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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  September 29, 2019 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday, september 29: the whistleblower fallout continues. in our signature segment: china's super rich and the growing wealth gap. and the power of music on the brain. next on "pbs newshour weekend." >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. sue and edgar wachenheim iii. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter, in memory rof george o'ne. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided
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by mutual of america, designing customized individual and groue re products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, a private corporation funded by the ameran people. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wt studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. as >> sreen: good evening and thanks for joining us. the impeachment inquiry into a whistleblower's charges that president trump pressured ukraine to investigate one of his democratic opponents wl be the subject of congressional hearings this week. this morning, ident trump's personal attory rudy giuliani said he would only cooperate with the house impeachment inquiry if his client agreed. >> i have to be guided by my client, frankly. i'm a lawyer. it's his privilege, not mine. if he decidethat he wants me to testify, of course i'll testify, even though i think adam schiff is an illegitimate
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chairman. he has already prejudged the case. >> sreenivasan: the chair of the house intelligence committee, presentative adam schiff, said he has not decided if he will call giuliani before the committee. but schiff said he does expect the house to get "unfilteredst ony" from the complaint "very soon."d the >> we are taking all the precautions we can to make s that we do so-- we allow that testimony to go forward in a wap thtects the whistleblower's identity. because as you can imagine with the president issuing threats like "we ought to trese people expose my wrongdoing as we used to treat traitors and spies," and wetrsed to execute tors and spies, you can imagine the security concerns here. >> sreenivasan: at the heart of the impeachment inquiry facing president ump is a report from a still-anonymous whistleblower. the president and mahis supporters are demanding a name and even threatening severe punishment. but what rights does a whistleblower have and how did the federal law that protectso
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those int out fraud ande abuse in government come to be? joining me now is john phillips, a founding partner at e law firm phillips and cohen and a rarmer ambassador to italy in the obama adminion. he helped author the modern-day eclse claims act, which pr government whistleblowers. joining us. what was the design here when you came up with this act, iffr you saud and abuse that you would have a safe way to report it? >> yes, i mean the cern and what leads to the enactment of this law, amendme, this law back in 1986 was the rampant fraud being cominmitted aga the government, in all areas where the government spends money. and so little of it ingof recovered. so senator grassley, republican from iowa was thep sonsor of this bill, i worked closely with him to encourage whistle-blowers, people on the insi of these companies, whether they are a defense contractor, a health- provider under me-- medicare or whatever. peudle who see and witness f against the government, which was rampant and common place
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because the odds of getting exposed was so small then, that if you come forward we'll protecou. and in this circumstance you will even potentially get compensation if it is successful at the end. and here we are 32 years later. it has been a sectacular success. whistle-blower complaintsgh represent 85% of all the recoveries the treasury gets every year. >> is there a distinction between whether you are whistle-blowing on say a defense versus somebody ineacco company intelligence community that is doing this inside the administration? >> well, that's why congress, 1998 passed this law, very specifically saying the steps that you must take in order to de vote this w-- invoke this law. and we will protect you if you do this. we wil protect your anonymity which is sometimes very hard to do. and we'll prtect you frm any retaliatory action. agaioinst y. >> but the department of justice
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william bar has said there's no there there, by reading whaare the notes from the phone call, he says this wasn't meriting any further investigation. >> i find that jusin reading now what is available to the public, reading tht transcrypt pretty prepos trus statement strks like sing what is back ck white. look at what transfire-- transpired. look at all the breadcrumbs leading up to that. this wasn't just the one phone call, it was a long process.ak clearly unde by the administration to get ukraine to participate in digging up dirt on his opponent d using the leverage of his office and taxpayer mney to basically extort that. >> what abouthe definition de hear sai versus primary witness, whether the whistle-blower has first hand knowledge or whetheis s a compilation of things. because he says about half a dozen people hadh givenis information to him. >> here say is a technical trm
