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tv   Through the Decades  CBS  August 28, 2016 11:00am-11:59am CDT

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this is "through the decades," a unique hour-long time capsule. today we look back at the cold war from the '50s, when the threat of the bomb loomed large "let us face without panic the reality of our times." to the impromptu debate held for the world to see insi "the topics ranged from rockets, communism and capitalism, war and freedom." to when a very real threat came to america's doorstep "the u.s. is prepared to sink soviet ships. the u.s. must assume it will face losses." those stories and more in a different kind of television experience, where we relive, remember and relate to the events that are cemented in history.
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and i'm kerry sayers. and i'm your host, bill kurtis. this is "through the decades." here on "through the decades" we take a long view of history. examining how events of a single day continue to impact our world for years to come, often in ways that are hard to see in the moment. few eras have had the reach or see in the moment. few eras have had the reach or the influence that the cold exacted. this wasn't some remote foreign policy relegated to sound bites on the evening news. as we'll see in the next hour, it was connective tissue that impacted our politics, pop culture and personalities all woven "through the decades." but we begin with, the 1959 debate when politicians from the soviet union and the u.s. went toe to toe on telelvision. the summer of that year, vice
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moscow as part of a cultural exchange. that trip would earn a place in history thanks to an impromptu debate with the soviet premier that would forever be known as "the kitchen debate." "some of the twentieth century's most extraordinary diplomatic maneuvers have been taking place in moscow. vice president richard nixon and soviet premier nikita krushchev have thrown away the rules of polite diplomacy, it would seem, and are enga tumble impromptu debate." fifteen years after the end of world war ii and just a few years before some of the hottestmoments of the coldwar, honest debate was on display in moscow right alongside the newest of american housewares. before his famous television presidential debate with senator john f.kennedy. nixon got to test his chops in front of a camera against the leader of america's greatest rival. in what may be remembered as
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political history, nixon traded barbs with soviet premier nikita khrushchev in a debate named for the bizarre venue it took place in - a model kitchen. "the topics ranged from rockets, communism and capitalism, war and freedom to color television and the kitchen sink." "vice president nixon escorts soviet premier krushchev on a preview of the united states ir moscow." just a month after a soviet exhibit went on display in new york, nixon would help open the american version in russia's captial city. "but on this occasion, traditional diplomacy goes by the board and the story of the fair itself is eclipsed by a crackling exchange between nixon and krushchev." soon after setting foot inside the show's model kitchen with television cameras rolling, krushchev both playful and
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case against america's capitalist lifestyle. "well then, we will say america has existed 150 years and this is her level of achievement. we have existed not quite 42 years and in seven years from now, we will be on the same level of achievement as america. in the following years, we shall continue to surge ahead, and when we shall overtake you at the crossroads, we shall greet you. (applause and laughter). after that, if you wish, we can stop and tell you please follow us." "every aspect of the cold and soviet-american rivalry is argued in blunt and forth right terms." "there are some instances where you may be ahead of us, for example in the development of your ... of the thrust of your rockets for the investigation of outer space. there may be some instances, for example,
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ahead of you." (interrupts in russian) "but in order for both of us .... for both of us to see, you never concede anything. wait till you see the picture." "the words seem sound fierce and harsh, as if they might increase international tensions and plunge the world into a new cold war crisis, but strangely, this does not seem to be happening. nixon and khrushchev, are still smiling, apparently enjoying the electric aura that their talks are producing." "as to the question of social systems, if you want to live under capitalism, go ahead and live. this is your business. this is your internal affair and it doesn't concern us. we can only sympathize with you, but after all if you don't know how to live, live as you know." "so let's compete. let's
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give the people more goods will be the betr system and victorious." "and this increase in communication will teach us some things, and it will teach you some things too because after all, you don't know everything." "if i don't know everything, then i would say that you know absolutely nothing about communism. nothing except fear of it." communism. nothing except fear of it." "i doubt it. that's why i want you the vice president to give your word that my speech will be recorded in the english language." "it will be yes." "certainly it will."
