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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 28, 2022 6:00pm-7:00pm PDT

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judy: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the "newshour" tonight. economic slowdown -- the u.s. economy shrinks for the second straight quarter, prompting debate over whether the country has entered a recession. then. a new deal -- an agreement in the senate revives the president's legislative agenda with a bill to cut carbon emissions and subsidize health care. and. covid confusion -- an epidemiologist answers your questions about the virus as many parts of the country see a dramatic rise in infections. >> if you not have your booster for a while and you have not been recently infected, you don't have great protection. we really need to mask up right
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now especially during the surge. judy: all that and more on tonight's "pbs newshour." ♪ >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by -- >> fidelity dedicated advisors are here to help you create a wealth plan, a plan with tax sensitive investing strategies. planning focused on tomorrow while you focus on today. that is the planning effect from fidelity. >> the kendeda fund, committed to advancing restorative justice and meaningful work through investments in transformative leaders and ideas. more at carnegie corporation of new york, supporting innovations and
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the advancement of international peace and security at and with the ongoing support of these individuals and institutions. ♪ this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. judy: new data out today shows the u.s. economy shrank for the second straight quarter, stoking fears that the nation might be nearing, if not already in, a recession. the white house pushed back against that idea today, pointing to strong job growth in
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recent months. at the same time, democrats are lauding a senate deal announced late yesterday to address inflation while reducing the deficit, lowerinhealth care costs, raising corporate taxes and combating climate change. the agreement is a stunning development after over a year of negotiations that failed to win the support of west virginia senator joe manchin, stalling key parts of the president's agenda in the closely divided senate. in a speech today, president biden said the deal would strengthen the economy. >> the work of the government can be slow and frustrating and sometimes even infuriating. then the hard work of hours and days and months from people who refused to give up pays off. history is made. lives are changed. with this legislation, we are facing up to some of our biggest problems and we are taking a giant step forward as a nation. judy: we'll look more closely at
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the broader state of the economy in a moment. but first, geoff bennett has more on the democratic deal -- what it does and how it came to be. >> it took months of painstaking negotiations between senate majority leader chuck schumer and senator joe manchin to get to this deal. it's a compromise on what was the president's build back better agenda and is now, a $740 billion spending package that democrats are calling the inflation reduction act. here's what iwould do. it allows medicare to negotiate prescription drug prices and extends affordable care act subsidies that lower premium costs. those were set to expire at the end of the year. it provides $369 billion in climate and energy investments. it raises the corporate tax minimum to 15% for billion-dollar companies. and democrats say it will reduce the federal deficit by roughly $300 billion over the next decade. joining us to break down both the policy and the politics surrounding it -- our white house correspondent, laura
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barron-lopez. and on capitol hill -- joh bresnahan of punchbowl news. great to see you both. president biden is urging congressional democrats to pass this bill as quickly as possible. he says it is not perfect, but the medicare provision that would allow medicare to negotiate the cost of prescription drugs, to lower prescription drug prices, that has been long opposed by the pharmaceutical industry -- if this bill passes, that is hugely significant. >> it is big. it is also something president biden has been encouraging democrats to pursue as aggressively as possible since last summer. the white house has been arguing this would be a big lyrical benefit for the president and the democrats down ballot. a lot of the democrats invulnerable districts and in tough races have long said that even if they couldn't get this in reconciliation, they wanted to pursue this individually because of the fact that so many democratic pollsters argued this
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is a big winner with voters, particularly black and latino voters who supported an aarp poll last year. 80% of black voters, 70% of latino voters. if this passes, this is a big win for the white house. >> senator schumer says they intend to pursue capping the price of insulin. how did senator manchin get to yes? you had a long conversation with him yesterday. i ask the question because as folks will remember in december, he said he couldn't support the build back better act. a couple of weeks ago, he said he wasn't on board with the climate provisions because he thought the way the climate bill would impact record inflation. here is what he said today. >> there's no such thing as build back better. this is truly going to be around inflation reduction. i knew no matter what we do. if we could do some good now and have an energy policy that
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worked, and do all this too without raising taxes, truly not raising taxes and not adding to inflation and i'm going to walk away from that because i think it's going to harm me politically? then i'm the wrong person to be where i'm at. so i did this. this is a bill for the country. it's not a bill for democrats. >> so, what accounts for his reversal? >> you have to give schumer a lot of credit. he stuck with this. he caught a lot of grief for the way he has interacted with mansion. the two had a very good relationship when chuck schumer became the democratic leader a couple. -- joe manchin did not get along with harry reid. schumer was a big plus for him. you had the big moment in december when joe manchin walked away from build back better, that was a huge embarrassment for the president and schumer. you had a big moment early in this year when joe manchin
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refused to move on the filibuster. that was a big embarrassment again for schumer. again, it looked like a couple wes ago that these talks were going to break down. manchin kept saying to me and some other reporters, i'm not walking away from the table. chuck says i am, but i'm not. they kept talking. senator schumer said, on july 18, joe manchin reached out to him after announcing the deal had fallen apart and sai i want to keep talking. they were able to come up with a deal this week. >> this agreement marks the most substantial effort to tackle climate change by the federal government in recent history. reduce carbon emissions by roughly 40% by 2030. it is not quite would president biden set out to do, but is that close enough for this white house? >> this white house is saying this is the most historic climate change legislation that has been passed to date.