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us in a court proceedings when you are trying to get a witness' testimony blocked cause he is not the original source of that information. they want to hear from the origin person to come in and say what can you tell us about your direct knowledge. but hear sai is often admitted in court, this is nothing of what is going on here. having represented in our firm ousands of whistle-blowers in the last 30 years thrk is noteaa sii'le person- speculating, not a single person stepping forward but he does reference six peoplin the intelligence apparatus when the white house-- within t white house within with whom he or she have consulteew clearly in my they were discussing this and he stepped forward to present their collective knowledge. i also am guessing that the inspector genal investigated this, pursuant to the law, did, probably, it's not en reported yet, interviewed those six people because he would have provided the names under
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confidentialallity basis. and those six people, presumably corroborated what he said. but the real test, inerms of whether this law works or not works is not just this case but will it encourage others o see similar misconduct, be willing to take the risk and step forward. >> all rht, john phillips who helped author the odern y false claims acts, thanks so much for joining us today. >> thank you. >> sreenivasan: for the latest on u.s. trade negotiations with china, visit for most of the last century, getting rich in china was against the rules. the communist government's planned economy saw to that. but things change in the 1980s when then leader deng xiaoping's rallying cry was "to get rich is glorious." today, president xi jinping's anti-corruption campaign has resulted in a crackdown on ostentatious displays of wealth. it comes with one clear message: a life of luxury must come send to communist party loyalty. all this achina produces billionaires faster than any
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country in the world.up withrt from the pulitzer center we continue our series, "china: power and prosperity" with newshour specialt correspondtrina yu reporting from beijing. >> reporter: their pacing is precise, their spacing seamless, and their pours are perfect. this is china's first butler academy and they're practicing the exact vintage pour. their six-week course includes centuries-old traditioud. but these ts aren't being trained to serve old wealth. their future employers will be members of china's new rich. in communist china, millionaires are being minted faster than anywhere else. the filling harbors with multi-million dollar yachts, watching laser light shows at $3,000 a night hotels and buying
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luxuries.xuri sara jane ho knows all about the possibilities and pressures of being wealthy in china. >> average price here is probably $1,000 u.s., not too expensive at all. beled china's "millennialold hac martha stewart," and founded the country's first finishing school. many of her students are second generation rich, born in the 80 s, and born into millions. >> in no other country than china have cou had such aou great of change in such a short amount of time.av and now theyso much money that the last thing they want to do is see their kidsrough any kind of hardship. for the kids, a lot of it is about individuality. they want to spend on something that other people don't have. >> reporter: sara jane is an expert on where to shop, what to we, and where to be seen. at an up-market italian restaurant in downtown shanghai,
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sara jane shares her michelin-srred meal with her social media followers. >> tastes so good. goes with rose wine. sea urchin taco. >> reporter: lunch costs about $400, that's the equivalent of a monthly middle-income salary.n >> wu make so much money in such a short amount of time, it actually places a lot of pressure on an individual. there's no old money in china because of historical reasons. a lot of people were very poor,l i mean everybody was very poor, up until the 90s.ep >> rter: accumulating wealth in communist china was once considered counter revolutionary. mao zedong came to power in 1949 vowing to eliminate class and abolish capitalism. affluent families lost their wealth and many lost their lived as mao pursuis utopian vision of communism. that vision recommed in the
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famine, and left aost 90% ofrom the population living in extreme poverty. that all changed in the 1980s, when leader deng xiaopingg loosened state control over china's economy and permitted private enterprise, reforms which would rn the country into the world's second largest yater, chinese cities have become shopping meccas catering to china'rapidly expanding middle-class, and upper class. chinese consumers make up a third of the $1.3 trillion globaluxury market. and luxury spending is expected to grow by over 10% this year. it's a trend tao liang has in the bag. the 26-year-old is known as "mr. eags," an entrepreneur a one of the country's top online influencers. he has millions of loyal fans who hang on his every recommendation.
