tv [untitled] RT July 21, 2010 4:30pm-5:00pm EDT
but happy with this is all to commit your life from the russian capital twenty four hours a day top stories now the minutes and shoot two security guards dead to gain access to a hydroelectric power plant in russia's republic of companies. set off to all the people injured on the generators put out of action. and iraqi american is drawing attention to the war in iraq these are the skin these have represented the campaigns many victims to to dani's back saying he's angry the events in his motherland are buried by the media. and also he's looking at whether pharmaceutical companies are cashing in on aids patients scientists from around the world are putting the disease under scrutiny at a conference in vienna delegates heard about some breakthroughs in treatment. i'll be back with more news for us in half an hour from now in the meantime we bring a special report on the space race between the u.s. and the soviet union and the two remarkable men on both sides of the atlantic.
that was in the sixteenth century. once there lived a chinese nobleman by the name of one who is most cherished ambition was to go to the moon using the resources available seven powder kegs to a bamboo then he put on his best clothes and ignited the barrels. when the smoke cleared after the explosion there was neither a trace of nor of who. human history is rich with ill fated attempts to get into space but in the twentieth century to remarkable men did conquer the skies but this time around they used rocket engines rather than exploding armchairs to propel them into. their names then. they were the architects of the american and russian space programs. in the battle to reach out to space. and
make their first attempts to reach for the stars in their childhood as a boy in the soviet union so gay designed simple ideas but as time went by he came up with a more sophisticated rocket propelled craft as for venice at the age of twelve he created a prototype rocket by equipping a crate with fireworks he also built a walking wagon that he launched in his hometown and apparently this wagon in the ad had. rockets he had made on it and it. ran down the main street of his hometown and. who was von braun's long time private secretary says venet attracted police attention many times for firing things into the air nowadays buckbee often takes people on a tour of the space museum in huntsville where each exhibit is related to von braun . but the best storyteller of. exploits is his only daughter natalia
she wrote about him in three volumes of memoirs simply titled my father. with these this is a picture of the first soviet rocket it was launched on august seventeenth the one nine hundred thirty three though it spent only eighteen seconds in the air flying it altitude of four hundred meters it was a spectacular success. moscow in the one nine hundred thirty s. was a time of daring ambition and breathtaking endeavor it's one group of young scientists infusing as a model they have to try and turn fantasy into reality they were so desperately short of money that they had to hire a tram to take this second rocket to its launch pad. was the driving force behind the team researching propulsion they kept saying to each other we will go to mars yes we will. rested for high treason in nineteen thirty eight but for many years he didn't know why he protested his innocence despite brutal questioning and only
broke down when interrogators showed him a picture of his daughter saying she'd be orphaned if he didn't confess he got ten years in prison at the height of stalin's purges of the bit at the moment i was five years old when my mother and i went to see him i did not know he had been arrested i had been told that he was away because he was the pilot when we entered small room a warden came in through another door. i said papa how could you possibly lend your airplane in that small courtyard at that moment the warden chipped in you know dear landing here is no problem but getting out of here is very difficult. after his prison term was moved to a good rushes remoteness east where inmates were forced to mine for gold camp in maine died every day. dropped to just forty five kilos during his time that he lost more than half his teeth due to scale but he survived because stanley needed rocket scientists for the soviet union's meteors shield. was released six years later he
told his daughter wife. and mother about his life in the camp only once he asked them not to bring the subject up again and to steer clear of gold ornaments. served his term in a good light then of von braun was in nazi germany rising through the ranks on the s.s. command he started work on a secret project after hitler ordered his scientists to create a weapon capable of hitting distant targets. up to several setbacks the infamous v. two rocket was created it was the world's first ballistic missile ready to fire.
and this is an old house in a small provincial town in central germany it's a place of simple beauty and quiet gentle life. the town also has a special museum the wagon outside the entrance is like those used to bring thousands of people to this tranquil place in one thousand nine hundred three to a notorious concentration camp and most of the exhibits though are underground. the v. two was made here at this secret some terrain and plant it's workman with inmates from the metal back door of labor camp which was a part of booth and vote now we're entering the original tunnel a see huge tunnel as you can see with about twelve mistress.