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yes, biden definitely supports this. president today highlighted the fact that it is almost there, it is 40%. 's initial goal was 50% reduction in carbon emissions. i was talking to the senator from hawaii and he said that he thinks that is really significant in that industry with that momentum can just eventually get there. part of this is a big thing the white house also wanted in terms of rebates for electric vehicles, new and use ones. it would incentivize, have tax credits for clean energy in low income communities for fighting pollution. essentially, the president, when he thought this deal was dead, as john just mentioned, was talking about doing executive actions, but right now those are probably put on ice because a lot of democrats think the president should not pursue more executive actions now because they don't want to disturb the negotiations on going now on the hill. they want to make sure that this
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bill passes. >> john, let's talk about the hurdles that remain. senator kyrsten sinema of arizona was dodging reporters as they tried to ask questions of her. you have a couple of members out with covid to include senator dick durbin. that will delay things. how was democratic senator leadership planning to tackle all of that? >> sinema is an issue. schumer says he thinks all 50 democrats will be on board. kyrsten sinema plays it very close to the vest. she doesn't say what she is going to do. she had not done that previously on build back better. she was concerned about tax increases. joe manchin thinks she will be there. he thinks she will support this. but she is concerned about it. on the covid issue, this is a serious issue. dick durbin came down positive for covid today. minor symptoms, but he will be out until next week.
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senator manchin was out this week. you had a couple democratic senators come back. there is another issue with senator patrick lahey, who fell and broke his hip and has had hip surgery, two hip surgeries. his office says he will be back. we see this coming to the floor in about a week. it has some procedural hurdles to get through. it has to get vetted for senate rules. it is very complicated. but we think it is going to come to the floor next week and it will take several days to process. a bunch of amendments get voted on. we are thinking possibly the senate can do it, if they have all 50 democrats, they could finish this next weekend. and then the house would have to come back and vote on it. it is probably gointo take two weeks, maybe three to get this done. but there are some hurdles remaining. mostly covid and kyrsten sinema.
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>> thank you both. judy? judy: thanks geoff. as we mentioned, a new report today indicates the u.s. economy is in a slowdown for certa -- and possibly aecession. this was the second straight quarter where the gross domestic product fell into negative territory, dropping by nearly 1%. economists often mark a recession by two straight quarters of negative growth. but the jobs market has remained strong during the first half of year, which muddies the picture. the president and his team are insisting this is not a recession -- at least not yet. but many americans have told pollsters they believe a recession is already under way. i'm joined from the white house by gene sperling, senior advisor to president biden, and the american rescue plan coordinator. welcome back to the newshour. as we are saying, it is not knowable now if the country is technically in a recession, but
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we know that growth is slowing. my question is does the president think now it is more important to continue this focus on fighting inflation or is it time to turn and focus more on this coming -- this existing slow, may be coming recession? >> this president's entire reason for being here and for what is -- energizes his economic policy is going to bat for working families. right now for working families, the number one issue is higher prices. that is partly because we have had so much job growth and so low unemployment, so no, his focus is very much on the things that we can do to lower prices and some of that is about things like the release of the strategic trillium reserve -- petroleum reserve that has
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helped us see gas prices go down by $.75. the legislation we can do. the holiday on gas taxes. as you saw being discussed with senator schumer and senator manchin, a provision that could lower the price of prescription drugs, health care premiums for 13 million people, energy costs on a number of different products. all of these are part of an agenda to invest in the country, create more jobs, but to understand the pinch and squeeze americans are feeling from higher prices and to make sure we are addressing that. judy: i want to ask you about that deal, but i heard what you just set about the president wants to focus right now on rising prices. but if you step back a moment, the american people are getting whipsawed. they are dealing with higher prices, but they are also looking at a situation where purchasing power has been cut into by these rising prices.
