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tv   European Journal  PBS  October 10, 2010 10:00am-10:30am PST

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captioned by the national captioning institute >> hello, and welcome to " european journal." 15 years after the end of the balkan war, thousands in bosnia-herzogovina are living in refugee camps. why spaniards are forced to share their homes with s trangers. how climate change is effecting french wine. and the secret behind finland' educational success.
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more the the state-run children's homes in bulgaria. allegations say taht thousands of children have died from lack of oxygen or drowning and accidents. the standard of care was much better. this location. >> in remote places in bulgaria, you'll encounter, is for children and the disabled. -- you'll encounter homes for children and the disabled. they are looked after far from the nearest town. we are not allowed to show their faces. some of them are allowed to attend the local school. but this may have little to offer them.
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although the institution is said to be one of the better ones. these children were handed over by their parents to the authorities. this was already the case u uer communist rule. this is the only director who will give us can interview. he was threatened with disciplinary measures. the dormitory possible was -- by the german embassy but little has changed since they joined the european union. >> we are one of the smallest bulgarian hes. they have to care for 150 children. how can they look after all of them? they should put the children in smaller care groups. >> the conditions in most care institutions are dismal. a camera crew showed how bad things were.
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nothing hs changed since they left. reports show over the last decade, 238 children died horrific deaths in state care, starving, abused, neglected. it is thanks to a human rights activist the findings were published. she spent v visisititiningg institutions. a meeting with the director of prosecutions. the first charges will be made soon. the publirosertor knows this does not just have legal implications. >> we have to change how people view disabled children. they are the most vulnerable
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members of society. we must make thsi clear. >> now, the authorities are reacting, although the terrible conditions have been known for some time. activists dand immediate action. >> this is the norm and now immunity is ending. there is a owerful -- powerful signal it will not be tolerated for children to be victims of crimes because they are disabled. >> they were met with indifference and silence. they stood by, watching the children die. the trady continues. >> there are 103 children of whom we have specific names and
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details, who are starving. they are suffering from pathological malnutricion. they may die tomorrow or the day after. this must stop, now. >> locked away behind tall fences, for years nobody cared about these children. now help is needed. >> our financial status can only improve with private aide organizations, from abroad. i have little faith in the bulgarian state authorities. >> the children here also need compassion. >> in few yrs, spain has gone from boom to bust.
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the real estatem arke market toa big hit. the economic slump brought high unemployment. many people are forced to rent out part of their homes. >> they live in fairly crowded conditions, owning their own apartment but not having it to themselves. she makes 5,000 euros a month and can't afford the mortgage repayments. >> what can i say? we tried to make ends meet. i have asked for advances. even then, we can't make it to the end of the month. we had to think of something
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else. >> the situation is typical for spain. they've been hit hard and like many spaniards, he cleared out two rooms and started looking for tenants. he found fanny her rent provides 500 eus a month. she has two rooms to herself. she pays a lot of rent for a small area that she shares with her teenage daughters and young child. they are allowed to use the kitchen when the owner is finished with breakfast. >> we all ahve to use -- have to use the kitchen, but we mostly stay in the room. we don't use the living room. when i cook something, i bring
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the food in here. we don't get on each other's nerves or argue. >> it is an alliance of convenience. he is worried he may not get rent. she works odd jobs, cash in hands. >> are you workign tonight -- working tonight? >> no, they don't need me. if they need me, they'll call me. >> it is not how they imagined life in their own home. the days of living in student apartments are gone but they watnented to avoid selling the home at all costs. it would be hard to find a buyer in any case. ther arre are two million empty apartments but notall are
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available to rent. many people leave their apartments emptyty those available are too expensive for jorge. he is a freelance photographer with no reguallar income. jorge can only afford a furnished room. it's the perfect solution. it wasn't what he hoped for. it is better than staying at home with his parents. >> i get on very well with the landlady. she often does favors for me, like tidying up and she sometimes does my washing, too. it's really good. >> consuela was forced to
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do this to pay off the mortgage after her divorce. she was reminded of the old days in spain with a stranger in her furnished home. >> i'd liek to have myamily over, or a friend over for a card game. but i don't mind doing without that. you have to accept restrictions. i like to set a good example. i don't want this to be a guest house. >> jorge is on the lookout for alternatives. a temporary arrangement is dragging on.
