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The general knowledge in this chapter is intended for a broad variety of spacecraft: manned or unmanned, low Earth to geosynchronous orbit, cis-lunar, lunar, planetary, or deep space exploration. Materials for launch vehicles are covered in chapter 7. Materials used in the fabrication of spacecraft hardware should be selected by considering the operational requirements for the particular application and the design engineering properties of the candidate materials. The information provided in...
Topics: Finckenor, Miria M., NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
Earth to orbit launch vehicles are propelled by rocket engines and motors, both liquid and solid. This chapter will discuss liquid engines. The heart of a launch vehicle is its engine. The remainder of the vehicle (with the notable exceptions of the payload and guidance system) is an aero structure to support the propellant tanks which provide the fuel and oxidizer to feed the engine or engines. The basic principle behind a rocket engine is straightforward. The engine is a means to convert...
Topics: 12e8489fd6c74131a75cb315bcc85b0d, Aerojet Rocketdyne, Inc., Brown, Corey, Cannon, James L.,...
Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility for conditions relevant to high speed entry into a variety of atmospheres, including Earth, Venus, Titan, Mars and the Outer Planets. The tests that measured radiation relevant for Earth re-entry are the focus of this work and are taken from campaigns 47, 50, 52 and 57. These tests covered conditions from 8 km/s to 15.5 km/s at initial pressures ranging from 0.05 Torr to 1 Torr,...
Topics: Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., Brandis, A. M., Cruden, B. A.
This paper presents two methods for constructing an approximate performance function of a desired parameter using correlated parameters. The methods are useful when real-time measurements of a desired performance function are not available to applications such as extremum-seeking control systems. The first method approximates an a priori measured or estimated desired performance function by combining real-time measurements of readily available correlated parameters. The parameters are combined...
Topics: NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Ryan, John J.
The Linear Actuator System (LAS) is a major sub-system within the NASA Docking System (NDS). The NDS Block 1 will be used on the Boeing Crew Space Transportation (CST-100) system to achieve docking with the International Space Station. Critical functions in the Soft Capture aspect of docking are performed by the LAS, which implements the Soft Impact Mating and Attenuation Concept (SIMAC). This paper describes the general function of the LAS, the system's key requirements and technical...
Topics: Boeing Co., Dick, Brandon, Moog, Inc., Oesch, Chris
We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.
Topics: 0174de695b4744b4ad6b2adb511a2996, 1e232ab4739f4d5f8f8eac478f27ea9b,...
The International Space Station (ISS) first became a home and research laboratory for NASA and International Partner crewmembers over 16 years ago. Each ISS mission lasts approximately 6 months and consists of three to six crewmembers. After returning to Earth, most crewmembers participate in an extensive series of 30+ debriefs intended to further understand life onboard ISS and allow crews to reflect on their experiences. Examples of debrief data collected include ISS crew feedback about...
Topics: Bryant, Cody, MEI Technologies, Inc., Meza, David, NASA Johnson Space Center, Schoenstein, Nicole,...
In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the...
Topics: 167937085f064e4d93d2ce40e5502a96, Adam, Niklas, Carter, Donald, Cox, Trey, Kouba, Coy, Larner,...
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For the past four years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Most importantly, the AQM operates at atmospheric pressure and uses air as the GC carrier gas, which translates into a small reliable instrument. Onboard ISS there are two AQMs, with...
Topics: KBRWyle Aerospace Group, Limero, Thomas, Manney, Joshua A., Mudgett, Paul D., NASA Johnson Space...
Human missions to Mars may require radical changes in the approach to extra-vehicular (EVA) suit design. A major challenge is the balance of building a suit robust enough to complete multiple EVAs under intense ultraviolet (UV) light exposure without losing mechanical strength or compromising the suit's mobility. To study how the materials degrade on Mars in-situ, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invited the Advanced Space Suit team at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to place space suit...
Topics: Larson, Kristine, NASA Johnson Space Center
During a successful 2 year technology demonstration of the tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM) on the International Space Station (ISS), we began discussing with the US Navy the possibility of conducting a sea trial of an MGM on a submarine. The sea trial would also include a gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer based Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is used operationally on ISS for select volatile organic compounds. AQM results will be the...