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we know wages, the increase in wages has slowed down. employment is stting to slow. so, people are looking at this and they are feeling the hurt in both directions. how do you know when is the right moment to think about focusing on a slowing economy? >> judy, a lot of what you are asking is really probably better suited for the chairman of the federal reserve. it is the federal reserve that will independently make assessments on when they feel they have raised interest rates enough to tame inflation. but i think what you have heard from them is consistent with our aspiration, which is that we want to make this transition from this red-hot economy we had in 2021 to a more stable growth, with more moderate prices, while still keeping the gains that we
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have had. listen, the reason why you heard chairman powell and you hear us saying that there is no way the last six months were a recession is that that six months created 2.7 million jobs. other than last year, in the history of our country, we have never before created 2.7 million jobs in six months. that type of job growth is certainly not consistent with a recession. what we are seeing is a little more resilience than some people have recognized and we are pointing that out. that is a fact so many people are working, there is less credit card delinquency, there is more household savings. j.p. morgan said recently that they are seeing actually consumers still spending 10% more than next year. everyone is talking about the r word, but one of the r words we are seeing so far is resilience. our hope is that because of the
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steps president biden has taken and the american rescue plan, we are better positioned than any country to make that transition to more stable growth with lower prices while still keeping much of the job gains and employment gains that we have had over the last 18 months. judy: it looks like it is a fine line to walk and i'm assuming you feel the same way. >> well, i think that again some of those decisions are for the federal reserve. i think what we are going to do is do everything we can to have the back of working families. today was a very good day. when you look at policy overall. because we are taking steps to lower prices. judy, how long have we heard administrations want to have medicare to be able to negotiate the price down of prescription drugs? how long has that been the major price issue for working families? we have a chance to get that done, a chance to lower energy prices, a chance to increase the supply of semi conductor errors
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-- semi conductors so we are much less vulnerable to foreign countries in the future. i think we are seeing in both of these a strong focus on creating incentives to innovate, locate, and create jobs the united states. whether it is the supply of semi conductors or the supply of clean energy production. judy: quickly, what do you say to republicans who are already looking at this deal and saying it will add to inflation? >> they need to look at the whole deal. the whole deal is anti-inflationary. we have had our disagreements with friends sometimes on inflation, including senator manchin and my friend larry summers, but you see from larry summers to elizabeth warren, everybody is united that this plan pays for itself and reduces the deficit by at lst $300 billion. so, it is anti-inflationary because on the whole it is reducing the deficit, but it is
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also doing things like saving $280 billion to consumers and the medicare program and prescription drugs. that is directly lowering prices in one of the key pocketbook issues that has affected families and particularly seniors for decades. judy: finally, speaking of inflation, was the administration, like federal reserve chair jay powell himself and another murder of other economists -- a number of other economists are admitting they were late to recognize that inflation was as serious as it was. is the administration acknowledging that now? >> what we have acknowledged is the correct assessment. we have always been very close to what the private sector top economists and foreign -- economists are. inflation going down was the consensus of every expert within the country.
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i don't think we had a precedent for understanding how delta and omicron would bottle up the supply chains involving semi conductors, affecting cars. inflation in cars affects our country probably three times more than it does european countries and certainly none of us imagined that when gas prices were going down and at around $3.30 in january that we would have an unthinkable war of aggression that would send gas prices up probably over two dollars a gallon around the world. i think that we were -- we had the right private sector consensus and unexpected things happened and you have to adjust and know that can always happen with any economic forecast. judy: senior advisor to the president, jean sperling, thank you. >> thank you, judy.
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nicole: i'm nicole ellis in for stephanie sy with newshour west. we'll return to the full program after the latest headlines. the u.s. house of representatives gave president biden a win on another one of his priorities, boosting the u.s. semi-conductor industry. democrats pushed through a bill including $280 billion for subsidies, tax breaks and scientific research. the vast majority of republicans opposed it, saying it amounts to corporate welfare. parts of central appalachia faced flash flooding, mudslides and power outages today, after days of heavy rain. in west virginia, water rose into homes and submerged roads. people were left stranded, and rescue crews worked through the night. heavy flooding also hit eastern kentucky, inundating a school in perry county. governor andy beshear reported 8 dead and warned the water is still rising.
