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tv   [untitled]    June 12, 2011 10:30am-11:00am PDT

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from moscow this is the artsy international news channel thanks for being with kevin i have top stories no news of you of the week nato launches its heaviest of most punishing as strikes in the libyan capital killing dozens as the rebels complain reliance is ignoring the real frontline meanwhile the chorus of international condemnation over syria. and become support in greece is the government moves to make deeper cuts in public spending in exchange for another received bailout and in germany those footing the bill say they're getting tired of
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paying the bills that. the u.s. guided missile walsh sails into the black sea for naval exercises with ukraine but the move provokes moscow's anger which claims it's a problem for nato as controversial missile shield. so i'm thirty one pm here in moscow up next part two of our special report about the alarming impact of genetically modified salmon on both human life and the environment. the purpose of this experiment is to determine if genetically engineered fish will outcompete and mate with wild fish and if they do that whether their genes will spread in a wild population or whether they will disappear over a number of generations and we're interested in that because that's one of the main questions about ecological risk if genetically engineered fish are being produced
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in a fish farm and if they were to escape from the farm and if they were able to make if they were fertile the question is they skate and if it is they say can to waters where there are wild relatives what will happen if they interbreed with the wild relatives and our experiment is designed to test that question. so this and rico would and bill new york of purdue university developed a computer model in which they created a population of sixty thousand wild creatures in which sixty transgenic individuals penetrate a council lot of questions was compiled for instance certain survival strategies or mating advantages of the mixed offspring stronger or weaker these phenomena are observed and the results recorded then the computer calculates the possible future results.
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were doing of these types of testers to look for mating and bad use of drainage early real growth of the wild type males. training males are larger than males and they could have increased mating success because of that and they could have increased success because either the female prefers to mate with larger males or but by being larger they can drive away the smaller one while it's my competitors that are around and as a result of that combined. advantage with other males as well
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as the female preference we found that the transgenic males get more than seventy five percent of all the mating so for example one thing that we've also measured is that the young don't survive as well and the mating advantage of the males would drive that trans gene into the population or more transgenic but the survivorship of the. less and less through time. resulting in a smaller population size. quite likely the population could go extinct. genetic engineering to some extent is about a four hundred year old mistake it was a mistake that began with the cartesian revolution and this idea that life is a machine. cards you know that basically animals are better machines that animals
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are basically machines and yet they continue to try and treat life as a machine and engineer is it for a machine and the cruelties of the early vivisection is now being repeated by the genetic engineers who are literally changing the makeup of the entire living kingdom based on this pathological mistake of thinking that life is a machine that's why they believe in genetic engineering they're engineering life as if they were engineering machines and that's the fundamental mistake of genetic engineering. as a lawyer and author andrew kimbrell battles his way through all the issues raised by the new genetic technology he heads an environmental agency in washington which vigorously campaigns for food safety literally legally as an attorney i find this very important for the very first time in history in the last twenty years we've
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defined plants animals even humans now as machines and manufacturers under section one one of our patent law that's what you can patent machines and manufacturers so we've decided as a government as a polity united states pumpkin that a beagle that a human and a primate that these are machines in manufacture is no different than refrigerators at toasters or any tennis racket they can be patented and commodified is a shocking commodification of life and shocking philosophical development as well as legal. this was the greenhouse that was used for a story and so one year ago. this facility had a lot of things that had been stored over the years which we had to clear out and then construct this entire facility to hold the and for the channels so that
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we have about one hundred fifty tons of water in here right now. oh some buildings converted greenhouses improvise that should and inventiveness this is won't risk assessment research looks like conducted by a handful of idealists around the world one would think that this is the obligation of industry and government controlling agencies to conduct these tests. markets and profits are at stake not animals and food most certainly not our environment that is not in the south of the effects of may even be in grave jeopardy. the research that we're doing here and looking at the transgenic mating advantage and so forth is very unique because there we know and know what their lab in the world that is looking at the success of transgenic individuals in the wild like that and actually one of the reasons why we began this research in the first place is to set
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a methodology where industry. regulators could test organisms and see whether they would be safe or safe if they were the environment. ways that transgenic organisms like fish can get into the environment the first place. would most likely be an accidental occurrence where there would be there in and. or. area in the ocean that the fish would expand from then go into natural. i feel like every year thousands and thousands of fish pay for the fight situations so it's a very common type of event there is a storm off the coast of maine a couple years ago that destroyed some of the enclosure that salmon were being formed in and that one storm one hundred thousand feet so they
