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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  April 11, 2018 3:00pm-4:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening.uf i'm judy woo on the "newshour" tonight: paul ryan bows out-- the house speaker announces the end of his 20-year congressional tenure, what it means for the future of the g.o.p. and republican control. then, president trump puts his relationship with russia on the line, threatening to send t missilessyria in retaliation for a chemical attack. and facebook's second day under fire-- c.e.o. mark zuckerberg faces another round of lawmakers, addressing a host of issues with the popular social r atform. >> fake accounts ol are a big issue because that's how a lot of other issues we see around fake news and foreign election interference are happening as well. >> woodruff: all that and moreig on tonht's "pbs newshour."
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcastg. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: a day of upheaval in the ranks of republicans. the man who is third in line of succession to the presidency, the most powerful republican in congress, is calling it a career and will not seek re-election. speaker of the house paul ryan's decisi today rippled up and down pennsylvania avenue, and beyond. lisa desjardins gins our coverage. >> reporter: an exceedingly rare announcement. >> this will be my last year as a member othe house.
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>> reporter: speaker of the house paul ryan announced he is voluntarily retiring, leaving on his own terms, after two and a half years in the job. >> you all know i didn't seek this job; i to it reluctantly. but i have given this job everything that i and i o regrets whatsoever for having accepted this responsibility. what i realize is that if i am here for one more term, my kidse will only haveknown me as a weekend dad. i just can't let that happen. so i will be setting new priorities in my life, but i will also be leaving incredibly proud of what we have accomplished. fe reporter: ryan and his janna have three children, now teenagers. they were inlementary and middle school when he campaigned for the vice presidency in 2012. for republicans, months of rumors about a ryan retirement didn't water down the >> i was surised, paul's going to be missed. he's obviously doing it for his family. i wish him well.di >> reporter: aothers.
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senate majority leader mitch mcconnell. >> two and a half years ago paul ryan was drafted by gues like a true leader, paule tepped up to ate. he answered his colleagues' call with exactly the earnest, selfless and focused approach that has defined his entire career in congress. >> reporter: president trump called ryan a "truly good man." well wishes aside,yan's decision adds a new fight for house republicans, a hhly unusual leadership fight in a tough election year. at the moment it's a two-person race between ryan's top deputies: republican leader mccarthy and whip steve scalise. mccart is a california, republicknown for a friendship with president trump and for a failed run at speaker in 2015. scalise is from a more traditional republican state-- louisiana-- he endorsed candidate trump in the spring of 2016 and is known for surviving last year's congressional baseball shooting. freedom caucus chairman mark meadows. >> i think everyone will start jockeying for position
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immediately. theyon't wait for nine month >> reporter: it is a g.o.p.ip leaderace as the party fights to keep their majority,on raising quesof whether ryan's retirement projects defeat. fellow retiring memb ryan costello, at least, disputes that.ot >> no,t all. people running for re-election are going to be able to run on the record that paul, throllh his very s leadership, was able to provide. >> reporter: pennsylvania's charlie dent says the election will be about president trump, not paul ryan. this many times: the litmus tesl for being a rean these days is not about any given set of ideals or principles. it's about loyalty to the man." it's not about paul ryan. >> repter: but ryan's legacy, and with it, his party's standing, is unclear. he achieved a goal he outlined as a very young member, 20 years ago: tax reform. >> i think all americans deserve tax relief. you're right: the middlelass are paying the highest proportion of taxes in this country. >> reporter: but he failed on another conservative goal, and will leave office with the u.s.
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facing an avalanche of debt ahead. >> more work needs to be done. i'm going to keep fighting for that. >> reporter: how he'll keepgh ng out of office is not clear. consider e sources close to ryan say he does not have pla for his next job. >> woodruff: lisa joins me along with yamiche alcindor. >> a so tey spoke tooay at the white ho, who spo the predent abo paul ryan's cision that the president isworryha ul ryan's decision could mean that a wave of other publicans, more than there are now, might also seek to retire. ohat is because the president really feels as tugh republicans might be worried about the midterms, worried about the tough challenges that they're fang. i asked majority whip steve scalise about this specifically. i said, "does theesident have worry about the fact that republicans might be retiring?" he said, "we're facing a very
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ngugh political climate, "and that they're hoo recruit more people. so he did not-- he didn't push back at all on ae idea tht republicans are very worried about what paul ryan's decision might mean for their paty. >> woodruff: so, lisa, what about on the hill? what are they saying there about-- we know there are what already, 24 or so, retiermses? what are they sasy about posibly more? >> reporter: in all, there are more than 40 republicans in the hwhite house are leavingt chamber for various reasons -- some running for other offices like the senateerr govr. so that, judy, is a sixth to a fifth of the entire conference. you ask them, "does this mean that the election is d for you? is this a bad sign?" they almost said today, judy, "election? what election? no, this isn't about paul ryan." but clearly this is a conference that is very nevous about perception. they do think as i charlie dent said in the piece, that president trump might re of an issue. but they want to make sure to
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keep paul ryan's sconsin seat as well. >> woodruff: lisa, while we're talking about that, you mentioned the race to replace paul ry you mentioned the two other-- his deputies, in effect, mccarthy and scalise. we heard-- i think it was-- one of the people you interviewed said the jockeying is going to start immediaty. i guess oit mark meadows. what kind of jockeying? what are we look at? >> get ready.go we are nog to have an answer who will be the next speaker any time soon. judy, this isn't just a race for the speakership. because the tbhox in line are w,nning against each other, essentially right hat means all five of the top republican leadership spots in the house are up for grabs. so then you could have a five-way, 10-way, 12-way kind of race, many dierent members trying to get involved, many different interest groups -- cluding the freedom caucus-- trying to get their foot into leadership. you could see some pmbinations ple trying to form alliances together. all of this very up in the air right now.
