Skip to main content

tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  December 26, 2018 3:00pm-4:00pm PST

3:00 pm
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> brangha good evening. i'm william brangham. judy woodruff is away. on the newshour tonight: president trump makes a surprise trip to iraq, his first visit with troops in a war zone. then, the dow jones soars overpo 1,00ts, its biggest daily gain in history, bouncing back from a christmas eve plunge. plus, 50 years since nasa's first flight to the moon. inside the landmark "apollo 8" mission. >> they took a picture of the earth rising over the horizon of the moon. it was the "earth rise" picture, and it was one of the first opportunities for us to see the earth as it really exists in the cosmos. >> brangham: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour.
3:01 pm
>> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that ts us. >> consumer cellular. >> financial services firm raymond james.po >> suping social entrepreneurs and their solutions to the world's most pressing problems--
3:02 pm
>> the lemelson foundation. committed to improving lives through invention, in the u.s. and developing countries. on the web at >> sed by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at ith the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbv station fromwers like you. thank you. >> brangham: president trump has trme and gone from iraq tonight, in a surprise firs to the country. the day-after-christmas visit me under cover of darkness. foreign affairs correspondent
3:03 pm
nick schifrin begins our coverage. >> schifrin: in western iraq, 6,000 miles from the political combat of washington, the commander in chief decred the u.s. combat against isis a >> they were dominant. not anymore. >> schifrin: the president and first lady spent three hours in ir, meeting with u.s. commanders, and posing for photos. these mostly special operations forces fight in iraq and syria, fended hisent trump decision to withdraw the troops currently based across the >> schifrin: there are 2,200 us. troops in syria, and president trump has faced ngtense criticism for orde their withdrawal. this trip allowed him to reiterate his plans, while also vowing to keep troops in iraq.
3:04 pm
>> standby, fire! ( explosion ) >> schifrin: about 5,200 u.s. service members are based in iraq. they give fire support, and train iraqi troops, as welas provide intelligence and aerial surveillance. while iraqi troops hunt isis fighters, the u.s. conducts air strikes, such as this one two weeks ago against an isicave. it's been more than a year since iraqi soldiers celebrated the government declaring victory against isis, but isis is stilable to launch as many a 75 attacks per month, according to one study, including this christmas day bombing. speaking to pentagon reporters two weeks ago, the u.s. commander in iraq id isis militants were isolated and not a strategic threat. >> isis itself really right now is-- is in austere contions. they're spending most of their time in-- in caves, underground, in-- in tunnels, in austere, tough desert terrain. >> schifrin: president trump has
3:05 pm
used that claim to follow through on campaign es to withdraw from war. today, even as he said troops in iraq would stay, he vowed to bring as many as>>e could home. rangham: nick will be back after the news summary, with a longer look at the s tnificance president's trip, and his broader now, tday's other top story: a wild surge on wall street. stocks roared back from a christmas eve beating, for their stst day in nearly ten years. the dow jones inal average gained more than 1,000 points for the first time ever, to close at 22,878. th nasdaq rose 361 points, and e s&p 500 was up 116. for somensight, i spoke with investment stratist hugh johnson a short time ago. hugh johnson, thank you very much for being here. i wonder if you could start off by telling you us what on earthi is on with this market? >> well, first of all, we've got some voatility, and the volatility, of course, we saw
3:06 pm
starting with the day before christmas on monday with a very sharp decline in the stock market and, of course, the recovery of 1,000 pthat we saw today. it's often just simply in sponse to some newthat might come out. news about the economy, news about the whether chairman powell, his job is secure in washington as chairman of the federal reserve, trade tensions with china. small newas, news tht's important, but doesn't seem to estify the big swings we seen in the stock market, but the news cause selling and computerized trading. today we get positive news turning into a big increase in the stock market largely driven by computerized trading t computerizading tends to iake small declines, turns them into bg declines, and advances, and creates a lot of volatility in the markets. >> seems like whate were
3:07 pm
talking about earlier last week, month, about what was driving the markown, cooling global economy, trade wars, those haven't changed. >> no. that's why we led to the conclusion that the declines before christmas ove changes in the fundamentals. so fundamentals haven't changed e lot. the outlook for tonomy and earnings is the same, trade tension tweens the u.s. and china haven't changed much. the same thing is true when we have a move to the upsidas we saw today. things have not changed. an important thing to keep in mind is that these small declines or even small advantus arned into large declines and large advances largely by the impact of computer trading on the markets. >> all right, hugh johnson, thank you so much. >> brangham: in the day's other news, president trump that the partial government
3:08 pm
shutdown that began saturday may not end anytime soon. ile in iraq, he said he would do "whatever it takes" to secure funding for a border wall. re than 800,000 federal workers are affected by the shutdown, and more than half of those are working without pay for now. at the white house, economic advisor kevin hassett said most are likely to receiv-pay later, and he played down the overall effects. >> in the end, it's no's really just a short-term problem, not a long-term problem for government workers. about two-thirds of the national parks are still open, and so the t nds of things, the services that people get e government aren't really affected very much. >> brangham: hassett also said the jobs of federal reserve chair jerome powell and treasury esecretary steve mnuchin safe. the president has repeatedly criticized powell, and mnuchin has taken fire for his comments this weekend that unsettled the stock market. in afghanistan, the election commission has postponed the presidential election that was set for april. officials gave no new date.
