tv Global 3000 LINKTV November 15, 2018 7:30pm-8:01pm PST
♪ meet some adults going back to school. their aim -- a well-paid job. in vietnam's capital hanoi, pollution is becoming a big problem. what's the solution? and we meet people who have fled venezuela, where food and basic necessities are in increasingly short supply. in 1998 socialist hugo chavez was elected d president of
venezuela. many of his electorate hoped he'd offer them a chance of prosperity. and indeed over the following years, poverty in venezuela nearly halved, thanks to profits from the country's most important commodity, oil. but chavez also weweakened the economy with a series of nationalizations, puttining investors off. thenen the u.s., c canada, ande eueu introduced d economic sasanctions. in 2013, nicolas maduro took over from chavez. and the economic slump contntinued. internatioionally,enuzuzue is isisolated. food, medicicine, and basisic hh care are in n short supplyl, afaffecting chilildren most of. reporter: a soldier holds the baby while the mother's being treated. this clinic, in a brazilian refugee camp, isis for mother, their children, and pregnant women.
the baby is placed back into the mother's arms. this u.n. refugee aid organization hopes to give these young refugees the most normal life possible, in spite of the circumstances. lohemelis bergman arrived three months ago with her husband and daughter. lohemelis: i'm waiting until i give birth, and then we want to travel further south. wherever, any place. just definitely not back to venezuela. things are still bad there. reporter: we wanted to see for ourselves, so we cross the border into venezuela. getting in is easy. no one even checks our passports. in the first town we come to there are several closed shops. in the center i meet a family who are just about to go to brazil, but just for a day trip. >> my baby needs a vaccination
in brazil. it't's the only pla. reporter: which one? >> the three month one. >> i don't want to leave venezuela. i have a house and a job, i'm doing ok. reporter: they leave for the border. they have to get there and back the same day. there are money changers who are less optimistic. inflation is swallowing everything u up, they say. prices are rising daily. >> if there's rice it goes straight to the government supporters. same with spaghetti and flour. they're ruining us. >> we have nothing to eat, no work, no money. we're starving to death. reporter: unfortunately we can't stay much longer. it's too unsafe without a stamp in our passport. in no man's land on the border, we find stranded venezuelans. there are families with children
here, too. a storm hit overnight. everything they own is soaking wet. luciana and her brother rijkaard decided to leave without their children. but they did it for their children's future. luciana: it's traumatic. who would want to leave their daughter? but if i can't send money home from brazil soon, my daughter will starve. that would be even worse. reporter: juana is another mother who's trying to flee. she's at the border fence with her baby, taking a break. she's heading to some friends further south for shelter. juana: the journey lasts several days. we spent a whole day on a bus, th a lot o of stops. it's difficult with a baby.
reporterer: here at the braziln bord t town ofacararaima there'bebeen aour momo since thbeginninof theheefugee crcrisis e u.n. camps are safafe ven for ople who've fled, like lohemelis bergman and her husband. he's put extra palettes under the mattress for his pregnant wife. their baby is due in two months. they both feel like the mood in reporter: refugee kids play football next to their tent. among them is the granddaughter of carmen rodriguez and her husband. they explain why they left with nine-year-old achilles. carmen: her mother, our daughter, died four months ago in venezuela because there was no medicine.
reporter: what did she have? carmen: an intestinal infection. reporter: like many others here, she wants to get to sao paulo or rio as soon as possible. a process that can take months, while parents and their young refugee chilildren can only wat here in the camps and hope. host: hundreds of thousands of people worldwide are missing. but why? human trafficking is one key reason. an estimated 800,000 people are trafficked across borders each year. nearly 80% of them are women and children. many are sexually exploited, or pushed into forced labor. organized crime is another key reas. in mexexico, for example, this includes paramilitary organizations, drug cartels, and security forces. the international red cross believes as many as 30,000 people have disappeared there in this way.
authoritarian regimes frequently come down hard on political opponents. many are arrested and later disappear. that's the case in syria, for example, where tens of thousands of political persecutees are missing. missing, but far from forgotten. reporter: these are just a few of the people who have gone missing in syria, anand membersf their families. the photos adorn a bus in which activists of the families for freedom group have been touring europe, campaigning fofor justi. these women say the syrian regime is to blame. fadwa mahmoud's son and husband were disappeared in 2012. fadwa: i feel the typical emotions of a mother. i keep having flashbacks to my son laughing.
these images just keep welling up. i imaginine him sitting next o me. i sometimes feel very desperate. reporter: this used to be a prison of the east german secret police, the stasi. it's in the hohenschonhausen district of berlin. here too, despair plagued the inmates. fadwa mahmoud and the other women have come to meet former prisoners and learn about the east german regime. in the 1980's, monika a schneir was caught trying to escape the country and held here for more than two years. monika: we also didn't know what would become of us.. would they make us disappear, or would we be out in a year or two? wowould they start terrororizis all over again? i knew that t if i was releaeasn eaea germany, , i would never t my job back.
