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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  June 13, 2018 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, president trump returns to washington declaring north korea no longer a nuclear threat, but equestions mount after th summit. trump effect plays out in the ballot box-- key sekeaways from the winners and lors of last night's primaries and what it could memb for no's elections. and our series on the challenges of ending the aids epidemic owkes us to nigeria, where one unique baby sh program tries ch cut back on mother to child infection starts ach. >> it's going to be a lot of work to t everybody with i.v. on treatment. for pregnant women, it's not the case. raeir numbers are small, compared to the ge the
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people living with h.i.v. within the general population. so it should be achievable. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> consumer cellular. emidos. >> theson foundation. committed to improving lives through invention, in the u.s. hed developing countries. oneb at
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>> supported by the john d. andm catherine arthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at >> and with the ongoing support of these institions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: president trump's summit with kim jong-un may be history, but debate about the deal they signed is far from over. the president today proclaimed the north's nuclear menace is over, and americans can rest "our country's biggest enemy is the fake news." we'll have a full report, afmar the news s. republican leaders in the u.s. house talked today of breaking a stalemate on "dreamers,"rought
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to the u.s. illegally, as children. votes on two bills are planned for next week. one, backed by tea par conservatives, offers legal status, but not citizenship. thoother could offer a path btizenship-- with conditions. it's supportg.o.p. moderates, and by speaker paul hian. >>is an effort to bring our caucus together, our conference together on immigration. i' members.ased with our spat happened was our members got togethere with one wother, and compromised with each other so thcould find a way forward without exercising and so now what we have is an chance at making law an solving this problem. >> woodruff: democrats criticized ryan's handling of the issue. california congresheoman linda sasays he should have brought bipartisan legislation to the floor, already. >> he has been the sole impediment. so the blame lies squarely there. are we disappointed that there weren't a handful of republican members that couldn't ju dig
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deep and find the intestinal fortitude-- as we say in spanish los cojones -- to stand up to their leadership? yeah i'm disappointed. but i'm more disappointed that the speaker puts his party above this country. for now, it's unclear if any bill will get through the house. in the mediterranean, three ships carrying hundreds of migrants faced worsening thather, as a diplomatic storm brewed over r fate. the 629 migrants have been stranded italy refused to llcept them on sunday. spain fioffered safe harbor, but now rough seas are setting in. france blames italy for not accepting the migrants, but the italians today accused paris of turning away thousands of people. back in this country the federal reserve announced plans to keep y ising interest rates today, as the economs and
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jerome powell said the ongoing economic recovery justifies today's actions. the decision you see today is another sign that the u.s. economy is in great shape. the decision you see today ist another sign tonomy is in great shape, that's what you're seeing, for many years held rates low, as we get closer to statutory goals we should normalize policy, that's what we've been doing for years now. federal reserve would be looking at incoming data to determine when to stop raising interest rates. r $65 billion in cash offered th century fox, sets up a battle with disney which fered $52 billion in stock for fox. yesterday a federal judge apoved at&t's takever of time warner. on on wall street today: stocks dropped after the latest
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interest rate increase. the dow jones industrial average lost 119 points to close at 25,201. the nasdaq fell eight points. the s&p 0 slipped 11. and: the world cup will return to north america for the first time since 1994. soccer's international governing body, fifa, announced today that rne u.s., mexico and canada will host the tent in 2026. the first time that three nations have jointly won the rights. the 2018 world cup begin tomorrow in cssia. still e on the "newshour": what's in the deal president trump made with north korean leader kim jong-un? the deepening crisis in yemen-- a push to ke back rebel strongholds. the winners in last night's .rimaries-- women and trump supporte plus much more.
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>> woodruff: one day after their meeting in singapore, both president trump and kim jong-un are touting their unprecedented summit as a major succeson the road to improved relations between longtime enemies. but the lack odetail in their joint statement, issued yesterday, has left the document open to interpretation and lybate about what the two sides actugreed to. from singapore, nick schifrin takes a look at how both leaders are framing the debate. >> reporter: after a 9,000-mile, 23-hour trip, president trump landed in washington, d.c. and declared success. he tweeted, "there is no longer a nucleathreat from north korea," and added, "president obama said that north korea was our biggest and most dgerous problem. no longer-- sleep well tonight"" north korea has not given up a missile program that u.s. intelligence says include an catercontinental ballistic
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missilble of hitting the east coast of the u.s., nor has north korea gin up what u.s. intelligence estimates is anywhere between ten and 80 nuclear weapons. soo kim is a former c.i.a. north korea analyst. >> north korea absolutely poses a threat to the u.s. it has demonstrated it has nuclear capabilities to pose a threat to the continental united stcapabilities and its bal missile program, that allows her to use these weapons programs to threaten the united states, to have a bargaining chip. >> reporter: but just because north korea has the capacity, doesn'mean it has the intention to use them, especially now that the summit has taken place. patrick mceachern is a state repartment official focused on north currently on leave to the woodrow wilson center. >> especially compared to last year, we're in quite a good place. it's important to recognize that this was not a capstone summit. this was not an end of a process, rather it was a beginning of one. this was the time for the two araders to broadly stress what the goal and empower their subordinates to go get them.