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>> we probably have not seen the worst of it. sadly we believe that we will lose kentuckians and a lot of kentuckians will probably lose most of what they have. nicole: the heat wave over the -- late this evening, governor beshear appealed to the white house for federal assistance. meanwhile the heat wave over the , pacific northwest pushed temperatures near 100 degrees again. it's expected to continue through saturday. new york state declared monkeypox an "imminent threat to public health" today. and san francisco's mayor announced a state of emergency that will go into effect monday. the u.s. department of health and human services announced plans to distribute almost 800,000 monkeypox vaccines to hard-hit states and cities. the centers for disease control reports there are more than 4600 cases in the u.s. russian government officials cautioned today that there is no agreement yet on a prisoner swap with the u.s. the biden administration wants to bring home americans brittney griner and paul wheelan, both of them jailed in russia.
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reports say the offer could involve trading viktor boot, a convicted russian arms dealer who's in prision in the u.s. in ukraine russian forces , launched heavy new missile strikes on areas that had not been targeted in weeks. missiles rained down on the kyiv region. russian strikes also hit an area in the north. meanwhile, ukrainian officials said they've begun a counteroffensive to take back the kherson region in the south. president biden spoke with china's president xi jinping today and xi warned against provocations over taiwan. chinese state media said the u.s. is playing with fire on taiwan. it said xi sharply criticized a possible visit by house speaker nancy pelosi to the island nation, which china claims as part of its territory. the white house said president biden warned against any hostile moves. >> president biden underscored that the united states policy has not changed, and that the united states strongly opposes unilateral efforts to change the status quo or undermine peace
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and stability across the taiwan strait. nicole: the leaders talked by phone for more than 2 hours. pope francis was confronted in canada today by protesters for indigenous people's rights. it happened at a papal mass in quebec. two women unfurled a banner urging the pope to rescind a centuries-old doctrine that legitimized taking native lands. many of those at the mass were survivors of schools that forced assimilation on native children. jet blue has agreed to buy spirit airlines in a deal valued at $3.8 billion. it would create the nation's 5th largest airline, provided that federal antitrust regulators approve. just yesterday, spirit abandoned a proposed merger with frontier airlines. still to come on the newshour. what the new senate deal could mean for the fight against climate change. why baby formula remains scarce despite efforts to boost supply. a print-making workshop inspires artists to stretch their skills. and much more.
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>> this is the pbs newshour from weta studios in washington and in the west from the walter cronkite school of journalism at ste university. judy: let's dive a little deeper into that apparent agreement among senate democrats and what it could mean specifically for energy production and the fight against climate change. william brangham picks up that conversation. william: judy, this deal has substantial new money to boost the expansion of renewable energy and provide more incentives for people to buy electric vehicles. but it also expands more fossil fuel development projects, which west virginia senator joe manchin wanted. so what might the real impact of all this for dealing with climate change, if -- and it is still an if -- if it goes through? for some perspective, we turn again to david roberts, who writes and thinks about these matters for his substack
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newsletter and podcast, called volts. mr. roberts, great to have you back. this still has not passed, but i do want to count some chickens before they have hatched. what do you make of the contours of this deal? >> it is a very, very big and overall good deal from the perspective of climate. i know people have been tracking the build back better negotiations for a year now, over a year now and lots of stuff has gotten cut or diminished or destroyed from the original version of that bill, but the energy and climate provisions have survived not unscathed, but for the most part the bulk of the provisions in the origal build back better bill are still inhere. it is still by far the biggest climate legislation that the u.s. has ever passed, if it passes. william: it is hard not to note