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"at the same token, everything that i say will be recorded and translated and will be carried all over the soviet union. that's a fair bargain." (shakes hands, laughs) "and then nixon and krushchev continued their tour of the united states exhibition, halting at a kitchen in that model home. there theyel what's becoming to be known as the kitchen summit conference, discussing among other things, the capitalist attitude towards women. the soviet premier looked at a washing machine and said that the russians had such things too, but he didn't share the capitalistic preoccupation with making life easier for women. and then krushchev teed off on the model home itself, saying that such houses would only last 20 years but russians believe in building houses to last longer." that good-willed verbal sparring
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venues during nixon's visit. despite the obvious differences, there seemed to be a shared desire for peace. "said he, the two nations must work together to break the ice between them. one of the most effective moments of mister nixon's remarkable tour of russia." krushchev would agree to an invitation from president eisenhower to visit the united states in september. eisenhower to visit the united states in september. "i most sincerely hope that as you come to see and believe these truths about our people there will develop an improved basis on which we can together consider the problems that divide us." (khrushchev speaking in russian)
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would be this open with the u.s. and the last time richard nixon would meet with the man when our look back on the cold war continues, we remember when government plans to prepare the nation turned fear into a catchy tune. the clandestine deal that involved trading spys on a bridge and a presidential analogy world events for decades. plus, we look at when the threat got a whole lot closer to american shores. then, after decades of tension, we look at how it all came crashing down.
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by the end of the 1950s, the cold war was ingrained in our national identity. cold war was ingrained in our national identity. an "air raid drill" was as common an occurance as a pop quiz at schools all across the country. partially due to a public service announcement that the eisenhower administration created in 1954. they called it 'operation alert.' "three, two, one ..." in 1954, every american knew the destructive power of the atom bomb. just nine years removed from the
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and nagasaki the images of death, destruction, and fallout were fresh and overwhelming. images that only seemed to intensify under the darkening cloud of the cold war. "let us face, without panic, the reality of our times. the fact that atom bombs may some day be dropped on our cities." fearing a general lack of the federal civil defense administration introduced an unprecedented drill calling on major cities across the country to participate. they called it "operation alert." "the most rigorous test of america's civil defenses is coordinated from this washington nerve center. a simulated hydrogen bomb attack that strikes at 75 key targets from coast to coast." it was 15 minutes of simulated terror or at least that was the idea. coordinated attacks hit the east coast then the midwest, then the west coast.
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evacuating washington including president eisenhower who despite the supposed seriousness of the operation did so with a pronounced casualness. meanwhile, citizens living in the target areas were required to take cover. "in the cities, police and civil defense teams clear the streets." "it's a bomb. duck and cover." "you and you and you and him - duck and cover." "you and you and you and him - duck and cover." the following day, newspapers published reports of the ficticious attacks listing the number of bombs dropped, cities destroyed and people killed. "it was estimated over four million would've died in new york city." operation alert would become an annual event for the next seven years. but its inclinations towards the theatrics as opposed to anything educational or
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very beginning and the american people grew increasingly reluctant to participate, frustrated by the shear folly of it all. "flying glass and debris are immediate dangers so stay where you are until you're sure it's safe to move." operation alert petered out in 1961. the country's disillusionment with such a futile marked an important shift in attitude. the american people were gaining an awareness about the world around them like never before. it exposed the sort of government coddling that accompanied operation alert as counterintuitive, if not insulting. throughout the '60s and into the '70s, that attitude would blossom even more, setting the stage for an america that demanded transparency.