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>> reporter: and that positivity is reflected how state media is portraying the summit. heusually, videos demonize u.s. as an existential threat, and suggest north korea has to prepare to target the white house or destroy the capitol. propaganda aimed at en art today's state newspaper seems tok the singapore summit as a shift. newsper photos feature kim a trump smiling, and leani into eac other. >> as jarring as it is for an american audience to see an american president smiling broadly and shaking the hands of a north korean dictatos orders of magnitude more jarring for the north korean population to see their leader join the same with president trump. i think this is really quite significant and it shows to the noh korean people and government officials in particular that kim ng-un is very firmly behind this diplomatic process and success.
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reporter: but interpreting north korea's intentions is no science. and optimism could easily be replaced with venom, argues soo kim. >> north korea has a history of using its state media as a propaganda tool, so coming after kim's return trip from singapore, where he obviously edt a propaganda boost, he was able to sh off his public image as this ruthless dictator who goes off and lops off the >> reporter: and the north korean, or d.p.r.k., statement about the summit has some analysts worried kim won't shed his violent past. the statement reads, " the u.s. side takes genuine measures for building trust, the d.p.r.k., too, can continue to take additional good-will measures," and "it is important to abide by the principle of step-by-step and simultaneous action," sugsting north korea is buying time, rather than serious about denuclearization. >> if the past is any indication, looking at the statements both in korean and english, i don't see much of a tangible hope at things will
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be turned around this time. >> reporter: patrick mceachern disagrees. >> i don't see the north korean statement indicating that they are going to require the u.s. to s.ontload all of its concessi president trump publicly acknowledged this would need to be a process, and he didn't expect all the issues to b resolved in one fell swoop. and so i think of that as an endorsement of the step-by-step approach that the north koreans are laying out in their statement as well. >> reporter: secretary of state mike pompeo arrived in seoul today to meet military leaders and coordinate with regional allies. he said the u.s. was confident mpat north korea was serious about te and verifiable denuclearization, and that" major disarmament" could take diace by 2020. but north korea happointed in the past. ucether this round will prove moressful, remains to be seen. ir the pbs newshour, i'm nick schifrinn singapore.
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>> woodruff: now, to the ongoing, brutal war in yemen. the saudi-led coalition that supports yemen's government has begun an operation to retake the vital port city of hodeidah; it is now controlled by houthi rebels, aligned with iran. and, as jeffrey brown repos, the world's most-dire humanitarian emergency somehow could get even worse. >> reporter: war cries rang out from saudi-led fighters early today, closing on hodeidah. they're being aided by a fierce air campaign involving nine sunni muslim-majority countries and supported by the united states. but aid groups sounded alarms ther a new escalation in what is alreadworld's largest humanitarian crisis.
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>> today we are at the point where "catastrophic" is becoming an understatement. >> reporter: it's the latest arn in a bloody proxy war-- the saud their sunni allies backing the exiled government on one side; the houthis aligned with shi'ite iran on the other. in 2014, the rebels seized yemen's capital sanaa, plus other territory in the northwest and eventually hodeidah on the red sea, a critical port of entry for some 70% of all humanitariain yemen. abdikadir mohamud is director of mercy corps in yemen. he spoke via skype from sanaa and warned of what happens if hodeidah is cut off. >> the larger part of the population is in the north and if that is cut, then we will have a cris, you know, a shortage of food. we're already experiencing that. and th two you will be seeing food prices hiking because there are not supplies cominin. and then a fuel crisis will set in where you know even transportati will be affected.