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that earlier in this broadcast we are talking about floods and drought and heat waves afflicting this country. in this bill, there are billions of dollars in tax incentives to boost and ramp up renewables, geothermal, solar, wind, over the next decade. do those feel like meaningful enough steps that could substantially reduce america's emissions? >> yes. i think the best way to think about this bill is not so much as a climate bill as as but as an industrial policy bill. investing in u.s. production and manufacturing and u.s.arkets in these clean energy technologies. in the process of doing that, it will substantially reduce u.s. emissions. according to chuck schumer's office, this will reduce u.s. electricity sector emissions 40% by 2030, which is roughly a
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little bit below what we promised in paris, but not substantially below. this gets us almost on course for what we promised in paris. judy: on electric vehicles in particular, they are still a very tiny share of the market and there are a lot of incentives to encourage people, especially lower income people, to purchase them. how important is that for the government to do? wouldn't this naturally happen on its own given the marketplace? >> when it comes to climate, william, it is always about speed. it is always about speed. electric vehicles have begun their assent and i think it is more or less inevitable, i think everyone regards it as inevitable that they will take over completely on some time horizon. the idea is just to accelerate that process and importantly to move a lot of the manufacturing and production of those vehicles and the components of those
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vehicles to the u.s., so they create u.s. jobs and u.s. domestic manufacturing. of course, industrial policy is the oldest role for government in the book. governments have been doing that since there have been governments. william: i want to ask you about this -- apparently -- relaxing and expanding permitting f fossil fuel projects. this has caused some division. is that just the cost of doing business? we talked to someone at the center for biological diversity and she argued that these trade-offs are unacceptable, that they are more emissions will be generated from new oil and gas projects and they will hurt the most vulnerable communities in this country. is it your sense -- is that just the cost of doing business today? >> well, very specifically, it the cost of getting joe manchin to sign your bill. [laughter] i have yet to hear any alternate strategy to get 50 votes for
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this bill. and i would just say, i understand that environmentalists rightly view fossil fuel leasing on public land as obnoxious and these provisions as someone obnoxious, but when it comes to the impact on greenhouse gases, i think the modeling is going to show the reductions this bill is going to create vastly, vastly outweigh whatever boost in greenhouse gas emissions might come from more leasing. it is a poison pill and it is obnoxious, but the overall impact of the bill is still overwhelmingly positive on greenhouse gases. william: always good to see you, thank you very much. >> thanks, william. ♪ judy: the nationwide baby formula shortage is now in its sixth month. despite tons of imports and
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domestic production rebounding, formula supplies are still low for parents across the united states. amna nawaz reports. amna: early morning under a hot texas sun and the line at this drive-through food pantry in south austin is already dozens of cars long. alongside the usual plastic bags of fresh food. baby formula. paige gutierrez came early to find formula-mth-old. >> it's amazing, even though it is only one can i mean, it helps. amna: teresa satterwhite fosters four babies -- all of whom need formula. the few cans she received today, she called a blessing. >> it's been really, really hard to find formula. it does get frustrating, it does get overwhelming. >> i think the demand that we have seen in the last couple of weeks has been increasing. amna: luis garcia works at el buen samaritano, the organization that runs the pantry.
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they joined forces with other austin nonprofits to source formula, because of the surge in demand from clients who could not find or afford formula in stores. >> we've seen a lot of new families coming in that not necessarily were our clients before just because of the formula. amna: but those food pantries aren't much help for connie bunch -- a 37-year-old stay-at-home mom. 7-month-old aiden has severe milk allergies and relies on specialty soy formula. harder to find in normal times -- near-impossible when store supplies dwindled. tell me about the moment you realized there was a shortage. >> i walked in the store and it was not like scarce, it was not thin, it was bare. i went to another store and it looked the same way, i went to another store and it looked the same way. after three stores, i was in full blown tears and just like panicking because they can't have anything but formula.
