief but spectacular take on the failings of wall street. now, a look at food deserts, underserved communities that lack access to fresh food. economics correspondent paul solman examines how one grocery store chain has devised a different business model to address the problem. it's part of our weekly series, "making sense," which airs every thursday on the newshour. fourth generation philadelphia supermarket owner jeff brown is a hands-on c.e.o. >> is everything all right? yes. >> reporter: with customers and employees alike. brown is renowned for doing the seem lig impossible, he operates
seven profitable stores in food deserts, low income neighborhoods where supermarkets long feared to dread. bus driver kevin griffin thought it can't happen here. >> we have been waiting for this in a long time. >> brown: this is the section of north philly known for shuttered factories not supermarkets. there hasn't been one here in 20 years. >> this is the first place since then we'll stock the produce, the meat and everything is so fresh. >> reporter: this property was aan abandoned plant before jeff came around. >> when we looked at the real estate, there were no other interested parties. >> reporter: brown saw the chance for an oasis. >> i saw 75,000 people with no grocery store. >> reporter: how to succeed in a business that traditionally
lost about 4 cents on a dollar's worth of sales by trying everything, going for tax breaks, government and foundation grants, even getting a new bus stop in front of the store. public-private partnerships like these offset cost bys about 2.5 cents for every dollar of sales. add an extra 2.5 cents, and you wind up with a 1-penny profit margin like most supermarkets. brown makes that extra 2.5 cents by catering carefully to local tastes. >> i think this is an interesting example of our business model -- understand our customers come from the south, they like sweet potatoes, figure out the right items, it's like half the bakery business in this store. >> reporter: religiously sanctioned meats for the neighborhood's muslims. >> this is halal meat, it's a completely separately meat room. >> reporter: improved ingredients.
>> frofrufru flour. >> reporter: if you stock it, they will come. another motivation here as well -- health via nutrition. >> if they don't come here, they don't benefit from your fresh foods. >> reporter: like produce, bountiful, rarely if ever found in the desert. since lower obesity and less diabetes with the goals, seafood, less fried chicken, and thinly sliced beef because it fills the plate, cut the calories and cost. >> we're going to stretch $10. >> reporter: an on-site nutrition demonstrates how to eat well cheaply. >> we're in luck today. cabbage is 69 cents a pound. so this is something you can choose a nice cabbage, probably about 2 pounds or more, and you will be able to stretch a dollar that way. the bananas are 59 cents a pound. >> reporter: her lessons are up against a host of
distractions. >> employment issues, just not having enough money to buy food, dealing with grandchildren, taking care of them. they're just dealing with a lot of other issues and they just feel like nutrition is not at the top of the list. >> reporter: but the store is trying to put it there. >> how long have you had it? three days. >> reporter: there's walk-in clinic where the uninsured can see a nurse practitioner for $20 and with a short wait can access an onsite pharmacy. >> one other person in your household is claimed by you? >> yes, my phat snore in-store social worker helps the public apply for public benefits. free check cashing instead of the high alternatives and a low-cost bill payment service. what's most important to the community says ward leader mark green are the 300 new jobs here. >> this location has provided
full-time employment for a lot of guys. it changes your life because now you have gainful employment. you can provide for your family, you can take care of your children, you can support your wife, you can pay your rent, you don't have to sell drugs, you don't have to be on the corners anymore. >> this was my first shot, my first job ever. i never had a job before. >> reporter: 41-year-old anthony jackson spent half his life in jail. >> i have been incarcerated for norms crimes -- brog possession, firearms violation, i had a lengthy criminal background past. i couldn't get a job anywhere. i tried to get a job at fast food restaurants, nobody called back. >> reporter: brown did. six years later jackson is a frozen foods manager making over $50,000 a year. >> i'm not the same guy. i'm off of parole and probation. all i do is work. i'm trying to climb the ladder
of success. >> reporter: really? success when so many jobs are low wage? this is a stepping stone. >> this is not going to solve all the problems. it's entry level, but it's not the total answer. >> reporter: nor is it the total answer when it comes the nutrition, in fact, according to a study published last year in health affairs, the opening of a supermarket in another philadelphia food desert did not lead to changes in fruit and vegetable intake or lower body mass index, but it wasn't his store, and brown is undeterred. >> the customers in this area had no way to buy any produce at all before, and now we sell the same amount of produce we sell in a suburban store. so i would have to believe that a diet has changed because they're not rich people and if they allocated their resources more towards fresh fruits and vegetables, i would think their diet changed. >> reporter: and in america's food desert, says brown, there e are a lot of not-rich people going unserved.