Topics: Manney, Joshua A., Mudgett, Paul D., NASA Johnson Space Center, Naval Surface Warfare Center,...
Spectra or similar Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric is the likely choice for future structural space suit restraint materials due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance, and dimensional stability. During long duration space missions, space suits will be subjected to significant amounts of high-energy radiation from several different sources. To insure that pressure garment designs properly account for effects of radiation, it is important to...
Topics: Hussain, Sarosh, Jacobs Technology, Inc., NASA Johnson Space Center, Peters, Benjamin, Universities...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Jul 16, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Glycols, specifically ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol, are some of the major organic compounds found in the humidity condensate samples collected on the International Space Station. The current analytical method for glycols is a GC/MS method with direct sample injection. This method is simple and fast, but it is not very sensitive. Reporting limits for ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol are only 1 ppm. A much more sensitive GC/FID method was developed, in which glycols were derivatized...
Topics: Alverson, James T., Gazda, Daniel B., KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering, Kuo, C. Mike,...
Over the past two years, the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project under NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) funded an effort to develop an electromechanically-assisted space suit glove. The project was a collaboration between the Johnson Space Center's Software, Robotics, and Simulation Division and the Crew and Thermal Systems division. The project sought to combine finger actuator technology developed for Robonaut 2 with the softgoods from the ILC Phase VI EVA glove. The...
Topics: Laske, Evan A., McBryan, Emily R., NASA Johnson Space Center, Peters, Benjamin J., Rogers, Jonathan...
Cold-gas propulsion systems are well suited for some applications because they are simple to design and build, have low operating costs, and are non-toxic. The inherent tradeoff, however, is their relatively low impulse density. Nevertheless, a modest propulsion system, sized for Cubesats and designed for affordability, presents an attractive system solution for some missions, such as an on-orbit inspection free-flyer. NASA has a long-standing effort to develop propulsion systems appropriate...
Topics: Houston, TX, United States, NASA Johnson Space Center, Radke, Christopher, Studak, Joseph,...
Highly efficient mixing and atomization of fuel and oxidizers is an important factor in many propulsion and power generating applications. To better quantify breakup and mixing in atomizing sprays, several diagnostic techniques have been developed to collect droplet information and spray statistics. Several optical based techniques, such as Ballistic Imaging and SLIPI have previously demonstrated qualitative measurements in optically dense sprays, however these techniques have produced limited...
Topics: 9e2678399be64e829413e38370bdb3f3, Argonne National Lab., Halls, Benjamin, Kastengren, Alan, Meyer,...
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Predicting the performance of a crewmember in an extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit presents unique challenges. The kinematic patterns of suited motions are difficult to reproduce in gravity. Additionally, 3-D suited kinematics have been practically and technically difficult to quantify in an underwater environment, in which crewmembers are commonly trained and assessed for performance. The goal of this study is to develop a hardware and software system to predictively evaluate the...
Topics: Benson, Elizabeth, Bernal, Yaritza, GeoLogics Corp., Jarvis, Sarah, Kim, Han, Leidos, Inc., MEI...
This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this...
Topics: Aerodyne Industries, LLC, Astro Technology, Inc., Bentley, Nicole L., Brower, David V., Le, Suy Q.,...
This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this...
Topics: Aerodyne Industries, LLC, Aerospace Corp., Astro Technology, Inc., Bentley, Nicole, Brower, David,...
In support of ongoing efforts to bring commercial supersonic flight to the public, the Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence (SonicBAT) flight test was conducted at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. During this test, airborne sonic boom measurements were made using an instrumented TG-14 motor glider, called the Airborne Acoustic Measurement Platform (AAMP).During the flight program, the AAMP was consistently able to measure the sonic boom wave that was reflected off of the ground, in...
