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tv   European Journal  PBS  October 30, 2011 1:00pm-1:30pm PDT

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global. the protests started off in europe. they're mostly young people in financial centers outside of the
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european central bank in frankfurt or on the edges of the e.u. summit in brussels. it is basically a leaderless movement, but the people know what they want, fair distribution of wealth and an end of what they see as the greed of the big banks. >> an entry demonstrator chance the words to vote in all chilean song about liberty. they have traveled to brussels from the south of france along with other protesters. a found a place to set up camp on the outskirts of the city. >> we walked between the 30-35 kilometers every day, through every village to meet as many people as possible. we have practically crossed france and three groups.
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>> he is one of many well- educated young people who have not managed to secu themselves a steady place on the career ladder. >> it is important to have a right to an apartment and to work, to have enough to eat and be able to live, not always just survive. b>> here in the camp, they live from donations from sympathizers who like them have had enough of financial market capitalism and the speculation of the banks. they have been protesting for months. this demonstrator has become an icon of the movement. during a peaceful protest action at the now bankrupt back, she was attacked by the police o. >> i know the police are trying
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to create fear. it but it is without reason. i had my first night in brazil without food or water. >> she i doing ok and has filed a complaint against the officer. his brutality has only made her more to temin that -- more determined to stand up. >> it is just the beginning. i don't call it revolution yet. it takes time. it is more like evolution. i think it is the beginning of something very big. >> these words must be gratifying for this man, who planted the seed for the movement of his article entitled "time for outrage." he was once active in the resistance against the nazis.
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>> when i meet young people, 20 years old, i think, they still have 70 years to live. so it is clear they have to get involved in the to the world a better place. that is my call. >> young people have en motivated by that call. a group of demonstrators have been camping outside of the european central banks since the middle of october. >> i thought it was fine. provided you are well-equipped. we had a lot of sleeping bags. the temperatures were not a problem. >> right now, conditions are alright, but it is not clear what lies ahead, with winter advancing. >> this movement depends on every individual. there are no leaders. we need everyone of you. >> most of them reject the idea of clear structure but and
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belonging to a party, but experts say that could be a problem. >> if the movement remain so unorganized and unstructured, if they don't elect a leader and don't have a program or connection to politics, and if they don't build other structures, they risk failure. >> so far, that does not look likely. the movement is receiving backing from large parts of the population in many european cities. [>> i think it is wonderful that people are showing such solidarity with each other and are beginning to stand up for themselves. we have no option, not even elections. we have to take to the streets. >> brussels, the site of
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wednesday's summit of e.u. leaders was the demonstrators most recent target. their plan is to set off for athens. they still have a long way to go if they want to achieve their goals. greece has seen its fair share of anti austerity protesters. the country struggled to avoid sliding headfirst into bankruptcy. without budget cutbacks, the greek government will no longer qualify for the bailouts from the e.u. and imf. there are proposals for a huge reductions in public spending, including on education, with plans for some schools to be closed completely. already, schools are struggling with your teachers and no money to buy textbooks. >> the director runs his school in northern athens with a firm hand.
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every morning before the school day starts, children are called to attention and there is a mandatory prayer. the director takes every opportunity to stress the importance of discipline and self-reliance. >> we have to maintain our ethic. our school has to provide the best education possible with the little money that we have. >> the school has 350 students from age 11 to 15, and no shortage of problems. the director says because of spending cuts, there are not enough textbooks to go around. instead, the school is encouraged to use computers and interactive software. >> the ministry has already informed us that from next year on, there will not be any books anymore. they will only be distributing cd rs. that is a problem for low-income
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families. they cannot all afford a computer for every child just s they can do their homework. >> until now, the schools have simply made photocopies when there were not enough books to go around. but in this class, there are not even enough copies. there german teacher uses a projector to make the only available textbook available for everyone. it is a far cry from ideal conditions. >> everyone does the best they can and we'll hope things get better. >> that hope is shared by this group that runs the snack bar. one of the favored items on the menu is a greek cheese pastry. >> lately, a lot of children have been coming without money. they say their parents cannot afford the sex anymore.
