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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  December 2, 2018 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday, december 2: one-term president and lifetime public servant: the tributes pour in for president george h.w. bush. >> draw in the character of this man. >> sreenivasan: and the re- emergence of isis: a growing ters wielding control in more remote areas. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. sue and edgar wachenheim iii. seton melvin. the chyl and philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporatfunding is provided by mutual of america--
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designing customized individual and group retirement products. that why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: or and by the corporation public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. ank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivas. >> sreenivasan: good evening and thank you for joining us. plans are underway for a state funeraand national day of mourning this wednesday for former president george h.w. bush, who died friday evening in his houston home. one of his closest friends, james baker, who served as his secretary of state, was with him on friday. >> he opened both eyes, he looked at me, he said "hey, bake, where are we going today?" iand i said, "well, jefe, said, "we're going to heaven." he said, "good, that's where i want to go." little did i know or did he
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know, of course, that by 10:00 that night he'd be in heaven.>> reenivasan: president trump has ordered flags to be flown at half staff for the next 30 days. the form state in the u.s. capitol rotunda beginning tomorrow evening. the state funeral is planned for wednesday morning at washington's national cathedralh mr. ill be laid to rest thursday next to his wife barbara and his daughter robin at his presidential lion the college station campus ofm texas a iversity. joining me now from washington d.c. is pulitzer prize winning author and presidential historian doris kearns goodwin. rs> doris thanks for being with us. in the last 24 hours what we've heard so consistently talking about the predent, the late president is about his public service around it seems like we're in an era now that we're more of a liability than a strength. if you have more on the public record it will be used against you in the court of public opinion and how you run campaigns and when you try to become president. that wasn't the case for george
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h.w. bush. >> absolutely not. my hope would be that aat n honorablei ploaftion would be to be a public servant. between being a congressman, a warr heo, an ambassador to the u.n, cora direthe winding path of all those different experiences made hima more important leader, but what an horn rabble life and there was time in the 60s when tha the way that wept. that's the most that could come out of this wonderful tribute ogeorge h.w. bush. >> this is a person that got a flyioss. this is not a medal that people just hand out. he rarely spoke about his litary service and what happened during world war ii. >> almost thedia demands
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today that people talk about themselves and they put themselves forward and say, did i this, did i that. but that generation, people saw war, knew what war went, talked about it, didn't boast about it when they came home. that would be a quality that would be snice to replicate in our ytng people, a of things we can draw from the character of this man. >> sreenivasan: reluctance toe communicate rrative, that he wasn't ability to communicate the plight of the country and when he was trying to did. >> that's interesting because people say the reason he couldn't do that was because hek empathy. i'm not sure that's true. the people that knew l them well talked about the empathy that they knew well. people set up a teleprompl tele,
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that didn't work well, and he said i shouldn't have done that. lincoln tried to ham that having morning meetings where he would meet with ordinary people two hours every day to hear their stories. he used to sta a train around the country every spring and ery fall, that detraction hurt him very much when in was a recession. >> you have a personal story when you went to kennebunkport maine. >> so about bush and barbara bushal vit up for the day in kennebunk. i was just we had a lunch, a very simple lunch, he had just seen bill clinton. that friendship was already going to come to, we just had a
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terrific time. the as we wereaving i went into the bathroom which was in front of the round driveway. i showr locked the door and could not get out. i was trying and trying. finalistly president bush sent his son through t window, he had to take a hammer to get the lock out. i finally came out i was so embarrassed. he says well at last you write well! every time i go in the bathroom and lock the door, i think of president bush. and his sob breaking the lock. as>> sreen: thank you so much doris kearns goodwin. >> spenivasan: president tr and chinese president xi jinping agreed on a 90-day cease fire in tlthe trade war that has r world economies. at a dinner last night at the end of the g-20 summit in bueno aires, argentiesident trump promised not to hike tariffs on $200 billion worth of
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chinese gos set to take effect january 1. china agreed to buy a "very substantial"mount of agricultural, industrial, and energy products from the united states. french president emmanuel macron sts ordered his prime minier to meewith the heads of political parties and leaders of the "yellow vest" protest movement. today, macron toured damage from yesterday's rioting, the most violent demonstrations paris has experienced since 1968. protesters looted businesses, and torched cars, one person was killed and more than 100 were injured. the protests began more than two weeks ago over macron's decision to increase fuel taxes. president macron said he is open to a dialogue with the protestors, but that he will not reverse his policies. israeli police recommended indictments today for prime minister benjamin netanyahu and his wifearah on bribery charges. the pair are accused of awarding favors to a telecommunications giant in exchange for positive media coverage.el is attorney general will take three to four months to decide whether to move forward with the i the prime minister has denied all charges. for a closer look at some of the