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can escape from the situation and they could face in great numbers there are certainly environmental hazards associated with transgenic animals in particular with fish because they can escape and they're free ranging after that it's real hard to find one after they get out as the as the salmon farming industry has discovered on its own in order to protect against the fish eater colonizing new habitat or interbreeding with with wild fish what we're doing is developing a fish that is our production line fish that will be sold will be sterile so they can't reproduce and they will be all female and the reason why they're all female is because it's sterile female salmon tends not to come back from the ocean they have no reason to come back to the rivers to spawn because they're never mature so they stay out to sea they feed they live their lives there and they die there are none of the things that i find so curious about the argument of the biotechnology
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companies that often call themselves life sciences. is that when you talk to them about the environmental threats about all the other threats they say don't worry we're making genetically engineered fish sterile we'll make sure they're sterile by the way who checks on this millions of fish being sterile is a ridiculous enforcement idea don't worry pollution of plants we're going to put a terminator technology in these plants will commit suicide after one growing season. and i find it very strange that a company the causes of life sciences is telling us that their technology only will work if you make all life on earth sterile. what a terrifying concept you know if i was an engineer and i an engineer came to me he said i have invented a technology about life but the only problem is we have to sterilize all living things so go back to the drawing board you have a failed technology that's what i'd say. because that's going to tell you about going to a sterile. in
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norway not only of the effects of foodstuffs on humans and animals being examined terri or traffic has brought together a group of scientists from numerous different fields to work out a holistic perspective they include molecular biologists geneticists immunologists the colleges most recently
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a philosopher. and those christians are both concerned vade the whole ecosystems disturbances in ecosystems by introducing a new foreign possibly different d.n.a. and also directly related can changes that may take place in animal organisms and in plant or innocence. we are concerned of both what we call the net pollution and we are concerned of both making everybody understand that genetic pollution is something hope that different from the chemical pollution free had been stupid enough to initiate over the past fifty years or so because chemicals never replicate themselves and even even a huge chemical pollution get over time get smaller. vied for d.n.a. it may be the other variant the wrong because d.n.a.
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is self replicating in principle so it's more pollution may replicate itself and become a huge pollution in theory and it's all this different types of risk that we are concerned a gold confuting to getting answers to so far is a lot of questions no answers was. was. the. was. i. just like their american colleagues the norwegian scene wonders about what effect
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these new forms of life will have side the laboratory experience gathered with genetically modified farming has shown that there are and will be grave repercussions to the environment. just as pollen fly and the modified plants drift unwelcome fields fish that just scale will undo the predictions made by industry and no longer be subject to control. manny's only one link in the food chain the entire ecosystem is effected. thomas burns is a member of terrier traffics team and sees the matter from an ecological viewpoint as i have been to cuba and we have some cooperation with a group. of scientists from cuba and the very interesting example of transgenic face it has some of the traits that was not expected when they modified the genes of the fish. they have found that the fish is
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growing about twice as fast as the normal lot but that's a side effect of a totally different effect also tolerate salt water and that may be very important in for example the further spread of the species. so it also shows that the. transgenic plant or organism may suddenly have some other traits that was not expected and maybe no one thought and just come with a side effect of the case the difference is that. we don't put that first generation of crops or animals out onto the market we observe them as i said in our case we have thought of generations that have been under cultivation where we have been observing these fish and we've been calling anything that has an unexpected result something that grows continues growing fast or grows too quickly or gets
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sick or whatever it is we will we call those fish and we only select the ones that don't have those unintended side effects for for actual production by the time these fish are ready to go on the market they will have been some six generations that's over fifteen years of observation. and we're quite confident that there's nothing. occurring there was an expected. back to the united states for the past eighty years genetically modified grain has been cultivated as if this were completely normal canola cotton and soya dominate the market the plants have been manipulated so that they produce their own insecticide to kill pests. from humans who of course eat this as well how does it affect nature. david and professor of entomology at the university
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of minnesota is attempting to examine just this point is that the bt. corn bt cotton and even beekeeper tadros were commercialized before many of the potential effects of these crops on the environment were investigated so. how much gene flow what kind of non-target affects. whether or not resistance in the target will occur and how to deal with that these things were not figured out before that before the plants for commercialized and it was as they were commercialized people were raising these issues and and frankly what it is is it takes a while it takes a number of years to figure these things out and the. the people who made these plants knew that they wanted to get them commercialized as fast as possible so you run into a problem where the people who are trying to sell these things want to sell them
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the soon as possible because the sooner they sell them faster they can make their investments back at the same time we need to take the time to evaluate the environmental effects and so in the united states the route this been taken this to allow them to be commercialized and then sort of play a. a game of trying to chase after it and find out whether or not we have any affects and characterize what they might be. too celebratory visit to call gee we are interested in various factors affecting your sex in the environment. so many things we do we actually work on endangered species problems there's an endangered species butterfly nearby that we were. i think the importance of monarch so the ecosystem is a pretty interesting thing to think about so probably if monarchs went extinct