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that never used to be the case at our school -- they say their parents cannot afford the snacks anymore. that never used to be the case at our school. that i cannot say no so i give away the food. the school helps out. the kids have gone to the director, too, and he pays for them. we'll try to help. >> but the director has other concerns. because of budget cuts, he cannot afford enough achers. those who stay face pay cuts. >> because of the crisis, some teachers are working for half of their previous pay. then there is the changes to the civil servants law. now that can be dismissed and get 60% of their pay for a year, then unemployment. >> education officials are aware of the shortages and offer solutions, such as printing on- line v versis of teaching materials. they say there is no alternative to spending cuts. >> we have four times as many
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teachers, which has only half the population of greece. we have poor management and hired too many teachers over the years that we do not need. >> but even ministry officials are not sure the spending targets can be reached. graffiti sprayed on the wall reads, "the plan will not succeed." >> students spray-painted it there, and i have left it as a reminder of their visit. >> back at the school, the director takes time to meet with student representatives to discuss the cucurrensituation. the 14-year-old are acutely aware of the bigger picture beyond their school. >> i really want things to change in people's heads, to changnge all the buaucracy. >> many teenagers are fed up
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with the endless crisis and what to look to the future again without the constant worries of their parents and teachers. it was 50 years ago, 1961, people from desperately poor regions of turkey were invited to be part of the economic miracle, germany. turkey needed money, germany needed labor to rebuild its shattered postwar industry. it was a chance that turkish guest workers could escape poverty and build a new future in germany. over the years, as turkish wealth developed, many turks have headed back home. but they still have their memories. >> a song about longing for your homeland and distant loved ones. he knows what he is singing about.
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he lived in the area at as a guest wororker r 35 years, many of them alone. his wife and children remain in turkey. in the 1960'0' turkey was a poor country. >> there were only fields and footpaths. everybody who left did. things are different. things are well cared for now and tourists come here. there is a time they would notot have dared. >> the home region now draws many tourists. but in the 1960's, tre was no money to be made from the fascinating rock landscapes. for years after turkey and west germany signed an agreement on labor recruiting, he heeded the call. he worked in a car factory until 10 years ago, when he returned to turkey with a modest german pension. he has forgotten the german
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language, but still has photos from his time abroad. >> i missed the germans. they stand by their word. of course, there are a few rotten apples, but mostly they are truthful. in germany, people are educated. even the dogs are educated. at after my first wife died, i thought more and more about going home. plus, i was earning less. finally i said, well, i will just lve. i built this modest house with my savings. >> this person also thinks back to germany. at the 28-year-old grot in germany. she moved to istanbul three months ago after marrying a turk. she took the plunge and came to the pulsating metropolis. babbitt is a b big city, but the is something to do every day.
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every day there is something i new. >> turkey has changed. in many ways, the ci resembles a big western city. this nurse never felt truly accepted in germany. >> people were friendlier, more cordial. the most important factor was to judge a person by their heart, not their name or ethnic origin. that is very important. if they had done that right, i might have reconsidered. >> she still has to improve her turkish and studies grammar with her husband. she often thinks and dreams in german and says she still has a lot of german characteristics. >> like punctuality. if i make an appointment, for example, by temperament is german. what else?
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>> i have a fantastic exale regarding punctuality. ingermany, they displayed the schedule at the bus stops. but says the boss is coming at 11:00 a.m., for example. in turkey, we do not have such sites. suddenly she says, it's at 11:00 a.m. and i have been waiting here 15 minutes. it is 11:15 and the boss is still not here. things like that. >> this person never became that german. the first generation of turkish guest workers always assumed they would be turned out to turkey, but the pensioner does not regret his years there. >> if i had my life to live over, i would go to germany again, but i would visit home more often. >> today, a german tourist itare
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attracted to the world that he came from he gets along with them, after all this 50 years. the italian prime minister silvio berlusconi has just survived his 51st vote of confidence in parliament, scraping through the vote. it was prompted by his handling of the economic cris and his own personal scandals. berlusconi got fierce critics in the italian industrial world, not the least of which embalm are saadat scalea, the head of the industrial association. it -- not the least of which emma marcegaglia. >> >> marcegaglia is a top business person and president of the industry association, confindustria. her autographs are in demand at a youth conference in milan.