and if you didn't have a job, they locked you up, so you would always have one foot in prisonn anyway. reporter: the stasi used isolation and other forms of psychological torture to intimidate and break prisoners. in the 1990's back home in syria, fadwa mahmoud was herself jailed for two years for belonging to a banned political party. fearing persecution at home, she is now living in germany. fadwa: my son has been in prison for six years and i don't know how he is. monika: i have to hug you. i'm so sorry. i'm so sorry. reporter: all these women have terrible stories to tell. there are resemblances between life under different authoritarian regimes, syria and the old east germany. when monika schneider was in prison here, she was also
separated from her children. these women might not have a common language, but they can still comfort each other. fadwa: i wish i could change places with my son so that i would be in prison and he would be free. reporter: east gerny c came to end i in 1990 with gegerman reunification. the files of its secret police have been preserved, and people it spied on can read their dossiers. if the syrian regime has files on its prisoners, it is certainly not about to open them to scrutiny. fadwa: i often feel completely devastated. but i am determined to k keep n fighting for their release. for the freedom of each and every person who is being held unjustlyly.
reporterer: fadwa mahmoud and r fellow activists are tirirelessn their campaign, , demanding freedom for everybody who has been arbitrarily detained in syria. they refuse to be silenced. host: this week in global ideas, we're off to vietnam. like elsewhere, increasing numbers of people are moving to urban areas, and their health often suffers as a result. the capital hanoi is a hotspot for both noise and air pollution. millions of mopeds and cars blast out their unfiltered exhaust fumes, making even crossing the street a difficult task. our reporter michael wetzel went there to meet people tackling the city's smog. reporter: hanoi is so nice on the weekends.
here, one can take a deep breath and relax. hanh dang and her family often come to hoan kiem lake, an oasis in the heart of the vietnamese capital. this barley sugar candy vendor certainly looks relaxed, probably more so now than during the work week. because on the weekend, the area around the lake becomes a pedestrian zone. hanh: i can also enjoy the wind blows with no mask, like every day. and all the weekends we go here, because e no traffic, , no caro motorbike. so easy, so relaxing. repoporter: on workdays, it's jt the opposite. hanoi has a population of more than seven million. the main mode of transport is the motorbike. and there are more and more cars as well. there are no reliable numbers as to exactly how many. but it's clear that traffic
congestion is getting worse, and with it, the air. hanh dang rides a moped. she says it would take much too long to go to work by bus. she works for an international team working on ways to improve the air quality in hananoi. part of their work is determining exactly how bad the air is. the city's department of natural resource and environment has set up monitoring stations. this is the eleventh and latest. the instrument was developed by students at the vietnam national university. two pollution consultants from germany attended the inauguration of the eleventh device. they work k for germans development agency, giz, and are advising the vietnamese governrnment.
patrick: what's speciaial abot this measuringng device is tht it's cheap, it's been tested, and it's easy to move from place to place. that means the authorities can measure the air quality in various parts of the city at moderate cost. reporter: the numbers so far have been truly awful. last year, air pollution was, on average, four times the maximum considered acceptable by the world health organization. and the air was considered clean on only 38 days last year. the countltless building s sis also generate a loof d dust. high-rise apartment blocks are going up all over the city. the authorities ignored the problem of air pollution for a long time. now, it's a priority issue. a workshop abobout air quality s recently held for students at
this school for the first time. it was organized by the german air pollution consultants and a vietnamese ngo, green i.d. the school uniform includes the red scarf of the communist young pioneersrs movement. vietnam is, after all,l, a one-party socialist state. the idea is for such workshops to become a regular feature in schools here. young people need to know how dangerous pollution is, especially for them. at this event, the s students divided into teams for a q&a session. what illnesssses does smogog c? what can you do about air pollution? who is most affected? pupils were rewarded for giving the right answerers.
and they can pass on what they learned. hanh: i think that after this workshop, the students will bring their knowowledge to ther home and talk to their parents, and their brothers and sisters. tangmar: i hope they now know momore than theieir parents do t this, , and it will inspire thm to do something. reporter: the cicity authoritis are under pressure to improve public transport. work on an extensive metro system is behind schedule. there are a few express bus routes with modern vehicles, but their impact has not been great so far. the municipality has issued a ban on all motorcycles that takes effect in 2030. but that does not interest anybody here right now.
at hanoi university of science and technology, they are testing a mobile device that measures emissions at the source, at the exhaust pipe of a motorbike. the idea is for environmental police to use it to get the worst offenders off the road. that could mean a major change for many in hanoi. hanh: wewell, i don't actually know how they will react to the action to stop their motorbike. i'm not sure, because we need to -- i think we needed to prepae ththe campaiaign, the communica. reporter: the german advisors and the city environment department are working together on that as well. they canan advise and plplan,t it's up to the city authororits to act on their proposals.s.
