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tv   BBC World News Outside Source  PBS  November 1, 2021 5:00pm-5:31pm PDT

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♪ ♪ narrator: funding for this presentation of this program is provided by... narrator: pediatric surgeon. volunteer. topiary artist. a raymond james financial advisor tailors advice to help you live your life. life well planned. woman: the rules of business are being reinvented with a more flexible workforce. by embracing innovation, by looking not only at current opportunities, but ahead to future ones. man: people who know, know bdo.
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narrator: funding was also provided by, the freeman foundation. by judy and peter blum kovler foundation; pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs. and by contributions to this pbs ation from viewers like you. thank you. announcer: and now, "bbc world news". ♪ >> hello, live from the cop26 summit on pbs and around the world. at the opening ceremony, boris johnson welcomed world leaders with a speech warning that younger generations will remember if they don't act now. >> if we fail, they will not forgive us. they will know that glasgow was the historic turning point when
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history failed to turn. >> it comes as scientists say extreme weather events are now the new normal. the secretary-general warned we are killing ourselves with carbon. >> enough of drilling and mining our way deeper get we are digging our own graves. >> along with the mornings was a significant commitment from one of the world's biggest polluters. >> by 2070, india will achieve the target of net zero emissions. >> president biden told the summit the fight against global warming is a moral imperative. the chinese and russian leaders are not attending. all the while, the campaigners gathered outside, awaiting alongside the wider world, to
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see if this summit can turn the course on climate. ♪ hello and good evening from glascow. a crucial day at the cop26 summit. 120 heads of state are here with the first day of negotiations and some important announcements today, that leaves from iian prime minister narendra modi. two targets to achieve carbon net neutrality by 2070, which some would says 30 years too late, but on the other hand, he pledged to have 50% of his country's energy generated by renewables by 2030 which is a more ambitious target than we have had. there have been some pretty punchy speeches from a number of leaders, particularly those in the southern hemisph and the small island states most affected.
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host prime minister johnson will not mind that. it is the techcal teams that will hammer out the details in the back rooms, but it is the leaders that must set the scale of the ambition. we begin with this report. [singing] >> welcome to glascow. thousands have made the trip from their countries. the journeys, nor the shivering arrival, straightforward. their hope is that the wait will be worth it. this fortnite could affect everyone's home. world's political leaders did not face the same political ordeal to sweep in, arriving on a united nations blue carpet to hear the prime minister's big moment on the main stage. prime minister johnson: humanity
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has long since run down the ock on climate change. it is one minute until midnight on that doomsday clock, and we need to act now. >> the leaders of some of the biggest polluters, china, russia, and turkey, have not shown. prime minister johnson: the anger and the impatience of the world will be uncontainable unless we make this cop26 in glascow the moment where we get real about private change. they will not forgive us. they will know that glascow was the historic turning point when history failed to turn. >> the platform also for those people whose life is at risk right now. >> the earth is speaking. she tells us that we have no more time. >> the u.k. is the host to a rainbow of nearly 200 countries, and wants them all to promised to cut their own carbon emissions, and the wealthier to
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cough up more toward the $100 billion pot to help poorer countries go green. what are the chances? our leaders giving us the urgency we need? >> you could not sit in the room and not feel the urgency. >> coming up to g20, i was optimistic. >> there is a real sense of purpose here, but all the leaders, president biden included, must be aware it will be a long fortnite. simply, not every leader is as enthusiastic as the west with wealthier populations. some of the mega economies are moving slowernd the u.k. uld like. the indian prime minister said he would balance those aemissions. but the mood in glascow is perhaps darkening toward those who are dragging their feet. >> in two generations time, they will be remembered for this
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fortnight. they could have been brilliant and everything else they hav done and they will be cursed if they don't get this right. >> y use the term "cursed." for someone in your position of authority -- >> it is consciously a strong word. people will speak of them in far stronger terms than we speak today, the politicians of the 30's, the politicians who ignored what was happening in nazi germany, because this will kill people all around the world for generations. we will have no means of ever hurting it. >> he later apologized for making the comparison to the nazi genocide. number 10 said there is no doubt about the seriousness of the climate challenge and have no doubt that every lever of british power is being pulled this week to push for an
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agreement. three generations of the royal family will visible in one way or another. the attention justified by what many people here see as an emergency. it is only day one, but the consequences of glascow's conversation will be felt far longer than that. >> we now have all five of the biggest emitters on net zero targets of varying descriptions. the eu, russia, russia, china, india. china, russia, india talking about the middle of 2060 and 2070, which is too late for some people. let's take a look at some of the speeches from the world leaders. first, we will hear from the united states. here is president joe biden. president biden: the science is clear, we only have a brief window before us to raise our
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ambitions and raise to meet the task that is rapidly narrowing. this is a decisive decade in which we have an opportunity to prove ourselves. we can keep the goal of eliminating global warming to just 1.5 degrees celsius within our reach if we come together. if we commit to doing our part of each of our nations with determination and ambition. >> also at cop26 is the prime minister of australia, scott morrison. he has also made a net zero pledge, but it's been criticized for a lack of detail. he says it will come down to technology. it will be met by those who are frankly largely not in this room. it will be our scientists, technologists, our engineers, industrialists, financiers that will actually chart the path to net zero. it is up to us as leaders of
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governments to let them in. technology will have the answers to a.d. carbonized economy, particularly over time- a d e-carbonized economy, particularly over time. >> we talked about the indian prime minister narendra modi, some bold targets from him. let's dig into that. >> firstly, india will increase its nonfossil energyapacity to 500 gigawatts by 2030. secondly, india will fulfill 50% of its energy requirements from renewable energy sources by 2030. thirdly, between now and 2030, india will reduce its total
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projected carbon in missions by one million tons. fourthly, by 2030, india will reduce the carbon intensity of its economy by 45%. and fifthly, by 2070, india will achieve the target of net zero emissions. >> 65% of india's electricity generated from coal, so there will need to be massive investment. let's speak to the world bank managing director of operations. can we talk about that pledge that the rent remotely made, 50% coming from renewables by 2030? that will require an ormous transition and in norma's amounts of money that will have to be underwritten by the world's biggest economies. >> this will be a big challenge.