in this model you can see two. crossed. a and b. and forty six crossed tunnels built by concentration camp prisoners in the last years of the war if you look don here you can see an origin. and which was moved from the tunnel behind here to show it to visitors. the prisoners spent half a year underground without seeing so much as a sliver of daylight at the time they didn't know the purpose of the tunnels but they later realized that they have been putting together a monstrous weapon designed to destroy their homes countries and loved ones they had to sleep in bets with thought any equipment only a wooden nothing. the senate terry conditions were catastrophic
people died after just two will three months of intolerable work the dead were replaced with new inmates soviet people made up one third of the door of prison population. the b two b. once were unique weapons because these were the only weapons where more people died building them then people died by using these weapons. half of the six thousand rockets made to the underground plants during the eighteen months of his existence were faulty the inmates did all they could to make sure the weapons remained on the ground they breached production ruse and use defective components. thirty five thousand inmates died during the plant's lifetime. cost six human lives. without doubt venom von braun paid several visits to the
facility. when he went down into the tunnels he saw hundreds of dead inmates but apparently. did not seem fazed. much later his face appeared on the cover of time magazine he shook hands with president kennedy and was awarded medals his impassioned glorification of american democracy came much later too but in may nine hundred forty five d.s.'s major was faced with a choice. so. he was reflecting with his colleagues what to do after the german defeat and in forty four they decided most of them decided to go to the americans. surprisingly the americans welcomed their former enemies despite the fact that a new conflict was on the horizon the cold war. who flew with russians their first job was to learn how to fly an airplane to go
bomb russia the american people looked at these these people the local people anyway as being able to assist us in developing a new system for defense of the country the americans won the space race but did we win the space race when you look at the fathers of space in the last century you had one of on braun who was german and then you look at the russians have surrogate pavlovitch carlo he had spent time in the gulag and some of his first designs that he did on aviation where we're from the gulag. so gay was eventually released from prison and was no longer an enemy of the soviet people in fact he became his country's protector and made chief designer of a long range ballistic missile called item number one. even lost his identity and was now a top secret somebody working on a top secret tusk. get
a mind when they went to germany they started to study german rocket technology. was first so long an able to perform his job ended up diving deeper into the work he loved so much. he. made a faithful replica of the v. two rocket on stalin's orders although it was successfully launched realized that the rocket was not good enough he was sure he could make an even better one and he did it was called the art to kill. the soviet union in the united states with a neck and neck in the construction of long range missiles but that changed in one nine hundred fifty seven in the midst of the cold war the arms race became the space race.
on the morning of october fifth hundred years in the united states began picking up on signals from space a couple of hours later president eisenhower was told about the russian mention of earth's first satellite he cut short his vacation stock exchange shares took a sharp downturn exactly the russians are launched into space was totally unclear we couldn't even figure out what sputnik meant we kept referring to it as a bomb and we were trying to write a headline right you know soviet union put a bomb in space they said oh no don't call a bomb there we eventually realized it was a scientific satellite. the world sputnik was soon. to become familiar with the english language large numbers of people stayed away from work to try and hear the beeping sound from the satellite they gathered on rooftops in the hope of seeing a little spot of manmade light blinking up in the sky all they did was take this small extra payload on top of a long range ballistic missile and sent him into orbit and then someone had the
idea to do that b. so you would hear it and that transformed the world as we know it. when it's has changed for example had to strike this came into fashion and. only a handful of people even the sputnik being designed by surrogate cut you off his name did not appear anyway it was soviet leader nikita khrushchev the one. our sputnik is searching the earth and the waiting for american and other spot makes to show up side by side with it before commonwealth of sputnik's. von braun's attempt to launch the first u.s. satellite ended in the van gogh explained. when you. called my father to tell him that he should launch another sputnik in
time for the anniversary of the one nine hundred seventeen october revolution which was close at hand but people had gone on vacation and had to be summoned back. khrushchev wanted something more than just another sputnik she wanted something entirely new. given less than a month to invent one that would need the blueprints no quality control the whole enterprise depended on trust throughout his career it was always looking for people willing to forgo food and sleep and work through the night. is a psychologist from russian space research center star city he used to work under. he was a great man and it was enough for him to look at you and he got a wealth of information even though he was a freak with his subordinates he had a very delicate soul. it was a four legged cosmonaut that was the first living creature to head towards the stars
a dog called lika when she was launched into space there were tears in her size time magazine called her the world's most lonely and miserable dog that was true it was a one way ticket for like it a monument was unveiled in moscow to mark the fiftieth anniversary of a space mission. but there is this monument to commemorate the dogs greatest predictor people bring treats you know what would look someone has even brought a candy here for the. book some even bring sausages for the lovely puppy and i mean . at that time it was impossible to retrieve a sputnik for movies people around the world accused the soviet union of animal cruelty but like his sacrifice was of undoubted benefit to science scientists were unsure whether the biological functions could work in zero gravity i mean there are so many things we take for granted today but with the heart pump in zero gravity would blood flow and zero gravity would your mind you know be alert in zero gravity
meanwhile the americans too were known to animals into the stratosphere notably monkeys they were put under anaesthetic but they also died in their missions. but eventually there was a happy ending with two dogs called falcon and that both were well behaved. just the feelings they became fitness even so that one day flight was problem free and they became the first creatures ever to safely return from obey it. the soviet mongrels one step faint and almost something that pedigree could ever dream of soon after returning to earth gave birth to six healthy pups nikita khrushchev gave one of them to president kennedy's daughter caroline it was a constant reminder to the rest of the soviet space program had defeated him in the
first round of the space race. culture is that so much of a taxpayer is limited to the position of a real mystery of the games business fighting a deadly virus or the endless funding of big pharma how much consensus. every month we give you the future we help you understand how we get there and what tomorrow brings the best in science and technology from across russia and around the world join us acknowledge update on our g. sailors call it the sea canary due to its high pitched twitter this morning now on this highly communicative. what's it trying to say and how can we decode its meaning which. the secrets of.