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>> reporter: it's estimated more than 10,000 yemeni civilians have been killed in the war, while an estimated eight million face starvation and r one million are infected with cholera. >> unless we have more supplies comingn and more personnel coming in to support that we'll be dealing with a very bad situation. the end game is to have open channels for a humanitarian corridor so that aid delivery n resume. >> reporter: united nations officials warned again today there is no military solution in yemen, as they watched the battle for hodeidah begin. >> i'm very worried that that will not put an end to the conflict and therefore there will continue to be pressure on civilians and that pressure has been terrible. >> reporter: the u.s. military says it is not directly involved in attacks on hodeidah, but american planes are refueling saudi-coalition warplanes and providing logistical and intelligence support. the trp administration has n,epped up support for the
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coalitioven as bipartisan groups of lawmakers amek to end thican role in yemen's war. we dig deeper into this battle for hodeidah, the broader war and humanitarian crisis with gregory johnsen, a residents scholar and last refue of yemen, al quaida and america's war in arabia. welcome. why hodeidah? what's the significance of it? >> hodeidah is probably the most imt port city in yemen, accounts for 70 to 80% of all coe food and aid that comes into the entiretry of yemen, it emirates and allies in the yemeni government are worri about two things. one is that the houthis are receiving smuggled ballistic missiles from iran through this porttnd they also believe t the houthis are making a vast amount of money through illegal taxation at this port, and, so, they want to deprive the houthis
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of this port and keep them land locked. >> i referred to it as a proxy war but it is one that hbeen off the radar for most of us for a while. mi just to re us of the players you mentioned, the houthis and >> r do we know how much aid iron is giving? >> we iran is givingthem aid. for the past two years i have been on the yemen panelt the u.n. security council and we found in a report iran was smuggling blissle, missiinto yemen in violation of u.n. security council ringsresolutions. ehere was a lot of smoke but w couldn't pinpoint the fire for iranian advisors on the ground. how much other aid is a matter li debate. >> the con side, the u.s. influence, how much influence does the u.s. have? would they be undertake ago raid like this without u.s. acceptance? >> well, the u.s., for the offensive on houdeidah, the u.s. has essentially giving the
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united arab emirates what one official called the blinking yellow light prorks seed but with caution. this iswh different tha the u.s. has done in the last couple of years whenhey put the brakes on any offensive against hodeidah. what's changed is, last december, the former yemeni president who ruled the country for more than three decades had allied himself with the houthis. that allian collapsed in four bloody days of gun battle in tha tal of sanaa. sanaa. his nephew flipped and his troops are pushing up the redas toward hodeidah and the houthis are moving back in front of him. so that offensive is one of the reasons that they're going in now along with the u.s.ellow light. >> beyond the yellow light, what is the trumpio administrs stance on this now and how much support are we giving them?
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pr>> the u.s. continues tide as we just saw in the video, they continue to provide refuing, they continue to provide intelligence. what the u.s. is saying or what they're saying most recently is they're not givinfeg ive capabilities to the emirates or the yemeni forces. that is they're giving intelligence about what not to hit. don't hit this mosque, a hospital, don't hit this. that's what the u.s. says because the u.s. is very concerned it not be considered a paly to the cot, that it's only providing support to the u.a.e. and saudis but not actually involved in the fighting. >> i reported in that piece that there was some growing pushback in congress. >> right how strong is that? i think we've -- it's not as -- noto strong enoug get something done but i think it is growing, and i think one of thoe reis because of the humanitarian concerns of u. congressmen about what's going to happen if this battle, if the offensive doesn't go as well as
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e emiratis and the trump administration seem to think that it will.>> eparately we should remind people that the u.s. is continuing to fight in a fferent part of yeme, right? against al quaida. >> that's right. which is a separate thin altogether. >> yes, the u.s. is carrying out a number of air and drone strikes and, in ct, even conducting raids with u.a.e. soldiers against al quaida and i.s.i.s. targets to. give an example, in 2017, the u.s. carried out over 130 air and drone strikes in yemen. this is more than four times the amount that was carried out in 2016, the last year of the obama administration. so there's been a rapid uptick ly outsidetrikes large of any oversight or any sort of sdia attention. just briefly coming back to the humanitarian crisis, it's already there. how afraid are you of what happens next? >> it all depends on how quickly the battle goes. if the battle drags ou for weeks and weeks, it could get very tvery bad, but if houthis are pushed back, very
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quickly, as the emirates and the trump administration seem to think will happen, then it won't be as bad as many of these aid organizations seem to think. the other t i would point out is the status quo in yemen is very, very bad. there are 8 million ople who are severely food insecure and -e18 million people who food insecure out of - >> even before , and i k that's one of the things that's ndiving the u.s. is something has to be done,hen we've had a war that's been stalemated for so long, t hy'ing that this is the thing that will do it. >> gregory johnsen, thank you so much. >> thank you. >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the "newshour": we travel to nigeria where aids is commonly transmitted from mothers to their children. failed efforts to op sexual harassment in the fields of
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science. and states stepping in to help people save for retirement. but first, primary voters in five more states went to the polls yesterday to pick candidates for november's midterm elections. south carolina congressman mark sanford became the second incumbent republican to lose his re-election fight this year. his defeat came just hours after president trump tweeted his endorsement of sanford's opponent-- state representative katie arrington. and in virginia, corey stewart won the g.o.p. nomination to face democratic senator tim kaine in november. stewart has been a vocal proponent of confederate monuments in place t ter the charlottesville protests erupted lmmer. s r a look at what the latest wave of primarght tell us about the republican party and thces to come, i spoke a short while ago om davis.