chi luu: the city needs to organize awareness raising campaiaigns so that t citizensn propoperly underststand e benens of public transport. however, infrastructure and public transport have to be improved much more. reporter: there will soon be plenty of devices collecting data. but the root problem still needs to be solved. tangmar: we need urgent measures to reduce traffic and to require engine upgrades. people will have to spend some money, but vietnam needs obligatory vehehicle inspectios and fuel quality standards. reporter: time is pressing. the city continues to grow. more and more motorbikes are on the streets. imagine if all of hanoi one day looked like hoan kiem lake on the weekend, with relaxed people breathing clean, fresh air.
host: life can be really tough if you can't read and write. 750 million adults around the world are illiterate, two thirds of them women. in kenya, around 20% of the population are unable to read and write. and even those who can rarely have a school leaving certificate, which means little chance of getting a well-paid job. so, what can they do? head back to school. reporter: when you're working with chemimical solutions, precision is crucial. in this chemistry class, the students are especially conscientious. samuel: potassium permanganate is toxic. reporter: this is no ordinary class. these 10th grade students are between 20 and 50 years old.
all of them are here to get their high school diplomas. milicent yewa is close to reaching her goal. she's been going to school every weekday for nearly two years. the mother of two wants to be a good role model for her children. milicent: we have a story to tell. we went to our children. and when we come back to school, then the children get motivated, and you have a reason to tell them, , you have to o read and t be like me. do it now when you have the time. reporter: the teacher, samuel maina, often feels like a child himself. most of his students are older than he is. he aims to maintain a friendly rapport with the members of his class. he knows that many of them have a lot more than school to cope with. samuel: it is harder because you realize when you are old you have responsibilities, your family, you have business, your mind is scattered, and it is not as easy as when a person is young.
reporter: milicent yewa can relate to that, but she still values the chance to learn. milicent: it's worth it. it's worth it. it might be painful now, but the results are sweeter. reporter: many kenyans lack access to good education. milicent yewa was married off at a young age. she finished school with poor grades. as a result, she couldn't find a decent job. nowadays she lives alone in a one-room apartment in a poor district. her children live with their father. they have come to visit her. milicent yewa can't afford to take her children on outings or to the cinema. but they can enjoy singing together. her daughter faith was initially against her going to school. faith: at first i wasn't in you need to make fast money. but now i'm supporting her.
reporter: milicent yewa is not working at the moment so she can focus on school. a woman from her church is financing her education. others also help, and milicent wants to do the same when she finishes her schooling. milicent: and to be a nurse. and possibly -- i like doing community work, possibly i'll be doing community y work, becausi feel i have a passssion for te vulnerablele. reporter: her son favoured is proud of her. favoured: i feel good because my mother is also learning, so one day she can become a nurse. i'm learning so i can become an engineer. when i grow up, i'll take care of my parents.
reporter: toto have a better le -- that's also samuel lekulate's goal. he went back to school at the age of 42. in the country town of ngong, adults learn side by side with children. but samuel needs a lot more tite ththan they do, especially in biology and chemistry. samuel: i have to try because after the classes i have to meet with some teachers of those subjects and tell them to continueue with me, ababout 30 miminutes. reporter: one reason for this is that samuel does not always come to class. anne: come, for example, monday, skip tuesday, come on wednesday. so y you will fifind that they continue lagging behind in learning, so you have to repeat what you taught previously for them to understand. reporter: but samuel h has a hd back home that he has to take care of. drought has tataken its toll n the animals. samuel: we had a lot of cows and goats, but because of drought
and disease, they die. even now, we cannot be able to sese. reporter: that's a another rean why samuel is going to school. his uncle is paying for the classes. >> samuel wants to get an education for his future. that's whyhy i'm supporting hi. it will help everyone. samuel: what made me to decide to go back to school is s becae of the poverty that we have in this family. reporter: samuel lekulate's job as a shepherd just doesn't pay enough to live on anymore. milicent yewa also worries about money all the time. but she's still determined to keep going to school until she gets her diploma. milicent: provide for themem, d be taking them out.
that's something i have not been able to do at the moment, to be going out with them, having fun on holidays and going out, such things. reporter: she says that when she is a nurse, she'll earn enough to be able to offer her children at least some support. host: who cares about the flower industry's destructive impacts? >> i d do. hohost: who o cares about glol lgbt rights? >> i do. host: who cares about homeless people living on the streets of l.a.? >> i do. host: who supports sustainable farming inhe amazon? >> i do. host: o o cares out t equaty for women in africa? >> i do. we're back next week. and in the meantime, don't forget, we love hearing from you. so drop us a line,
man: it's been described by the un as a textbook ethninic cleansing. woman: bangladesh has called on myanmar to allow the return of hundreds of thousands of rohingya muslims. they can't cope with the scale of the humanitarian crisis. rape and torture at the hands of the myanmar army. i'm alex crawford, and this is "hotspots." tonight, we're gonna take you behind the scenes of some of the world's hardest-hitting stories. we're in northern iraq, where stuart ramsay has an amazingly lucky escape. ramsay: the chance of surviving that, a flip of a coin, i suspect. crawford: our cameras are rolling when things get out of hand in spain. [gunfire]