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we at the bank did a calculation of what the coal exit would cost in asia alone. for the next 20 years, we are estimating between nine and $30 trillion. $10 trillion is china, so that leaves still $3 trillion for india, indonesia. it also means that in concrete terms, every single day for the next 20 years, you would need to shut off a coal-fired plant, but that is not happening. there are plans to build 300 more there. this is a huge challenge. it will require enormous resources that will need to come from the public sector, private sector, but also international community. >> boris johnson talked about that, we need to harness the enormous amounts of money in private finance. boris johnson today guaranteed a billion dollars of funding for
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green projects in india which they will underwrite. if every country comes forward with those kinds of pledges, does that encourage private business to come forward? >> i hope it will have a snowball effect. what we need to show is also doable, we need to have back about projects. -- backable projects. we need to have old coal-fired plants beginning to be phased out soon. this money will be important. we are partnering with u.k. on this with our money. we think everybody has to scale up, not only the countries, but international organizations like the world bank. what we want to do is scale up very significantly our financing. we expect that we will do about 25 billion dollars of climate financing every year for the next five years. hopefully together that triggers
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more private investment. >> some of the angest voices are from those of the small island states, and for good reason. when you look at the financing that has gone to small island states, it has gone down according to the oecd. how do you underwrite the risk of developing countries that are actually sinking under the waves? >> first of all, we have been scaling up very massively support for not only the pacific but also caribbean. some countries need concessional resources. we need to make sure that if they are hit by typhoons and hurricanes, we need to help them. for the poorest countries, we have a solution through our fund for the poorest. for the middle income countries, when they are hit, they have no support. we are making the case that we need to give them additional support, including debt relief,
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in times of stress. when it hits these islands, it is not a couple millionollars, it is often the equivalent of 10, 20, 30% of gdp. that becomes difficult to finance. >> i was talking to the baroness of scotland last night. her native dominica has been hit by hurricanes twice. they have spent an enormous amount of money recovering from what was supposed to be a once in a generation hurricane, and then they are hit again soon after. it is not considered a debt of climate change but ordinary debt. on top of that, the climate is changing. do you have to look at new ways of assessing economies, so that if it is tourism to dominica -- tourism will not be there. the balance of payments has to be reassessed according to what
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climate changeseeking in their countries. >> we put dominica on a grant basis because of the point you are making. when they are hit in dominica, it was the equivalent of 80% of gdp. then you need to have massive support. what i think we are also looking at is countries like barbados and the jamaica, they also need our support. that is much more difficult in terms of providing concessional support. that is the big challenge. today, also the prime minister of barbados made a strong point of this. we are supportive of that. they need that additional support. >> we wish you the best with your negotiations over the next two weeks. the money is needed. [laughter] let's go back to india's commitment to cut
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admissions. -- emissions. they have grown over 3 billion tons of co2 per year. that is existing climate targets. emissions will continue to rise over the next decade. india is on course to under shoot that target but it's emissions are still projected to rise to about 4 billion tons in 2030. it will be a big job going from there to net zero in four decades, to hit that 2070 target. let's talk to the environment correspondent for the world. good to have you on the program. can we talk out india and how realistic it is. the target that has been set for india today? >> you know, already the target for 2050, so many countries were
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criticizing. when you talk about 2070, that will earn more criticism. having said that, there are other targets that prime minister modi has announced. they look quite good on paper, but questions remain how they will be imented. because of the track record of solar panels, wind panels, renewables, that h increased from 40% to 50%, and that looks promising. but the question is how that emissions reduction will happen particularly when they are talking about using more coal. >> what about electric vehicles? the mantra from boris johnson, these cash cars, trees, that is very much his focus this week. where are we at in india with electric vehicles?
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>> electric vehicles are there in the programs but there are challenges. when we talk to experts, they say fine, you may have electric vehicles, but if the electricity that powers them, if that is applied by coal-fired plants, what is the point? after the pandemic, when they are trying to reboot their battered economy, india has said it would use its call resources and for the first time opened up to private companies. that is definitely a big question. will there be technology for this carbon storage? clean coal? >> do you think the pledges that have been made by india today are slightly overshadowed by the energy crisis all of these big countries are facing? >> you are right.