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amna: bunch's father, nearly 200 miles away in fort worth, spent hours driving store-to-store, cobbling together a few months supply for his grandson bunch says she's now down to a few weeks rth of formula. >> i did not think that this would last as long as it has. amna: in february, formula maker abbott shut down its largest plant after possible contamination, and recalled several products. the plant produced about a quarter of all baby formula made in the u.s. and, while it reopened on july 1st -- after further delays from flooding -- stock levels haven't yet rebounded. the latest data showing they were at their lowest since the shortage began. >> today, i'm proud to say that because of these flights high , quality baby formula is already on the way to american shelves. amna: the biden administration has taken a number of steps to respond to the crisis including starting operation fly formula. since may, airlifting in the equivalent of 61 million 8 ounce
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bottles from abroad -- enough to meet about one week of domestic demand. among the hardest hit in the shortage -- low income families, many of whom are eligible for the special supplemental nutritional program for women, infants, and childre-- a federally fund benefits program known as wic. >> wic serves more than 40% of all the babies born in the u.s. and purchases more than half of the formula consumed. so it's a very big player in this space. amna: zoe neuberger is a senior policy analyst at the center on budget and policy priorities. >> changes to wic must be designed carefully so that eligible families won't be turned away because wic has been a lifeline that allows low income families to get formula and other foods that they need. amna: since 1989, states have sourced baby formula for their wic programs through a competitive bidding process. the formula company with the lowest bid then becomes the sole provider of regular infant formula for wic participants in that state. today, just three manufacturers receive all wic contracts in the
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u.s., and abbott is the sole provider across 35 states. this system saves wic between one and two billion dollars a year. >> i would absolutely love to see that we could contract within the states with more than one formula manufacturer. amna: jessica scharfenberg runs a local wic agency serving four counties in wisconsin, a state which contracts with abbott. scharfenberg says that although wisconsin received a waiver -- allowing wic participants to buy other formula brands in the shortage- that offered brief relief, before shelves emptied of all formula options. >> maybe a state could contract with four or five different formula companies versus the just one, because then we have more variety and more accessibility on the shelves. so if a recall were to happen because we know it'll happen again sometime in the future -- it's just inevitable -- that we don't get to this place again. of we just don't have formula. amna: as supplies dwindled
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earlier this year, parents and caregivers turned to each other to help feed their babies. >> it's soto blossomed into this amazing thing. amna: hannah kroll is a nurse in new york city who took a break from work to raise one-year-old eliana, who is formula fed. in late may, she started a national facebook group for parents to trade baby formula after receiving help from family and friends around the country. kroll has also started a baby formula bank using donations for osineed and has shipped free containers to over 130 families across the country. >> i am a jewish girl living in manhattan. you know, and connecting with these amazing women in south dakota, in mississippi, in hawaii who i don't think i would ever have had any other opportunity to connect with and everybody is just grateful for the others who are helping out. amna: but, she says, parents shouldn't have to turn to social
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media and risk being scammed to find formula >> we'd be horrified if we found out that a family member were turning to social media channels to get their medication, to get their, you know, medical care. but we a sort of turning a blind eye as a community to the fact that this is how parents are being forced to feed their kids, their babies. amna: back in austin, connie bunch is still baffled, that after months, this hasn't been solved. >> it's amazing to me. the things that are really, really important to us, we come up with solutions so fast and i do not understand why this is not important. there are children whose lives are on the line. amna: the specialty soy formula, she says, is even harder to find today than a few weeks ago. for now, she'll continue to rely
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on family and friends to keep aiden fed. for the pbs newshour, i'm amna nawaz. ♪ judy: in year three of the pandemic, most americans have returned to a sense of some normalcy, but the virus is still disrupting daily life. the u.s. is recording roughly 130,000 cases per day and deaths are on the rise, with an average of more than 430 a day. we reached out to viewers about their latest questions about risk and safety. and we get some answers once again from katelyn jetelina. she is an epidemiologist with the university of texas and she writes the "your local
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epidemiologist" newsletter on sub stack. welcome back to the newshour. let's plunge into these questions. sophie from new york city is writing -- is there a definitive answer to how long after you have covid you can continue to test positive on an antigen home test? is it worth testing to get out of isolation? or is there no value in that? >> we see really strong evidence that an omicron infection lasts about eight to 10 days. some people will be infectious for less. this is especially true if you are vaccinated. but some will be infectious for even longer than that 10 days. and you won't really know unless you test using an at-home antigen test. these tests are really great at telling you whether they are infectious or not.
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judy: a second question, this is james from port angeles, washington. when is it safe for me, and immunocompromised person, to be mask-less within six feet of a vaccinated and boosted person? >> this is a really good question and it lies on leveraging these tools we have like the rapid antigen test. if that frienis positive on an at-home antigen test, i would be very comfortable once they turn negative and specifically because you are high-risk, i would make sure they test negative twice, maybe within 12 to 24 hours to ensure. one thing to keep in mind as if that person who was positive that you are visiting -- we are
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seeing this phenomenon called rebounding. they could turn negative and then turn positive a few days later and you want to ensure that doesn't happen with your friend before seeing them. judy: that's interesting. this question is from scott from hopkins, minnesota. he asked, when do i need my second booster? i'm a 32-yearld teacher. >> such a good question, scott. it looks like the fda was trying to decide if those under 50 needed a second booster or not before fall. it looks like they are not going to be authorizing that second booster. so all of us under 50 will have to wait for our second booster when the omicron specific vaccine comes out. this means that if you had not had your booster for a while and you haven't been recently infected, there is not -- you don't have great protection against new infection with the vaccine alone.