3:09 pm
they said they need to fix technical problems that marred voting for parliament last october. the delay also comes as attacks from militant groups continue. also today, congo delayed elections in three cities where a deadly ebola outbreak is centered. the cities are considered opposition strongholds, and the delay will affect some one million will now wait until march to cast ballots. the rest of the country votes on sunday. indonesia today raised the confirmed death toll from saturday night's tsunami to 430. and, the government urged people to stay away from the coastlines thatear an erupting volcano. that volcano is believed to have triggered the tsunami. meanwhile, survivors worked to clean up, while keeping a wary eye on the sea. >> ( translated ): i'm really afraidf a tsunami happens again, so i decided to take refuge in a safer district. i alys feel afraid every tim water rises, and if it rains, it will flood too. that is why we are going to be in shelters with all the nehbors. >> brangham: today is also the
3:10 pm
14-year anniversary of the catastrophic tsunami that struck off indonesia's sumatra island. it killed nearly 230,000 people in a dozen countries more than half of them in indonesia. japan says it will quit the international whaling commission and resume commercial whale hunting for the first time in 30 years. japanese officials say whale stocks have recovered sufficiently-- something wildlife groups dispute. the new hunts will be limited to pan's territorial waters, and will not extend to the antarctic. and, back in this country, supreme court justice ruth bader ginsburg has been released from a new york hospital after cancer surgery last friday. doctors removed two malignant growths from her left lung on friday. a court statement today said the 85-year-old justice was discharged on christmas day and is now recuperating at home. still to come on the newshour: more on the president's unannounced visit to iraq. the first full business day of s the
3:11 pm
another migrt child dies while in u.s. custe.y. and much m >> brangham: president trump's short visit toraq was not announced until shortly before he departed washington on christmas night. now, 15 years afr the u.s.-led invasion, what are iraq's security and political alities? nick schifrin returns with that. >> schifrin: thanks, william. we'll discuss at question with two people: laith kubba, an advisor to the iraqi prime minister, and a former senior director at the national endowment for democracy. he joins us from tampa. and, our special corresponde jane ferguson, who just returned from iraq for a series we're been airing over the last week, and joins us from her base in beirut. thank you very much you both for being here. president trump went all the way to iraq and did not meet any iraqi officials, and there's a
3:12 pm
statement out from the iraqist prime mi's office tonight that says "differences in points of view over tearrangements prevented the two from meeting face to face." what differences? >> well, i expect -- im from a distance, but i expect optics matter a lot offi think the president, of course, ha to appeal to his power base here at home, and he needs to be seen with the american flag, american et cetera. and i think, from an iraqi point of view persptive, this is iraq, the iraqi troops, too, the iraqi forces fought i.s.i.s., they have a htory. i assume if he wants to come on a stite visthings would be different. he made a very short visit.e it would hen impossible to arrange all of this. also, in iraq, ere is an audience who are sensitive to the american presence, and i think this must have fatored into it. >> briefly a little more, not
3:13 pm
only sensitivity in iraq to the u.s. president's presence. there's a real conoversy over the u.s. role in iraq. we had another statement tonight that called the presint's visit a blatant violation of iraq sovereignty -- that's from litician who's considered l ose to iran. and there are revisions inside the iraqi governmentab t u.s. presence in iraq, is there not? >> and parliament, i think, definitelyat view has liste least one of two groups as being terrorist groups. they have about 15 members of parliament. of course, they will be vehiclel in their protest about the president trump's visit. so that is expected. iraq enjoys a lot of speaking free media and nt so paid voices out there, and there is real pressure that our groups within parliament are pushing for the u.s. to leve iraq, this against iraq's interests, but this is the reali that exists
3:14 pm
today in iraq, so you should expect a lot ovoice protesting that visit. >> so, jane ferguson, let's talk about security, and we talked about how air force one had to go in in the cover of darkness. president trump says has beeneated. there's no question i.s.i.s. has less territory, but is there a fear i.s.i.s.ould return a kind of insurgency? >> there is, nick. i.s.i.s. have been defeated in iraq as a stnding army that could basically invade and hold areas as big as mosul city and other places like fallujah. of course, famously, they have been pushed out of those cities, but that doesn't mean i.s.i.s. no longeexists in iraq. just on tuesday there was a car mbing claimed by a group on ohe northwest border near syria but inside iraq,.s.i.s. are still present there. what they've done is gone back to their insurgency roots, similar to how they were beore
3:15 pm