>> i think we should have about 1,000 supermarkets. there is 25 million people that live without a grocery store today, they don't have a practical means to get to one. >> reporter: of course, brown isn't the only retail tore see doesn't opportunity in the desert. whole foods is expanding into inner city detroit and chicago, well wegman plans to open next door brooklyn housing project. the problem is the profit food desert supermarket can turn out to be a mirage. baltimore's apples and oranges fresh market went bust in just two years. >> a lot of times it's inexperienced entrepreneurs so they're not accustomed to running a food business, they're just trying to do something good. the other thing you can't tell people what to eat and you can't open up and sell all healthy food because very few people eat like that. >> reporter: you have to have some sweet potato pie. >> you're right. >> reporter: in the end, give the community hat it needs, whether it be food or a job.
>> i'm proud of you. >> reporter: this is economics correspondent paul solman, reporting for the pbs "newshour" from the philadelphia food desert where a supermarket chain is making at least part of it bloom. >> ifill: new york city is facing the largest outbreak of legionnaires' disease in its history. the airborne respiratory disease has killed 10 people since early july, with 100 cases reported. so far, it's been limited to the city's south bronx neighborhood. hari sreenivasan picks up the story from our new york city studios. >> sreenivasan: the disease is often characterized as a severe form of pneumonia. and it appears that water cooling towers have been a breeding ground for the bacteria that causes it. legionnaires is rarely the focus of much public attention but there were more 4,500 cases in the u.s. in 2013. let's get some further information about the disease itself, this outbreak and the
risks to people. doctor anne schuchat is the director of c.d.c.'s national center for immunization and respiratory diseases and she joins me from atlanta. so tell me, first of all, what does this do to the body? >> legionnaire's disease is a form of pneumonia. it can cause fever, cough, difficulty breathing and other complications. it's one of the more severe pneumonias, and we think between 5% and 30% of people who develop legionnaire's disease can have fatal in-- infections. >> sreenivasan: how widespread is it? that number is probably not something people are familiar with. >> we think there is underreporting. we think there are between 8,000 and 18,000 cases of legionnaire's disease each year in the united states. many don't get diagnosed specifically. they're just treated as pneumonia, and even those that do get diagnosed may or may not
get reported to the public health authorities. >> sreenivasan: how is it spread? in this particular case, we have been focusing on cooling towers, but what's the most likely modes of transmission? >> well, it's really important for people to know that legionnaire's disease is not spread person-to-person. many kinds of pneumonia are cause bid bacteria that are spread person-to-person, but legionnaire's disease is caused by inhaling mist or vapors that have the bacteria in them. the legionella bacteria that causes this pneumonia is found in the environment. it can be found in freshwater, but it can also be found in water in the built-in environment, and when the bacteria grows to high levels and is blown around through mist or aerosolization, people can breathe it in. most people who come in contact with this bacteria don't get sick, but the disease is particularly a problem in people who are smokers, people who have chronic lung disease, people who
are elderly, or people who have other medical conditions that weaken their immune system. >> sreenivasan: so the cooling towers in this particular case, is it normal to see a cluster of buildings this close together or in a particular neighborhood? or does it happen in different parts of the city or different parts of an area? >> you know, cooling towers are linked to about 40% of the outbreaks that we investigate, and they're associated with about 60% of the cases in all the outbreaks we investigate, so cooling tower outbreaks tend to be bigger than the outbreaks from potable water systems in buildings. but it's important to say that just finding the legionella back tier -- bacteria in the environment doesn't necessarily mean that's the place the infection is coming from. you know, the health departments in the area are doing expwensive investigations to understand the
exposurers that are contributing to disease. what is often done is epidemiologic investigation and then also a laboratory study to do typing or fingerprinting of the bacteria that are identified in patients from clinical specimens and then also in water samples that are tested to figure out where the actual source is. >> sreenivasan: so not until the tests will we figure out whether this particular outbreak has been caused by those towers or the bacteria found elsewhere in the environment, as you described? >> well, i think the investigation, so far, as i understand it, is really pointing towards the cooling towers, but it's an ongoing investigation, and, so, i know that there's been extensive evaluation and remediation or correction of the concern that has been identified, but it's ongoing. so i think we need to make sure that the information is all pulled together. these lab tests turn out to be
really important, and they'll take a bit of time. >> sreenivasan: dr. anne schuchat from the c.d.c. thanks so much for joining us. >> my pleasure. >> ifill: one last zinger, one last laugh, one last bow. jon stewart takes his leave of "the daily show" tonight. jeffrey brown has our look. >> whose team are we on in the middle east? >> brown: jon stewart has been called the nation's satirist in chief, and recently he went at it, once again, with the commander in chief. >> because i know-- so we're fighting with iraqis to defeat isis, along with iran, but in yemen, we're fighting iran with iraqis and saudis.