Topics: Cliatt, Larry J., II, Kantor, Samuel R., NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center
A World Meteorological Organization weather and climate extremes committee has judged that the world's longest reported distance for a single lightning flash occurred with a horizontal distance of 321 km (199.5 mi) over Oklahoma in 2007, while the world's longest reported duration for a single lightning flash is an event that lasted continuously for 7.74 seconds over southern France in 2012. In addition, the committee has unanimously recommended amendment of the AMS Glossary of Meteorology...
Topics: Arizona State Univ., Avila, Eldo E., Brunet, Manola, Bureau of Meteorology, Carbin, Gregory,...
The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn has recently switched to from using the Icing Blade to using the SEA Multi-Element Sensor (also known as the multi-wire) for its calibration of cloud liquid water content. In order to perform this transition, tests were completed to compare the Multi-Element Sensor to the Icing Blade, particularly with respect to liquid water content, airspeed, and drop size. The two instruments were found to compare well for the majority of Appendix C conditions....
Topics: HX5 Sierra, LLC, Ide, Robert F., NASA Glenn Research Center, Steen, Laura E., Van Zante, Judith Foss
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Jun 5, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry...
Topics: Ling, Lisa, NASA Johnson Space Center
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Jun 5, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.
Topics: Lillard, Randolph P., NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Center, Olsen, Michael E.
This paper reports computational analyses in support of two wedge tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted using two different wedge models, each placed in a free jet downstream of a corresponding different conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. Panel test articles included a metallic separation bolt imbedded in the compression-pad and heat shield materials, resulting in a circular protuberance over a flat plate....
Topics: Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., Gokcen, Tahir, Skokova, Kristina A.
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
May 18, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters of germanium supplied as single crystal beams and coarse grain disks were measured. Although germanium is anisotropic (A* 1.7), it is not as anisotropic as SiC, NiAl, or Cu. Thus the fracture toughness was similar on the 100, 110, and 111 planes, however, measurements associated with randomly oriented grinding cracks were 6 to 30 higher. Crack extension in ring loaded disks occurred on the 111 planes due to both the lower fracture energy...
Topics: Baker, Eric, Connecticut Reserve Technologies, Inc., NASA Glenn Research Center, Rogers, Richard,...
Introduction: Microgravity exposure may alter the likelihood that astronauts will experience renal stones. The potential risk includes both acute and chronic health issues, with the potential for significant impact on mission objectives. Methods: To understand the role of the NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) research agenda in both preventing and addressing renal stones in spaceflight, current astronaut epidemiologic data and a summary of programmatic considerations are reviewed. Results:...
Topics: Antonsen, Erik, KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering, NASA Johnson Space Center, Pietrzyk,...
The NASA Earth observations dataset obtained by humans in orbit using handheld film and digital cameras is freely accessible to the global community through the online searchable database at https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov, and offers a useful compliment to traditional ground-commanded sensor data. The dataset includes imagery from the NASA Mercury (1961) through present-day International Space Station (ISS) programs, and currently totals over 2.6 million individual frames. Geographic coverage of the...
Topics: NASA Johnson Space Center, Stefanov, William L.
Medical support of spaceflight training operations across international lines is a unique circumstance with potential applications to other aerospace medicine support scenarios. KBRwyle's Star City Medical Support Group (SCMSG) has fulfilled this role since the Mir-Shuttle era, with extensive experience and updates to share with the greater AsMA community. OVERVIEW: The current Soyuz training flow for assigned ISS crewmembers takes place in Star City, Russia. Soyuz training flow involves...
Topics: Chough, Natacha, Cole, Richard, Menon, Anil, NASA Johnson Space Center, Patlach, Robert, Pattarini,...
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INTRODUCTION: Long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the space medical system such as the inability to evacuate to Earth, communication delays, and limitations in clinical skillsets. NASA recognizes the need to improve capabilities for autonomous care on such missions. As the medical system is developed, it is important to have an ability to evaluate the trade space of what resources will be most important. The Medical Optimization Network for Space...
Topics: Antonsen, E. L., Baylor Univ., Kerstman, E. L., Mulcahy, R., Reyes, D., Rubin, D., Shah, R. V.,...