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comproin the china deal, visit our website at >> sreenivasan: despite numerous attempts at loosening isis co,rol in regions across ir the threat continues. the u.s. led coalition and iraqi government fces helped liberate more than 90% of that country. but just last month, iraq sent up to 30,000 fighters to secure the westerborder against isis extremists entering from syria. pbs newshour weekend has been covering the emergence of isis with in-depth reports. special correspondent simona foltyn reported from iraq where militants wield control over the civilian population, and t emergency response division, primarily trained for conventional war, is ill- equipped for isis' guerilla tactics in remote mountainous areas. her reporting was in cooperation with the investigative fund at the nation institute. >> reporter: for four years, the emergency response division, or e.r.d. together with other iraqi ground troops and support om
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the u.s. fought and appeared to win a grueling war against isis. but the terror group has risen again at the nexus of four provinces, kirkuk, salahuddin, diyala and sulaimania. it's an area home to strategic roads, oil fields and several mountain ranges, which provide a sanctuary for the milis. >> reporter: these coalition- trained troops are battle- hardened from having fought a mostly conventional war against isis. during the four-year cict, the u.s. supported the e.r.d. with tactical advice, even though the unit had been banned from receivi military aid due to human rights abuses. e.r.d. commanders say their troops have benefited from that advice, but their enemy operates diffently now. we walked three miles through an ommanderse the expected to find 60 to 100 isis members. but these hills and riverbeds offer plenty of opportunities
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for the militants to hide and so far we haven'tncountered any and now the bulldozers and humvees are clearing this area so it will be easier to patrol inhe future. the jihadists thrive in the dark, attacking check points kidnapping civilians and security officials, ransoming some and killing others. they also plant improvised explosive devices or i.e.d.'s like this one. during the day, the insurgents disappear into tunnels andaves where they keep their supplies out of sight of drones and patrolling soldiers. but despite knowing all this, and not arresting or killing a single isis suspect after two days of searching, the e.r.d. commander declares the area cleared. leaving these vast areas without permanent securityefresence and fectively surrendering the terrain they supposedly cleared ck to isis.e sie 2003 american-led invasion and the subsequent dissolution of the iraqi army, the country has suffered from
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weak governance and a fragmentet security app. the e.r.d. is just one of many forces operating iarea. some are regular government troops. edhers are militia organiz by relious sect or tribe. driving between the northern towns of kirkuk, hawija and tuz khurmatu, there's a dizzying number of checkpoints set up variously by the federal police, iraq's elite counterrrorism forces, and a group of mostly shia militia known as the popular mobilization forces. despite all this security presence, travelinthese roads is not safe. in june, isis executed six members of iraq's security forces after kidnapping them at a fake checkpoint. we have counted over a dozen checkpoints along this 30-mile stretch of road, some abandoned, some manned by one of three different security forces who don't necessarily communicate with one another. this lack of coordination has allowed isis to set up fake
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checkpoints, posing asve gornment security officials to then stop vehicles and kidnap civilians or members of security rces. but it's not just the fragmentation of iraq's security apparatus that has played into nte hands of isis. it is also the c's ethno- religious strife. iraq's kurdish minority has long desired independence. in 2005, a new constit granted the kurds regionwh autonomy i is known as iraqi kurdistan. the kurds have twn government and their own defense forces, known ashe peshmerga. but the kurds have pushed for fullndependence. last year, they held a controveial referendum, the results of which overwhelmingly favored kurdistan's secession. the aqi government didn't recognize those results. in response to the ve, it launched an offensive in october last year to retake disputed areas that the kurds controlled. the two sides briefly clashed, and the kurds subsequently withinew north, leaving ba
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security vacuum. >> ( translated ): isis will always exist in iraq and in tria, and that's because political instability in the region. >> reporter: dler ghazi workse for rdish counter- terrorism service. he was in charge of security in tuz khurmatu for ten years until ced hisqi government f unit to withdraw last october. i met him in the kurdish city of suleimania. >> ( translated ): the presence of isis in our area is because of the security vacuum between us, the government of iraqi kurdistan, and the government of iraq. and in addition there's a b political crisween us that has allowed such groups to spring up between our borders. >> reporter: ghazi agrees to take us to the kurdish areas that have been most affectedeny isis' resu. >> ( translated ): this is the last outpost, a little bit further it's isis.
