tv Earth Focus LINKTV November 21, 2018 9:00pm-9:31pm PST
>> today on "earth focus" -- chememical pollulution. an american city fights back. and the toxic legacy of gold mining in peru. oming up on "earth focus." >> on a warm summer night, you can seeee where peoplple choooo live on toms river, riverboats, beaches, the promise of relaxing days and good health. but years ago the town became famous for a different reason, chemicals and cancer. >> we had no idedea they were discharging toxic chemicals.
>> they y never should havave l the people of toms river drdrin that water. >> i know w where my son's canc came from. >> the company got caught. >> it's part of the duty of government to protect the public health an that didn't happen. >> if it happened here, it really can happen any place. > the chemical history of to river began in 1962 when giba geigy, a chemical dye company built a industrial manufacturing plant. >> there wasasn't much h happen at toms river. chicken farming was the biggest industry. there was a little bit of tourism but not much. when this very lararge chemical concern said we want to build a factory to make dye in your town, w we said comome along. > the company b brought jobs brought about poor waste management practices. >> it was very clear as much of
the major dye manufacturers in that era that they had big isissues with pollution. they c created contamination problems wherever they were and ciba was no exception. ciba een 1962-1966, geigy had about 20 sites. on the days the plant was operating, over five million gallonss of chemical waste were dumped directly in the river. these were days s when the philososophy was out of sight, out of mind a and didn't have t proper waste disposal. >> don bennett grew up in toms river and ran in the river as a young boy, just downstream from where the plant dumps. dd >> it was bizarre to a teenage kid swimming in what looked to be just another river. the water was a always ice cold even i in t the middle of the
summer. when you came over here, the swinging bridge, it was a popular swimming place with young people. if your n nose was working and your eyes were workrking, you would certainly rececognize something was really wrong. >> don's connection to toms river isn't just water. for over 30 years, he worked at the local newspaper and was one of the first reporters to ciba geigy c chemical dumping. >> according early on to the report ciba geigy commissioned wawas about a milillion gallons day was seeping in the seepage pits they had c created on the plant site. i was goingg into the ground water.r. that was a million gallons and they thought that was 40% of the waste they were creating g every y day. >> the rest, the 60% were being discharged directly into this river.
>> when they come here inin 196 there wasn't anybody nearby to notice as the garden state parkway brought more and more people to the area and more and more homes were built closer to the plant. more people became aware of the nighttime boaters that sometimes we had to close your windows it was so obnoxious. >> the plant was portrayed by the local politicians as a good neighbor and was supposed to be no problems with it. so yeah, we feltlt fairly safe moving in because the political structure said it was safe. >> it fences the boundary of the ciba geigy property and you cacan see in thehe b background proximity of some of the homes along cardinal drive. the homes you see were all built long after ciba geigy began its chemical dye e making here. and i wowould veventure momost peopople who bought here had no idea who their neighbor was. i mean, there was no requirement to disclose
anything in those days. >> part of the reason ciba chose to move to this area was the ideal condition, dumping waste, the sandy soil in the nearby river. but that also made the area great for finding fresh drinking water. the water provider, toms s rive water company, supplied the entire township from a shallow well field just two miles downstream from the plant. if you lived in town and were a customer, it was quite possible you would drink whatever contom nationals ciba was dudumping in the ground and river. >> we had evidence by 1964 they had contaminated the well field. >> in the summer of 1965 was particularlyly dry andnd the de for water was high. the water company chose to continue operations despite warnings of contamination, which the local water company and ciba geigy concealed from the public. the following year, ciba geigy obtained a permit from the u.s.