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when you look back at something as pervasive as the cold war, it's hard to include it all in one hour. but today, we'll tell you the story of the soviet spy who made headlines with his espionage trial and subsequent release in a dramatic prisoner exchange. and we remember just how close we came to the cold war becoming hot stay with us as we continue our
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in the cloak-and-dagger
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east and west were not uncommon. but few were as controversial or as public as the very first when soviet spy rudolf abel was traded for american pilot gary francis powers, in the depths of winter, 1962. "mr. abel, are you going to appeal to the ia "i have no comments to make." "would you care to comment about the relatiohip between the u.s. and russia? do you think, do you have any suggestions --" "no comment. "no comment whatsoever?" in june of 1957, the fbi captured rudolf abel, a notorious k-g-b spy who had been operating in th u.s. since 48. he was convicted of conspiracy and espionage. and there was a public outcry
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defense attorney, persuaded the court not to issue an execution. his argument - abel's value in thfuture as a potential strategic bargaining chip. a premonition ahead of its time. instead, the court sentenced abel to 30-years. but it was only three years later that donovan's foresight paid off. "then kruschev's shocking announcement: a united states "then kruschev's shocking announcement: a united states air force plane shot down an ultra-secret high-altitude reconnaissance moscow, nikita khrushchev is shown as he told the soviet presidium that pilot gary powers of the downed american reconnaissance plane was alive. and that russia had seized spy photographs made 1400 miles inside soviet borders." during the cold war, american u-2 pilots flew espionage missions at altitudes above 70,000-feet beyond the reach of russian air defenses and brought
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back crucial information, high- resolution photos of soviet installations on the ground. the downed u-2 was a prize catch for the soviets as was its pilot. "on display in moscow, the wreckage of pilo francis powers' u-2 reconnaissance plane for muscovites and foreign newsmen to see, as the soviet launches its most belligerent anti-american propaganda barrage in recent years." "the father of francis w. powers elaborately pilot. powers' wife and his mother are also present. but none of them has spoken with him. incommunicado, he is the central figure of a courtroom drama whose red-written script is intended to indict the policies of the united states." gary francis powers was sentenced to 10-years in a soviet prison and seemed fated to be another casualty of the cold war. but in 1962, the same james donovan who
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to east berlin to explore the possibility of prisoner swap. after a week o intense negotiation at the soviet embassy, an agreement was reached and on february 10, 1962, rudolf abel was exchanged fo gary francis powers at glienicke bridge between east and west germany. the american public didn't learn over.he sw until it was "as for the wherbo powers, i can say at this time that he's seen his father andy his mother and that his wife is with him. he is undergoing important interviews by appropriate fficials of this government." the news thrust gary powers into the limelight. on the question of how he was brought down, powers offered no further facts, but some personal impressions. he brief, noisy encounter with the press, the only time the cia has
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many questions that have arisen in the minds of the american public. "well, i don't have much time. all i know is that there seemed to be an explosion. i don't know what caused it, but i feel that it was not in the aircraft itself." "so you therefore believe that it was a rocket?" "i can't say that. i just know, or think that it was external." the clandestine exchange disturbed many, including some "i think there's many things that are left unsd. and frankly, i have very much in mind the fact that we trad one of russia's greatest spies in history, colonel abel, and gave himto r back sia after he was convicted in this country to russia, to trade him for back
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see powers d any one of our prisors released and brght bac but i do think we ought to get a clear-cut story of just why it was done. it looks toe like it'a whitewas that w made a deal in sending abel back and now we're now we're not getting information that we should be getting." despite the reservations, james donovan's innovation of prer exchange came a common cold-war practice bridge earned the nickname "bridge of spies which so became the title of a 2015 stephen spielberg movie abouthat first, fateful trade. much of the cold war was based on collective fear orar nucle threat. when weome back, we'll examine the fear-based cold war theory that dominated amerin foreign policy for decades.
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in 19, there was a fateful presidential press conference that wouldme to exertgreater ins ever intended. during which, dwig d. eisenhower compared the nations of southeast asia to dominos, lined and rea to fall to communism. thenalogy quickly would influence america
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"you have a row of dominoes set up and you knock over the first e anwhat will happen to thelasty that it'll go over very quickly. so you could have a beginning of a dintegration that would have the most profound influences. now, asia, after all, has alady lost some 450 million of its peoples to the communist dictatorship and we million of its peoples to the communist dictatorship and we simply can't afford losses." "well, the domino theory didn't start out as a theory." "it started out merely as an expression or a declaration, you might say, by dwight eisenhower." in 1949, china had been transformed by mao zedong's communist revolution and within a few years north korea and
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takeover of all of aa and eventually the entire globe. "it is a blueprint for wor revoluon. red china's battle plan - divide and encircle, conquer and av" eiower'domino theory provided a new way of viewing the crisis and of responding to it. all the wt d he domino. "and so it's under this operating theoryhakennedy, "john f. kennedy, gins the initon oial esca forces into vietnam. . and h would speak pretty stridentl about the ways in which he wanted to protect the free "but these people who say we t to withdraw from vietnam widraw from vietnam, the communists wou control vietm, pretty soon thailand,
