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tv   [untitled]  RT  July 25, 2010 9:30pm-10:00pm EDT

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heralds medical breakthroughs but critics label it a pharmaceutical marketing they're putting profit before treatment. and a flying into trouble the p.r. stunt that attracts the outrage of animal lovers and the police caught on the tail of the parasailing dog. now the conquest of space was one of the main aims of both the soviet union and the u.s. during the cold war up next our special report looks at the two remarkable men who were at the center of this great struggle. that was in the sixteenth century. once there lived a chinese nobleman by the name of one who is most cherished ambition was to go to the moon using the resources available seven powder kegs to a bamboo then he put on his best clothes and ignited the bottles. when the smoke cleared after the explosion there was neither a trace of nor of who. history is rich with ill fated attempts to
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get into space but in the twentieth century to remarkable men did conquer the skies but this time around they used rocket engines rather than exploding on chairs to propel them into. their names then. they were the architects of the american and russian space programs the two great eternal rivals in the battle to reach out to space. made their first attempts to reach for the stars in their childhood as a boy in the soviet union so gay designed simple ideas but as time went by he came up with a more sophisticated rocket propelled craft as for venice at the age of twelve he created a prototype rocket by equipping a crate with fireworks he also. built a wagon that he launched in his hometown and apparently this
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wagon in the ad had. rockets he had made on it and it. ran down the main street of his hometown and. who was von braun's long time private secretary says venet attracted police attention many times for firing things into the air nowadays buckbee often takes people on a tour of the space museum in huntsville where each exhibit is related to von braun . but the best storyteller of. exploits is his only daughter natalia she wrote about him in three volumes of memoirs simply titled my father. with this this is a picture of the first soviet rocket it was launched on august seventeenth the one nine hundred thirty three though it spent only eighteen seconds in the air in the quiet altitude of four hundred meters it was a spectacular success. moscow in the one nine hundred thirty s.
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was a time of daring ambition and breathtaking endeavor it's one group of young scientists infusing as a model they had to try and turn fantasy into reality they were so desperately short of money that they had to hire a tram to take this second rocket to its launch pad. was the driving force behind the team researching rocket propulsion they kept saying to each other we will go to mars yes we will. rested for high treason in nineteen thirty eight but for many years he didn't know why he protested his innocence despite brutal questioning and only broke down when interrogators showed him a picture of his daughter saying she'd be orphaned if he didn't confess ten years in prison at the height of stalin's purges. i was five years old when my mother and i went to see him i did not know he had been arrested i had been told that he was away because he was the pilot when we entered small room a warden came in through another door. i said papa how could you possibly lend your
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airplane in that small courtyard at that moment the warden chipped in you know dear lending here is no problem but getting out of here is very difficult. after his prison term was moved to russia's remote northeast where inmates were forced to mine for gold. died every day. dropped to just forty five kilos during his time that he lost more than half his teeth due to scale but he survived because stalin needed rocket scientists for the soviet union's nuclear shield. was released six years later he told his daughter wife. mother about his life in the camp only once he asked them not to bring the subject up again and to steer clear of gold ornaments.
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served his term in a good light then a von braun was in nazi germany rising through the ranks on the s.s. command he started work on a secret project after hitler ordered his scientists to create a weapon capable of hitting distant targets. up to several setbacks the infamous v. two rocket was created it was the world's first ballistic missile ready to fire. and this is an old house in a small provincial town in central germany it's a place of simple beauty and quiet gentle life. the town also has a special museum the wagon outside the entrance is like those used to bring
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thousands of people to this tranquil place in one nine hundred forty three to a notorious concentration camp and most of the exhibits though are underground. the v. two was made here at this secret some to raney and plant its workmen with inmates from the metal back door of labor camp which was a part of brooklyn both now we're entering the original tunnel a see huge tunnel as you can see with about twelve mistress. in this model you can see two. crossed. a and b. and forty six cross tunnels built by concentration camp prisoners in the last years of the war if you look don here you can see an origin.
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and which was moved from the behind here to show its two visitors. the prisoners spent half a year on the ground without seeing so much as a sliver of daylight at the time they didn't know the purpose of the tunnels but they later realized that they had been putting together a monstrous weapon designed to destroy their homes countries and loved ones they had to sleep in bets with thought and equipment only on the wooden. sanitary conditions where catastrophic people died after just two or three months of intolerable work the dead were replaced with new inmates soviet people made up one third of the door of prison population. the key to me once were unique weapons because these were the only weapons where more people died building
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them then people died by using these weapons. half of the six thousand rockets made to the underground plants during the eighteen months of his existence were faulty the inmates did all they could to make sure the weapons remained on the ground they breached production ruse and use defective components. thirty five thousand inmates died during the plant's lifetime. cost six human lives. without doubt venom von braun paid several visits to the facility when he went down into the tunnels he saw hundreds of dead inmates but apparently. did not seem fazed much later his face appeared on the cover of time magazine he shook hands with president kennedy and was awarded medals his impassioned glorification of american democracy came much later too but in maine one thousand nine hundred five the s.s.