they were officially called i.s.i.s. or the islamic state,se rity operation against them cofnlt it's just a very different >> d iraqi forces have the ability, have th training from the u.s. forces and the wherewithal to take that fight to i.s.i.s. regardless to have the u.s. presence in the country? >> not regardless of the u.s. presence. the u.s. presence is important for the iraqi military, not just for what we know, we is, of course, intelligence, reconnaissance, air cover, but also for training. it's important to remember that the iraqi military took such heavy casualties. they never actually released the figures, but we know that the casualty rates in places like the battle for mosul were extremely high, so some of the most elite units of the iraqi military as well as units such as the fed teral police andhose
3:16 pm
that were involved in taking and holding the ground there lost a lot of people, so there is a recruitment drive on and there's a need for the irqi military to recuperate after such len and deadly battles. the united states military is an important part of that. >> laith kubba, quickly, is the u.s. an important part does the u.s. need to stay in iraq, as president trump reiterated they would today? >> well, think we've all learned the hard way that, if you leave iraq in chaos and weak, then the return of i.s.i.s. and other forms of radical movements is very likely. the only way to have a stable region an to cut i.s.i.s. at its core is by heping iraq regain its strength, and i think the u.s. support is critical. logistically in terms of training, rebuilding the army, ilding the police. so i do believe it is critical. >> jane,hauickly, yo been reporting this last trip that we
3:17 pm
have been airing a lack of water, what to do witcaptured foreign i.s.i.s. fighters. what are the challenges facing iraq iiraq?f >> the legacy this battle against iraq will go on potentially another generation, at least, because of all the things that you mentioned. the reconstruction effor are going to have to be enormous. even after all this time now, in places lke mosul, you will see people trying to build homes amongst the rubble, and the rubble goes on as far as the eye can see. the destruction is qite unbelievable. so there are many people who not only have lost their homes, you also have people who are displaced in refugee camps. those who are perhaps minorities like th yazidis who are afraid to return home andovnment services, people across iraq, are not up t power so tre challenges.
3:18 pm
>> jane ferguson, laith kubbau thank ry much to you both. >> thank you. >> brangham: the partial government shutdown has extended into day five, and it's the first full weekday that thsands of federal workers felt the impact of the furlough. the newshour's lisa sjardins has an update. thousand workers are still working, though it's not clear if or when they will be paid. negotiations are at a standstill. there were some good-faith discussions between senator chuck schumer and thep to senate republican richard shelby on the appropriations committee over the wee, ket there hasn't
3:19 pm
been real movement since then. ocratspublicans and dem observe the hill say they are waiting for the president to be clear on what exactly he will >> the prnt keeps signaling this will potentially be a very long shutdown. is there any chance it will break? >> not in the next few days. congress said they will get 24 hours notice before any deal and we o're told there will note votes tomorrow. the shutdown will last at leasts two more past tomorrow, think of this, these are the last days of this congress, so it's h say if a weekend deal is in the cards. that's sort of a long shot. then we get to next thursday, when nancy pelosi and democrats are slated to take over the house. that's why people think this could be a longer showdown, the idea that once democrats take over the house, we will have a few days of different jockeying and going into the second week of january, possibly. >> we can sit here and talk about the timing and jockeying that's going on on capitol hill,
3:20 pm
l-worldre are rea impacts. >> that's right, the folks we reached out and communicated with, federal workers, one woman's husband works for customs and border protection and she said that she is nowet worried r or not he will be paid. that's a regular theme. usually, federal workee paid after shutdowns, but there is a lot of concern ove president trump and whether that pay will come through and, of course, contractors, william, some of them, depending on the contra, will not be paid after this shutdown isve or. >> lisa, thank you so much. you're welcome. >> rangham: u.s. coast guard edical personnel will now deployed to the mexican border to help screen immigrants,ur homeland sy secretary kirsjen nielsen announced today. r-e stepped-up measures come after an eight-yd
3:21 pm
guatemalan boy died in borderhr patrol custodytmas eve, the second child to is month in immigration custody. the secretary also asked the centers for sease control to investigate the source of what she characterized as an uptick in sick children crossing the bord illegally. yamiche alcindor has more. >> alcindor: for more on this case and how to better meet the potential medical needs of immigrant children being held in u.s. custody, i am joined by dr. colleen kraft. she is the president of the american academy of pediatrics. earlier toy, she spoke by phone with officials from u.s. customs and border protection about these concerns. dr. kraft, thank you so much for joining me. we are still waiting to learnde more about thth of 8-year-old felipe gomez, but from what you've heard, what kind of questions has his death raised inaerms of the wy his case was handled by the system? >> i think the greatest question is what is the level of pediatric care andti exp around the care of these children in these facilities?