>> that's not quite right, but that's okay. >> who are we bombing? >> brown: it was president obama's seventh appearance on stewart's "daily show," and his last. >> i'm issuing a new executive order that jon stewart cannot leave the show. (applause) >> brown: but stewart is leaving, after 16 years of a kind of faux newscast that took daily events and gave them a comedic, often pointed twist. eric deggans is tv critic for npr. >> jon stewart's ultimate enemy is hypocrisy and phoniness. >> senator reid, how did you not read this bill?
>> other late night shows are focused on entertainment. the daily show has been more about the news. it's been more about taking things that have seemed so serious, while also making fun of them, exposing truths that are hard to get at any other way. >> brown: in a conversation last year, as he released "rosewater," his first feature film, stewart told me how he sees his role. >> the conversation is about space between the public face of our leaders, versus the private strategies that produce that face, the facçade that's placed over it, the conversation is about corruption, whether it comes to governance, or whether it comes to media. satire comes from a place of urging, it comes from a place of an ideal. the humor only works as a counterpoint to seeing something that you feel is not at the level where you know it could be, of opportunity squandered. >> brown: stewart would hone that approach over the years,
sometimes acting goofy... >> brown: sometimes angry. >> brown: one constant target: the media, particularly what he saw as the bloviating of cable news. stewart and his writers would find the moment, and roll the video. the mantra of the unfarmed black teenager shot by a white cop, you know, that description in and of itself actually colors the way in which we look at this story. >> yes! describing the actual facts of the case. >> brown: an early flashpoint came in 2004 when he lambasted cnn's "crossfire," saying the partisan shouting was "hurting america." >> stop, stop hurting america you're doing theater when you should be doing debate. it's not honest. >> brown: another regular target: politicians. again, captured in their own words.
>> i've been coloring my hair for years. >> brown: but politicians on both sides of the aisle sought out the daily show. some conservatives might rail against what they see as stewart's liberal bent, but, candidate mike huckabee have been regulars. huckabee joined stewart nine times. new york democratic senator kirsten gillibrand, interviewed by stewart on five occasions, told us how he influenced members of congress and their staffs. >> if he has a great episode about something we have been working on, then we rush to that's what he certainly did with the 9/11 health bill. that's what something that was very languishing-- languishing the house for seven years without any movement, it had gone nowhere in the senate. he framed the issue so effectively that there wasn't a member of congress who can stand up against him particularly in the senate.
when we passed that bill, it was unanimous. and there is so few people you can say that about who can shift national conversation. >> brown: another area of influence: members of his comedic team, including steve carell, stephen colbert and john oliver, who've gone on to make their own marks. >> brown: samantha bee served as the daily show's longest-serving regular correspondent before leaving earlier this year. >> jon gave me the freedom to explore areas of concern that i felt passionately about. and that was very, very invigorating. jon was our benevolent overlord. working on the daily show changed my life profoundly. typically if he's pushing us in a direction, he's pushing us in the direction of elevating a joke which is great and
>> brown: current daily show correspondent and stand up comic al madrigal shared this anecdote with us. >> at one point, during a daily show fieldpiece, i started spinning, like wonder woman almost, in between cities. and for no reason, whatsoever. and i remember him just laughing out loud in the screening, and going, that doesn't make any sense, i love it, go for it. >> brown: not everything was rosy, it seems: former daily show correspondent wyatt cenac recently claimed that stewart blew up at him for questioning the racial overtones of a skit. cenac was the only black writer on the program at the time. another recent report, by "politico," that stewart met with the president twice at the white house, shows the stature he attained beyond the television screen. years into the faux-news era, there's also a question for the media industry-- about young people who came to rely on the daily show for their news: >> i do think we are training nation of information consumers
to expect that really effective reporting also has to be really entertaining and fun to consume as cool as it is to see what jon stewart has put together, some news stories are not entertaining, but people still need to know the information and need to access it to be better citizens. >> brown: in the meantime, some things don't change: as he departs, jon stewart is having great fun with the 2016 presidential race. just as he did when he spoke to us at the 2000 democratic national convention. >> i think there is always comic fodder in bad theater, especially bad theater that has a mandate to matter and not be superficial. i don't think we're making fun