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he's a former republican congressman from virginia. i asked him what the results say about the state of the republican party. >> i think it's pretty clearyo thatknow, the party is slowly becoming donald trump, that he has chaed the party coalition, the republican ba has migrated and it's a different electorate than it was 10 or 20 years ago in terms ofho peoplere self-identified republicans and participating in the republican nomination process. >> woodruff: when youay it's changed from country club to the country, you don't mean they're all living in rural areas, do you? >> that's the base. you certainly have republicans in cities. donald trumgot 4% ofthe vote in washington, d.c. so there are some republicans there, but you look at most of the american cities, republicans are basically nonistent. the groups speak in those areas is decidedly anti-republican. in the suburbs, the further out you go, the more republican it gets. h an example, a civic association near us where the
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executive board met sked one of the neighbors to take down the trump sign because then it offensive, but 30 miles out people were making their signs and tting them up proudly. so there is a huge division in this country among people who identify particularly with donald trump, and that's affecting the republican coalition. >> woodruff: what do you think these pro-trump voters want? what do they want the government to do for them? i hink it's about world views to a great extent, what's the government role, where do they stand. when you get the rapidity of change as we have in the last few decades, you have a group that feels empowered and a group that fels threatened and they've doubled down and trump is their guy. >> woodruff: corey stewart's position is to be very aggressive about checking immigrant status. you say these are voters that
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would agree with that? >> he didn't run on that first time but his three elect prince william county, a majority minority county, reelected him. the proof is in the pding. a lot of people feel the change in population is threatening and they nthe police to double down. >> woodruff: if this is what's licanning in the repub primaries this year, what does that spell for november? what are corey stewart's chances against incumbent senator tim ltine in november? >> any would be tim kaine has run a number of bmes and never lost, has $10 million in tk, his ticket carried the state by 5 percentage points last time. med terms tend to go against the president's party, so byvery major atmospheric and any metric, there was going to be a tough race for republicans which is why i think you had a relatively weak field for the republican senate nomination. ghme of the stronger candidates
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who have been able to self-fund or have larger political bases didn't getin lved because they didn't see november worth the trouble. >> woodruff: right now, what does it lookike? >> well, i think it's going to be a very difficult race for the republicans to win. they have, just as i calculate, about 11 democratic-held seats that they have a better chance of takindothan they in virginia. so you can do the math. they have to defend about three seats. but in terms of the allocation of resources unlikely to go to virginia, i think that makes it a very, ry uphill race for republicans this fall. >> woodruff: one other subject, t davis, i want to ask you about, we see women doing well particular in democratic primaries. the democrats, i as reading a statistic this morning, they've nominated women in just under o% of theirn house primaries. why aren't - tand contrast among republicans is something arke 12%. wh't there more republican
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women running? >> well, there still ar i think if you took a look at republican nominees that are women this time, it hasn't gone down. it's just you've seen a lot of pem getting activated after president trump. the women's march, feel empowered, the democratic party have laid out thec wome mat to these people. the republicans have ideologica tests, people who don't add here are often called rhinos. the democrats are, at least to date, a more open party right now. these things go back and forth through the years, and, as a result of that, people who want to get active inn office, wom who feel a new sense of empowerment, they're picking th democrarty. it's an embarrassment of rich forcetimes as we saw in virginia yesterday, you had several well qualified women carving each other up to face another republican woman barbara consta. >> woodruff: we'll see what happens in the next few months.
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tom davis, thank you very much. >> thanks for having me. >> woodruff: now, the next in our series on the challenge of ending the aids epidemic. earlier, we visited russia and looked at the difficulties that nation is having with its epidemic. tonight, with support from the pulitzer center, we travel to nigeria-- a nation that's just 2% of the world's pulation, but accounts f almost a quarter of all h.i.v.- positive babies. william brangham and producer jan kane report how one innovative program is showing some remarkable promise. >> reporter: this may seem like just a traditional sunday mass,
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(singing) this may seem like a traditional sunday mass, >> reporter: this may seem like just a traditional sunday mass, but what's going on in here is one of the most effective ways of stopping the spread of h.i.v. at the end of mass, the priest asks any pregnant women and their partners and children to come forward. about 50 people gather near the altar. >> defend these mothers and heese fathers from every evil, beir companion along their pathway through life. >> reporter: they're given a blessing and invited to a special celebration later that's just for them. they're told there will be gifts and dancing... and some medical care-- malaria
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tests, high blood pressure-- but the one thing that's not mentioned: the one that's the main point of this program is h.i.v. amaka ogidi helped develop this program, which is cally shower-- she says that because of the stigma aroundus.i.v.-- theycan't say it at the beginning. do you think if the priest got uphere, and said, "we have we will give you hiv testing, do you think anyone would stand up? >> maybe one or two. but, of course, if they stand up and they're coming, other would, "shhhh, why is he going for baby shower? why is he going for the test? that means it must have been living a very devious life!" but when you come to the main shower now, you get the full detail. >>eporter: and that's by design? >> that's by design. it's no mistake. >>'s purposely planned eporter: after mass, the pregnant women and their partners are weighed and measured and screened for various conditions-- things like hypertension and hepatitis b, which are also real problems in nigeria.