3:22 pm
we don't know wt kind of screenings, who saw him, when the decision was made to take him to the hospital or send hi home, and we continue to have questions about thi >> let me talk to you about the way that the u.s. customs a border protection is handling this. they say they will have secondary checks on all children within their custody and partnering with your organization. can you tell me more about the checks and what they're going to get experts to deal with tese children? >> i can't tell you specifically what their checks look like now. what i can tell you, though, is that the medical needs of children are very diferent than the medical needs of adults. a child who is severely ill may just have very sutle changes from a child who is mildly ill increased heart rate, respiratory rate, wht than differentiate a child who is very ill from mildly ill.
3:23 pm
you need specific pediatric agpertise to be able to know the difference and mthese children correctly. >> what did the agency tell you abe secondary checks and their partnership with your organization? >> when i spoke with commissioner earlier today, he is very interested in improving the care of the children in cvp custody, and the american academy of pediatrics hasto reached outhe department of homeland security to tell them that we're really interested in thmonitoring, in the training of personnel, in working with them to ensure that these children are managed medically correctly and that they have optimal health. >> you were talking about the contissioner. i o play for you what he told cbs earlier today. >> our stations are not built for that group that's crssing today. they were built 30, 40 years ago, for single adult males, and we need a different approach. we need help from congress. we need to budget for medical
3:24 pm
care and mental health care, for children in facilities. >> dr. kraft, ofat do you make what he's saying there and what do you think needs to change to improve the facilities for these kids? >> his words really resonat with what the american academy of pediatrics has published in oupolicy on detention f immigrant children. ch know these facilities are not good for ldren. they're cold, they have lights on 24-e7, they have opn toilets. there are places where children can get sick and get sicker. so we agree that something needs to change and be done to monitor and teach and look at the care for the children in these facilities. >> before felipe died, 7-year-old jacqueline ca mckeon died. what's happening with children in these facilities with deaths so close together? >> we don't know what's happening here. when it comes to the medical care of children, if you're not
3:25 pm
trained pediatric care, you don't know what you don't know. these children are getting sick, and the personnel, who mav y caring, aren't realizing how sick these children, are so they're going on to die. >> lastly, dr. kraft, can you abouto me a little bit what you think overall is going to happen now that you've seen these changes kind of going int effect? >> we think the outreach from the commissioner is very good initial nel s. the de in the details, though, so we need to be able to partner and have unfettered access to these facilities. we need to bring in the pediatric training, we need to bring in the pediatric monitoring, d we need to make sure that children in our custody are being cred for s that their health is optimized and their health is not put at risk. >> dr. colleen kraft, thank you so much. >> thank you.
3:26 pm
>> brangham: now to one of the more difficult stories that resonated throughout this past year. the catholic church-- along with its larger community around the world-- has been rocked by the churchs' long history of sexual abuse. this year, the tragic revelations kept coming, and they exposed even more just how long many dioceses covered up abuse. in this very frank conversation, judy explores what the cover-ups have meant for survivors, and for the faithful at large.t, he begins with some background. >> woodruff: the assaults go back decades. evt this year has seen a tidal wave of shockingations about alleged abuse, misconduct or even assault that happened in dioceses around the country. it was a subject of the pope's annuristmas message when he said that predator priests who
3:27 pm
have raped or molested children should turn theelves in "to human justice." t sometime dioceses have finally and reluctantly released names. in other cases, they are still not cooperative. and, some of the highest leaders of the church has resigned or been removed. >> i take this step for the survivors. >> woodruff: the country was stunned this summer when an explosive grand jury report in pennsylvania shed light on the abuse of more than 1,000 people. >> it was sexual abuse. committed by grown men against. childr
3:28 pm
they protected themselves/ >> woodruff: hundreds of priests have been named in more than 35 dioceses-- be it chicago, atlanta, buffalo or las cruces, new mexico. it's a painful time, but for some of the survivors, a cathartic period as well. we start our conversat tn tonight wi people who were themselves childhood victims of sexual abuse at the hands of priests. john carr was abused during his teen years at a catholic r minary high school. today, he is direc the initiative on catholic social thought and public life at georgetown university. becky ianni is a member of the board of directors of "survivors network of those abused by priests."wa shsexually violated by a priest from the age of eight until she was 12-- aemory she repressed for more than 30 years. and susan reynolds of the
3:29 pm
candler school of theology at emory university. lst august, she wrote a letter calling for the resignation of all u.s. bishops in the aftermath of the revelations about pennsylvania. welcome, all three of you. thank you for being here. i want to start with the two of you. yohn carr, you were living in rural minnesotawere a teenager. what happened to you? >> i went to high school in rural minnesota, 14 years old, got a great education and a strong spiritual foremeetings, but i experienced sexual abuse. i had three priests, two priests and a brother, who pursued me, i guess the phrase is "groomed" me, and touched me, hugged me, whereas i did not experience the horrors in the pennsylvania grand jury report, but there was something wrong, something evil, something lousy about that. and frankly, i just packed it away for a long time.