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during an online campaign last year, his company sold half a million dollars worth of bags in just six minutes. >> definitely some chinese girlu bags because they want big brands, they want people to know they're rich, they want peoplew to key're tasteful. but nowadays, i think a lot of chinese women when they buy bags they really buy gs because they want to pursue happiness. >> reporter: international a bran working hard to contribute to the happiness and handbag collections of chinese consumers. buthey don't always get it right. last november, dolce and gabbana stoked fury after releasing thit advertising campaign in china. chinese social media users accused the brand of reinforcing racist stereotyp. consumer backlash resulted in doe and gabbana being bann
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from chinese online retailers. lastonth versace, givenchy a coach issued apologies after printing t-shirts describing hong kong and taiwan as separate from china.ll uts with foreign fashion labels have demonstrated the power of china's increasingly wealthy population. but being wealthy in china has its limi. when it comes to the chinese government, being too rich can be risky. chinese president xi jinping has launched an anti-corruption campaign and oversee investigations into the country's wealthiest and most powerful. more than 100,000 have been jailed for embezzlement andib y, others fired for throwing lavish partie indulging in expensive ostentatious wh is regularlyun denod on state media and primetime tv. the hit television show "father wherare we going?,
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cancelled because of its portral of spoiled second generation rich childr commentator and academic zhu dake says it's in the vernment's interest to reign in "crazy rich" behaor. government knows t richchinese people show off their wealth too much, it will deepen the impression of the cial polarization by ordinary people. the chingovernment requires rich people to be low-key, and poor people to be contented with their life. then the country would be. stab >> reporr: china's ultra-wealthy must closely align themselves with the government.. jack ma, a tech tycoon with an estimated $40 billion fortune, is a member of the communist party. >> i like-- i feel proud, for what presidenti said yesterday. ck reporter: movie star jaieepor chan routinely defends beijing, and attacks international critics. last month, the hong kong resident described pro-democracy
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protests in the city as "sad and depressing," and called himself a protector of the chinese fla >> ( translated ): you must firstly be on the same side as e government, so the government can feel they made you successful.of alhe successful people should stand on the same side with the government. if y do not support them, th will make you unsuccessful. >> reporter: the government has 2020, saying it's ed 83y by million rul poor out ofn poverty over t last six years. but according to the world bank, many more remain behd. 40% of theountry's population, 500 million people, contin to live on less than $5.50 a day. and while some strug put a roof over their head, others build roofs, for their dogs. zhou tiao spent half a million dollars on a pet paradise for his border coie
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sylar. complete with a training gym, a dog-themed party space, and an indoor doggie pool. zhao tianxiao grew his fortune selling pet products online. he showed us a wall decorated with photos ofis best friend who he credits with lifting him out of depression. >> ( translated ): it's like raising a child. have deep affection for my dog, i rarely take photos of myself. s wheone asks me, how shouldld i introduce you, i say "call me sylar'ntdad." he's irated into every part of my life. >> richest 1% own a third of the country's wealth. zhou says he's bombanline by critics who question his choice to splurge on a dog while millions must fight to survive. but thonly opinion he cares about is sylar' >> ( tred ): he
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ver cares about who you are or your social status. people think i'm some silver-spoon kid wasting my parent's money by giving my dog a life of luxury. that's not true. i've worked hard and experienced challenges. >> reporter: and as the gap between chins rich and poor continues to grow zhou refuses to apologize for his lifestyle. >> ( translated ): it's normal to be criticized, i don't care. part of the money you earn pays for the criticism you bear. my mind is at peace. >> reporter: in china, it seems there's very little money cat buy. for the pbs newshour, i'm katrina yu, in beijing. sreenivasan: have you ever wondered why you sometimes get a tingling feeling when you hear i certaie of music? we did. and, we thought we could ask a
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musician for the answer-- or we could ask a neuroscientist. someone who is both?hy not ask we found one in indre viskontas, who is a professor at the san francisco conservatory of music and the author of "how music can make you better." >> i'm indre i'm an opera sand a cognitive neuroscienti. ♪ ♪ so i'm really interested in how the brain chans with experience or with learning, especially when it comes to music. ♪ ♪ music can make us better in terms of healing our bodies, in terms of exercising better even rewiring our brains after an injury. ♪ ♪ so if i had to sum up the brain in one sentence and what it's really good , i would say it's really good at predicting the future. we are essentially pattern recognizing machines.