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but the key test is h.i.v. >> we need the first 20 completed, so that they can have their shower. >> reporter: the goal to find pregnant women who are infected and get them on anti- retrovirals. it will protect them from developing aids, of course, but it will also greatly lower the risk that they'll transmit h.i.v. to bitheir . left untreated, that transmission happens roughly 30% of the time. this kind of effort in nigeria is long overdue. it200 miles away, in the c, inuja, three-year-old mubarak isah is dyg of aids. his moth already died. in 2016, roughly 24,00 children in 2016, roughly 24,000 children died of aids-related causes in nigeria. 12-yor-old yusuf adamu is als very sick. he, too, lt his mother to aids. in nigeria, roughly 37,000 children were newly infected in 2016-- over a quarter of a million are living with the virus. >> the sorest thumb here, the biggesproblem is mother to
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child transmission, because it's so easy to stop, relatively speaking. >> reporter: we traveled to nigeria with jon cohen. he's a reporter for "science" magazine who's covered h.i.v./aids around the world and was our partner on this series. cohen says that after retroviral drugs proved their worth in the mid to late '90s, the world's wealthiest countries bpooled their money to het back the epidemic. >> the first thing they targeted was pregnant women who wer fected. because if you got drugs to the smmen, it cut the rate of trsion dramatically. and as the drugs got better and better, it basally took the rate of transmission down to almost zero. under 1%. >> reporter: but those efforts have fallen short here one out of every four babies nirn worldwide with h.i.v. is born iria. i that's really not acceptable, considering ths a
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condition they can actually abolish. na reporter: dr. sani aliyu leads nigeria'onal agency for the control of aids. >> my argument has aays been, while at the population level, within the general population, it's going to be a lot of work to put everybody with h.i.v. on nteatment. for pregomen, it's not the case. their numbers are small, compared to the general, the people living with h.i.v. within the general population. so it should be achievable, really. it should be low-hanging fru. >> reporter: cue the baby shower program, between the testing and waiting for the resuhere's a lot of this: singing, dancing, and gift-giving. >> after singing and dancing, we use this to support them. >> reporter: so this is a gift thr them. >> that'baby shower gift. we call it mama pack. >> reporter: mama pack? >> what we have here actually, the things that will aid them in delivery. >> reporter: the mama pack contains basics like dpers and
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sanitary pads. int there's also medical supplies: rualcohol, and clamps for the umbilical cord, necessities the hospital would charge for. about 40% of women here don't give birth in hospitals. they'll stay at home, or visit local birthing attendantf partis is just tradition, tht part is also the cost. the hope imama pack will steer moms to hospitals, where they'll get tter care, especially if they're h.i.v. positive. >> reporter: so if they come in with this bag, they save money. >> they save not just money, but we ay sure of the quality the are going to use. >> reporter: within a few days of the church service, the baby shower team ts out to track down the women who tested positive, and begin their mission of gentle nagging. >> hello! good afternoon. >> reporter: they want to make sure moms visit the clinic and start their medications . >> "why have you not gone to the facility? you want to carr?a baby infect what, oh, make sure you go.
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how soon are you going?" >> reporr: so you don't let them fall out of care. >> that's the issue! >> reporter: several months ago, new mother felicia adah got the full baby shower treatment. did you have any reason to believe that you'd be h.i.v. positive? >> no. i no believe like that. but when the test come, i was crying! two weeks, i did crying. >> reporter: but she started on treatment, stuck with it, and her baby was borshvirus-free. says she wouldn't have gone for care on her own. and no matter how far away expectant mothve, baby shower staff are relentless in finding them and keeping a close watch. >> you want to prevent. if she misses her tsage and missse, viruses comes out onain! with more aggres and start multiplying and looking for the cells to destroy. they could destroy your baby, you know. >> reporter: mbachie and his wife rose are both h.i.v.- positive. they're both in the baby shower ogram.