3:30 pm
>> woodruff: becky ianni, you were in aleixandria,ginia, washington, d.c. suburbs, and you were very young, eight years old when it started. >> yes, a new ordained priest came to our parish and st of adopted our family, and he would say mass in our house, and he would bever to our house for dinner three or four times. he went on vacation with us, and i loved him, and i wanted his attention, and he took thata adoration and ed abusing me around the age of eight, and went on for probably three or y foars. he would literally abuse me in the basement of our house and th go up and hae dinner with my parents. every sunday, i had toi see hs hands that violated me holding the chalice at mass. >> woodruff: we said it wase manys before you were able to talk about it, but, in the mean time, you kept this inside you. >> yes, i kept it inside, and i didn't evcognize it for myself, but it affected my entire life. i was afraidys, i lost all
3:31 pm
my self-confidence, i really felt that i was a dirty person and i always was constantly trying to makup for the fact that i was unloveable. >> woodruff: john carr, how did you keep it inside you and keep going? >> well, ironically, i went to work for te church. i worked for the diocese of minnesa, for the archdiocese of washington, for the bishops conference and dealt with some of these issues. i worked with cardinal mccarrick. i just pushed it away, and thenn i myself talking about what was wrong here, and i kept hearing myself say silence and secrecy are part of it, and i had to realize my sect, my silence was a big part of it. and, so, i hadot told my parents, who passed, but talked to my wife, my kids, key friends, and i sat down and ote what happened to me, when, where, who, and i sent it to the
3:32 pm
provincial, the leader of the community of the seminary, and there was something -- >> woodruff: in minnesota. in minnesowa. and thersomething that said, if i had spoken up, you know, maybe i could have protected others. i was 15, 16 years old, and then i saw a list, and the ieople iould have reported this to were themselves on the for abusers, so i don't think that would have worked. >> woodruff: what made you ckfinally comfortable, ianni, with talking about it? >> i think what happened is i came across a picture of myself with my perpetrator at the age of 48 and everything came flooding back and i went into a deep depression, ad i felt life was hopeless, i wanted to comit suicide, i just didn't want to be here anymore. so i wento the church for help, pful.hey were not hel so i felt even more into deession. i contacted someone who was also abused by my prpetrator and
3:33 pm
they suggested i called snap, survivors network ofhose abused by priests, and i did and went to a pouple of suport groups, and list upping to other people saying the same things i was feeling made me feel less waolated and s able to share my story.o secrecy isonous, so to talk about it helped me to start to heal. >> woodruff: susan reynolds, you heard so many of these stories, you teach about the catholic faith, you teach theology, and,et, heari this, does it help you understand how the people in the church, the lay people in the church are now addressing this h horribtory? >> i think it's hard to understate the magnitude of the effect that this crisis has hadp ople in the pews. people feel betrayed,hey feel unheard, they feel insulted,
3:34 pm
frankly. one rding i hea from people quite a lot is they feel that the onus is constantly placed on them to forgive, to move on, to give the church one more chance. it's very, very paivenful. but lso been amazed by the energy that lay people have exhibited in wanting to take on this crisis, and my ownparish in atlanta, for example, lay people have formed a coa and partnered with other p parishes in the ara to try to address this crisis of leadership from the ground up to think about how could we educatd one another participate in leadership structures within our own parish and be the change, in a sense, that we want to see in the church. >> woodruff: john carr, how to o lay peohple in therch? what kind of reaction are you getting, have you gotten from them? >> well, after tose yers at the bishops conference, i went to georgetown, and we havead three sessions, one with young leaders in washington, one for the whole community, and one inu
3:35 pm
chapel, and they were incredibly intense. and what we foun was anguish, anger and a desire to do something, put also a sense of solidarity. the night that ialked about my own experience, there were four other people on that panel who had been abused, and ten people lined up to ask questions. four of those talked about their own experience. since i talked about my experience, gotten e-mails and calls from people coming. up in this very studio, somebody came up and said thank you for speaking out. >> when you were here talking about it? >> yth. so i thinre is a sense of solidarity. what we need is action. people want to tk about healing. we need reform and renewal before we get to healing, and it'sot just the crimes, it's the culture that permitted ths. >> you're nodding, susan reynolds. what does that mean, reforming