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the expected time for this leadership race is stinull y. maybe it will happen earlier, but right now that lookes more likely. and tht will be decided not the current members of the house republican conference, but bymb new s in all. all in all, judy, representative thomasacy of kentucky saithe best thing of anyone today, he said, "this is kind of like a nascarerate raceright now-- mann laps to go ad there could acally be some spectacular crashes ahead.". >> woodruff: w yamiche, i don't think know if aey're talking about thece to replace paul ryan in the white house. but what considerv they said about the president's role in all this? clearly the president's rhetoric is complicating life for republicans wishing to seek re-election, making it easier maybe for others. how do they see this? >> thesi prent sees himself as an asset. i asked sarah huckabee sanders,c the presstary for the white house, what the president thinks about himself, what heks thf the idea that he might
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be the person hurting his own party's chances in the elections, she said that he will be out campaigning, that he ses himself as someone who can talk about the tax bill, who can talk about isiswho can really make the case caseabout republicans. that is notubhat repcans are saying. republicans are saying they're very worried about his role. benight there are going t congressional leaders actually going to have dinner with the president at the white house at 6:30. so there's going to be a lot to talk about there, because they're going to have to talk about whether or n their legislative agenda is hurt by paul ryan stepping down or stepping aside. the source they talked to at the white house said they're unsure of how president trump's legislative agenda is going to go forward wi paul ryan not seeking re-election. they aren't sure that it's going to hurt them, but they don't know if i's going toelp. >> woodruff: well, it's ne dull at those gatherings, but tonight they're going to have a lot to talk about. yamiche alcindor reporting, and our own lisa desjardins, thank you both.uf >> woo in the day's other news, president trump fired off new blasts at the special counsel's investigation of russian meddling in s. elections. the president accused robert
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mueller and top staffers of being "democrat loyalists". he also attacked deputy attorney general rod rosenstein, who approved f.b.i. raids on mr. trump's personal lawye "the new york times" reported the raids' targets included red"rds on an "access hollyw tape. in it, mr. trump talked of groping women. the president also aimed new threats against syria toda over a suspected chemical attack. syria's main ally, rusays any u.s. missiles fired at syria will be intercepted, and the launch sites targeted. but on twitt, mr. trump said: "russia vows to shoot down anymi and aliles fired at syria. get ready russia, because they will be coming, nice and new and 'smart!'" despite that, press secretaryh sarasanders said there's been no decision to attack-- yet.e but id: >> the president has not laid out a timetable and is still leaving a number oother options on the table and we're
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still consering those, and a >> woodruff: sanders saidn made. intelligence shows syria and russia responsible for the attack that killed 60 people near damascus. vladimir putin said we hope that common sense will prevail. we'll take oa closer lok at the u.s. military options in syria later in the program. in algeria, a military plane crash killed 2 people, including soldiers, relativess. and some refug ambulances rushed to the smoldering field where the plane plunged to earth after taking off. authorities said they're investigating to determine the cause. pope francis admitted today to what he called "grave errors" in handling a church sex abuse scandal chile. he had strongly defended a bishop who allegedly witnessed and ignored abuse by ariest. today's admission came in a papal letter to the roman catholic church in chile
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officials there read sections to reporters. >> as far as i am concerned, i recognize that i have made serious mistakes in the assessment and perceof the situation, especially due to a lack of accurate and balancedfo ation. deom now on, i apologize to all those i have offand i hope to be able to do it personally in the coming weeks.oo >>uff: the pope has thvited both chilean bishops and victims of abuse tvatican. back in this country, a new federal law will give state prosecutors and victims more leverage against online sex traffickers. presidentrump signed the measure today, alongside members of congress, survivors andca ads. he called the issue "a tough one." the law targets websites that host abusive material. california is sending 400 national guard members to ite bordermexico and other areas, after president trump's request. but governor jerry brown announced today they will not enforce federal immigration
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laws. >> this will not be a mission to build a new wall. it will not be a mission to round up women and children. three othe a combined total of 1,600 guard members. rein arizona, teachers wor and staged "walk-in" protests at schools statewide today. they're seeking a 20% pay raise and increased funding for education. their protest took place as a teacher strike in oklahoma continuefor a tenth day. and, on wall street, stocks gave up some of tuesday's big gains. the dow jones industrial average lost 218 points to close at 24, the nasdell 25 points, the s&p 500 slipped 14. still to come on the "newshour": the future of the g.o.p. following speaker ryan's decision not to run for re- ection. president trump warns of impending missile strikes in syria.