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the program teaches parents how important it is to stay on medication, so the babies don't get the virus through breastfeeding. >> the counselor told us what to do. if we didn't follow the instruction, the baby may-- might likely to get the virus. >> reporter: the baby shower program is now in 115 churches in nigeria. 90% of nigerians attend a place of worship at least once a week. nigeria is half-muslim, and they hope to include mosques in the program soon. father emmanuel dagi is the priest here. >> our people are so very religious, so, anything that has because of that, thempattach much iortance to the priest, also, and if something comes through the priest, they accept it wholeheartedly. >> reporter: initial results show that baby shower is working. a recent study funded by the u.s. national institutes of health found that 92% of , egnant women in baby shower
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got an h.i.v. teile only 55% of women outside the program did. >> that's a remarkable achievement. that's a great step forward. ngle biggest problem is people don't know their status. they don't know whether they're infected. if you don't know you're infected, not going to get treatment. >> reporter: if they can capture 92% of the womeno learn their status, that gets into the zone isof really driving transmsion toward elimination. they're now looking at whether the program dramatically cuts mother-to-child ansmission. >> baby shower, i just love it. i told somebody that, it spreads hke perfume. you can spray e. somebody else, somewhere, mmm. so what is that? and comes looking for what it is. the perfume is spreading, the fragrance is going everywhere. that's, i'm glad. six weeks after their babies are
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born, families are called back to church for what's known as baby reception, there are follow up tests, and some lessons reinforced. but above all, they celebrate a healthy birth, and what they thpe will be a turning point for r country: a generation born free of h.i.v. brr the pbs newshour, i'm williagham in benue state, nigeria. >> woodruff: tomorrow night, we hern to the fight against h.i.v. in america, and go to esorida, home to four of the top ten citi in the u.s. for new h.i.v. infections. diw,he fields of science, engineering and ne face their own me too moment.
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now,it turns out the fields of science, ediineering and ne face their own me too moment. a new landmark report finds sexual harassment is pervasive in those fields, particularly when it comes to academia. yamiche alcindor looks at the toll ts is taking on women, whether it happens in the lab, a lecture hall, a hospital or in the field while research is being conducted. it's the focus of this week's science segment, "the leading edge." >> reporter: the report-- from the national academies of science, engineering and medicine-- is the most comprehensive study done yet about harassment in fields. in fact, academic workplaces aro second onlhe military in the rate of sexual harassment. the report cited studies that found between 20% and de% of female ss in science, engineering and medicine experienced harassment, often from faculty and staff. more than 50% of faculty said they too experienced harassmenth problem is even worse for
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women of color and wb.en who are l.q. dr. paula johnson is the co- chair of the panel thaorwrote this r she is the president of wellseley colleg thank you, dr. johnson. the committee identified three types of sexual harassment -- sexual coercion, unwanted sexual atteion and gender harassment. what leads to this pervasive culture of harassment? >> well, you know, it is the culture, and when there are permissive cultures that allow or allow this type of harassment to occur, the most common being gender harassment, so we like to view it as the putdowns rather than the come-on statements than make woeel unwelcome, are denigrating toomen or pictures or other things in the environment, that's the kind of environment that actually not only has a negative impact on women, particularly in their careers, but in other ways, bu also sets the stage for sexual coercion which is more the quid pro quo, sleep with me in order
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toork with me, or you will be fired, that type of relationship, orith unwanted sexual attention, unwanted kissing, stroking, everything to sexual assault a rape. >> lgbtq women and women of color are more likely t their straight white counterparts to be harassed, why are these groups targeted more than their what and straight counterparts and what happens to the women of all races and sexualo orientationseir careers? what happens to these women? >> so it's important to knowat omen, racial and ethnic and sexual minorities do experience all forms of harassment when you put it all together more frequently, and this is something we -- you know, i think one can make assumptions. if you put sexism together with racism and other types of discrimination, but this is work that really needs to be better understood, so more research really needs to be done. and in terms of the impact, what
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happens to women in their careers, we know that women who have experienced sexualme hara are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, ptsd, and are also more likely to take a step away from their careers, remove themselves from situations, whether it be a committee or a lab or an aual job. so the outcome and the impact not only for the individual but also for the entirety ofnc sc engineering and medicine, is significant, it's a loss of talent. >> the report talked about the fact that there needed to be a change in the culturand the climate at universities. what were the most important recommendations that came out of this report, in your mind? >> i'm glad you're focusing this because this report not only focuses on what we need to do to better handle cases, to better handle how we can look to when there are reports of sexual
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harassment, t how do we prevent it? because we have to, one, make sure that the perpetrators o sexual harassment are addressed, but we have to involve -- we have to really change the environment so that it doesn't keep happening. leadershiprom the very top has got to be committed to really making the end of sexual harassment a priority. we alshaveo really integrate the values of divrsity, inclusion and respect into every single policy. we have to have ver clear and communicated policies. we also have to make our leadership at every level more diverse, andtohat has o with diversity in terms of gender, and also race a ethnicity. we have more and more women coming in to science, engineering and medicine, but we can't really wait for those women to make their way through the pipeline. we have to make sure that we're actively advancing women. >> i want to talk to you about the #metoo movemeea.