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and all of southeast asia would be under the control of the communists and the domination of the chinese andhen india and burma would be the next target." american intervention in vietnam continued under kennedy's successors at great cost, in both funds and american ves and all based on a theory one haddequately challenged. vinam in 1973 but we have yet to give up on the principle at got us there. to give up on the principle at got us there. for most of the cold war, the threat loomed on the other sid of the globe. at was until thirteen days in 1962. on october 14, 1962, u.s. spy planes made a startling discovery. soviet balliic missiles being
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nety miles off the shores of the united states. in the week that followed, president kennedy and a select group of top advisors met in secret. they held hours of intense debate agonzing over a proper response. a way alance the world as it teetered on the brink of an all-out nuclear war. they'd come to an agreement on october 22 and in a televised speech that kennedy revealed to the public the crisis that had peace squarely in its cross hairs. "within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series ooffsive missile sites is now in preparations on that imprisoned island.rpose te none other than to provide a nuclear stke capability
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"to halt this offensive builp,all offenve military equient under shipment to cuba is being itiated. all ships of an kind bound for cuba from whatever nation or port wi if found toontain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back." now the wod knew. the cuban missile crisis was out ithe open it immediately became all- consuming. immediately became all- consuming. "good evening everybo this i douglas edwards speaki from cbs ne heauas in n yo. you haveust hed iden the unite nationut therisis in cuba. the speech ended more th a ull daftime o speculation about whatxtraordina action the presidt s abou to take." "the wor was given at as a 15 houmorarium tonht president nnedyt seven
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t doesn't go io effect unt ten.m. tomorrow morning eastern daylight time." e drama waonlyu.s. forceall acre world were readied for the worst. "the u.s. is pred to sink soviet ships. the u.s. must assume it will face losses. these words came tonight from a high-ranking defense department spokesman who met here at the pentagon with more than a hundred reporters soon after the president's speech." "a latin american delegate told cbs news ts evening we are situation sincehe end of world war be decisive." on october 23, the quarantine of cuba went into effect but there were little signs of a on tnty he tweurth, soviet premiere nikita khrushchev issued president kennedy a stern warning blasting the blockade as an "act of agression." soon after, the strategic air command s ordered into defcon 2, the highest level of
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alertness ever reached in american history. on october 25 with the crisis still at stalemate, u.s. ambassador to the united nations ed the soviets at the u.n. "i am submitting today a resotion to the security counl designed to find a way out of this calou e soviets were hardly disuaded. "valerian a. zorin's boss, khrushchev, proposed that the u.s. withdraw its vessels and he would stop shipments. presidenennedy's missile scrappingemand was his reply." on the twenty sixth, the c.i.a. construction on cuba's missile anion invas cuba was
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he'move all offsive weapons, if the u.s.greed not to invade cuba. a day ter, he added an amendment requiring that the u.s. remove its missilesrom the kenned administratio agreed and october 28, kushchev missiles in cuba be dismantled and returned to russia. "the danger of warr seems to have ended wit premierehrushcv's remarkable letter tosiden it endedn outerms, whic can oy be a victoryor h,e have word from t ntrol om now. new york city is rea. le'witcno t our ichard "the united nations are delighted, shocor stilldi ieving at what one of cald the greatest diplomat defeat the soviet
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thirteen day. ?r 13 day the wld on the ink.a flinch away from saster.but the fearofhat that disast would've looked like is what pulled the wor back . "evebody's feeling very much betteroday and last week everybody was very frighne betteroday and last week everybody was very frighne asono berightened have as much perhaps not as much asono be many problems in the world today. they should be looked at soberly and from the perspective of history itself to remembe we wwhere e in order to understand where we're going." we'vepent the better part of an hour nolooking at the some of the crucial turning points of theold war "through de"e but when we come back, we turn events that brought itll tn end. plus, we'll relive the moment we quite left us, when t f-b-i arrested a notorious spy and stopped a damaging espionage
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as we look back at some of the milestones in the cold war, we come to the beginning of the end for the soviet union. the u.s.s.r.'s collapse began in the streets of moscow when thousands stood together to block a coup in the city's streets, and one leader stood up for democratic change.
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"something fundamental has happened here. people have lost their fear of the most repressive arm of the communist apparatus. and once they lose that fear the balance of power has been changed in this country." with fear no longer weighing them down, russians took the future of their country in their own hands. they had just held their first democractic election and to the west, a symbol of an opressive past no longer stood in berlin. opressive past no longer stood in berlin. backed into a corner, the communist party attempted to take back power but a poorly coordinated coup ended up having thepposite effect it had intended. instead of solidifying a communist-run soviet union for decades to come, the hastily-executed failure made sure that future went up in flames a whole lot faster. "a committee of communist hard- liners has seized power in the soviet union, ousting president mikhail gorbachev and declaring a six-month state of emergency."
