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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  April 30, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> thompson: on this edition for saturday, april 30: demanding reforms in their government, iraqi protesters storm the parliament in baghdad; in our signature segment, the ongoing search for valuable art works looted by the nazis; and sentenced to life in prison and then released, a new film tracks the lives of inmates reentering society. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. family.yl and philip milstein the citi foundation. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress.
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the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, megan thompson. this is pbs newshour weekend. >> thompson: good evening, and thanks for joining us. the heavily-fortified, four- square-mile "green zone" in iraq's capital of baghdad is home to government offices and foreign embassies, and previously housed american occupation headquarters. today, for the first time, the green zone was breached. after pulling down a section of the perimeter wall, thousands of protesters loyal to
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controversial shiite cleric muqtada al-sadr broke into parliament, chanted anti- government slogans and ransacked the building. al-sadr and his followers oppose thgovernment of prime minister haider al-abadi, himself a shiite, for not delivering political reforms. iraq's government declared a state of emergency and closed all gates leading to baghdad. security forces fired tear gas to disperse protesters. earlier in the day, in a shiite suburb of baghdad, sunni militants from isis carried out a suicide truck bombing in an outdoor food market, killing at least 20 people and wounding more than 40 others. secretary of state john kerry will travel to geneva, switzerland, tomorrow for talks to salvage a cease-fire in syria. he'll meet with foreign ministers of jordan and saudi arabia and the united nations envoy to syria. while there is a lull in fighting around the capital of damascus, syrian government air strikes on the divided city of aleppo continued for a ninth straight day.
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president bashar al-assad's warplanes and helicopters struck rebel-held areas of aleppo, once syria's most populous city, now mostly in ruins. the international red cross says nowhere in the city is safe, and those remaining face a" humanitarian disaster." the syrian observatory for human rights says at least 250 people have died in the latest assault. after the devastating earthquake in ecuador, some lawmakers and advocacy groups are calling for temporary protected status for ecuadorians living in the u.s. read our report online at in a german courtroom yesterday, a 94-year-old former nazi guard at the auschwitz concentration camp apologized for being complicit in the systematic execution of 170,000 european jews. the trial reveals the reckoning for the atrocities of world war ii is not over. before hitler's death camps killed six million people, many jewish families had their businesses and personal property
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seized by the nazis, including their art collections. for survivors, their children and grandchildren, finding the missing art is often a search across continents, and that's just the first step of a legal battle to get artworks returned. in tonight's signature segment, the newshour's phil hirschkorn reports on this ongoing quest for restitution and justice. >> reporter: simon goodman has spent 20 years searching for his family's art collection looted by the nazis in world war ii. much of the art, taken from jewish families, was intended to stock adolf hitler's planned museum in linz, austria. goodman's grandfather, fritz, was a wealthy dutch banker who amassed a great art collection with his wife, louise. >> he had at least 60 old masters, some of them very important. some impressionists. >> reporter: after the nazis occupied the netherlands, hitler's art agents forced fritz and louise to sell, telling them if they did, they would survive. >> they take everything, all the
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way down to the china teacups. the trick was that they would be given a train ticket to italy, and that train ticket ended up taking them to a concentration camp instead. >> reporter: goodman's grandparents were killed in the camps. his father, bernard, living in england, survived the war, got married and had simon and his brother, nick. bernard traveled frequently to look for the missing art. some resurfaced in the netherlands, but it was a fight to get it back. >> the dutch government didn't consider a forced sale to be any kind of extenuating circumstances. they said, "it's still a sale. you complied. you signed this contract." >> reporter: after bernard died in 1994, boxes of his papers arrived at simon's doorstep in los angeles. as simon recounts in his new memoir, "the orpheus clock," a reference to a piece that he eventually recovered, his father's quest became his own. one of the most important pieces of evidence that was in your
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father's papers was an envelope with three black-and-white slides. what did that show? >> i held them up to the light. they were obviously french impressionist paintings. so, we had them blown up, and then we started asking around. one, i could clearly see one was by edgar degas. >> reporter: this 1980 degas landscape was a painting his grandparents were forced to sell. simon first saw a color image of it in a book at u.c.l.a. library in 1995. >> so, really, my life changes at that point. >> reporter: the collector who had purchased the degas had donated it to the art institute of chicago. simon and his brother sued and in 1998 were named the rightful owners. they agreed to split the value of the painting with the collector, and the museum bought out their half. the successful claim was the first case of its kind in the u.s., and many more have followed for them and for other families, in other museums and in other countries. >> it's like a forensic job.