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many would like to see her go into politics. mingling with the crowd, is that part of a campaign? >> no, i just enjoy being together with young people. i like to talk to them about their future and training. it is something very dear to my heart. b>> marcegaglia manages her family steel factory near barone that in northern italy. pepsi is also the first woman to head the powerful -- she is also the fir woman to head the powerful federation confindustria. most industrialists and business people support her. she also keeps her opponent, silvio berlusconi, in view at all times in her office. >> we have very clearly demanded the government do something to finally begin implementing fundamental reforms.
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we need tax reform and privatisation. and we need a pension reform as well. we call on the government to turn this country around. >> the message achillea -- the marcegaglia out of one of the richest families in italy. they build a car parts. at their most import trading partner is germany. the company is growing, even during the current euro crisis. her term as head of the employers' association and is this coming spring. she denies that she plans to go into politics. >> people repeatedly hit that i could become the leader of a new middle of the road party.
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but i have always denied it. i do not want it. >> at the youth conference in milan, she promotes a new, young economy. >> one of the most important prerequisites for more growth and confidence is the participation of the young generation. young people have to have a bigger voice. about unemployment among young italians is about 20%. that and expect hard times, but she gives them hope. >> this woman knows what she wants. she is remarkable. >> emma marcegaglia has a much cleaner image than the current politicians in italy. i like that. >> in italy, unfortunately, we already dead end. many young people are
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emigrating. >> italian politicians should all be traded in, from a to z. >> emma marcegaglia is italy's most powerful businesswoman. she is being touted for high office, even if she says she is not interested. many italians hope that she will change her mind. in many countries, people who choose to marry outside of their fates are able to marry and civil ceremony, the places such as israel or lebanon did not allow civil marriages at all. increasing numbers of mixed faith couples are making their way to the mediterranean island of cyprus to tie the knot. a new marriage market is developing and what is important is that the marriages are still valid in their homelands. >> pm-lined beaches and
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sunshine almost all year round are an attractive prospect for brides and grooms to be. as usual, the registry office is full of what in excitement. five couples will tie the knot this morning. this couple is among them. she comes from the ukraine, he is from lebanon. they met in egypt a year ago and fell madly in love. >> and see how she swims. and then she touched me. >> his eyes. his eyes. >> they chose cyprus to get wed because there are no civil marriages in lebanon, but i have to marry and a civil ceremony for her marriage to be recognized in the ukraine.
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>> we need it the civil marriage for the ukraine and married in the church for but not. >> this c coupl has just arrived from tel aviv, just half an hour pause flight away. the mother of the bride is not jewish, which under orthodox jewish law means that the daughter is not jewish either and cannot marry at home. as in lebanon, israel does not allow civil marriages, although it does recognize them. >> they should change the law. i need to get married here. that is not fair. >> every year, hundreds of israelis make the trip to cyprus to get hitched, either because one partner is not jewish or not religious. the parents of this bride are atheists. >> she is lucky she is in a
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family that they did not mind, really, because if she fell in love with a traditional family, it could be a big problem. >> if that were the case, she would have to convert, which would not only mean a kosher cooking but spending two years learning and practicing all orthodox rules. >> it is not worthwhile because you need to do too much. >> cyprus is a way out for many couples from different cultural backgrounds, and not just individual couples take effect of the quick and on bureaucratic cyprus approach. at 150 coupl israeli couples married here at a mass ceremony in june. it is good business for the island. >> abo 150,000 in income from
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weddings every year, increasing every year, and we can have more if we provide the facilities. >> there are many different kinds of weddings. the registry office is just minutes awayay fro the airport. starry eyed lovers can also opt to get married on the beach, or in a four-star hotel. this person's lifelong dream of a wedding straight out of a romantic movie came true when her husband to be exchanged vows under a canopy. the british couple paid attend thousand euros for their special day. the photographer was included. -- they paid at 10,000 euros for their special day. the photographer was include apart from the take, which should have had at two tiers, the wedding went off without a hitch. for them, it was the perfect that. >> the weather, the short
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flight, just all factors combined, really. >> karen and her husband could have gotten married at home, but that is not the case for many other couples. they choose cyprus because the laws of their homeland prevent them from been officially committed themselves to the partners of their choice. and that is it from "european journal." thank you very much for being with us. we look forward to seeing you with us again next time. if you have any thoughts on the program, please send us an e- mail. for me and all the team in brussels, until next time, goodbye. captioned by the
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national captioning institute ow! of course. thank you. i'd call her honeydew goodbody, not lisa. the very fact that she is called lisa proves that she exists.
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