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>> the report was in the works last two years well before the #metoo movement, but how y think the #metoo movement and the conversation about harassment in other fields will impact how this report ise received by sciences? >> well, it has raised the profile how we are thinking about sexual harassment. one thing i think we do -- so that's a good thing, righ it's unfortunate that it is so pervasive across all aas, but one of the things is it does eaise awareness. but i think we ho be very clear that a lot of the #metoo movement is fosed again on the most egregious perpetrators. we have to really think about, again, the culture of how we are changing the culture so we truy prevent sexual harassment from occurring, and also, that, how do we also support ths targets ofual harassment? and that's a very important set of recommdations in the report. >> i want to ask you one otherth question aboutfact that
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there was a petition launched last month urging the natial academies to revoke the membership of anyone found guilty of harassment or assault. is it time to revoke the membership of people found guilty? >> what i wanto say to that is the national academies reviewing their policies and proc and they will come to a set of decisions around how they will thve forward. they're doin based on the findings of this report, and wee ly hope that all institutions that are impact in academia do the same. >> so should they or not revoke the memberhiip? >> i that is really something that the academies have to take up, and this is ar repo how we are putting forth the recommendations. >> dr. paula johnson, thanks for joining us. >> thank you.
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>> woodruff: for many, a key part of the "american dream" is to one day retire comfy and live off the fruits of your labor. but, over e past few decades, that goal has become much more elusive. now, some states are stepping in. the newshour's amna nawaz recently traveled to oregon-- the first in the nation to launch a state-run retirement program. it's part of our ongoing series "chasing the dream." >> reporter: running portland's roller derby league kim stegeman's dream job. >> i love it because it's all about empowering women and girls to play a team sport to have a sense of community and related grow on and off the track. >> reporter: stegen founded the rose city rollers in 2004. it has since become one of the largest roller derby leagues in the country. t as her business grew, stegeman didn't have time or reurces to figure out how select, afford, nor offer a company retirement plan for her seven employees.
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>> i have 600 skaters on any given day of td week. anso sometimes the needs of your membership kind of trumps the you know trying igure out the benefit structure. >> reporter: so when she heard about a new state retirement program billed as hassree, she jumped at the chance. >> i want to be a good boss. i want to you know lead an organization that is taking care of its employees, so empowering my staff to plan for tir future goes right along with that myself. >> reporte here's how oregonsaves works. businesses hook eir payrolls into a system that automatically enrolls ems in a savings plan. workers can opt out, but if they don't, a set amount of their choosing is deducted from each paycheck and invested into a roth i.r.a., aax-free retirement account. by 2020, every business in oregon will be required to offer a traditional retirement plan or
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join oregonsaves. state treasurer tobias read says the idea is toake saving as easy as possible. >> there are about a million people in oregon in a state with four million population who don't have access to way to save for retirement work. so we're trying to remove the barriers. and it's not just an issue here in oregon, across thtry, an estimated 55 million americans don't have access to a retirement savings plan throughl their er. >> the retirement crisis in the united states today is very real. ter: angela antonelli heads georgetown university's retirement center, advising states on tirement policies. she points to a recent survey showing almost half of all americans nearing reti have less than $25,000 saved. one in four don't even $1,000 put away. and because people are living longer, they need more money now than ever before. >> many families today really are concerned that they're going
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to outlive their retirement savings and they're mo afraid of that than they are of death. >> reporter: studies have shown workers are 15 times morlikely to save if they have access to an employer-sponsored retirement plan. but about half of small to mid- sized businesses don't offer stike oregon are now taking matters into their own hands. so far ten have paed laws to create state retirement programs. many more have put similar proposals on the table. >> anything that individual states can do to help ease that that gap is going to be certainly in the interest of individual people. but in the interest of the state too because when people haveas ts and they have choices h ere's going to be less of a stre state budgets that are generally already stretchedr >> rter: but some workers aren't convinced state p retiremens work for them. chris churilla is the bar manager at renata, an italian he opted out of oregonsaves. h
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churil spent 17 years in the restaurant industry, and with a family of four-- including a newborn daughter-- he says, right now, he doesn't have extra money to save. >> expenses are always climbing and our ability to payur bills is there, but putting money away for savings and college tuition and things of that nature is not where we'd like it to be for sure. >> reporter: but there's another reason churilla opted out of oregonheves. he says oesn't trust the state to handle his money. w give someone my money when i'm not entirely sure that i'm going to see any kind of return or ifomething goes awry, we're going to see that money back? >> reporter: state officials point out oregon isn'ting the money-- private financial investment firms are and savers can choose low or higher risk investments. and they say, churilla is an exceion. so far, about 80% of employees auto-enrolled in oregonsaves decided to stay in. but churilla isn't the only one with concerns.