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you're trying to piece together the ownership history of a painting. >> reporter: lucian simmons' job is to check artworks offered to sotheby's auction house and weed out any with a tainted past by checking documents, physically examining the art and checking databases of missing works. >> that process is designed to ascertain whether or not the painting could have been in, if you like, the wrong place at the wrong time. could have been in continental europe between 1933 and 1945 and could have been stolen. once in a blue moon, we find a picture which was with a bad person, somebody who's a red flag. >> reporter: so, i guess the easy ones to reject are the ones that have been reported stolen in the art loss register and similar databases? >> we wouldn't reject them. what we do is to say to our consigner, our client, "look, we have a problem here. let's now sit down together and try and work out if we can bring about a resolution." >> reporter: i imagine the reaction is, "you've got to be kidding me. i paid good money for this. i did nothing wrong. i have a legal bill of sale." >> it's a typical reaction.
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or people say, "i never knew. i inherited this from my grandmother." it's a shock, but my job is to actually talk people off the ledge and then try and make it in from a bad story to a good story. >> reporter: simmons and sotheby's were able to turn a bad story into a good story by selling this paris street scene by french impressionist camille pissarro. the painting had belonged to a german-jewish businessman killed in the holocaust. when the painting resurfaced in the israel museum 60 years later, the family made a claim. the museum returned it to the family, who took it to sotheby's, who sold it for $31,000,000 in 2014. museums are often caught in the middle. >> before we buy a work of art, we do as much research as we can. >> reporter: eric lee is director of the kimbell art museum in fort worth, texas. after a flurry of looted art claims 15 years ago, american museums adopted guidelines telling them how to handle nazi- looted art. >> it's an ongoing process, but
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there are always gaps. and rarely do we have a history of complete ownership of a work of art from the time it was created until today. >> reporter: the kimbell decided to review everything and be transparent, posting online the ownership histories, calling the provenance. sometimes this process meant reckoning with uncomfortable truths. this canvass by 19th century british painter joseph turner hung in the museum for 40 years. in 2006, a family came forward with proof the painting was looted from them. the kimbell returned it and then repurchased at auction for $6,000,000, a big price for doing the right thing. and then it happened again. >> it's a sculpture of extremely high quality of a very beautiful woman from the italian renaissance. >> reporter: in 2011, lee was shown this photograph of the sculpture in the hands of a special allied army unit dedicated to post-war art recovery, "the monuments men," who found it stashed with nazi
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loot in an austrian salt mine. >> i was completely floored by this. we had no idea that the sculpture had been taken by the nazis. >> reporter: because the sculpture was returned after the war to the rightful owners before being resold, the kimbell got to keep it. the latest looted art case to be settled in the u.s. involved the university of oklahoma. >> hit me right between the eyes the minute i learned of this. >> reporter: what university president david boren learned about in 2012 was that there was a problem with a gift of 30 paintings bequeathed to the school by a prominent oklahoma family 12 years earlier. among them was this pissarro painting of a shepherdess. after the war, it traveled from france to switzerland, the netherlands and new york, where a gallery sold it to the oklahoma family in 1956. just four year ago, the heir of a jewish couple whose collection was looted during the nazi occupation of france, said the pissarro was hers. then, she sued the university in federal court to get it back. >> so, we were confronted with a very difficult situation. a very generous donor who in
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good faith gave us this art, and another family that clearly had this art stolen from them by the nazis. >> reporter: last month, the university settled the case, ceding title, or ownership, to the french claimant and agreeing to share its public display-- a few years in paris, then a few years in oklahoma and back again. >> it's an ethical and moral issue, not just a legal issue. we weren't about to try to compromise our ethics in order to continue to build collections. >> reporter: claudia shaum's family never had a big collection, but her grandparents bought some paintings in the 1920s and '30s. decades later, her parents inherited them, including this small picture of "a man and a wife weighing gold" by a 17th century dutch artist. it hung in the manhattan apartment where shaum grew up. >> i remember exactly where it was. passed by it every day. >> reporter: when her father died in 2011, shaum and her siblings tried to sell it along with other paintings he owned.
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sotheby's auctioned five of them, but declined to sell the dutch painting, which had been appraised at $400,000. christie's passed on it, too. the red flag? a nazi officer named "menton" once possessed it. shaum was unable to prove it was never stolen. >> sotheby's just said, "full stop, out, we're not touching it." and their recommendation at the time was "just have a family member hang it on their wall, because that's just all that's ever going to happen to this painting." >> reporter: it's tainted? >> yeah. exactly. >> reporter: in the past year, shaum gave up. today, it hangs in her brother's home. ironically, the notoriety of being looted can add value to an art work. >> it's a rare picture, and it's in beautiful condition. >> reporter: since lucian simmons started his job at sotheby's 21 years ago, the auction house has cleared and sold $800,000,000 of once-looted art. >> they used to say, "don't mention this difficult history of a painting. people won't want to know that this belonged maybe to a nazi or stolen from a jewish family."