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we really need to mask up right now, espially during this surge. it is really important to know that the one booster does really well in reducing hospitalization and death for those under 50. so, you can be considered very confident in your first booster in preventing severe disease right now. judy: in to question from elizabeth of boston, massachusetts. if one gets covid, does taking an antiviral or a monoclonal antibody treatment reduce the risk of contracting long covid? >> this is a really big question in research right now. beyond vaccination, it is unclear whether early treatments like antivirals have an effect on long covid. antivirals help slow the replication of the virus and thus it reduces severe disease. in theory, we hypothesize that
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it may reduce the severity of long covid, but it is important to recognize that long covid isn't always associated with severe disease. studies show that asymptomatic people or those with mild disease can have long covid. it is really hard to know right now without that robust scientific evidence. basically, we don't know yet. judy: it is all right to say that sometimes. [laughter] here is the last question on covid from rachel in colorado springs, colorado. she says, as a family, we have kept our risk low for our two-year-old. she is now getting vaccinated and we are struggling with what activities are considered low risk, moderate risk, and high-risk. are they the same as they were a year ago? >> if everyone is fully vaccinated -- and i'm in this area right now with my two little girls getting their second dose of the vaccine finally -- if everyone is fully
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vaccinated, you have a really, really good bubble around you right now. the people i really worry about -- especially those over 65 plus. if you are going to see grandparents or great-grandparents, it is important that you don't just rely on the vaccine, but you also do antigen testing and you use masks if you are in a high risk area, so you ensure you do break transmission chains to the more high-risk individuals. judy: all right, we have one more question for you and this is about monkeypox. you wrote a column comparing covid-19 to monkeypox. the similarities, the differences. tell us what lessons you came away with after looking at the two? >> i thick it is very natural for us to care one public health disease to another. and the similarities are that we don't have the best public health infrastructure right now.
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there is a lot of misinformation being circulated and there are still a lot of answers we don't know. but the differences are that this is a very different virus. it is not primarily transmitted through the air. it is transmitted through very close contact, which means that we can contain it if we act fast. we need to be sure that window is not closing. so, we really have to do all we can to contain this before it establishes itself as an other health risk in our repertoire. judy: a lot more information needs to be spread about monkeypox. wehank you so much for joining us. >> thanks for having me.
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judy: the 50-year-old brandy one workshop and archives in philadelphia draws in artists -- both unknown and very well known -- to push boundaries by producing limited edition prints. it's also an opportunity to get their work into major museum collections like the harvard art museums. that's where special correspondent jared bowen recently took a look. it's part of our arts and culture series, canvas. >> each of these prints has been a school -- tool for engagement to interrogate history, reach for the future, and sometimes just to dazzle. the need for them came in the 1970's when art world eyes were elsewhere. >> and there was not a lot of institutional support for people of color back in 1971. >> so in 1972, allan edmunds founded the brandywine workshop and archives, an art collective originally based in a
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philadelphia garage. what was the intention there? >> we decided that it needed to be an institutn that could provide that bridge between your aspiration as a young person, thinking about a career in art, and it actually creating a path for them. so it was about providing role models. >> and a place where artists could come, as they do today, for a two-week workshop to tryor their hand at printmaking. 50 years and some 500 prints later, brandywine artworks are ensconced in an ever-expanding number of major museum collections, including here at the harvard art museums. what does that do, what does that represent? >> to be honest with you, we never envisioned that we would be at harvard art museum with an exhibition. we never envisioned that. but what we did ension, that if we kept to inclusion as a part of the issue of quality, that at some point, it would manifest itself into wider recognition outside of philadelphia.
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>> harvard acquired this collection in 2018. it's a mix of famous names like faith ringgold and sam gilliam, but also of artists dressing down history, or conversing with cosmology. they are sculptors or painters or weavers, challenged to stretch their skills by making prints. elizabeth rudy is the show's co-curator. >> you see artists doing totally new things, in their careers, and in their approach to art, which is exciting. >> conceptual artist hank willis thomas made this print, titled "to be sold," juxtaposing high-earning black athletes and performers with a re-creation of an advertisement for the sale of enslaved people. thomas appears a second time in the show in the belly of his mother, photographer and scholar deborah willis. >> she wanted to use some old film of herself pregnant when she was at yale, and she was discriminated against and she was told by a professor when she entered a classroom as a pregnant woman, she was told,
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you are taking up space for a good man. and she separated those words out over her image of herself pregnant with her son, who turned out to be another really famous artist, hank willis thomas. >> artist sedrick huckaby made more than 100 prints at brandywine after watching the occupy wall street movement sweep through the country and newfound attention paid to the 99%. >> but i felt like the 99% in my community really wasn't getting heard. >> so in fort worth, texas, huckaby's hometown, he began creating portraits. random people he encountered on any given day. and as he captured them, he rendered bits of their conversation into the portrait. >> some people are more talkative, some people less. and my eye is always just open to trying to get a sense of the person. >> you said at the outset you wanted to explore who the 99% were, and maybe it was a rhetorical question, but did you come away with a more fundamental understanding and answer to that question?