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facebook under fire:'sark zuckerbeecond day of congressional grilling. and much more. we return to speaker paul ryan's decision to retire from congress later this year and how it could shake up the republican party. i'm joined by chris buskirk, a radio host in phoenix and editor of the conservative blog, american greatness. and charlie sykes, a contributing editor of "the weekly standard." gentlemen, welcome to both of you. welcome back to the newshour. let me start with you, charlie sykes, charlie psywhches. 's your reaction to paul ryan's announcement? >> well, i've kno
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for 20 years, which means i'm old enough to remember when he was the future of the republican party. so it's kind of a bittersweet moment. he had the worst job in american politics. he has an uncroabl caucus and a completely undisciplined esident. and i think he tried to make the very, very best of it. but, ultimately, the-- you be, the reality is that the american republican party right now is donald trump's party, not paul ryan's party. and the base was just not into many of the things that he wanted to do. >> woodruff: chris buskirk, he tried to make the best of it. how do you sethi announcement? >> well, i don't know. i don't drink, but if i did, iwo d have had champagne for breakfast this morning. i think it's a good day for the party. i think anything-- you kno it's a bit of both i think heading into the midterms. but if anything,nk it's slightly positive. i mean this-- what we have seen with paul ryan i somebody who just really wasn't up to the job. he was sort of the boy wonder who always wall of promise but never really delivered. he was out of step with the party. he was out of step with the president, and just wasn't very
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good at being eaker. was never able to pass any meaningful legislation, or even act on the promises whether it be obamacare, balancing the budget, regular orer, all of those things went by the wayside. i think it's good. we get neblood in there and that's cause for hope. >> woodruff: charlie sykes, how do you seel ryan's legacy? >> well, i think that our fellow s guest wainking coo kool-aid rather thn champagne. the reality is paul ryan did get some major pieces of legislation the reality is that there were fundamental differences between-- in terms of character and personality-- between paul ryan and donald trump in terms of, you know, their approach to decency, inclusiveness, language on free trade oentitlements, on immigration, all of those things. and, unfortunately-- and i think it is unfortunate-- that paul ryan, rather than standing up against the bloodnd-soil
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nativism and nationalism of donald trump, that he rolle over. and in the end, it was an impossible job. 's impossible working with somebody who has no fixed principles, whose knowledge and interest in policy is almost nonexistent. s these guys were really opposites. and i guess what's really unfortunate is that people doun noerstand this alternative path the republican party could have taken at one point, bu it is very much donald trump's party. and, of course, well see what the implications of that are now in the midderm elections. >> woodruff: well, what abut that, chris buskirk? which whichever way you see what happened witeh paul ryan, whre does this leave the republican party? >> i want to just-- i want to address one thing charlie said. i mean, there is not an ounce of blood-and-soil nativism in donald trump or in the rest of the party. and that's just a stand scandulous and scurrilous accusation which we can't let stand.h nerms of where leaves the party, though, i think what
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we're doing here is we're a cutting of- we're cutting off a group ofrs leanow-- whether it be paul ryan, or we look back at danny half thest, john boehner-- theseare leaders who just never delivered on the promises they made to their voters and it's time trn the page. donald trump has been both a symptom of the political times that we live in, t also a catalyst for the american right to undergo an intellectual reformation that i think can restoration.litical i think this is part of that restoration. >> woodruff: and charlie sykes, i gather yosee it differently. >> well, i see it very, very differently. and i don't think that donald trump is leavi a-- leadi intellectual restoration. look, you know, here is a man who is a serial liar, who has ruled and governed with bullying and a vindictive approach to his critics. his effect on the political process and th culture, i think it's going to be long lasting in the terms of the coarsening of
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all of this. and i would caution the republicans in celebrating cutting off people like paul ryan because polics ought to be about addition rather than subtraction. >> woodruff: well, again, whichever way you see this, chris buskirk, what this mean for the party in thisl fall'sctions? republicans are facing an uphill demoseem to be energized. what do you see? >> yeah, so, two things-- and it's a little hard te see sven months in the future as you know, but i guess here's the good and the bad. the good, on the one hand, is that candidates will not see themselves torn betw president who wants to go one way and a peaker of speaker of e who wants to go another way. so there's one clear message coming o of party. i think that's positive. and the candidates can make of that what they may. all thesehings wind up being local in the house races. so that's on the positive side. on the negative side,hough, paul ryan leaves the house conference leaderless, an going intoa tough midterm we need all