of individuals, we're making fun of a process more than anything else. >> brown: stewart hasn't said what's next for him. perhaps, picking up on one of the daily show's signature pieces: his own personal "moment of zen." >> i'm not i doing! i'm just leaving the show! for the pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown. >> ifill: check online for a list of the times jon stewart, or his colleagues, have influenced policy in washington. >> ifill: next we continue our series, "brief but spectacular." michael lewis is a former wall street bond salesman turned writer. his book "liar's poker" chronicled the 1980s rise of solomon brothers, the investment bank where he worked. more recently he has written about silicon valley and high speed trading. tonight, he shares a perspective on his journey from working on
wall street to becoming one of its biggest critics. >> i find it outrageous that people who run big companies think it's okay to pay themselves tens of millions of dollars. they should be thinking instead i have an obligation to set an example for the company.ñi it was an accident i got a job on wall street. once i got it and they started paying me huge sums of money to give financial advice when i really shouldn't have been doing it, it was briefly intoxicating to think that i had value. once i sort of figured out how to work it, i lost interest in it, and built on the side a career as a writer. if you insist on truly understanding something before you write about it, you can explain it. i do have an advantage in that i worked in the place long enough and had to grapple with fairly complicated financial concepts and i know how much b.s. there is and how often people in the
financial world kind of think they understand something when they don't, so i'm not shy about pushing people till i have a proper explanation. in washington, silicon valley, wall street, there is a knowingness about people. they don't want to seem like they don't know. they think they will seem stupid, and that leads to greater stupidity. the moral problem such as it is on wall street is not that people are looking to do bad things. they would rather do good things. but they want to make money. we live in a society in which the elites have maybe more power than they've ever had. a greater share of the wealth than they had in a very long time. but it's not clear they feel much in the way of obligation to society. there's a natural tendency for people to tell the story of their lives, of their success,
forgetting all the stent that was involved, all the help they got, all the gratitude they should feel. my name is michael lewis and this is my brief but spectacular taken to the things that interest me. >> ifill: you can find all of our brief but spectacular takes- - on poetry, education, the arts and more-- on our facebook page. now to our newshour shares, something that caught our eye, we thought might be of interest to you, too. candidate' debates don't just happen. the moderators, the producers and the candidates' themselves devote a tremendous amount of time to prep work. so what have the tonight's candidates been up to? the folks at i.j. review took a light hearted peek. >> marco rubio.
benjamin s. carson. lindsey graham. scott walker. carly fiorina. jeb bush. george pataki. mike huckabee. before a debate, i say is a little silent prayer and drink a diet lemon snapple iced tea. >> i like to be mentally focused but relaxed, so i play solitaire. >> i take my new phone, i listen to mowtown to mellow me out. >> i go run before the debate. a great way to relax. you can't take phone calls, not reading e-mails, not looking online, you're just out running and it clears your mind. >> before the debate i normally call my mom to get advice. i can't say that on television, mom! >> i get a video of my trusted political advisors. >> what is megan going to ask today? >> let me check on that. to take these hundreds of pieces of paper because they have all the advice people have give men about what to say during the debate and light them
on fire. i'm going to be me. so whatever comes out, it's me. >> ifill: on the newshour online: last week a group of high profile scientists warned the world of the dangers of autonomous weapons-- military machines capable of firing without human intervention. but how close are we to fully automated killer robots? we talked to several experts who identify weapons being used today that could be engaged without humans, some you've probably heard of. see the list, on our home page, that's pbs.org/newshour. an editor's note before we go: on tuesday, i incorrectly stated that ben carson is the only physician in the presidential race. in fact, senator rand paul is an
opthalmologist. we regret the oversight. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm gwen ifill. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> the lemelson foundation. committed to improving lives through invention. in the u.s. and developing countries. on the web at lemelson.org.
>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
>> this is "bbc world news america." >> funding of this presentation is made possible by -- the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation -- giving all profits from newman's own to charity and pursuing the common good, kovler foundation -- pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs, mufg, and sony pictures classics -- now presenting "irrational man." >> i hear abe lucas is going to be joining the faculty this summer. >> your paper is quite good. >> am i blushing right now? >> that should put some viagra into the philosophy department. >> i can't write. i can't breathe. >> are you aware of what is going on at this table? >> it was at this moment that my life came together. >> his spirit seemed up, and yet for some reason it bothered me. >> i heard you had a theory about abe? >> do you promise you won't tell? >> what did you do with abe? >> rated-r. now playing in select cities.