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that was definitely a major concern, not just in india, but elsewhere. officials have tried to reassure that they have enough storage. even when they were talking about that, they were talking mostly about coal. authorities were saying there was no power and factories would need to be shut down. they were saying we have stocks d we will revamp it. the energy crisis is definitely a thing. in yesterday's g20 statement, talking about energy security, they talked about the clean energy, they also say that w will be securing other energy, which means the use of fossil fuels. >> thank you very much for your analysis. the glascow summit is about doing much more than to turn promises into practice. we talk a lot about the target,
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1.5 degrees. why does it matter? our espondent outlines the significance of staying below 1.5. >> it was the last big international climate summit in paris in 2015 that produced a legally binding treaty with a clear goal, limit global warming in the century to well below two degrees and preferably 21.5 degrees celsius compared to preindustrial levels. when we talk about 1.5egrees of warming, we are talking about the increase in the average temperature across the whole planet. it doesn't sound like a lot, but some places have already seen much bigger increases. as the earth warms up, extreme weather ents are becoming more frequent. climate scientists were alarmed by how extreme some have been, such as the soaring temperatures in north america's heat dome in july and june of this year smashing records. the comparison to preindustrial
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record is also important. nearly all man-made global warming s been caused by our use of fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, which have power the industrial age. the transition to renewable energy is underway but it will be hard to meet the 1.5 target. many experts leave it may already be too late to do so. increasing global temperatures have reached about 1.1 or 1.2 degrees about preindustrial levels. if current trends continue, it is likely be passed 1.5 degrees sometime in the 20 30's. even after taking account the most recent pledges to cut carbon emissions further, we could be heading for 2.7 degrees of warming by the end of the century, with catastrophic quinces. >> -- consequences. >> a lot of leaders here will tell you that the focus should be 2030. at the moment, emissions are set to rise by about 60%, and we
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need -- 16%, and we need to do more. they are using the summit to press leaders on new commitments. let's start with the barbados prime minister. >> declined by 25% in 2019. failure to provide the critical finance and that of loss and damage is measured, my friends, in lives and livelihoods in our communities. this is immoral and it is unjust. >> it was a speech that got a round of applause where i was standing. ahead of the summit, the world's least developed countries, a group of 46 nations, issued this atement, saying reason global
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ambition and increasing climate finance is paramount to our survival. they want this crisis to be treated like a crisis. that has to change in glascow, they said. they want richer and developed countries to fulfill a pledge to provide $100 billion each year in finance to reduce emissions and adapt to climate change, agree to net zero targets and greenhouse gases before 2050, and acknowledge the loss and damage they have experienced, such as the effects of rising sea leve or fruit flooding -- frequent flooding. this is also impacting smaller nations. this is the president of antigua and argued. >> we are suffering the consequences of climate change. we see more frequent and ferocious storms. we have seen ocean acidification, destruction of coral reefs. even along the coastlines, we are losing some of our beaches.
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most of our economies are tourism based. if you lose the beaches, you lose the tourism. it is a significant threat for those on the front lines, those in the caribbean, pacific, indian oceans. that is why we push industrialized countries to reduce emissions. >> you can hear the frustration in his voice. that is because developing countries have historically contributed a small portion of the damaging emissions that drive climate change. currently, the richest 1% of the global population combined for more than twice of the emissions of the poorest. our science editor looks at one village and what it needs. >> in a village on the coast of bangladesh, people are using mud to try and hold back the sea. it is all they have got. the rising level of the ocean
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means that they are getting flooded more often. we saw the same villages struggling in the same way back in 2009. the people who have done least to cause climate change are suffering the most from it. if the forecast is right and the sea rises even more, maybe by a meter by the end of the century, how are these people going to cope? >> with life so precarious, this community has long been desperate for international help. that is why she wanted to share her story at the climate summit in copenhagen, 12 years ago. she told me she was pleased to be there and believed that world leaders would do something. they didn't. now, her life is tougher than ever. extreme weher is striking more often, and still very lile assistance. >> we have no idea what we can
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do. if people can help us, then something can change. we don't have the money to move to other places. i have nothing that i can give to my children. >> 30 million people in bangladesh are in danger of rising seas. it is an enormous challenge for the narrator: funding for this presentation of this program is provided by... narrator: financial services firm, raymond james. man: bdo. accountants and advisors. narrator: funding was also provided by, the freeman foundation. by judy and peter blum kovler foundation; pursuing solutions for america's neglected needs. and by contributions to this pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. ♪ ♪
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narrator: you're watching pbs.
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♪ ♪ narrator: funding for this presentation of this program is provided by... narrator: pediatric surgeon. volunteer. topiary artist. a raymond james financial advisor tailors advice to help you live your life. life well planned. woman: the rules of business are being reinvented with a more flexible workforce. by embracing innovation, by looking not only at current opportunities, but ahead to future ones. man: people who know, know bdo.

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