corps of engineers to construct a 10-mile pipeline. for the first time, they could dump their chemical waste directly into the ocean. ciba thought their troubles were over. but the chemical problems in toms river continued to grow. >> the sececond big thingnghat happened in toms r river that i rmane to the story is illegal dumpers started coming down in central and d southern new jers where there e was lots of opope spacace and n not a lot of peop watching, carrying trucks with hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands of barrels of hazardous wastste. that they didn't want to dispose of legally because it was too expensive. there was one very fateful illegal dumping incident that occurred in the early 1970's in the back two acres of a c chick farm. this trucker took several thousand rusting barrels of hazardous waste from union
carbide into north jersey and just started digging trencnches in the back of thiss c chicken farm and dumping these barrels, many of which were alrlready comiming apart. and union carbide didid not tak a lot of interest in what this guy was doing, they were happy to be rid of their barrel also. >> in just three months, september-november, 1971, over 5,000 barrels w were illegally dumped. that december, the culprits were arrested for dumping without a permit. but it took another seven months before the barrels were removed from the ground byy union carbide. no other efforts were taken to clean the site. that summer of 1972, the water mpany added six new wells, miles out from the farm. for the next 12 years, toms river would remain a normal american town, and in fact theh beaches incurred population growth. but for some families, cancer
was causing their worst nightmare. >> i was 30. the first 30 years of our lives were carefree, like any y young couple, trying to pay your bibills, enjoy lifife and doini hings. then you get a child that has cancer and your whole life chananges completely. it now is srounded and revovolves aroundd your chchild is sick. >> i was diagnosed with a cancer of the synthetic nervous system and still have effects of it today. >> michael is alive. he's a miracle. he's received the lastt rite many times. he's 34 years old. he has very limited normalcy to his life. >> the tumor is pushing my spine pretty much out of my
body, like it's wearing away the skin. t's also encompassssed, it wras around like all my organs, heart, lungs and kidneys and all that and there's nono surgical way too remove it. without me either bleeding out on the table or becoming a vegetable, i was told. >> i would buy the powdered similac and i would mix it with tap water. and so everyrything that my son got was mixed from the toms river tap water. ii reaeally believed d that tha where his cancer came from.m. >> in the late 1970's when michael was first diagnosed, there initially was no connection made to drinking water. it wasn't until a dramatic day in 1984 that would spur linda and any others in the community to investigate their water
quality. ciba's ocean pipeline that had now been operating for 18 years burst at the intersection of bay and vaughn, right in the iddle of one of toms river's busiest intersection. the stink of the pipe couldn't be ignored. >> a lot of people were new to this area and weren't even aware this pipeline existed and the realality washat the pipeline r ran from the toms rivever chemical plant 10 miles across the mainland of toms river and then out into the ocean. into some of the most heavily used tourist beaches along the east coast. it was the l leak heard aroundn the world i have sometimes called it because it mobilized citizenryy both here andnd on t beach and what t we ban that april day still hasn't stopped.
>> journalists, including don, took thehe break as a reason fo further investigatingng the chemical life of toms river and for the first time, ciba'a's plant and the dumping at the farm were made public attention. >> the people in the town started to realize something was going on. that was within the first two years afterer the pipeline brea >> it was probably more than 10 yeyears before we understood th full consequences of what was going on. >> between 1986-1996, the facts slowly emerged about the chemical pollution, all the whwhile, more e kids got c canc. >> my third daughter was born in 1989, and unfortunatetely, s bebecame sick relativelely quic when she was about 10 months old, we discovered she had cancer. and unfortunately, only survived until she was 14 months old. at that time i in 1990 when she passed away, there was really not a thought that it was
related to any type of the environmental problems. >> by this time linda gillick had started her own cancer assistance nonprofit, ocean of law. and it was her early observations of cancer in the community y that drove further investigation. >> i i put u up a map of the wh counun s so that we could see where o our childreren were loc for our case workerers. and as the years w went on, we noticed that toms river had . come one big dark area and it was a bibig concern. i d did reach out to the state health department numerorous times and told ththem o of my concern and was told over a and over again thahat t there was n problem. >> only later in the 1990's, ththe mid 1990's was there more and more information that was coming o out. but,t, you know, some of the water supply had been contaminated with certain
chemicals. >> 1996 was particularly crucial for people of toms river. the state health authorities reported the rate of childhood brain and central nervous system cancer was excessive. with iver is now a town cancer. >> 69 families, 69 children and their parents are usually considered a cluster. but epidemiologyells us in n a commununity there may be e an unusual pattern of disease, either defined in space,, geographically, or inn time e t develops over a period of time. whenen that happens we call it cluster r and a c cluster is a clue, a piece of evevidence tha somemething may be happening in that comommunity. that's what happened in toms rivever. >> becauause of the unusual number of rare childhood cancers, the community demanded answers. and the finger pointed back to
ciba geigy and the toxic waste drums union carbide dumped at the farm.m. a decade earlier, two wells at e f farm had been tested and trichloralethylene was found. >> once it was found coming from the farm, the government absolutely dropped the ball. that ever should have let happen and let the people drink that water. >> the e.p.a. and union carbide adopted a remediation plant. it's a superfund site. we will let these chemicals go into the public drinking waters and aerate them out and then the water will be safe to drink. someone said, why don't we put carbon filters on that water just to make sure nothing gets through. they said it's going to aerate out, you don't need carbon. well, that was a mistake that
cost lives. because it turns out the only thing, there was a lotot of oth stuff in the water they weren't looking for because they weren't on e.p.a.'s priority pollutant list so the group included other chemicals, thyrene and acilorirites is kno to cause cancer and they let it go 10 years and it wasn't until they saw the high rate of cancer that they took another look at the water and they found this. every critical fact community neneed to learn. you may think you're safe. you're not safe because there may be things in therere you're nott looking for. the priority pollutant list of the e.p.a. >> in 1996 when these cancer causing chemicals were found, all eight wells of the parkway were shut down. and it was the first step in cleaning up the pollution. over the next five years, union
carbide would install carbon filters on the wells near the farm, a settlement would be reached by the families in the cancer cluster and ciba geigy paid $92 million to begin the 30-year process of making the contaminated ground water safe. today toms river water is clean. but from the mistake made and lessons learned could not be ignored by other communities. >> the overall societal cost and actual dollar cost would have been a lot less if back in the 1970's that we had a problem here, we can't keep this well field anymore. the chemical companies may be a big dollar item right now, but you're going to have to fund moving this well field t to another spot. that's not what we'v've done here. and, you know, i think that the overall citizens of toms river paid a very heavy price over that 40-year span.