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>> i don't know if it was a question as much as it was an attempt to hear people better. and a lot of times when you're painting from life, you're sort of metaphorically listening to the person. but in this case, not only was i looking and responding, but i also literally was listening to them, and i think it ultimately made me more sensitive to, to the role of listening, as a part of my art form. >> especially knowing the prints would be distributed widely. one of the central tenets of brandywine is that it's a place of ongoing communication with arts audiences. of charting a course through history, sometimes literally, as we find in a print by allan edmunds himself. it's called "200 years," and features president barack obama atop a heap of history. >> everything else is at the bottom. the slave ship, the arrival, the
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manifest change. and then throughout, there's names of people who i felt obama embodied. the writers, the orators, the lawyers, the educators, the community workers. all the names that came before obama, for which if they didn't, they wouldn't have been an obama. he's the summation of all those 200 years of makin progress. >> and for one full quarter of it, brandywine has been there to reflect it. for the pbs newshour, i'm jared bowen in cambridge, massachusetts. judy: gina clayton-johnson is the founder and executive director of essie justice group, a nonprofit that supports women with imprisoned loved ones. and tonight, she shares her "brief but spectacular" take on the power of sisterhood. >> i went to law school because
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i thought that that was going to be the place where i could find answers and solutions and tools and access and all of this, all of this, all this resource. but then when i went, in my very first year, someone who i love was sentenced to 20 years in prison, and this completely changed my life and my perspective on what was happening to families, to black people, to this country because of mass incarceration. ♪ in the last 40 years, we have seen an increase of 500% of people incarcerated in this country. one in four women in the u s has -- in the u.s. has a family member in prison. and for black women, one in two. we incarcerate more of our own people than any other country on this planet, by far. we surveyed thousands of women across the country. the through-line for all of the women that we interviewed was
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isolation. and so our response at essie justice group is to build a sisterhood. we do that through organizing, we do that by connecting women to one another and policy change-work, bringing about systemic solutions. essie justice group is a loving and powerful community of women with incarcerated loved ones who are fighting to end mass incarcerations harm to women and families. essie was the name of my great-grandmother. she moved in the great migration from the south to the west to look for opportunities that were not present where she lived. remember going back to my grandmother and asking her with a, with a lot of curiosity, you know, how was it that gran-mom did it? this ancestral solution kind of fell into my lap. because she explained she had , sisters, blood sisters who lived around the neighborhood. when she needed to pick up an extra shift at work and someone to take care of the kids, she
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had sisters who could fill in for her. she had sisters who understood what it was to be a black woman at that time. e had sisters, she had a community. and that is exactly what mass incarceration is, depriving women, black women, brown women of every single day. we hear women tell us every single time they receive a call. they graduate, they're part of our sustained community, that the work that we are doing together is lifesaving. and i know that to be true. i wish people would start by seeing women with incarcerated loved ones. just seeing that we exist. so that women with incarcerated loved ones are incorporated into social change agendas, to policy conversations. we are not having conversations about the harm impact, or the power ofotential of this group, and that needs to change. my name is gina clayton johnson, and this is my brief but spectacular take on women with incarcerated loved ones. judy: that is a powerful
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message. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you, please stay safe and we'll see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by -- >> for 25 years, consumer cellular has been offering no contract wireless plans designed to help people do more of what they le. our u.s.-based customer service team can help find a plan that fits you. to learn more, visit consumer >> the ford foundation, working with visionaries on the frontlines lines of social change worldwide. and with the ongoing support of these individuals and institutions. and friends of the newshour, including leonard and norma clore fine. and with the ongoing support of these institutions.
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and friends of the newshour. this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> this is the pbs newshour from weta studios in washington and in the west from the walter cronkite school of journalism at arizona state university. ♪ >>
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