NASA astronauts on active status require medical certification for aircraft flying duties as well as readiness for long duration spaceflight training, launch to the International Space Station (ISS), and mission continuation during spaceflight operations. Behavioral fitness and adaptability is an inherent component of medical certification at NASA and requires a unique approach that spans the professional life-span of all active astronauts. TOPIC: This presentation will address the Behavioral...
Topics: Beven, G. E., NASA Johnson Space Center
Background: Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) has been demonstrated to be predictive of future cardiovascular events. Within various populations, radiation exposure, stress, and physical confinement have all been linked to an increased CIMT. Recent research discovered CIMT was significantly increased in ten long duration astronauts from pre-flight to four days post flight. The relationship between spaceflight and CIMT is not understood and trends in CIMT within the larger astronaut...
Topics: Charvat, Jacqueline, Garcia, Kathleen, Johnston, Smith, Kentucky Univ., Locke, James, NASA Johnson...
While Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) is not a first-line modality to evaluate anterior eye structures terrestrially, it is a resource already available on the International Space Station (ISS) that can be used in medical contingencies that involve the anterior eye. With remote guidance and subject matter expert (SME) support from the ground, a minimally trained crewmember can now use OCT to evaluate anterior eye pathologies on orbit. OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce...
Topics: California Univ., Fer, Dan M., KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering, Law, Jennifer, NASA...
This panel presents recent updates to and a comprehensive overview of the operational medical support provided to ISS crewmembers in Star City, Russia and Kazakhstan as part of UTMB/KBRwyle's Human Health & Performance contract. With the current Soyuz training flow, physician support is required for nominal training evolutions involving pressure changes or other potential physical risks detailed in this presentation. In addition, full-time physician presence in Star City helps to address...
Topics: Chough, Natacha, Cole, Richard, Menon, Anil, NASA Johnson Space Center, Patlach, Robert, Pattarini,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Apr 29, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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INTRODUCTION: NASA's Space Medicine community knowledge regarding the \"Vision Impairment Intracranial Pressure\", or VIIP.has been evolving over time.. Various measures of occupational health related to this condition had to be determined and then plans/processes put into place. The most robust of these processes were inititated in 2010. This presentation will provide a clinic update of the astronaut occupational health data related to VIIP. METHODS: NASA and its international...
Topics: NASA Johnson Space Center, Tarver, William
Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was...
Topics: Cobel, Christopher, Cole, Robert, KBRWyle Aerospace Group, Mason, Sara, Mei Technology Corp., NASA...
INTRODUCTION: Among otherwise healthy astronauts undertaking deep space missions, the risks for acute appendicitis (AA) and cholecystitis (AC) are not zero. If these conditions were to occur during spaceflight they may require surgery for definitive care. The proposed study quantifies and compares the risks of developing de novo AA and AC in-flight to the surgical risks of prophylactic laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and cholecystectomy (LC) using NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM). METHODS:...
Topics: Antonsen, Erik, California Inst. of Tech., California Univ., San Diego, Carroll, Danielle,...
Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for...
Topics: Garcia, Kathleen, Locke, James, NASA Johnson Space Center, Reyes, David, Sargsyan, Ashot, Wyle...
Motivation. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy charged the nation \"to land a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth.\" Eight years later, the Apollo 11 astronauts splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after this first 8-day journey to the moon. As humans had never ventured to another extraterrestrial body, the U.S. government noted the great uncertainty associated with the unknown exposures related to this historic mission. Overview. With this uncertainty in mind, a newly formed...
Topics: Dooling, Jackson, Hayes, Judith, NASA Johnson Space Center, Rice Univ.
Ultrasound (US) specifically looking for asymptomatic renal calcifications that may be renal stones is typically not done in the terrestrial setting. Standard abdominal US without a renal focus may discover incidental, mineralized renal material (MRM); however punctate solid areas of MRM is less than 3 mm are usually considered subclinical. Detecting these early calcifications before they become symptomatic renal stones is critical to prevent adverse medical and mission outcomes during...