>> you need to have teststs and you need t to have levels of safety for all of these chemicals that we're i ingestin asas long as we do not have thi information and regulatioion on these thousands of chemicals that are being ingested all overer the country in water supplies, we are not going to be able to protect the future of this country. of these children. >> no corporation, no politician is bigger thaan a combined voice of people. when people join together andnd form their voice into one that's loud, we're not going to stand for this, there's no standing up agagainst that. ♪
>> chemical pollution isn't limited to industrialized nations. in peru, south america, mercury poisoning is impacting human health and it's the mining of gold driving this contamination. a new film "amazon gold" documents a deaeadly twist in an's questt for gold. >> the jungle begin with a patch here and a patch here and a patch here and then ththere's chunks of trtrees here and c ch of tree there is anand it's mud. becausee you havave m motors do over t there. so we walk across here and come upon this enormous hole. >> the gold mining is an issssu
that's hit bigtime the imagege peru and concern. >> mercury is one of the most toxic c natural subststances we know of.f. ththe amount of mercury that go intoto gold mining is estimated to be on the ordrder of about 3 tons per year. that's a a tremendous amount of mercury. >> what we see today about gold mining are no different than ththe drug trade. illegal gold mining and drug trafficking and the mafias are tied to there. >> we we d down to hahave a loo atat gold minining because gold minining is one of the underlyi things thatat's destroying this enormous forest. >> what we're seeing here is an
example of something that's happening where there's been a boom of destruction. > amazing. >> it has taken the miners a week to destroy a habitat that took millions of years to volve. >> for over ounce of gold extracted, the miners add an equal amount of mercury. the metal mercury is generally a liquid and has a particular affinity for gold. poured into a slurey with tiny flecks of gold, the e mercury binds to them, making them easa to retrieve.
>> mercury poisoningng affects the humaman body by affffecting nervous system. when you have high levels of mercury that are in t the blood hahair, or urinene which are th major bioindicacators, it indicatetes there isis going to an effect on t the brarain, peo have lower i.q. levels. they have balance issues, aggressiveness issues. they have problems with heararing, with sight, with taste. much of the mercury that's used in the process of concentrating that gold is lost, dumped into the rivers and lakes of the area that you have the mining. mercury has the unusual ability of concentrating and magnifying. and as it moves up the food chain as one animal eats another, in this case fish, it concentrates and accumulates. they have concentrations that
are millions or tens of millions of times higher than the water that they live in. it's a perfect mechanism to be able to concentrate it in a form that affects the next consumer, and in many cases hose are people. the carnenegie insnstitution fo science has crubblblingted -- conducted research since 2008 and found the levels of mercury are increasing in line with the gold production that's been occurring in the region. in a study published in match in the we found that capital, not 60% of the species old in the food markets exceed e.p.a. limits for safe consumption of fish because of mercury. the problem is a very difficult one. because it is not just an enviroronmental problem or anan economomic problem, it's a a so
problem. these are people that are poor, subsistence farmers trying to find a better life and taking g advantage of the opppportunitie that t they have, n namely that price ofof gold is nearly at an all-time h high. they'ree using the technology that they y have available, whw is one that's s been used for nearly 2,000 years. but they are unaware of the e price that they pay for doing this, not just for themselves but for the animals and plants that are affected. because of the economic opportunity, no one wants to hear bad news about something that's making hem huhundreds of times more money than they didi the year befefore.
[speaking g a foreign language]] >> yeah. >> this is s our future. >> i don't know. one of the most real experiences i've ever had in my life and it was breaking my heart. i know thehey fall one by one. in this place we're looking at it. and there were these machines and just hell. t things i e, all the know are fadading territories.
♪ >> there is a message of hope and that's one of the things i want to emphasizee. you may feel hopelessness but truly speaking there is a good reason for hope. weeks ago, there was a city demonstration in the streets. and it made a very important statement. it's where the movie takakes place. this is the first time there were people demonstrating in ththe city demanding action. and this is very strong and is something motivating me bigtime because this is what is going to make the change. is
[narrator] glob temempeturess are getting g warm. glaers are lting. sea levels are rising. scientists aeeee ththaincreaeang carbon diidide emsionons the atmosphere are changg g our imatate. whoa! r r somewhere the gagase are coming from is stil a maerer of batete. planescars, and indust are e common a accepd as the mainululprit but volcanicruruptio are alal known to throw huge aununts ogass inin the atmosphere. i'm makinitit mymy msion t tclimb into onef f theorlrld' most active volcanoes... [grunts] to find out if those seses ar cotribututg to climate change.
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