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tomorrow there probably wouldn't be a big ecological impact there are a few parasites that depend on them and some predators but not nothing that's really they are what we call a keystone species they are in a space is that effects huge numbers of other species. and monarchs because they migrate depend on habitats in many different parts of north america so an individual monarch butterfly that emerges in minnesota or somewhere else in the northern part of its breeding range will migrate through the central part of the united states through texas and into sites in central mexico where they spend about four or five months and then fly back into the southern part of the united states where they start another generation of monarchs. so what we're doing is we're
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trying to figure out the relative impacts of the genetically modified crops and all of the other things that might be killing markets in there in. the moment to fly lays its eggs on a wheat milkweed that grew on fields after the industry had developed a supposedly ingenious method of killing all plants except for the desired useful plant by the calculated use of the site you took away the flies habitat. an unintentional side effect of gene technology in the culture. we now know who are experience with corn in the united states the biological pollution of these you know connection across is uncontrolled there's no buffer zone you can't control the way insects fly over that rainwater will carry any
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vector can take this and these new genes and spread them to other crops and to we relatives it's happening all of the united states can't control it but the companies are not taking responsibility for that and they're not being held liable for this biological pollution in the future but a company like monsanto is going to go out of business there they're teetering economically nuance and isn't a menace economic problems think of the billions of dollars already out there and biological pollution costs are not going to pay so they're going to be long gone i mean when we look at our major crops if we're not careful corn soy cotton wheat rice and are all going to be polluted perhaps indefinitely in the future because of these companies' actions which they can never pay for that's gross corporate irresponsibility. nothing consider. a field in minnesota and you ask how many species of insects are there in a typical mees field through a growing season. what we can say is that the studies have shown this is
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approximately seven hundred species of insects that visit maize every year and so if you think about how many pests there are there's really about. five to ten species of pests so all the rest of those feces the other six hundred ninety five or so species would be considered the non-target species so they're far more non-target species than there are target species and so when you try to control the target it's very likely that you're going to affect some of those other species as well the industry attempts to destroy five in six species that cause loss is worth millions that is understandable what is more difficult to comprehend is that industry does not seem to care that woman is seven hundred other animal species are also affected. scientists of norway and america just at the beginning of their research quite frightening for the grain is already on the market and industry is impatiently awaiting approval of transgenic fish. i'm trying very hard to
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get. the government regulators the other scientists and the consumers to all understand that risk assessment has to be done and it has to be done in a scientifically sound way and it's complicated we're looking at each kind of fish figuring out a good methodology to do the risk assessment and then on a case by case basis figure out what is the most reasonable answer we're always going to have uncertainty and the scientists can't get all the answers that's why the democratic process is so important because it's society that has to decide what uncertainty are we willing to accept trade off with what possible benefits so much possible risks. as i mentioned earlier you know we don't suggest that our salmon are going to feed the world we do suggest that our slappy and carp which requires the salmon to demonstrate a proof of concept and to build up
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a business but the two lacking in core in fact are going to be significant contributors to food security and will feed the world but they contribute to food security and every piece every contribution that brings us closer to the point where you don't have to face. famine where you don't have to face starvation in particular where you don't have to have eight hundred thousand people i'm sorry hundred million people a year going to bed hungry. i think that's important the truth is the only value to genetically modified animals or plants is where the companies own those patents it doesn't make for a better tasting food it doesn't taste better production of food it's really not good planet but it really is good. for the people own those patents were dried up owner and the more that people know about this the more resistant they will become so lobbyist work is hard at work getting label way as worth anything else because
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it's in their interest to keep the consumer ignorant every time you walk into a fast food place you know every time that you know that you buy conventional vegetables you're and i am responsible for the pesticides being used the incredible cruelty to these animals the destruction of our forests and wildlife and seventy percent of our endangered species are created from farming and ranching united states were complicit in those moral crimes whether we know it or not and so it's not just an environmental crisis it's a moral crisis and we're never going to solve that by being mere consumers we have to say no we are creating either the solution or the problem that's one of the few mollica by all this who are also skeptics of course i travel quite a lot and given talks in a place of the world. and the proponents of genetic engineering all this and say that a lot of the scientific arguments i use are exaggerated but i have one particular
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argument that they never start discussing and that is when i say that von all the main risk issues all genetic and hearing is that ninety five percent of all competent scientists in these fields are verkin for their produce aside and only five percent are really genuinely independent they never discuss that and that makes me suggest that maybe just situation is even worse. because i have no data for this is my own invention. the reason i mention it is so calls that they are sentences are one hundred to go clean for the industrious and ciro percent that are really independent and leave both a very serious scientific problem in society i feel so i'm
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a very very serious democratic problem as you may imagine and yes.
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twenty years ago it gained its first presidency. in the midst of colossal change. setting a new direction for a new country. saluting the state on the russian. home. from. them.
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