Topics: Garcia, Kathleen, Locke, James, NASA Johnson Space Center, Reyes, David, Sargsyan, Ashot, Wyle...
Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries have yielded significant performance advantages for many industries, including the aerospace industry, and have been selected to replace nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries for the International Space Station (ISS) program to meet the energy storage demands. As the ISS uses its vast solar arrays to generate its power, the solar ar-rays meet their sunlit power demands and supply excess power to battery packs for power de-livery on the sun obscured phase of the...
Topics: Christiansen, E. L., Jacobs Technologies Engineering Science Contract Group, Lear, D. M., Lyons,...
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The informed design with respect to hypervelocity collisions involving micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) is influential to the success of space missions. For an orbit comparable to that of the International Space Station, velocities for MMOD can range from 1 to 15 km/s, with an average velocity around 10 km/cu s. The high energy released during collisions at these speeds can result in damage to a spacecraft, or worst-case, loss of the spacecraft, thus outlining the importance of methods...
Topics: Carrasquilla, Maria J., Florida Univ., Miller, Joshua E., NASA Johnson Space Center
As the outlook for space exploration becomes more ambitious and spacecraft travel deeper into space than ever before, it is increasingly important that propulsion systems perform reliably within the space environment. The increased reliability compels designers to increase design margin at the expense of system mass, which contrasts with the need to limit vehicle mass to maximize payload. Such are the factors that motivate the integration of high specific strength composite materials in the...
Topics: Davis, B. A., Garcia, M. A., Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Miller, J. E., Texas Univ.
The multipurpose crew vehicle, Orion, is being designed and built for NASA to handle the rigors of crew launch, sustainment and return from scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. In this role, the Orion vehicle is meant to operate in the space environments like the naturally occurring meteoroid and the artificial orbital debris environments (MMOD) with successful atmospheric reentry at the conclusion of the flight. As a result, Orion's reentry module uses durable porous, ceramic tiles on...
Topics: Barrios Technology, Inc., Berger, E. L., Bohl, W. E., Christiansen, E. L., Davis, B. A., Deighton,...
In the last few years, radio technologies for unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) have advanced very rapidly. The increasing need to fly unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national security, defense, and science has pushed ahead the design and implementation of new radio platforms. However, a lot still has to be done to improve those radios in terms of performance and capabilities. In addition, an important aspect to...
Topics: Alakija, Cameron, Arizona Univ., Harris, Fred, Krunz, Marwan, NASA Glenn Research Center, Sheehe,...
Existing DoD and NASA satellite breakup models are based on a key laboratory test, Satellite Orbital debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which has supported many applications and matched on-orbit events involving older satellite designs reasonably well over the years. In order to update and improve these models, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, in collaboration with the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Florida,...
Topics: Aerospace Corp., Air Force Space Div., Cowardin, Heather, Fitz-Coy, Norman, Florida Univ., Huynh,...
For many years, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has been collecting measurements of the orbital debris environment from the Haystack Ultra-wideband Satellite Imaging Radar (HUSIR) and its auxiliary (HAX). These measurements sample the small debris population in low earth orbit (LEO). This paper will provide an overview of recent observations and highlight trends in selected debris populations. Using the NASA size estimation model, objects with a characteristic size of 1 cm and larger...
Topics: Blackwell, Chris, Hamilton, Joseph, Jacobs Technology, Inc., Juarez, Quanette, McSheehy, Richard,...
Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UKIRT 1-5 micron Imager Spectrometer (UIST) cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Two of the objects are controlled spacecraft, twelve are non-controlled spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and three are...
Topics: Abercromby, Kira, Buckalew, Brent, California Polytechnic State Univ., Cowardin, Heather, Frith,...
The density scale height of the Earth's atmosphere undergoes significant reduction in the final phases of a natural decay. It can be shown that for most realistic ballistic numbers, it is possible to exploit this effect to amplify available spacecraft dV by using it at the penultimate perigee to penetrate into higher drag regions at final apogee. The drag at this lower pass can more effectively propel a spacecraft towards the final target region than applying the same dV direct Hohmann transfer...