his snow white smile con could millions of hops he was a welcome guest around the world and the epitome of mankind's dreams. yuri gagarin the first man in space a pioneer forever. so again keller golf is among those who wanted to take part in the national celebration. but his car was barred from the red square. moving recognized. commuted from a to b. when the no. full committee asked the crucial thing to disclose the name of the chief designer who made it possible for the first sputnik and forgotten to go into the base. of the entire nation created the advanced technology that. never complained about the fact that his health had been affected by the prison
camp the public could not associate him with the space program he had no time for that he was busy turning his dreams into reality. of love eureka guarin as though he were his own son still give both. yuri gagarin complemented each other as personalities they were competent all with each other sometimes they didn't even need to talk the first u.s. astronauts alan shepard went into space a month after go and spend only fifteen minutes there and had spent two hours in orbit around braun was clearly losing the race he was tired of being coming in second he was it was pretty well i think discussed it with with the system the government system that that we were operating under not realizing that the russians were really technology smart. was very much in the public eye he often appeared on television and even helped walt disney
sell the ambition of space travel so the american public he was the first astro salesman. if we were to stop that they organized well supported space program i believe a practical passenger rocket could be built and tested within ten years. the press also joined in on the space race. and american newspapers claimed that eleven cosmonauts went into space before guarin did and never return to earth alive they were known as the so-called missing cosmonauts the reports even gave their names to lend credibility to the stories. i was married to one of the names of. these homes.
was phoned on to these tests not true it was a form of relaxation. it was a tester he often told her about how he had spent six months in a camp into the ocean he was compelled to live high in the mountains where there was a severe shortage of oxygen and he went through training in a fast spinning centrifuge they were asked to press a button even the speed was too much for them but they never did because they had an overpowering desire to serve their country in space exploration chose to ignore this train so that they would be allowed to go into space. needless to say. was stunned by a newspaper report claiming he was dead. he immediately called his mother to tell her he was ok then he supposedly missing cosmonauts wrote an article for a newspaper headlined faces gentleman. i saw it as something of
a joke they even liked it because they meant somebody knew them and had put them on the map searches. thousand and two but it had nothing to do with any fabricated space experiment. there was a time when the me who wanted to be a minerals a special kind of cosmonaut soon after garden space flight. of announced he was going to draw on engineers at his enterprise to put together a group of cosmonauts their job would be to assemble three parts of a giant ship one obeys the spacecraft would then head to miles from there it was great dream von braun's ambition of the time didn't extend beyond reaching the moon . spoke of the lunar race was an invention in reality there was no lunar rates. shows off his secret notebook it contains drafts and other details relating to the
mas project. sir for i put down a wizard gave her a loaf had sold me and launched a morse was scheduled for early one nine hundred seventy four. if his notes are anything to go by so did not start on a new no project until one thousand nine hundred sixty four but von braun had been working on it for three years following president kennedy's announcements of plans to conquer the moon. but was compelled to focus his attention on the moon instead of mars and other planets he's known to have regarded the planets as his priority objective should your one thousand and sixty four who shot had the illusion that we might outstrip the americans. if we failed to land on the moon then at least we could fly around it and head of them that soon might be nice in political terms before you khrushchev surprisingly declared don't give the moon away to the americans. did not believe he could outpace phone broom too much time had already
been wasted it was venner von braun's heyday. we raised the flag the american flag on the surface of the moon congrats. i really believe that the soviet union drove the us to the moon. in our day and we did that in the sixty's and i think it was because there was serious competition between the two countries. didn't get to see strong take the first step on the lunar surface he died in one thousand nine hundred sixty six during summer. his anonymity died with him and his identity was finally declassified triggering a wave of the. streets when. monuments and plaques were unveiled in his own
even room said after reading. that he never realized all the work could be done by just one person. my father liked to say that people can travel into space issued by train he was absolutely sure that outer space was not empty and people must live and work there he said you know. seeing americans and russians in space together. in one hundred seventy five the so you. put an end to the space race. less than five meters. three meters.
i like. most of all like the trickle of chocolates a location. was part of the project and visits this museum he remembers every minute of his mission the food they talked about and how they welcomed the crew. soup vapor labels from ball tolls off bald guy with us. and when we were up there i randomly pasted them on a couple of cubes and one of them turned out to be filled with borsch and the other with some kind of a tomato paste. and it went american astronauts stafford and dick slayton said sound on the table. i show them that you and you know yeah good idea they
said. today new cosmonauts are set to go into space one by one of the countries are creating their own space programs india and japan and china has already launched its own cosmonauts into space even wealthy tourists pay for a trip to the stars filling prophecy. maybe one day the time may come when space flights will be routine excursions curious travelers might take pictures of themselves against the backdrop of an extinct volcano make enough to send a phone call or in front of a crater to set off. millicent's