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but now people have gone the other way in that they actually want to hear the story. they want to hear the background of the painting. >> reporter: next month, sotheby's will auction this painting from 1660 by the dutch artist gabriel metsu. it belonged to the rothschild family in vienna until the nazis took it in 1938 and hung it in hitler's residence in munich. the monuments men found it after the war with a nazi inventory number on the back. >> the accounts clerks in the museum marked this "a.r." this is alfonse von rothschild, 857. >> reporter: a story that is part of the marketing of a painting estimated to be worth $6 milli to $8 million. >> the provenance is certainly going to add to its rarity, add to its appeal. >> reporter: hitler's museum never got built, but tens of thousands of art works stolen in his name are unaccounted for. simon goodman is still searching. he currently has a claim against the boijmans museum in rotterdam for these hand-painted renaissance-era dishes. only recently did amsterdam's rijksmuseum return his family's
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500-year-old silver and gold pitcher and these 17th century chinese vases. are you doing this for the money? >> the money is important because it's our... it's my delayed inheritance. it's my family's heritage. these are our belongings. but my primary motivation is, as long as these things are out there that belong to my family, and it's my duty to get them back, because otherwise, in a way, hitler won. >> thompson: today marks the culmination of "national reentry week," a federal justice department effort to expand resources to help people getting out of prison. for instance, the justice department says, 60% to 75% of former inmates fail to land a job in their first year out. a new documentary called "the
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return" chronicles the struggle of ex-convicts as they look for work, restore relationships and cope with problems. the film is set in california, where voters decided four years ago to reform the state's "three strikes and you're out" law. the reform has led to the release of more than 2,100 inmates who were sentenced to life in prison for nonviolent crimes." the return" will be shown on the pbs series "p.o.v." on may 23. here is an excerpt. >> the case for a guy who got a third strike for the sale of $5 worth of crack cocaine. and they decide the case in 30 seconds. so it wasn't just that this person was getting a life sentence. it was that the system tolerated it and expected it, and it was so automatic. >> you know, "mierngz was at salinas valley 13 years. so this is important to us because we remember what it was like to get out. >> newshour special
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c >> thompson: newshour special correspondent alison stewart spoke with the directors, katie galloway and kelly duane de la vega. kelly, of all the films you could make, what spoke to you about the idea of making a film about people who had been incarcerated under the three strikes law and on the verge of getting out? >> this was the first time in our nation's history that voters scaled back the sentences of the currently incarcerated. so we were excited about following reform. we wanted to see what the implementation would look like, what we could learn from it. we were very hopeful that it would be an optimistic story, and many ways it is, and in many ways it really illuminates the collateral damage of what happens when you have draconian sentencing policies that affect millions of people. >> stewart: if someone hasn't seen the film, i want you to set the stage for who they're going to meet and at what point in their life these people are and what their hopes and expectations are. >> so, we started following the
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story right after prop 36 passed, which is three strikes reform, in 2012. and they hadn't given a lot of thought to what would come next. so it was sort of like the aftermath of this vote that surprised everybody. california nso many ways, led the country into the morass of mass incarceration. and suddenly, 70% of voters said, "okay, now let's let thousands of lifers out over the next few years." so you had institutions from the court to prisons to re-entry homes to the three strikes clinic. and thousands of individuals who were incarcerated under three strikes, and their families saying, "now what?" but nobody really knew what to expect. >> stewart: what were some of the unintended consequences of that sort of very sudden change in the law? what did you observe? >> you know, it's interesting. most of the time when you get released from prison you're on parole, and that can be a good
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thing and a very, very bad thing. a lot of people get trapped up in the system because of parole violations, and the parole system isn't always helpful. aracters gets a job. of our he's thrilled to have a job, but his parole officer is make him meet in the middle of the day, so it threatens his employment. that said, with parole, there tends to be access to some services. for this particular population, a lot of them are released without parole, which shut them out of some of the services that you would normally get. so there wasn't a lot of money for housing. and that had to be sort of organized, and a lot of that was organized by the people at the three strikes project based ow out of stanford. >> stewart: katie, one of the things i found of found really interesting is besides all these sort of institutional issues to overcome, just the passing of time and how quickly things change in our culture now. some of the people in your film
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had obstacles dealing with things like computers and iphones. tell us more about the day-to-day obstacles they face. >> absolutely. i think people do think about housing and jobs as some of the big obstacles, and clearly, they are. but to step into a car after 17 or 19 years in prison and have siri come, you know, sort of permeate your space and tell you where to go was mind-boggling for some of the people coming out. >> stewart: after the movie is screened, what do you hope people take away? >> we want people on come away with a deeper understanding of who's incarcerated, and definitely want them to come away with a deeper understanding, as we do after filming this, making this project, of what's need forward re-entry to be successful. more than 600,000 people get out a year. what are we going to do to make sure that they have what they need to lead healthier, more productive lives, which ultimately has not just moral but fiscal benefits to us all.