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year as president of the soviet union, mikhail gorbachev had worked to open russia up to the rest of the world. he had reached military and economic agreements with the united states and pushed for increased independence of soviet states. "we don't belong to soviet union any more." like the u.s., soviet states had their own leaders. just two months before the coup the state ofrussia had elected its first democratic president, boris yeltsin. right before the overthrow attempt, gorbachewas about to sign a treaty that would have loosened the soviet union's grip on member states even further. "clearly the proximity of the signing of the union treaty is what pushed people to act." as leader of the communist party and soviet union, his decisions pushed some of his closest allies away and on august 19, 1991,
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they put a plan in action to remove him from power. "apparently, mikhail gorbachev's immediate subordinates, his vice president and prime minister, betrayed him, joining a group of hard-liners that staged a coup against the father of parastroika and glastnos." the coup attempt began by cutting off communication between gorbachev and moscow. "we have highly reliable reports that before this event occurred the prime minister valentine pavlov and another hard-liner flew to mikhail gorbachev's vacation d a that he resign. when gorbachev refused, valentine pavlov told him, 'you are going to be sick for a very long time.'" at the order of the revolutionary leaders, tanks stormed into moscow to arrest some 200 leaders marked as enemies to the party. one of those was russian state president yeltsin.
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into office and thousands spilled into the square in front russia's parliamentto his defense. perhaps the single most prolific act of defiance during the entire coup attempt was yeltsin climbinon a tank and ordering a general strike to protest the communist overthrow. "yeltsin! yeltsin! yeltsin!" so wle yeltsin was galvanizing a cause amongst the people, gorbachev was being held in his vacation home cut off people, gorbachev was being held in his vacation home cut off protesters drew a line in the sand "'go back! go back' she screams. 'we are not afraid of you.'" ey built up a makeshift barricade protecting yeltsin and other democratic leade from potential arrest. "in moscow, ten tanks om an elite soviet division he
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rliament. they are tryin to bolster boris yeltsin's sistance to the coup that threw out gorbachev. coup leaders are trying to consolidate power throughout the vast country in hopes of having a new totalitarian center that will hold." "finally, the president is saying that he is now determined to avoid any actions quote 'that might lend legitimacy to this coup.'" in the u.s., a vacationing president george bush took a wait-and-see approach. "we will conduct appropriately, be in touch with these foreign leaders, act with them to do whaver we can do to further - to keep the reforms going forward. it's not a time forlamboyance or show business or posturing on the part of any country, certainly the united states." but after only three days, russians led by yeltsin, stopped the coup in its tracks.
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the face of democracy in a soon- to-be former communist stronghold. "once regarded simply as the blunt, bulldozer of radical reform, boris yeltsin emerged today a national hero." gorbechev, meanwhile, was still president of the soviet union when he retued to moscow but it was cle his days were numbered. "a new era begins in t soviet overcome the ongoing ofcrisishe country's political, social and economic problems. at least the coup is over." "leaders of estonia's government today called on the west to recognize estonia as a sovereign nation. political leaders say the failed coup in moscow has given new life and legitimacy to their independence movement." e failed communist takeover attempt galvanized soviet state to seek their outright indendence.
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broken by th coup." "the only right thing was to pass this declaration ando decle laia an independent state." "that would do more to enhance goodwi in the united states than almost any other single thing that coulde done." gorbachev resigned as head of the communist party a few days later. yeltsibaommunned csm in ia trusst november and the baltics had their independence by december. in a few months, the soviet union had collapsed."the sovieto more. this is a victory for democracy and freedom. it's victory for the moral force of our values." these men tried to reverse mikhail gorbachev's momentum wards a more viable soviet union.
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transform russia, simply denouncing communism has not been not enough. expectations 20-yes ago, when a lot of people, hundreds of thousands, millions, believed that w collapse of the communist regime, russia would inevitably become a free, democratic state. a prosperous state with equal opportunities for everybody. and to the contrary these expectations, russia today is a corrupt state run by it's putin's dictatorship on the political side and for the majority of russians it ended up with great, great disappointment." coming up, we take a look at the fall out of the cold war, years after theollapse of the soviet union. a double agent still spying for russia inside the u.s. e
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mily, hifriends and his colleagues. he was respoible for the executions of at least three passed classified information to the russians and cost the american government millions of dollars. fbi agent robert hanen considered one of the most damang spies in u.s. history, but in 2001, he was arrested for committi espionage. "good evening. he swore to uphold the law. tonight he is accused of selling out his country. in a shocking case of espionage and lax f-b-i serity, an american citizen a f-b-i agent is accused of selling u.s. government documents to the kremilin. he reportedly did it for cash and diamonds."