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these guys are volunteers, they are from tuz khurmatu and the area. they are volunteering toefend this region from isis. reporter: there's no doubt that isis has exploited the conflict between the kurds and the shia-led government in baghdad. to find out just how much control the militants have managed to assert over civilians, i travel to rural areas near the sunni town of hawija. hawija was an isis stronghold for three years,nd was one of the last towns security forces freed in october 2017. soon after, the government declared victory over isis in iraq. now, less than a year after hawija was retaken by the iraqis government, isas regrouped and is terrorizing the population. >> ( translated ): they don't just ce at night, even daytime, we are in danger of being kidnapped, killed, r slaughterebed. isis can do anything. we are under their cortrol. >> rr: civilians say encounters with isis have become
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a near-daily occurrence in thisa area, but ma reluctant to speak openly about them for fear of being targeted by isis. as sunnis, they also fear the shia-dominated security forces, g om they blame for failin secure the area. the government forces, in turn, accuse the civilians of supporting >> ( transl ): it's very difficult to gatheren intellig. the reason is the nature of this area. people have close family relations with isis, s nthat's why it easy to get information from them. >> reporter: muntaha fouad's son and husband joined isis. they surrendered when iraqi forces liberated the area, and are currently imprisoned. fouad herself, and the rest of her family, were accused of being isis collaborators by association, and were transferred to this camp an hour ea of hawija. but she insists that she has nothing to do with isis. >> ( translated ): what is our guilt? i know nothing about my son, i
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know nothing about my husband. my son made mistakes ad the price for that. he went and handed himself in to the authorities. e at about us as women? it's not fair toeated like this. >> reporter: the iraqi government forces families of isis suspects to stay in these closely guarded camps, claiming that a return to their villages wolp isis to spread again. but camps or no camps for its alleged supporters, isis is re- establishing itself. >> sreenivrsan: for more ctive on the re-emergence of isis in iraq, and elsewhere, we turn noto "new york times" foreign correspondent rukmini callimachi, who covers isis and al qaeda. you know, there's sort of a question of geograic contl versus actual power. >> exactly. >> sreenivasan: i.s.i.s. seems
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to have shrunk geographically. >> sreenivasan: but at the same time, we see influences that they are having not just in iraq and afghanistan but elsewhere. >> part of problem weave gotten confused i.s.i.s. being a territorial holding entity. islamic state, as it was told, at one time they held a territory the size of great britain. we have confused that wh he fact channel that i.s.i.s. emerged 2002 an 2003, for the most decade ats of thei its existence it held no territory at all and was incredibly descrublghtive as an insurgent force. now we a going tobacco its insurgent routes. >> sreenivasan: when theyhad a state they also had a revenue stream, they had taxation. as yes. >> sreenivasan: that
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shrinks, therere fewer pple i imagine paying taxes to i.s.i.s. >> yes. we are expecting a big downtn in their economics in the fact that they lost the big base of taxation they had before. i was in baghdad, a couple weeks ago, and i met with coalition officials, they saw i.s.i.s. has on hand is over 00 million. that gives you a sense of just how wealthy that terrorist group is. they are now going back to the types of fundraising that they were doing before. namely, illegal taxation in areas that they do not control coming into areas and telling businesses if you don't pay up like the mafia, if you don't pay you are going to face the consequences. kidnapping whi never stopp but which is becoming a major revenue stream now. and human trafficing, are all the other things they have done since their liest days. this is a group that has known how to finance itself without
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territory for over a decade so don't expect them tgo bakrupt any time soon. >> sreenivasan: i assume these nge not folks that are us banks that we can put economic sanctions on, here is these two names, make sure they can't move their funds. how do they move thimoney around? >> from what we are hearing, it is hard cash.o a lof times when an area is cleared by the coalition, youi. see i. members trying to escape. at the moment we cature them, they find a huge amount of cash on them, 20,000, $30,000, i haven't been able to confirm this myself but this is what the coalition talks about. >> sreenivasan: one of the most recent reports you have is from a place we don't associate with i.s.i.s, tajikistan. >> yes. >> sreenivasan: a story aut american bicyclists who were