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the oars in the water pulling ii the samrection. that's the tough part. that's the challenge is that republicans e going to have to come together, i think under the leadership of the president, in order to win theseouse races. >> woodruff: charlie sykes? >> well, this will be a um on donald trump, and i think that the prospects with the republican party just got a little bit darker. i was a little bit surprised that paul ryan puld the pin this early because it is clearly going to embolden democrats. it's going to add to that narrative of a blue and k it's going to be demoralizing for a lot of republicans when they reali their electoral fate is tied up with one of the most erratic ann edictable political figures in american history, donald trump. but i'm fiaguring t paul ryan is feeling somewhat liberated that he's not going to have to go through this long slog of having to deal with and rationalize or, youw, answer for donald trump's tweets and peleaps his attack on the r of law. imagine what it would be like to be the speaker of the hose of
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representatives in an election year if, in fact, the president were to fghter speal prosecutor or members of the department of justice. so maybe now we will see a paul ryan who is willing to be mor independent and perhaps more critical of the preside when he felt that he needed to bite his tongue, look the other wayd, try to conciliate of >> woodruff: but, chris buskirk, getting back to your point about the president. you're saying that the-- if the president comes the coalescing force for republicans that's a good thing? that helps them this november? >> i think the paty needs to speak with one voice. the party has a certain set of policy prescriptions that the president has enuncated and the party needs to forward under one banner, and then let the people, let the voters decide what ty will. but let's at least have a ver clear statement of what the republican party wants to accomplish and then let's hav an election. >> woodruff: well, we've got
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months for it to unfold and we're all on the edge of ourse s. chris buskirk, charlie sykes, thank you both. >> thanks. >> woodruff: now, to syria, and the incrsing likelihood of new american strikes against the regime of bashar al-assad. as we reported earlier, the president telegraphed his n today to strike syria again. william brangham charts theda potentiallerous road ahead. >> reporter: so, what options are available to the united states and its allies if there a military response to last thekend's chemical attack? t walk us througcomplex battlefield, i'm joined by ambassador douglas lute. he was u.s. ambassad to nato from 2013 to 2017, served on the national security staffs of presidents bush and obama, and is a retired u.s. army lieutenant general. he's now at harvard's kennedy school. doug lute, welcome back to the newshour. welcome back to the newshour.
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>> it's good to be back. >> first off, let's just address this issue of you can confidently said this chemical attack that happened last weekend was carried out by assa >> well, i think we have some degree of because of the scale of the attack. this was not an assassination attempt of one or two people, but, rather, dozens people werenvolved here. and that suggests a military attack. and, of course, it's the assad military, the syrian military thatas this exaiblght. so at least circumstantial, all fingers point towards the syrian military. >> president trump treated this morning, "the missiles are coming." what are the options for the u.s.? >> i think the first thing to consider here is that the options will flow from the purpose of the attack. >> meaning what we want to get out of it. >> objectives. and these have to come from a very deliberate process inside the situation room led by national security adviser bolten, and ultimately approved by the president. so once the objectives are set-- and here i imagine the
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objectiveives are reasonably simple, and that is to punish those responsible for particular attack, to impose costs. and by way of those costs, attempt to deter future attacks. and if that's the objective, from that flows tasks to the intelligence communisks to ite diplomatic community and tasks to the miy. >> we have heard that the russians have said if the u.s. strikes, they might strcike bak. not only will they try to knocki ouiles down but the platforms from which we launch those attacks. is this russian saber rattling? the thing that con this sort of exchange of rhetoric-- on our side, but then the response on the russian side-- is that you can already see a pattern of escalation, even in the rhetoric. and the challenge here is that such eskulatory eps can be imagined to be controllable from inside the situation room-- we might imagine that these are
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discreet, controllable steps. but in practice, they're often out of control, and we can lose control, and they can spiral in an eskulatory manner because of miscalculation and misperceptions. so the danger here, i think, is that we launch ingnto somet that becomes efngulatory. >> and obviously we have so mant dirve s of players. you've got the turks. you've got the rusisans, the-- >> the iranians. >> theirnians. do you worry those people might also be drawn into this? >> i think inevitay there's at risk. we know that russian forces and iranian forces are intermingled with syrian forces, advising them and assisting them. so a u.s. strike, which is intended to prcisely strike syrian forces responsible for this attack, could inadvertently strike russian and iranian >> what do you think about the option of not respondin is that a viable option? >> well, that's always an option as well. the challenge here is that the