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major was faced with a choice. did. so. he was reflecting with his colleagues what to do after the german defeat and in forty four they decided most of them decided to go to the americans. surprisingly the americans welcomed their former enemies despite the fact that a new conflict was on the horizon the cold war. many. friends who flew with russians their first job was to learn how to fly an airplane to go bomb russia the american people looked at these these people the local people anyway as being able to assist us in developing a new system for defense of the country the americans won the space race but did we win the space race when you look at the fathers of space in the last century you
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had one of what was german and then you look at the russians have surrogate pavlovitch carlo he had spent time in the gulag and some of his first designs that he did on aviation where we're from the gulag. was eventually released from prison and was no longer an enemy of the soviet people in fact he became his country's protector and made chief designer of a long range ballistic missile called item number one. even lost his identity and was now a top secret somebody working on a top secret. get a mind when they went to germany they started to study german technology. was first so long and able to perform his job ended up diving deeper into the work he loved so much. made a faithful replica of the v. two rocket on stalin's orders although it was successfully launched realized that
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the rocket was not good enough he was sure he could make an even better one. and he did it was cold to kill. the soviet union in the united states when neck and neck in the construction of long range missiles but that changed in one nine hundred fifty seven in the midst of the cold. race became the space race. on the morning of october fifth hundred years in the united states began picking up on signals from space a couple of hours later president eisenhower was told about the russian. satellite he cut short his vacation stock exchange shares took the shop down to exactly the russians and launched into space was totally unclear we couldn't even figure out what sputnik meant we kept referring to it as a bomb and we were trying to write
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a headline right soviet union put a bomb in space they said oh no don't call a bomb though we eventually realized it was a scientific satellite. the world school clinic was soon to become familiar with the english language launch numbers of people stayed away from work to try and hear the beeping sound from the satellites they gathered on rooftops in the hope of seeing a little spot of manmade light blinking up in the sky all they did was take this small extra payload on top of a long range ballistic missile and sent him into orbit and then someone had the idea to do the beat beat so you would hear it and that transform the world as we know it. the winds have changed for example like this came into fashion into. only a handful of people even the sputnik being designed by said. his name did not appear anywhere it was soviet leader nikita khrushchev the one. if you were
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a straight our spotlight is certainly. the earth and the waiting for american and other spot makes to show up side by side with it before commonwealth of sputnik's. i. won bronze attempt to launch the first u.s. satellite ended in the vanguard exploded. when you. called my father to tell him that he should launch another sputnik in time for the anniversary of the one nine hundred seventeen october revolution which was close at hand but people had gone on vacation and had to be summoned back. khrushchev wanted something more than just another sputnik he wanted something entirely new. given less than a month to invent one there were neither blueprints no quality control the whole enterprise depended on trust throughout his career was always looking for people
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willing to forgo food and sleep and work through the night. is a psychologist from russian space research center star city he used to work under. oil he was a great man it was enough for him to look at you and you got a wealth of information even though he was with his subordinates he had a very delicate soul. it was a four legged cosmonaut that was the first living creature to head towards the stars a dog called lika when she was launched into space there were tears in her size time magazine called her the world's most lonely and miserable dog that was true it was a one way ticket for like a monument was unveiled in moscow to mark the fiftieth anniversary of her space mission. there is this monument to commemorate the dogs greatest. people bring treats you know what would look someone has even brought
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a candy here for the dog. show some even bring sausages for the lovely. no i mean. at that time it was impossible to retrieve a sputnik from orbit people around the world accuse the soviet union of animal cruelty but like his sacrifice was of undoubted benefit to science scientists were unsure whether the biological functions could work in zero gravity i mean there are so many things we take for granted today but with the heart pump in zero gravity would blood flow and zero gravity would your mind you know be alert in zero gravity meanwhile the americans too would launching animals into the stratosphere notably monkeys they were put on that anesthetic but they also died in their missions. all of that eventually there was a happy ending with two dogs called valka and. both were well behaved. just
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became fitness even so one day flight was problem free and they became the first creatures ever to safely return from orbit. the soviet mongrels one instant fame found almost something the pedigree could ever dream of soon after returning to earth gave birth to six healthy pups nikita khrushchev gave one of them to president kennedy's daughter caroline it was a constant reminder to us leader of the soviet space program had defeated him in the first round of the space race. issues that so much. democracy is pakistan's prospect of becoming a failed state the u.s. claims it is an indispensable ally in its so-called war. hungry for the full
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story we've got it for. the biggest issues get the human voice face to face with the news makers. his snow white smile conquered millions of cops he was a welcome guest around the world and the epitome of mankind's dreams. the first man in space. was among those who wanted to take part in the national celebration. of his cause god from the red square. nobody recognized. the need to promise when the nobel committee asked to disclose the name of the chief designer who made it possible for the first sputnik and forgotten to go into space who showed said the entire nation created the advanced technology. never complained about the fact that
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his health and being affected by the prison camp all the public could not associate him with the space program he had no time for that he was busy turning his dreams into reality. loved eureka guarin as though he were his own son sylvia both. yuri gagarin complemented each other as personalities they were competent all with each other sometimes they didn't even need to talk the first u.s. astronauts alan shepard went into space a month after go and spend only fifteen minutes there and had spent two hours in orbit from braun was clearly losing the race he was tired of being coming in second he was it was pretty well i think disgusted with with the system the government system that that we were operating under not realizing that the russians were really technology smart. was very
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much in the public eye he often appeared on television and even helped walt disney sell the ambition of space travel so the american public he was the first salesman . if we were to stop could be organized and well supported space where i believe a practical passenger rocket could be built and tested within ten years. the press also joined in on the space race. and american newspapers claimed that eleven cosmonauts went into space before guarin did and never return to earth alive they were known as the so-called missing cosmonauts. even gave their names to lend credibility to the stories. i was married to one of the names of.