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traveling the world, wit international cyclists and what happened? >> this group of cyclists, two from warnsdz area, had been cying for the entire year, the dream of their lives. they got to tajikistan which is a country ju until this y had a more secure rating in termation of safe than -- in terms of safety than france or germany. it was a level one, france a germany are a level 2. there was no reason to hav worries at all in tajikistan. they were cycling on a mell-known route that has beco popular for tourists. a group of men who pledgedce allegio i.s.i.s. came from behind them ran them over and then jumped out and stabbethem odeath. four people died. several others were injured. the attackers actually filmed the attack as they were doing it. they appeared in i.s.i.s. propaganda a couple of days later. and it was the very first
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i.s.i.s. attack in that country. and we're seeing more and more of this. before the manchester astack in england there had never bnen an attack in u.k, even though a lot of t citizens fre u.k. have joined the terrorist group. similarly in the barcelona attack, there hadee never bn any in spain. >> sreenivasan: if you can't get into the united sttes and wreak havoc on the infidels, wreak havoc emple else >>approximately. hat is the hope of the group. this is what they ciep keep saying in their propaganda. and of course it is put out to are us but unfortunately we are seeing evidence that they are making this come true. tajikistan again was a country that was on nobody's radar. however it had a vey large number of i.s.i.s. recruits.
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that i 1300, like france has had repeatedttacks over a over again. so in a way it's not suppliesing that this has ppened. but it's -- surprising that this has happened but it has been incredibly burgeoning tourist economy and unfortunately this has happened. >> rukmini cleush. thank you. happy hanukkah, eight day long jewish holiday, also referred the as the festival of lights beginnings today. and we'll ve full coverage of the memorials and funeral services for the former president, george h.w. bush. that's all forne pbsshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan, good night.
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captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. sue and edgar wachenheim iii. seton melvin. the cherylnd philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelo the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products.' that's why your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you.
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thank you.
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steves: we're heading two hours southeast of salzburg to my favorite steves: we're heading two hours salzkammergut townzburg on my falarite salzkammerguke. the tiny train station is across lake hallstatt from the postcard-pretty tow by the same name -- hallstatt.
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stefanie, a boat, meets and glides scenically across the lake into town. lovable hallstatt is a tiny town buoyed onto a ledge between a mountain and a swan-ruled lake. ll apart from the waterfa which rips through its middle, hallstatt is an oasis of peace. with the scarcity of level land, tall homes had their front door on the street-level top floor and their water entrance several floors below. the town, whicinated as a salt-mining center, is one of europe's oldest, going back centuries before christ. there was a hallstatt before there was a rome. in fact, because of the salt-mining importance here an entire age -- the llstatt era, from about 800 b.c. to 400 b.c. -- is is named for nce-important spot. if you dug under these buildings,
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re you'd find roman and poman celtic pavement stones from the ancient and prehistoric salt depot. this cute little village was once the salt-mining namesake of a culture that spread from france to the black sea. back thet was so precious because it preserved meat, and hallstatt was, asts name means, the "place of salt." a steep funicular runs up the mountain to hallstatt's salt mine. it's one of many throughout the region that offer tours. at the mine, visitors slip into overalls, meet their guide, and hike into the mountain while this particular tunnel dates only from 1719, hallstatt's mine claims to be the oldest in the rld. in the tour, you'll learn the story of salt. archaeologists claim that, since 7000 b.c., people have come here to get salt. a briny spring sprung here, attracting bronze-age people.
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later, miners dug tunnels to extract the salty rock. they dissolved it into a brine, which flowed through miles of pipes, the oldest hewn out of logs, to hallstatt and nearby towns, where the brine was, and still is, cooked only the salt remained. a highlight is riding minestyle from one floor down to the next, praying for no splinters. through the centuries, hallstatt was busy with the salt trade. since it had no road access, people came and went by boat. you'll still see the traditional fuhr boats, designed to carry heavy loads in shallow water. hered lenz makes the town's traditional boats from a 200ear-old design. the oar lock is still made of the gut of a bull.
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