3:36 pm
and reforming the culture? >> i think it all comes don to clericalism. the way in which pritsnd bishops, those who are ordained have been regarded in some way as super hume bin the rest of the faithful, this is a culture that needs to end and the only dway it s is if lay people are given an authentic voice within e structure of the church. people feel unheard, they feel in the dark. they don'tnow what if anything the church is doing to begin to address these horrific crimes. it's time in some way for the church to throw open the ndows of the authority structure and let in the voices of lay people. >> woodruff: becky ianni, just listening to all this, what is your own - experienwhat has your own experience meant for your relationship with the church? >> well, i went to the church and i wanted three things. i wanted them to telle mit wasn't my fault, i wanted them to tell mei wasn't going to hell for telling on a priest because that's what my
3:37 pm
perpetrator told me, and i wanted them to tell me they believed me and were sorry, and i didn't get an of those things. it took me 12 months to go ofin fron the review board and i felt abandoned, so i gave up the church because it hurt too much. so not only dud i give up the church but i gave up god. so i had a huge gap because i felt like god abandoned me and that made me feel re alone than ever. >> woodruff: and john carr is someone who had worked with the church and people at the highest levels in the church. how can people who've trusted this institution trust it? w l, it's somebody who -- as tmebody who's worked for the church, the firsng i want to say is sorry. >> thank you. what happened to you was teible and the way you were treated was wrong. my experience recently was a little different.e i talked to provincial. he did apologize. he didocknowledge there was
3:38 pm
suggestion that this was my fault. but that's noug eno i think what we need to do is to take on this cuure. somebody asked me, is this about theology, is this about morality, is this about eclesiology? no, this is about how we are. thpeople whobused their power, committed these crimes and abused this culture. pope francis is a cleric, and he has been slow in some ways to act on this, but he has identified clericalism as a ndamental problem, and i think there will be a big meeting in february where they bring everyone together and a moral test, a fundamental measure of the catholic community of faith is whether wc owledge that this is a global problem and that our experience is not our fault, 's not isolated, it is a moral test how the church sponds, and i think pope francis, when he listens to victims, peopl
3:39 pm
like us, he responds. and, so, my hope is we're moving from a period where we protect the institution to listening to the people who have experienced this and thieeir fam there is a lack of eve empathy. they don't understand the anguish. >> woodruff: ads, susan reynafter all these stories in parish after parish, diocese after diocese, if the message hasn't gotten across by now, what's going to get the message across? >> i think that's a great question, and the anguish becky describes i think encapsulates this perfectly. the lack of compaion that we've heard, in some ways, from those the highest level of the church seems like such a bessense from the horrors of the crimes that haveen exposed. and this is exactly what is we no believe victims, and dneeded. the only way we can do that is to begin, as john said, to dissolve this culture of
3:40 pm
clericalism, which has promoted this self-protectionism. >> woodruff: becky, coming back to you and th the painful experience you have been through, what do you and oth survivors need now? what do you want? er i think what we want is what happened to us nto happen to another child. so we need action. ying we'reed of sa going to do a healing mass. healing mass might be good for those that go to ch but how many survivors who were abused in a church is a healing mass going toelp? we really need them to take action. quite frankly, i've sort gi n up on the church in many ways. i've not given up on the people in the pews, but i've given up on the bishops and the prests making changes. it's been too many. i can't put my heart outhere. it's been dashed too many times. i'm going to rely on secular tosociety and ey generals doing their jobs, i'm going to fight for better laws to prochtt dren because for me my main goal is protecting children.