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these homes. under these tests not true it was a form of relaxation. it was a tester he often told her about how he had spent six months in a camp into the ocean he was compelled to live high in the mountains where there was a severe shortage of oxygen and he went through training in a fast spinning centrifuge they were asked to press a button even the speed was too much for them but they never did because they had an overpowering desire to serve their country in space exploration chose to ignore this train so that they would be allowed to go into space. needless to say. was stunned by a newspaper report claiming he was dead. he immediately called his mother to tell her he was ok then he supposedly missing cosmonauts wrote an article for
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a soviet newspaper headlined faces gentleman. i saw it as something of a joke they even liked it because they meant somebody knew them and had put them on the map so to speak as a. husband died in two thousand. thousand and two but it had nothing to do with any fabricated space experiment. there was a time when the dimia butoh wanted to be a. a special kind of cosmonaut soon after garden space flight so great kind of announced he was going to draw on the engineers at his enterprise to put together a group of cosmonauts their job would be to assemble three parts of a giant ship one obeys the spacecraft would then head to miles from there it was kind of great dream von braun's ambition of the time didn't extend beyond reaching the moon. spoke of the lunar race was an invention in reality there was no lunar
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rates. shows off his secret notebook it contains drafts and other details relating to the miles project. i put down it would sergei curry had sold me and launched a morse was scheduled for early one nine hundred seventy four. if his notes are anything to go by so it did not start on a new no project until one thousand nine hundred sixty four years ago but von braun had been working on it for three years following president kennedy's announcements of plans to conquer the moon. but was compelled to focus his attention on the moon instead of mars and other planets he's known to have regarded the planets as his priority objective should your one thousand and sixty four who shot had the illusion that we might outstrip the americans. if we failed to land on the moon then at least we could fly around it and head of them that soon might be nice in political terms before you khrushchev surprisingly declared don't give the moon
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away to the americans. did not believe he could outpace von braun too much time had already been wasted it was venner von braun's heyday. we raised a flag the american flag on the surface of the moon congrats. i really believe that the soviet union drove the us to the moon. in our day and we did that in the sixty's and i think it was because there was serious competition between the two countries. didn't get to see strong take the first step on the surface he died in one thousand nine hundred sixty six during summer. his anonymity died with him and his identity
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was finally defied triggering a wave of the. streets with. monuments and plaques one failed in his own even. after reading. that he never realized all the work could be done by just one person. my father like to say that people can travel into space issued by train he was absolutely sure that outer space was not empty and people must live and work there he said you know. could. see americans and russians in space together. nine hundred seventy five the so he. put an end to the space race. approaching so you. less than five meters.
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three meters. i like chocolates. most of all like the trickle of chocolates a location. valarie could bounce off was part of the soyuz apollo project and often visits this museum he remembers every minute of his mission the food what they talked about and how they welcomed the apollo crew. which is a good suit vapor labels from balls alls off bald go with us. and when we were up there i randomly pasted them on a couple of cubes and one of them turned out to be filled with borsch and the other with some kind of a tomato paste. and it went american astronauts stafford and dick slayton
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said sound on the table. i show them that you and you know yeah good idea they said. today new cosmonauts a set to go into space one by one other countries are creating their own space programs india and japan and china has already launched its own cosmonauts into space even wealthy tourists pay for a trip to the stars this filling prophecy. maybe one day the time may come when space flights will be routine excursions curious travelers might take pictures of themselves against the backdrop of an extinct volcano make enough to venice on or in front of the crater to sergei off.
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every month we give you the future we'll do you understand how we'll get there and what tomorrow brings the best unsigned sendek going to you from across russia and around the world to join us it's your knowledge you update on our.
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lead this news and the week's top stories from our team sky high temperatures break new records in russia and ukraine lives at least three hundred drowned this week trying to cool off. the international court of justice roos possibles unilateral declaration of independence from serbia is the goal but several countries claimed the decision is a political display of double standards. airstrike the extensive civilian casualties caused by the use of unmanned drones by the us military raises fears of possible revenge attacks on the american made land. v.m.s. international aids conference heralds medical breakthroughs blood critics label it a pharmaceutical marketing fair putting profit before treatment. and a flying into trouble because you are stunned that attracts the.


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