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the u.s. chamber of commerce has also warned against the trend toward state-run retirement programs. aliya wong is the chamber's executive director of retirement policy. >> we just want to be careful that as we move forward and we're trying to do the right thing don't unintentionally do the wrong thing. >> reporter: wong argues state, s opposed to federal, retirement progrn be burdensome for employers, especially for companies that operate in multiple states. >> it becomes very complicated because not only does each state have a different program, they have dferent definitions of who's covered by that program. >> reporter: the chamber is supporting some new initiatives, like washington state's rketplace, a website whe employees can choose a private savings plan. th efforts by businesses to band together, to afforr own retirement plan. but some say the retirement crisis is so dire, every option should be on the table. >> if there's decadeof failure to close the access gap to look at, it's time to try something differen
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>> reporter: stegeman says business is still booming and that she can already see the benefits of oregonsaves for her own future. >> for me, you know, already having put away a few thousand dollars over the last couple of months. that's fantastic. like i'm happy as a clam. >> reporter: more than 53,000av oregonianssaved nearly four million dollars since the program launched. the state says that shows success. but there'still a lot on the line. adopters like oregon make it work, more states might follow their lead. but if oregon falters, other state retirement solutions could be stopped dead in their tracks. for the pbs newshour, i'm amnad, nawaz in portlregon. >> woodruff: now to our newshour shares, something cteresting thght our eye.
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in 1906, a masanve earthquake out-of-control fire devastated san fra aisco. in 201century-old film turned up at a california flea market. after seeing the discovery on facebook, photo historson wright bought the film on a hunch it might be long-lost footage of a crippled san francisco shot two weeks after the quake. we recently spoke to wright from his home in highrton, england about the secrets revealed in the now-restored film. >> in april, 1906, a majork earthquake strn francisco. the quake was very large in itself, but most of the damage was actually caused by fire which ripped through the city. whole swathes of san franciscole were completelled and destroyed. we've known about this film for over 100 years, but it's more of a rediscovery. it's, it's been lost all this me. what it actually is is about one day two weeks after the
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earthquake actually hit. it's basically a trip down market street done by the miles brothers, and there's a famous tape that most people havese already which went down market street just a couple days before the earthquake hit. the previous footage of the tri down marreet only survives because one of the aile's brotheually sent that footage over to their new york studio literally gone day uafore the eart hit. this is a missing film of their tr back down market street once your earthquake had already happened. so it allows us to really compare and contrastally before and after and see the devastation that actually had gone on. all the hustle and btle that you saw on the previous trip down market street that's all kind of gone a people are quite come down and kind of shuffling around. you know, all the pomp and the rich people going past in they're expensive ca, that's completely gone now. as you move down market street you see mo of the buildings
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are gone at this point. and you see a lot of ancient steam engines. they used to put chains around the buildings and hold the buildings down using the steam engine. as you get down towards the bottom of market street though you get to the ferry building, and this is the most important part of the film for me. you see the human cost of the actual tragedy. you see a lot of people basically in line, from rich to poor, everybody, and they're waiting for ferries and boats to take them out of the disaster and then tow the end of the movie it flicks through a few more scenes. you see dynamiting taken place. you know, city hall being blown up for example, which is a bitin disconceand then the demolition of prager's department store.g i wanted to bris to the people of san francisco. i wanted to make sure that we conserved it for futurege rations because i think is very important. with this film you see the wuman element t happened disaster strikes and everybody'i
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s are changed. and it just makes us realize, i think, just how quickly thingses can go to pibut it also shows us how people can, you know, dust themselves off and basilly get back to life and rebuild again. you just can't keep down san francisco. san franciscans, they justeep on >> woodruff: wand his partners from the san francisco silent film festival and niles and that's the newshour for tonight.m dy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:ce >> consumeular believes that wireless plans should reflect the amount of talk, text and data that you use. we offer a variety of no-co ract wireless plans for people who use their phone a little, a lot, or anything in beween. to learn more, go to
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leid >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and indiduals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadsting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewe like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh >> you're watching pbs.
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maria shriver: perhaps the greatest mystery... is the human brain. in only the past few decades, scientists have made incredible leaps in our understanding. and we are just nounravelw the brain can change throughout our liv, leading to incredible transformation. merzenich: we have this new understanding that the person that is within us is actually product of change that occurs within our lifetime. this is new science. t it's one of the gr discoveries of our era, because it has the potential of giving everyone a better life. you've been given this gift. that's what brain plasticity is. seidler: the brain is adaptively changing, modifying, making new connections, in some cases,