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she says that the debt will be paid off by the time she is 70. she says this is what cleaning up a few rooms. >> if you would like a glass of wine, this will be interested -- interesting. climate change to be affecting the taste ofrench win the grapes are becoming ripe earlier. this may begin to taste like the wind from spain. -- wine from spain. >> they came here to enjoy the roll breeze over the hills. this climate makes the village a
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magnet for wine-lovers this produces the best and most expensive wines. they are concerned about the future quality of the pro ducts. this is being filled at a small, family-owned vineyard. a top wine and a big money- owner. but something changed. >> when i was a student, we didn't harvest until september's end. now they are ripe at the beginning. sometimes we haresvest in late august. >> it interferes with their
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schedules and changes the flavor. he and his employee are pruning the vines. he is pessimistic about the future of this. >> the grape vines suffer from a lack of water and can't change properly, reducing the flavor. >> climate change has benefited them and they haven't lost their reputation. but a neighbor says the party will soon be over. even the best wine may be a challenge. for wine-lovers. >> the alcohol content has been high, but the 2009 vintage has
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so much sugar, the wines have 15% alcohol. if it increases more -- >> during the wien trade -- wine trade fair, the industry soded the alarm. several french wines may lose their flavor. >> they are losing their tightness and character. and they are tasting like wines from south france. >> climate change is making competitors for french wine producers. the british wl compete with the french for certain markets. tehy are finding out how wine
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should taste, and they have enthusiasm for wines from britain. but they are not worried about british rivals. only a determinede battle against climate change may save em in the long-term. >> in 15 years since the end of the balkan war, thousands in bosnia-hersogovina a are still o go home. elections ahve not broken -- have not broken the politcal paralysis. >> this is one of the countless
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towns scarred by war. the conflict dominates life here. she is growing up under desperate conditions. she is locked up like the animals he keeps in his back yard. they live with 12 other families. each one has one room at its disposal. he liveses alone, 55, di vorced, and out of work. his prospects may have been bleak without a war. his neighbors are different. the unmarried sisters lived in a large house with their parents. they dreamed of returning.
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but now, aged 72 and 77, they've given up hope. their village does not exist and there is no reason to rebuild the house. >> when the fighting began, they said, we could return soon after. we took little with us. >> they got wellfare paymetns of nts of 20 euros. she uses money to buy detergent to make the shared bathroom more bearable. the stench spreads as far as her room across the corridor. he lives with his mother. he has so few possessions they all fit under the tv. >> i don't like it here. i don't have my own room, and
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there is the toilet. but my mother says we don't have a home because life in the village she lived in has been wrecked. >> not to mention the lack of jobs, public transportation, or grocery scores. where are the refugees to go? some have defied the extreme conditions and retunrerned for a new start. rebuilding with the help of aide organizations. they are from a village and being paid a visit by the committee for returnees. they are bosnian muslims. most of the neighbors are ethnic serbs. this is not the principal
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problem for them. he was given two cows forom an aid organization. but there is no electricity. >> what do i do with the cows without electricity? in the winter i could sell milk and cheese. everything goes bad without a fridge. >> they've lived without electricity for 9 years. hard to imagine, but not isolated. >> a lot of donations, but not enough investment in what people need and money was distributed by party and some of it disappeared.
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>> this camp may seem luxurious. but for him, it is hardly the dream location for bringing up his four children. his neighbors try to earn money by selling walnuts. the only fixed income is child benefits. he has three childn andis wifeeft him. >> the house was not destroyed but i havent' been back since the war. mostly serbs live there. all the memories would return if i go back. i wouldn't be a normal person anymore. >> at least they have their own bathroom. he won his washing machine on a tv show. people havleard to live with
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bosniaia refugee camps. they call this, belvidere. it is the increasingly long-term situation. the situation in bosnai 1ia 15 years after the war. >> the education league saw scores in finland being high. what is the secre to success. the teachers are motivated by a bowler system which rewards them if they put in extra effort. this results in a win-win situation for people and teachers. >> he expects his pupils to show him respect. he's been teaching in helsinki
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for 12 years now. he likes to give the students as much freedom as possible. independent learning skills instead of just what he says. this way they learn about responsiblity. >> i like working with children and people with their own free will. i can tell when my work has dividends. those are my success stories. >> finland schools are considered a model for the rest of europe. one major factor is the teacher's motivation. they are highly motivated, although there is a financial incentive. he gets great results out of his
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pupils. >> we don't get much more money. but it shows my/ superiors believe i'm a odod teacher. that is important for me. >> finland does not suffer from the teacher shortages. training degrees are very popular among people graduating from high school. teachers enjoy the same status as doctors or lawyers. the two shooting sprees have underlined the importance of the teaching profession. >> nina teaches teenagers in a suburb of helsinki, with many immigrants and families on low income. she takes care of those with
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learning difficulties, and had violence prevention lessons as well. >> they are well aware of this and we had two in a row. they made it more aware. they come and tell us when they are worried about somebody's behavior. they can't tell us. we are talking about this and that. >> this is one lesson as they learn mutual trust through roleplaying. nina is paid 400 euros a month for her extra commitment. this is an environmental awareness group. he is paid more for this activity. the principal carries out an annual assessment of her staff.
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and five teachers for bonuses. >> i judge based on instruction methods. i give them marks of a to e. >> the teachers are motivated, and so are the pupils. >> i like the lessons. we don't have to stit still. >> school is diverse. the teachers enjoy it, too. >> and the extra money they get takes the bite out of the more challenging moments in the classroom. >> that's it from "european journal." send us an email t the low
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address. for the team in brussels, goodbye. no. well, it's just past there. first house in the right after the cottage on the l don't panic. brazen it out. me? - no. - right. here goes. yippee!
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