Topics: Bacon, John, NASA Johnson Space Center
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Apr 18, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Since February 2001, the Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) group at the Johnson Space Center in Houston has performed 26 post-flight inspections on space exposed hardware that have been returned from the International Space Station. Data on 1,024 observations of MMOD damage have been collected from these inspections. Survey documentation typically includes impact feature location and size measurements as well as microscopic photography (25-200x). Sampling of impacts sites for projectile...
Topics: Christiansen, E., Hyde, James, Jacobs Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Lear, D., NASA Johnson Space...
Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of non-spherical satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA's Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well...
Topics: Matney, Mark, NASA Johnson Space Center
A breakup of the Titan 3C-17 Transtage rocket body was reported to have occurred on June 4th, 2014 at 02:38 UT by the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Five objects were associated with this breakup and this is the fourth breakup known for this class of object. There are likely many more objects associated with this event that are not within the Space Surveillance Network's ability to detect and have not been catalogued. Several months after the breakup, observing time was obtained on the...
Topics: Anz-Meador, Phillip, Barker, Ed, Buckalew, Brent, Cowardin, Heather, Frith, James, Jacobs...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Apr 18, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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In 2015, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) completed the installation of the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope designed with a fast tracking capability for observing orbital debris at all orbital regimes (Low-Erath orbits to Geosyncronous (GEO) orbits) from a low latitude site. This new asset is dedicated year-round for debris observations, and its location fills a geographical gap in the Ground-based Electro Optical Space...
Topics: Anz-Meador, P., British Columbia Univ., Buckalew, B., Cowardin, H. M., Frith, J., Hickson, P.,...
This paper explores the differences between, and shares the lessons learned from, two hypervelocity impact experiments critical to the update of orbital debris environment models. The procedures and processes of the fourth Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT) were analyzed and related to the ongoing DebriSat experiment. SOCIT was the first hypervelocity impact test designed specifically for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It targeted a 1960's U.S. Navy satellite,...
Topics: Aerospace Corp., Air Force Systems Command, Ausay, Erick, Blake, Brandon, Boyle, Colleen, Cornejo,...
Long-term models, such as NASA's LEGEND (LEO (Low-Earth Orbit)-to-GEO (Geosynchrous Earth Orbit) Environment Debris) model, are used to make predictions about how space activities will affect the long-term evolution of the debris environment. Part of this process is to predict how spacecraft and rocket bodies will be launched and left in the environment in the future. This has usually been accomplished by repeating past launch history to simulate future launches. It was partially upon the basis...
Topics: GeoControl Systems, Inc., HX5, LLC, Manis, A. P., Matney, M. J., NASA Johnson Space Center, Vavrin,...
This paper continues the annual tradition of summarizing at this conference the results of chemical analyses performed on archival potable water samples returned from the International Space Station (ISS). 2016 represented a banner year for life on board the ISS, including the successful conclusion for two crew members of a record one-year mission. Water reclaimed from urine and/or humidity condensate remained the primary source of potable water for the crew members of ISS Expeditions 46-50....
Topics: Alverson, James T., Benoit, Mickie J., Gazda, Daniel B., Gillispie, Robert L., Hudson, Edgar K.,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Apr 10, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Space weathering alters the chemistry, microstructure, and spectral proper-ties of grains on the surfaces of airless bodies by two major processes: micrometeorite impacts and solar wind interactions. Investigating the nature of space weathering processes both in returned samples and in remote sensing observations provides information fundamental to understanding the evolution of airless body regoliths, improving our ability to determine the surface composition of asteroids, and linking...
Topics: Berger, E. L., Jacobs Technologies Engineering Science Contract Group, Keller, L. P., NASA Johnson...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Apr 10, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The recovery of meteorites from the impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 in the Nubian Desert of Sudan on October 7, 2008, marked the first time meteorites were collected from an asteroid observed in space by astronomical techniques before impacting. Search teams from the University of Khartoum traced the location of the strewn field and collected about 660 meteorites in four expeditions to the fall region, all of which have known fall coordinates. Upon further study, the Almahata Sitta meteorites...