3:41 pm
>> woodruff: jrihn, hea that? >> i suspect where becky is coming from, i hope for morehe fromchurch, frankly. this is a time when they need ty step up, th need to prtect the vulnerable, they need to be accountable. it's not that hard. they expect us to keep our vows, they should keep thir vow i will to anything to protect my chilen, they should do everything to protect our children. and i'm accountable for my actions. they ought to be accountable for theirs. >> woodruff: well, it is such a painful subject. so important to look at it directly and think about what it means for each one of you and for the catholic church overall. susan reynolds, john carr, becky ianni, thank you. >> thank you, judy. . >> brangham: most americans know
3:42 pm
well that indelible, incredible moment of the first moon landing. but, before neil armstrong and buzz aldrin touched down on the sa's "apollo 8" mission was a crucial stepping-stone for america and its space program.n jeffrey brrks the 50th anniversary of that mission, this week's "science on the" leading edgment. >> brown: it was a year of tragedy that saw the assassinations of ma ain luther kid bobbie kennedy -- bobby kennedy, civil rights protests and riots, growing anger around tne vie war. but as 1968 came to al cose, threenau, frank borman, bill anders and jim lovell were the first to leave earth's gravitational poll, orbit the moon and return and set the stage for a moon lanng seven months later. it was bold, risky and improvised in a matter of months. it was told in a story on nova
3:43 pm
and tonight sets out the tensions and cold war pressures behind the mission. >> we were training in california, the three of us, bill, myself and frank, when suenly frank got called back to huston. >> he said, frank, i want you back right away. i have discuss something with you. >> pete slayton is in charge of thenauts. >> i said, well, let's discuss it now. i'm busy. i'll do it over the phone. and reminded me who's boss. things wereentle and politically correct in those days. we weren't candy asses, okay. so i went back to houston. he said close the dor. i realized something was big.>> c.i.a. spy satellite has photographed an enormous soviet rocket on a launch pad. it can meaen only on thing. >> the c.i.a. had information
3:44 pm
that the soviets were planning on sending a man around the moon in the year of 1968. >> brown: m more on theission and its significance, we turned to howard mccurdy of americaniv sity, an expert on space policy, and author of "space and the american imagination." welcome. >> thank you. >> brown: born of cold-war pressures and a rush to move quickly. >> this is the crinucial battl the cold war which will be fought on technological grounds, fand the battom the soviets' perspective is can they get to the moon b states gets to the moon, and they have two programs underway, one to circle the moon and the other to land on the moo. they are very much in the competition that fall before the christmas flight. >> but the u.s. decision is to rush forward quickly. at kind of risks did that entail. >> the apollo fire two years elderrier that took the lives of three astronauts comyplet scrambled the flight schedule to
3:45 pm
get the americans to the moon, and the two largest risks were ere saturn five rocket had ne been flown with astronauts and the previous test flight which was unm aned wasailu. so they were flying a faiveled cle for the first time with astronauts on board, not knowing whether or not tey would be able to solve the technical problems. >> why was this mission, this next step so important in terms of luranar exploon? what was it meant to do? >> what it was meant to do essentially is to test our ability in the s so soyus crafte rings and apollo for the americans to leave gravity and circle the moon and return safely to earth.n >> and never de before. never. and improvised. done on the back side of the moon out of contact with the earth, we couldn't tell them if the burn w ssuccessful.
3:46 pm
if it was not, they could circle the moon eternally or come bac around and miss the earth. >> stake us to the drama of that particular moment. there was a successful launch. >> a successful launch. reaches the and ontmas eve, as our present to the world, the three astronauts read from the book of ionesis, the cre story. >> "in the beginning god created e heaven and the earth. and the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon nde face of the deep, the spirit of god moved upon the face of theters. and god said, let there be ligh" >> brown: and looking down at the moon which is completely barren and then back y the earth, tok a picture of the earth rising over theo horizon of the moon. it was the earthrise picture, and itas one of the first opportunities for us to see the
3:47 pm
earth as it reay exists in the cosmos, a fragile blue and white marble. >> that became iconic. yes, along with the one from apoly17 which is the whole earth and shows the cradle ofza civion in africa. >> brown: history sort ofth swallowe apollo 8 mission when it was followed so quickly by the moon landing >> but it was crucial because et union could have beat us if they had not had problems with the parachute droves and parachutes on the soyuz craft with annmanned vehicle. in fact, in the mission carried out in september prior to te apollo 8 mission, the sovietpu uniotape recorders on the soyuz craft so our intelligence community thought they were hearing the voipses of cosmonauts and our thought was temporarily they beat us to the moon and they felt it would be aenough to cancel outny advantage we might have in ferch i finishing the saturn 5 rocket
3:48 pm
and getting to the surface of the moon. >> brdyn: howard mcc thank you very much. >> thank you. >> brangha and jeffrey brown has one more for us tonight. here's our latest "now read this" book club conversation, that he recorded before the holiday. attaining and questioning the american dream. our december book club pick is a meme boyar woir in which aoung man makes his way through many different worlds, will blighted neighborhoods, evangelical church and college football to the highest leels of academia wall street and washington. it's calls "ere will be no miracles here." author casey gerald joins us from los angeles to answer some of the questions our readers sent in. casey, thanks for joining us for our book club. >> thank you for havg . let's go to the first question. >> you have awoerfully rich
3:49 pm