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veteran f-b-i counterintelligence agent, ther of six and a reported devout catholic was arrested for selling highly classified information to russia. "by the time his fellow f-b-i agents began picking apart the home of alleged spy, robert hanssen, this morning, the case against him was already staggering in its detail." "sources tell cbs news, the ve a russian defector looking to gain for provided th bureau with documents suggesting that hanssen had been a mole within the f-b-i for 15 years." "the complaint alleges that hanssen, using the code name providing highly classified by information to the k-g-b and its successor agengy the s-v-r." "in addition, hanssen is said to have handed over 6000 pages of classified material including 26 computer discs plus details of sensitive espionage techniques." "in return, he got 600 thousand
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dollars promised for retirement according to the bureau." "the f-b-i's case against roanen reads like a spy novel depicting a cautious secret loner ctivated by the cloak and dagger world of double agents." "in one of 27 letters thf-b-i says hanssen sent to the russians, he wrote of kim philby, the british intelligence officer called the most successful spy of the cold war. philby betrayed britain and eventually defected to the soviet union." "i decided on this course when soviet union." "i decided on this course when i reads. i'd read philby's this is insane, ay?" hanssen often began dear friend and were always signed with aliases most often ramon or b and the writing showed contempt. one letter last june read, 'the u.s. can be errantly likened to a powefully built but retarded child' and about the bureau, 'you overestimate the f-b-i's capacity to interdict you', though in that same letter last november, ramon
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"recent changes in u.s. law now attach the death penalty so i do take some risk." fbi officials were shocked that one of their best and brightest had betrayed them but admitted hanssen had never been polygraphed in all his 25 years as a counterintelligence agent. "fbi director, louis freeh, hinted that that massive security changes could be expected when he announced hanssen's arrest." "at the end of the day, all of our systems probably need to be looked at and maybe improved." hanssen's arrest came as a shock to those who knew him. "neighbors here in this northern virginia suburb knew hanssen as a quiet man who seemed devoted to his family. there was nothing in his lifestyle they say that stood out. no obvious money problems and no lavish spending." "the stunning thing is how close this alleged spy came to pulling this whole thing off and leaving a wealthy man. the f-b-i got its first tip only four months ago. in five weeks, hanssen would have retired with
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one from the k-g-b as well." "in cot today, hanssen remained silent while the potential death penalty charges were outlined against him. sources said he seem surprised and shaken after his arrest but quickly asked for an attorney." "david major who used to supervise counterintelligence especially skilled." "he was an expert in technology before technology became a big issue. he was one of the brighest people i knew in the f-b-i." "but now, the family's home is surrounded by yellow crime scene tape and as the f-b-i struggles with what some call a blow to the stomach, neighbors and agents are left wondering how a quiet man with six kids may have deceived so many for so long." in 2002, officials released the video of hanssen's arrest. "the justice department today released videotape taken early last year when traitorous f-b-i agent, robert hanssen, wasore tn 15 years spying for moscow.
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the pictures of a spy caught out in the cold." last year and the man in this grainy video is f-b-i agent, robert hanssen. he has just dropped off a batch of stolen u.s. documents for russian agents and is on his way now to pick up their 50- thousand dollar payoff." "what he doesn't know is that he is being watched by dozens of his fellow f-b-i agents. for a split second, hanssen is in the picture but clearly sees what's approaching. then they're on him. machine guns are trained on his chest as agents begin to handcuff him. one agent shoves hanssen while others grasp his arms. another agent seizes what appears to be hanssen's f-b-i badge and throws it to the ground. they spread his legs and seem to be barking orders. hanssen is finally marched away. the look on his
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same clothes that night when he is oked on espionage charges." "the spy masquearding as spy catcher." "agents even know now what was on his mind that winter day last yr. hanssen was certain he was being followed, so certain that he had a plan. hidden in his briefcase that day was an up to date swiss bank account statement and his u.s. passport but in the end the government wanted his cooperation more than his life. prosecutors dropped talk of the deat
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i'm bill kurtis. as we leave, one last look back at the cold war, "through the
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having won the pas thr pbr 15/15 bucking battle. living on. >> this week tulsa takes center stage. mauney is no stranger. with the emerging young stars,


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