Topics: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Fioretti, A. M., Goodrich, C., Jenniskens, P., Khartoum Univ.,...
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The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type basalts and gabbros - rocks composed of ferroan pigeonite and augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal [1]. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid, widely considered to be 4 Vesta, along with howardites and diogenites [1, 2]. High precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some eucrites have small, well-resolved O-isotopic differences from the group mean...
Topics: Berger, E. L., Jacobs Technology, Inc., Le, L., Mittlefehldt, D. W., NASA Johnson Space Center
Kaidun is a brecciated meteorite containing many different types of meteorites. It is composed of carbonaceous, enstatite, ordinary and R chondrites with smaller amounts of basaltic achondrites, impact melt products and unknown [1, 2]. Because of the multiple components and high abundance of carbonaceous chondrites, the Kaidun parent body was probably a large C-type asteroid in order to have accumulated clasts of many unrelated asteroids, and thus Kaidun contains previously unknown...
Topics: Hasegawa, H., Higashi, K., Mikouchi, T., NASA Johnson Space Center, Tokyo Univ., Zolensky, M. E.
Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are primitive materials probably deriving from C, P and D asteroids, and as such potentially include samples and analogues of the target asteroids of the Dawn, Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-Rex missions. Foremost among the C chondrites are the CM chondrites, the most common type, and which have experienced the widest range of early solar system processes including oxidation, hydration, metamorphism, and impact shock deformation, often repeatedly or cyclically [1]. To track...
Topics: Bristol Univ., Caffee, M., California Univ., Gregory, T., Imae, N., Jacobs Technology, Inc., Le,...
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Mar 20, 2017 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Recent astronomical observations and theoretical modeling led to a consensus regarding the global scenario of the formation of young stellar objects (YSO) from a cold molecular cloud of interstellar dust (organics and minerals) and gas that, in some cases, leads to the formation of a planetary system. In the case of our Solar System, which has already evolved for approximately 4567 Ma, the quest is to access, through the investigation of planets, moons, cometary and asteroidal bodies,...
Topics: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Delbo, M., Ganino, C., Hawaii Univ., Krot, A. N.,...
Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics, while some are known to demonstrate mineralogical and petrologic evidence of having been thermally metamorphosed after aqueous alteration. This group of meteorites are commonly referred as thermally met-amorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs), and their reflectance spectra show resemblances to that of C-type asteroids which typically have low albedos. This suggests that the surfaces of the C-type...
Topics: Chan, Q. H. S., Colbert, M., Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Kebukawa, Y., Kyoto Univ., Maisano,...
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The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites is widely considered to originate from asteroid 4 Vesta, as a result of a global magma ocean style of differentiation. A global magmatic stage would allow silicate material to be well mixed, destroying any initial heterogeneity that may have been present resulting in the uniformity of eucrite and diogenite delta(exp 17)O, for example. The Fe/Mn ratio of mafic phases in planetary basalts can be diagnostic of different source bodies as...
Topics: Durham Univ., Hodges, Z. V., Mittlefehldt, D. W., NASA Johnson Space Center
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We present the first fully quantitative compositional maps of lunar meteorite NWA 2995 using electron microprobe stage mapping, and compare selected clast mineralogy and chemistry. NWA 2995 is a feldspathic fragmental breccia containing numerous highland fine grained lithologies, including anorthosite, norite, olivine basalt, subophitic basalt, gabbro, KREEP-like basalt, granulitic and glassy impact melts, coarse-grained mineral fragments, Fe-Ni metal, and glassy matrix [1]. Chips of NWA 2995,...
Topics: Carpenter, P. K., Hahn, T. M., Jolliff, B. L., Korotev, R. L., NASA Johnson Space Center,...
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We have undertaken an Ar-Ar thermochronology investigation as part of a coordinated multichronometer analysis of a single Apollo 12 impact- melt breccia to demonstrate the wide range of information that can be obtained for a single complex rock. This has implications for the age of formation, component makeup, and subsequent impact/shock and exposure history of the sample. This study also serves as a capabilities demonstration for the proposed MoonRise Mission [1]. The goal of this...