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rhetoric has already put us on the path towards-- in setting expectations towards a r'sponse. so the certain cost by now-- if now we were not to do anything. >> do you think that these attaits, however we d-- we saw that the president launched 59 tomahawk missiles a year ago try to curtail this kind of behavior. is there a sense that w can stop assad from using chemical weapons? i mean, he has done this dozens of times in syria? >> i'd be very careful in suggesting that we are in the driver's seat here, hat we can actually effectively d assad. why is that? deterrence rests on the notion that we can impose cts sufficient on assad to change his calculus, to change his behavior. the challenge here is for assad, this is existenti. this survival. so how do you raise the cost above survival? and because of this disparity in interests-- he's all in and we
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ha only limit interest-- it's very difficult to deter him. and i think that's why weee seen over ast year-plus, that these sorts of attac continue. >> ambassador douglas lute, thank you as always. >> good to be wih you. >> woodruff: and now >> woodruff: and now, to a story from the war "isis": our pbs colleagues at frontline, in partnership with the bbc, have been following the story of an american woman, sam el hasni, who lived with her children in the "isis" capital, raqqa. film-maker josh baker has this first interviewith sam el hassani, who is being held with her children by kurdish rces in northern syria. the family's situation raises anew the question: what should the u.s. government do for isis families and chiren who are american citizens? >> reporter: this is sam el hassani's hussam elhassani's hue abefore he took his wife and children from iniiana to jon isis. >> for five years we had a great
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life. we worked together. we did everything together. he was very relaxed. okay, get off.o givessa a big hug and tell him thank you so much. >> thank you so much! >> you're welcome, buddy. >> about aear aft we met each other, we got married. he bought me nice things. i drove a bmw. he drove a porsche. he wore nice othes, took very good care of himself. he was really good at giving men attentiogiving the kids attention. >> hi! hi! >> he was really good at it. there is not one dollar he wouldn't spend on us. after a while, he became bored of his life, i think. >> reporter: sam says what drove her husbd to take the family to turkey in 2015. he said it was a vacation, but she says he then forced her and the children over the border to join isis. >> from there, we ended up in raqqa. >> repter: do you think tht there's anything you could have done more to protect the kids?
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do you think there's a poinwh e you could have escaped? >> but you have to understand, i was afraid for our lives. ♪ ♪ >> reporter: while in raqqa, sam's son matthew appeared in an isis propaganda video. ♪ ♪ >> my measure to trump, the puppet of the juice, this battle is not going to end in raqqa and mosul. it will endon yur land. we will have victory, so get ready, for the fighting has just begun. >> reporter: a lot of people will look at that video, and they will see matthew as a threat to americans. >> reporter: they will see a kid who knows how to use t maybe, apparently, t knows how to use a bomb. >> that's the way it's meant to look. it's propaganda. but how can you convince somebody that sees something like that? i don't know.
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>> reporter: who is matthew?n, >> he is my s and he is my best friend. >> reporr: and what's he like? >> he pls marbles, and ii bought ha soccer ball the other day. he kicked it outside the fence. he goes up to the security guys. he talks politely. he says, "can you go get my ball for my, please?" >please?." >> reporter: her husband, mousse abecame an isis fighter. he was killed lastall. now, sam says she wants to stay in syria. >> what's going to happen whenever they go back to the u.s.? ll the government try to take my kids away from me when i've done nothing bt try torotect them? when here they give them school. they give them food. they give them everything. i go there i'm broke. i'll have nothing. >> reporr: sam's sister, laurie, in indiana, says she is trying to get the u.s. government to intervene and bring sam and her children back home. she says her sister deserves some blame but doesn't think her
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children should suffer any further. >> there should be some sort of structure. there should be a plan to help families get out of syria. i mean, should people be punished for going to syria and doing what they're doing? absolutely. but should we abandon them overh e? no. i am hopeful that they will be able to come home. i am aware that sam will most likely go to prison, but mventually, after rehabilitation, oping the kids will come here and live with me. there's a sense of urgency fro the united states government to infiltrate and get the informatern they want. is not a sense of urgency to save any americans in syria. s reporter: both the f.b.i. and thete department declined to comment on the family's story. for the pbs newshour, reporting if "frontline" and the bbc, i'm josh baker. >> woodruff: "frontline" and the bbc will continue to >> woodruff: frontline and the
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bbc will continue to follow the family's story for an upcoming documentary. stay with us. coming up on the newshour: an in-depth look at the science behind the placebo effect. facebook founder and c.e.o. mark zuckerberg finished his visit to capitol hill with another long hearing today. it lasted nearly five hours, once again-- and it included some tough questions. all in all, zuckerberg spent ten hours testifying over two days. and while some of the lawmakers clearly are not fluent with facebook and other platforms, oa ththey work, zuckerberg still faced new levels of skepticism. n amnaawaz rounds up of some of the key takeawsas when all is and done... ...which is naturally the focus of this week's segment on "the leading edge" o technology.