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♪ ♪ every great musician knows that a great performance involves building up tension to an eventual release. and that because that taps into our patrn recognition apparatus in the brain. is trying to figure out what's going to happen next. has a predictable pattern, maybe that we've heard before, butth either delays that releaseas of tension like barber's "adagio for strings."♪ ♪ me you know, thdy just weaves around the final climax over and over and over again. ♪ ♪ur or, where itises us. we think the melody is going to go in one direction and then it n a different direction. ♪ i see a little silhouetto of a man ♪ scaraouche, scaramouche will you do the fandango ♪ha >> "bohemianody" is a great ample where we have one expectation of a result and .en it changes ♪ galileo, galileo figaro magnifico ♪
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>> and it changes drastically. and that's one of the reasons people love that song. ♪ ♪ we see ts kind of build up of the expectation of reward happening in our reward system in the brain, with the neurotransmitter release and then when we actually get to the climax of the piece-- ♪ ♪ we see this relee of the pleasure chemical dopamine, for example, ie nucleus brain that is involved in liking something. ♪ ♪ so, ear worms are a term that we use for songs that get stuck in our heads. the technil scientific term is "stuck song syndrome" or "involuntary musical imagery." and essentially it happens often when we'reot kind of thinking about it. but if i tell you the name of ao coupsongs that often does it, like "who let the dogs o t ♪ who lethe dogs out? b or "bad romanclady gaga. rah rah, ah ha ha.
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♪ rah rah, ah ha you know, you've got it already probably in your head. or if you're a parent, " shark." ♪ baby shark doo doo doo doo doo ♪ my apologies. t these are songse are melodies that are really catchy. they're not too simple, but they're not too complicated ther. and often they don't have a clear ending-- or at least we don't remember how they end. what's more memorable is the actual melody, but not how it ds. so if you're trying to get the ear worm out of your ear, one strategy is to sing it in your head as vividly as possible until you get to the end. and even if you don't remember the end, make it up. ♪ ♪ so both musicians and music researchers know that we don't see the rhythm, we feel the beat. ♪ ♪ the parts of our brain that are engaged in beat processi are the same parts of our brain that are engaged in motor planning and motor actions, right. so we actually feel it within our bodies and in fact there are nch of our biological rhythms that in train to the
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rhythm of different beats. so, for example we can see this in our brain waves, we can see it in our heart rates, in our pulse, in our breathing. we tend to sync up with the beat, it actually does sort of trigger the parts of your brain that are involved in movement. ♪ ♪ listening to calm music when you are anxious can also lower your heart rate, deepen your breathing, because now all of a sudden your brain is tto sync up with the music and if the sic has a slower pulse, then that slows wn these oth autonomic parts of your nervous system. so that's why music can be very calming and in fact, it's to music before surgery andten actually need less sedative. and we can, you know, see leveln of the cortisol hormone that crease when people are listening to music so we know they're less stressed and we need, you know, fewer sedative drugs in those kinds of situations.
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>> thiss pbs newshour weekend, sunday. >> sreenivasan: legos-- the ubiquitous little plastic blocks that have entertained generations of children are not just for kids. this week, in the danish townda where the lego company is headquartered, fifteen grownups were honored for their lego creations. welcome to the world of "adult fans of lego." >> reporter: inside the lego house, itsf a monunt to the tiny bricks that built an empire, 15 "adult fans of lego" from around the world put their creations on display. >> there are thousands and thousands of lego fans in the world and it is incredible tos meet them and see their passioas the same pon that we have for the lego brick and what thee can do with th brick. >> sreenivasan: the company said it chose the builders who best challenged the pation of wh can be built from lego bricks >> this is very special. not only is it a beautifulut model, a bul construction
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of a face, but it has a fantastic and surprising mechanism inside it. so when you en the head up, itu reveals this fantaic creation. >> reporter: the canadian couple who built it call it "inside the mind of an artis" >> the fact that i can have an idea in my head of something t build and i can just go to my collection and like, a day later, or an hour later, a day later, a week later, i can realize what i was thinking, just using the pies i have. >> sreenivasan: from human b shapes, ldings, to a typewriter and even a coral reef, the adult lego f brought their sometimes fragile creations and carefully re-built them for display. working on it and ust likeeady a real coral reef. it's never done. it's always growing and changing. >> if my wife would let me i would make my house just like this. every room would be like this. but i am married, so i can't do that
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>> sreenivasan: newshour and the chlitzer center's special ten- part series, "a: power and prosperity" continues throughout the coming week and again next you ca all of the reports online at and to those who celebrate rosh hashanah, happy new ye that's all for this edition of" his pbs newshour weekend." i'm hari sreenivasan. thanks for watching. have a good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz.
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sue and edgar wachenheim iii. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter, in memory of george o'neil barbara hope zuckeerg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america, designing customized individual and group mthat's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by:pr and by the corporation for ic broadcasting, a priva corporation funded by the american people. tributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. be more. s.
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