Topics: Borg, L. E., Cassata, W. S., Crow, C. A., Jolliff, B. L., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., NASA...
The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is the past, present, and future home of all of NASA's astromaterials sample collections. JSC curation currently houses all or part of nine different sample collections: (1) Apollo samples (1969), (2) Lunar samples (1972), (3) Antarctic meteorites (1976), (4) Cosmic Dust particles (1981), (5) Microparticle Impact Collection (1985), (6) Genesis solar wind atoms (2004); (7) Stardust comet...
Topics: Coleff, D. M., Jacobs Technology, Inc., McCubbin, F. M., NASA Johnson Space Center, Zeigler, R. A.
CR chondrites are a group of primitive carbonaceous chondrites that preserve nebular records of the formation conditions of their components. We have been investigating a set of Antarctic CR chondrites from the Japanese-NIPR collection in order to study variations within this group. During our study, we have found an AOA that encloses an ultrarefractory (UR) CAI in Yamato-793261 (Y-793261). UR CAIs are rare in carbonaceous chondrites, and only three UR CAIs in AOAs have been identified so far....
Topics: Fagan, T. J., Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Komatsu, M., Mikouchi, T., NASA...
The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting...
Topics: Lee, Lesley, NASA Johnson Space Center, Rhodes, Bradley, Rossi, Meredith, Van Baalen, Mary, Wear,...
Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray jets occur frequently in magnetically open coronal holes on the Sun, especially at high solar latitudes. Some of these jets are observed by white-light coronagraphs as they propagate through the outer corona toward the inner heliosphere, and it has been proposed that they give rise to microstreams and torsional Alfven waves detected in situ in the solar wind. To predict and understand the signatures of coronal-hole jets, we have performed a detailed statistical...
Topics: Catholic Univ. of America, DeVore, C. Richard, Karpen, Judith T., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,...
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Crew time is a precious resource due to the expense of trained human operators in space. Efficient caretaker robots could lessen the manual labor load required by frequent vehicular and life support maintenance tasks, freeing astronaut time for scientific mission objectives. Humanoid robots can fluidly exist alongside human counterparts due to their form, but they are complex and high-dimensional platforms. This paper describes a system that human operators can use to maneuver Robonaut 2 (R2),...
Topics: Badger, Julia, Baker, William, Kavraki, Lydia, Kingston, Zachary, Moll, Mark, NASA Johnson Space...
As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of microgravity on the human body have become far better understood, as have the exercise countermeasures. Through use of a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices, today's astronauts and cosmonauts are able to partially counter the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength that otherwise might occur during their missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2000, the ISS...
Topics: Engineering Research and Consulting, Inc., Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Moore, Cherice, NASA...
The surface of Mars once had abundant water flowing on its surface, but now there is a general perception that this surface is completely dry. Several lines of research have shown that there are sources of potentially large quantities of water at many locations on the surface, including regions considered as candidates for future human missions. Traditionally, system designs for these human missions are constrained to tightly recycle water and oxygen, and current resource utilization strategies...
Topics: Andrews, Alida, Hoffman, Stephen, Joosten, Kent, NASA Johnson Space Center, Science Applications...
Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an emerging data networking technology designed to abstract the hardware communication layer from the spacecraft/payload computing resources. DTN is specifically designed to operate in environments where link delays and disruptions are common (e.g., space-based networks). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated DTN on several missions, such as the Deep Impact Networking (DINET) experiment, the Earth Observing Mission 1...
Topics: Boeing Co., Davidson, Suzanne R., HOSC Services Contract, NASA Johnson Space Center, Pitts, Lee,...
NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. A mission was undertaken in 2016, NEEMO 21, at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During the mission, the effects of varied oper-ations concepts with representative communication latencies as-sociated with Mars missions were studied. Six subjects were weighed out to...
Topics: Abercromby, Andrew F. J., Beaton, Kara H., Chappell, Steven P., Coan, David, Gernhardt, Michael L.,...