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brien has been watchin all of this closely. he's also been working on a series for us about the problem of false news and recently got rare access inside facebook to see how it'its grapplingh those issues and oters. he joins me now from san diego. miles, thanks for being here. let's talk abo data, data collection. it's at the heart of their model at fac and mark zuckerberg was asked about that a number of times over the hearings over the last couple days. i want to play for you one exchange from early today with congresswoman kathy r of florida and get your take on the back end. here it is. >> you ar collecting personal information on people who do noa even haveebook accounts. isn't that right? >> congresswoman, believe-- >> yes or no. >> congresswoman, i'm not sure-- i don't thinkhat that's wht we're tracking. >> i don't think that the average american really understands that today,me ing that fundamental. and that you're trackingy
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everyone's online activities-- their searches. you can track what people buy, correc >> congressman-- congresswoman-- >> you're collecting that data, what pople purchase online. yes or no? >> i actually-- if they share it >> because it has a "share" button so it's gathering-- facebook has the application. in fact, you've patted applications to do just that, isn't that correctto collect that data? >> congresswoman i don't think any of those buttons sha transaction data? >> you watch where we go. senator durbin had a funny question yesterday about where you are staying and you didn't want to share that. but facebook collects data on where we travel >> congresswoman, everyone has control over how that works. s ofo, miles, after two day testimony, do we have a better understanding of how faccoebook ects data? >> well, you know, that was an exchange that had a lot of us scratching our heads.
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this idea that facebook gets a lot of data from us as facebook users, i think we all have come to learn that, and if we haven't learr d that by now, af couple of days of listening to mark zuckerberg, facebook is an amazing data-gathering machine. they know an awful lot about us and e that with great precision to make an awful lot of money. but the idea that harry out there in the greater,eb gathering information on people who are not on facebook, ostensibly according to marke zuckerberg forrity issues to avoid people trying to break in. but what we really think theri mainr for all of this is to groat company. it's a maketing tool. if you've ever signed on to any service and they say, "hey,ar ther some people you know who might want to be a part of." th how do they know who those people are? and this is a data-collection technique which goes beyond facebook, which is-- makes, i think, all of us a little bit >> and you mention, of course, that people are signing up for
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this service. thissmething people actively seek out. they agree to take part in. i want to pay another ttle piece of sound for you. this one is from yesterday, actually. and it goes to the point what people are actually agreeing to when they sign up to use a service like facebook. let's take a listen to this from yestreday. >> what everybody's been trying to tell you today-- and i say this gentl your user agreement sucks. ( laughter ) i'm going to suggest to you that you go back home and rewrite it and tell your $1200-an-hour lawyer-- no disrespect, they're good-- but tell them you want it written in english so the average american can understand. that would be a sta. are you willing-- as a facebook user, are you willing to give me more control over my data? >> senator, as someone who uses facebook, i believe that you should have complete control
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over your data. >> okay. are you willing go back and work on giving me a eater right to erase my data? >> senate, you can already delete any of the data that's there or delete all the data. >> are you wilo lingrk on expandinexpanding that? >> senator, i think we already do what you're referring to,but certainly we're always working on trying to make these controls easier., >> so, miles very real issue of consent here, right, what people are agreeing to? is the responsibility with the user or with facebook? well, i think we all like to think the responsibility should be facebook's to inform us as to what we're getting into. t anchnically, that's what they do. it's just sevd eral thousrds of fine print with hypertext. it's an onerous document to get through and in the real world most of us just clck "accept" and move on. i think the senator is on to a
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key point here. if it could be brought forth to people in simple terms with the opportunity to opt in to sharing as opposed toaving to root through and opt out in the direction of privacy, it would be much more consumer friendly. this is, after all, a corporation that pride itself on a utopian view of bringing the world together. a document like that doesn't seem like a warm, fuzy thing. >> and its size and scope is exactly why we also had the conversation around regulation in hearings over the last couple of days. a lot of people were surprised that mark zuckerberg seemed to cob seed that he would be open to being regulated.ay i want to a little bit of sound about what he had to say about relation today. on your point about regulation, the internet is growing in importance around the world, in people's lives, and i thk that it is inevitable that there will need to be some regulation. so my position is nothat there should be no regulation, but i think you have to be careful
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about regulation you put in place for a lot of arabs you're saying. a lot of times rulations, by definition, puts in place rules that a company that is larger, that has rources like ours, can easily comply with, but that might be more difficult for a smaller start-up to comply with. so i think these are all thing that need to be thought through very carefully when thinking through at rules we want to pus putt in place. >> so, miles, there's a lot of questions about regulations. in europe they go into place tis spring. but when it como facebook here in the u.s., what could regulation look like? >> well, it could be nothica e of what you just referenced. you know, facebook, afteraall, is global enterprise-- two billion customers, bigger than any country itself. wherever the regulation sets the high bar becomes tat mount to regulation for the world. and zuckerberg admitted it will become unirsal, the rule of facebook world, based on what happens in europe on may 25,he
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whereinwill make a series of change thalz improve useovr controer their own personal data, and further notifications if data is breached, that sort of thing. so it does change the rules, and congress doesn't havo anything. we should point out another thing here. there is aoophole which allows companies like facebook to turn a blind eye to content. it was set up to allow youtube to avoid lawsuits for copywrite infringement. and that allows facebook to say, "hey, we are not publisher. we are not a media enterprise. we a technology this serves them well as they make this statement that they can't controlhat the content is. and, really, facebook has evolved into the public sare for the planet, and perhaps it has evolved into a point where it has to take greater responsibility for the content, which is not emodied this regulation, and in this loophole. so that might be something that congress and others will be look
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at. >> and wll be looking it as miles o'brien, good to talk to you. >> you're welcome >> woodruff: many times whenim grants come to the united states, they leave behind careers they had at home. hiffrey brown profiles a man who is returning to roots. >> reporter: a taxi picking up customers at washington's dulles airport. bumathis one is driven by a n with an unusual musical past. once a star in his native ethiopia, hailu mergiaived in and around washington, d.c. for more than 35 years, driving a cab for many ondthem. i was ing when you were driving the taxi, did anybody ever recognizeou? maybe ethiopians you were , iving? >> yes, some of ths i do. when they see my name on the license of the taxi license. they always ask me "are you the one who play organ."