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>> thompson: the teenage birth rate in the united states has hit an all-time low, according to a report this week from the centers for disease control and prevention. the c.d.c. says during the last 25 years, the teen birth rate has fallen from 62 births for every 1,000 teenage women to 24 per 1,000. the drop is steepest among minorities in the past decade, with pregnancies down 44% for black teens and down 51% among hispanics. joining me now from baltimore to discuss the findings is dr. wanda barfield, the c.d.c.'s director of the division of reproductive health. dr. barfield, why has this decrease been so dramatic? >> well, on the eve of teen pregnancy prevention morning we've seen some pretty dramatic declines in teen births among black and minority teens. ands you know, we've seen nearly 50% decline for both black and
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hispanics. and an overall decline for all teen bothers. and the reasons for this appear to be decliendz due to increases in teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are at the community level. >> thompson: why specifically the dramatic drop among minority teens? >> so what we're sweeg is community-based interventions appear to be effective in preventing teen births. we're seeing declines in sexual activity among teens, as well as increases in the use of the most effective contraceptive methods available. >> thompson: but minority teens still have about double the birth rate, right? >> yes. what we're seeing is that nationally, black and hispanic teens have twice the rate of teen births as compared to whites, and in some states, it's as high as three-fold. >> thompson: can you talk a little bit about how sex ed plays a role in all of this?
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there was a receipt survey that found roughly 50% of american teens don't learn about birth control in school before having sex for the first time. >> so sexual health education plays an important role in the prevention of teen pregnancy. although the data that we have here at c.d.c. in this report are not highlighted around sexual health education, what we do know from other c.d.c. data is that teens are not getting access to sexual health information. so teen reproductive health services play an important role in the prevention of teen pregnancy. >> thompson: how does the teen birth rate differ from community to community? >> even state that may have low rates of teen pregnancy may have areas where we're seeing high rates of teen pregnancy within specific communities. so as a result, it's really important that we look locally, that we engage communities in teen pregnancy prevention. >> thompson: dr. barfield from the c.d.c., thank you so much
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for joining us. >> thank you, megan. >> this is pbs newshour weekend, saturday. >> thompson: in the race for the white house, republican frontrunner donald trump looks like he will expand his overall lead in delegates to the republican national convention, with some more help from pennsylvania. the associated press has surveyed the 54 republican delegates who are "unbound," or not required to vote for any particular candidate on the national convention's first ballot, and the a.p. found 40 of them favor trump. trump swept pennsylvania's 17 other delegates when he won the state's primary last tuesday with 57% of the vote. trump campaigns tomorrow in indiana, which holds its presidential primary tuesday. texas senator ted cruz, who is banking on stopping trump's momentum in indiana, is aiming to pick up a dozen or more delegates at the state republican convention in virginia this weekend. the national weather service has
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issued severe thunderstorm and flash flood alerts in the houston area, louisiana and mississippi. in palestine, texas, 100 miles southeast of dallas, a grandmother and her four grandchildren drowned in flood waters that rose to the roof of their house following torrential rains. an hour north, in lindale, texas, a suspected tornado caused roofs and walls to collapse on a number of homes and businesses. the east african nation of kenya sent a dramatic message to ivory poachers and smugglers today. kenyan president uhuru kenyatta set fire to 115 tons of elephant and rhino tusks inside the nairobi national park. the tusks came from 8,000 elephants and 350 rhinos and are worth about $300 million. africa's population of both animals is dwindling. poachers killed an estimated 20,000 elephants and 1,300 rhinos just last year. president kenyatta says he'll press for a worldwide ban on ivory sales at an endangered species conference in south
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africa later this year. >> thompson: and finally tonight, some health tips from walt whitman. the 19th searchry american poet best known for his "leaves of grass." a university of houston graduate student has uncovered an advice column whitman wrote under a pseudonym for a new york nairp in 1858. it was called "manly health and training." let the main part of your diet be meat. wear comfortable shoes. exercise moderately. go dancing and take a cold bath every day." whitman lived to be 72. and that's all for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm megan thompson. good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh
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>> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the citi foundation. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that informs and inspires. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> if i had a secret as to how you could stop yourself from aging badly and actually turn the clock around and feel younger, wouldn't you like to know it? i'm miranda esmonde-white, and i'm going to share that secret with you today. >> miranda esmonde-white is host of the long-running public television fitness show "classical stretch" and author of the book "aging backwards." miranda has been training professional athletes since creating her own fitness technique 15 years ago. >> as i've aged, and i'm now 78, my body feels like i'm, i don't know, 60. >> people are always commenting on how fit i look, and i say,