perspective on your personal journey. my question olates to how yu gained this perspective. was it through the writing process itself? and what would be icyour advto someone who would like to achieve the same kind of perspective his orer own personal journey? .>> it's a great questi i think of what tony morrison told her students,he said don't write what you know bew use you don't knoything. i think it's an invitation to peonal narrative. so much of the stuff in this look i did not know before i began. for example, my mother dffe from mental illness and disappeared when i was 13, but before i wrote the book i thought she disappeared when i was 12. it was traumatic to think themo important thing that happened to me i didn't understand or know the full details. but leaning into tha took a great deal of bourbon and
3:50 pm
revision and time, sort of sifting through the particles of memory and trying to bring t languathat. so the biggest advice i have, is one, don't push yourself wihout some type of support system for dealing with traumatic memoexes anriences, i would not advise that. ieved had learned and bel that if you face the things you've been through, you can begin to heal from them and that has for sure been the case with me in this book. >> brown: i meed the term "american dream" which you are certainly exploattaining and questioning, so much of the book is sort of about not only who we are bt howe're seen. our next question goes to that.g >> you were to shed the mantel of being the s of gerald or the next barack obama but recoiled from being a misleading symbol of the american treatment if p you control a symbol like caseye geraldesented, what would you have him represent? >> i'd write in the book themb
3:51 pm
is the world's loneliest job, and after that passage, which those of you who have read the book might have seen, in my own handwriting, in the book, i write i have something to tell you while there's still time. so a lot of people show up to memoir expecting for somebody to give them all the answers. what i actually am trying to do is to get you to trast the smll me, the human it seems to me, not to see me as a symbol but as a human being, and i think that actually is something we all deserve to be, not things but people. >> brown: explain what you mean by the symbol, that you were seen as, and that you th d to question. >> yeah. well, it goes to a poster that was made when i was recruited at 18 to go off and play football at yale from my high school in oakcliff, texas. so when i went off to yale,ep dallas ident school district put posters in all the
3:52 pm
schools thkt said loo who's going to yale. he did it, you can can, too. and it took me a long time tose the ways i was used as this amsymbol of the american ds you might call it. much of the book is to show that this american dream deal is a fantasy, it's a myth, it's a distraction. you take a poor black queer did, damn near orphaned from oakcliff, texas, send him towr harvard anath and washington, put him on the cover of a magazine, whatever, and it distracts us from the fact that there's a conveyor belt leading most young people from neighborhoods like mine to nowhere while picking off a few like me. when i say this is an intervention, it is to try to get us not so much to believe in dreams and miracles but to really focus on th american reality and to say that one casey gerald does not justify the suffering of millions of children, and we can build a
3:53 pm
country or sciety, and we can build lives that are more humane, th are nobler, that are kinder and gentler that don't leave 13 million children without food to eat or one in 30 children without a place to live. that at base is what i'm tryingh to do his book. i obviously do very personal work but tied to this lager political project we need to be a part of. uestionn: one more goes to that. >> you you write that the american dream is faise and thero savior coming. so where do we go from her'se? whext for you and what's next for us? >> brown: well, there's a big question, huh? a >> there we goot of big questions. i don't write that i know ofh thatre's no savior coming, so anything's possible, i suppose. but people ask me al time where do we go from here, and mn quesn return is where is heg.? there's n.s. in the world that can lead you to a
3:54 pm
destination withou current location. so a lot of people read this book and say when i read it i felt that i was reading a history of america, no memoir. and i think if i've done my job well, what i've done wih this book is to help us understand how we got here and wrehee are, and my hope is that we go to a placehat is whole, that is free, rather than a place th trying to make america great again, i think we ought to try to mar lives and country whole and free for the first time. >> brown: the book is "there ll be no miracles here," casey gerary. thank you uch for joining us. >> thank you very much. >> brown: and before we go, let me announce our pick to start off the new year with a twist, a doctor looks at matters of the heart, his own and all of ours, in a very new waymfro bodily plumbing to human love. it's called heart, a history. we'll have plenty of material
3:55 pm
about the book and author for you and heap you read along and join the discussion on our facebook page on the "now read this" book club, a partnership with the "new york times." >> brangham: and that's the newshour tor tonight. rsday, three survivors reflect on the "metoo" movement. i'm william brangham. join us again here tomorrow evening. for als of us at the wshour, thank you, and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> text night and day. >> catch it on replay. >> burning some fat.ha ng the latest viral cat! >> you can do the things you like to do with a wireless plan designed for you. with talk, text and data. consumer cellular.le arn more at >> kevin. >> kevin! >> kevin? >> advice for life. life well-planned. learn more at >> bnsf railway.
3:56 pm
>> and with the ongoing support these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public and by cutions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh
3:57 pm
3:58 pm
3:59 pm
4:00 pm
>> hello, everyone, and aslcome to "amanpour & co." during the chrisolidays, we're dipping into the archives and looking back at some of this year's highlights. here's what's coming up. the torrent of accusations against the catholic churchst eeps coming. now, for the first time, pope francis summons the world's bishops to meet on sexual abuse. and i speak with onef america's most powerful catholic leaders, cardinal timothy dolan of new york. then, as hurricane florence bears down on the carolina coast, puerto rico is still on its knees from last year's devastating storm. super chef josé andrés made itmi his ssion to save lives there, serving puerto ricans ang astonish3 million meals in two , from the nfl to mit -- our walter isan