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i say yes. >> reporter: but he also once again does this: perform his music on tour, as in this recent concert in philadelphia for npr's "world cafe." 71th a new album, the now year old is having an unexpected resurgence, decades after his career had seemingly ended. was it hard to go from being you know, very well known in your city, in your country to being mostly unknown here? yeah, it is... when people think about you and some of them, they thinkivike, i'm not >> reporter: they think you'reli not even anymore. >> maybe they think i have passed away, i have no idea. and some of them, "why, ?"ere he all of a sudden i just disappeared and then people there forgot me and i-- the only thing is they didn't forget is my music. what i played.
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>> reporter: in the 1970s, mergia was part of an exciting musical scene in addis ababa that fused western funk and soul with the traditional ethiopian music he grew up with in the countrysid his mother had brought him to the capital when he was ten... 'sd at 14 he joined the ar youth troop, where he learned to play the piano iits band. he eventually pursued a life in music -- as keyboardist, sinr, composer -- which took off when he joined the walias band, an influential group that put their own spin on sounds from different continents and had crowds dancing into the night. >> there were some radio stations that were playing some latest media or western media. which is like, james brown or from wilson pickett, of from tyrone davis, or from aretha franklin, i mean, you name it. so you're funkifying ethiopian music. >> i just pick up the old songs and rearrange them, change everything, change the harmony,
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change sometimes the intro, andu played it like kind ofth modernpian music. >> reporter: his 1977 album "tche belew" combines fuia beats and me organ improvisations with the pentatonic scales of ethiopian folk music. what was the biggest you could hope for at that time?my >> at that timope was, one, for the group to play in the hilton hotel. because one you get to hilton, that's the end of it. >> repter: that was the biggest place to play in addis. the band became a long-running hit at the hilton-- the hottest venue in addis. but they also wanted more. in 1981 mergia and members of the band came to the u.s. the gigs were small, mostly to a newly arrived ethiopian immigrant community. the band eventually split up, r
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sourning home. mergia stayed and released a solo album in 1985, but sixr years latopped performing and recording-- it was impossible to make a lfeing. did yo like you were giving up a dream of making it as a musician? >> i never give up because i was always practicing. i was practicing every day, every night in my house, in myca i start, i bought one keyboard that i can move around. a lot of the time i want to drive taxi because, you know why? >> reporter: why?>> ecause, one, it's mydu sc. i have my own time. i can go any time i want to without asking anybody peission. that's a freedom of the life. s i go tocian someti a studio and sit more than i expect, longer hours. >> reporter: but drive a taxi, you can just keep your instrument in the back, in the trunk and pull it out.
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>> yep. pull it out and practi. >> reporter: and practice he does, even in the airport parking lot, working out compositions while waiting for his next customer. >> i'm trying to keep myself busy, i don't want to lose my feelings from music. >> reporter: so mergia was ready when musical fortune struck: a producer named brian shimkovitz, who specializes in african music, found a cassette tape of one of his old albums in a box in ethiopia, and re-released it in 2014. that led to a new album, title"" lala belu", or: "say la-la". released in february, and a newl latee beginning for his second musical career-- in and now out of the taxi. for the pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown in alexandria, virginia.
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>> woodruff: finally tonight, traditional healing is used around the world, from r acupuncture ki to yoga. but how do these non-western treatments cause benefits for as part of our series sciencescope and in cooperation with the pulitzer center ong crisis repornewshourka producer nakpan ventures to oaxaca, mexico to dive into the neuroscience of expectation, >> reporter: science writer erir vance has eled the globe to learn how healing works, whether its western medicine or traditional healing. 6,500-feet up in the mountains of mexico's sierra mazatecas, we explored two things that sometimes unite those types of treatment: the theater of medicine and the science of placebos. >> my favorite one is if you've ever taken a pill and had like immediately felt better. t
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as soon asake a pill your headache just goes away. >> reporter: well, that pill actually takes 20 minutes to kick in. so what you're feeling is actually the placebo effect. >> reporter: placebos do this by unlocking the body's medicine cabinet, releasing compounds like appetite hormones or pain- relieving opioids. but in his book "suggestible e u," vance explains how a placebo effect caniggered by more than a sugar pill. here in huautla de jimenez, many experience the placebo effect before they even arrive, through collective expectations made by the city's reputation. curanderos-- or traditional healers-- are have existed in is town of 36,000, since before the spanish arrived. they're best known for introducing the west psychedelic mushrooms in the 1950s. but they mainlrely on a blend of christian symbols and indigenous healing practices to treat illness. parents have passed on these cleansing rituals and cultural garmen for centuries.
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>> the most importt things is that the person accepts it and that they see exactly which'm leavesiving them via massages or drinks. i'm proud because i'm conducting it and i'm teaching my daughter. do reporter: curandero pla arturo, who has practiced for 40 years, uses herbs and spiritual blessings to treat everything, from toothaches to infertility. these settings form a r of medicine. >> a lot of placebo involve storytelling to pull someone out of their everyday. shock them a little bitry t create a story that forces your brain to stareating itself. >> reporter: the shock from these fire ants relieved erik'se forearndonitis. placebo, a sensation that convinces the body to open up its medicine cabinet.ay the nextwe visit curandero elodia pineda garcía to see if this theater can treat my lower ck pain. she blesses me.
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at the end of the ceremony, she spits water in my face to cleanse my spirit. okay, at this point, i was skeptical. but i walkedsuway feeling a rising amount of relief-- relief that lasted for months., to learn wt's leave huautla for a moment and visit the university of maryland, baltimore. >> we call this social learning in placebo effects. so for example if a patient observes another patient getting a benefit from a therapeutic treatment, ts can create strong expectations. >> reporter: neuroscientist luana colloca, whose lab is funded by the national institutes of health and others, studies how placebo effects can influence pain disorders. while physical injury causes pain, the brain can amplify or even create these pain signals merely through expectations of feeling bad or through stress. her lab uses fake ointments, hot heating pads and functional r magnetonance imaging (or f.m.r.i.) to spot brain
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areas responsible pain-fighting placebo in a simplifversion, we test my susceptibility to placebos. when the pad becomes painful, i click subsides. the heat after gauging my pain tolerance, i rank how much pain i'm feeling, from zero to 100. at the same time, lights bli on. >> every time the light is red, you will receive a high level of pain. >> reporter: when its green, she says, that same pain getsd, delivereut an "electroshock probe" inside this wristband, attached just below the heating ved, will soothe my pain n >> how much do you expect to that this procedure going to reduce your level of pain. maybe by half? >> reporter: of course probe is a prop. i receive the same hurtful heat every time. yet, the pad felt cool when the
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light was green. weirdly, my pain perception dropped by exactly 50%-- suggesting an expectation for healing can be controlled. a doctor can also create a placebo effect and add that placebo effect to the power of the medicine. so it's in the way that they lotalk to you it's in theing that they wear. it's in the environment that they choose to be in. >> reporter: luana's lab is usinthese placebo responses build drugs and psychotherapies. they found a nasal spray of the hormone vasopressin can mimic e social placebo effect and provide pain relief.eb while plac can't remedy something like cancer, to some degree, they have been shown to ease the symptoms of conditions like depression, addiction and autism. roth parkinson's disease, placebos can imp motor ability, and those effects can last for years. so, whether you're with a doctoo in bal or a curandero in the mexican mountains, these healing placebos are never too far away. from huala de jimenez, i'm
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nsikan akpan and this is sciencescope from the pbs newshour. glig don't know about the fire ants. online're online you can read more about theolacebo'se in heal. vance, author of "suggestible you." that's on our website, >> an before we ga woman has testified that missouri governor eric greitens physically assaulted her during an unwanted sexual encounter. the details were part of a report released tonight by the missouri state house committee that is investigating greitens. the group of five republicans and two democrats determined her story credible. greitens, who is a republican, was indicted in fbruary on an invasion of privacy charge for threatening to release an explicit photo of the woman. he denies any criminal wrongdoing and that the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. r all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you
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soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> bnsf railway. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions:
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rp this program was made possible by the ation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank ned by media access group at wgbh
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tukufu: we're the history detectives and we're going to investigate some untold stories from america's past. hi, i'm gwendolyn wright. and i'm tukufu zuberi. we're doing something different for tonight's show. we've asked a young person, a junior detective, to help investigate each story. we're in the heart of new york's theater district, e wh-year-old mariel o'connell and my colleague, elyse luray, hunt for evideore that mariel's ance designed ballet shoes for some of the brightest stars on broadway. my investigation takes me to the legendary coneyisland, where 14-year-oldsaa examines whether this giant pair of lion's paws