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tv   The News Hour With Jim Lehrer  PBS  October 1, 2009 7:00pm-8:00pm EDT

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captiong sponsored by mneil/lehrer productions >> lehrer: good evenin i'm jim lehrer. on t newshour this thursday: the le story, the aftermath of the south pacic earthquakes leaving mo than 500 dead in indosia. then come the other ws of the day, including china'slaborate celebration 60 years of commist rule.
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maaret warner takes up new allegations of fraud ithe afghan electns. jeffrey brown los at the high lel talks with iran about its nuclear program. and rasuarez tells a story of some 4 million year olbones. major funding for e newshour with jim lehrer is provid by: >> whathe world needs now is energy. the ergy to get the economy humming again. the energy to tacklehallenges ke climate change. what ithat energy came from an energy comny? everyday, chevron invest$62 millioin people, in ideas-- seeking, teaching,uilding. fueling growth around the wod to me us all ahead. this ithe power of human energy. chevron. >> this is t engine that connts abundant grain from the american heartland tharan's
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best selling wheat, ile keeping 60 billion pnds of rbon out of the atmosphere every year. bnsf, the enginehat connects us. intel. suppting math and science education for tomorrow's innovators. >> and by wells fargo adviso. together, we'lgo far. and with the ongoing sport of these initutions and fountions. and... this proam was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to yourbs station from vwers like you. thk you. >> lrer: the death toll soared today in t twin disasters in
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indonesia and the samoan islands. officials in ionesia reported ateast 777 dead after wednesday's powerful earquake there. rescuers on matra hunted for e missing and injured. d the u.n. humanitarian chie said the count cou reach 1,100 dead we begin our leastory coverage wi a report from james mates of independent televion news. >> reporter: where 2hours earlr there were high rise apartments and officestoday there are untains of rubble. somewhere buries beath this vastation there still people who survived, trapd and running ouof time. it is a sperate fight to reach them while they can stilbe helped.o for many there could be noelp. indonesian ahorities are warng the number of dead could run into thousands.
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what we're sing here is typical. the hotels, hospitals,schools, thbig public buildings, th're the ones tha clapsed and they tier reason the death toll is so high. as we trove through t city eaier thisafternoon, most uses are unaffected. th, of course, is a heavy rthquake zone and houses are builfor it. but it seem it is big public buildings were not. local television brocast these pictur of the panic and confusion in the center of t port city of padang imdiately after yesterda earthquake, the r is full of dust, people appear to be trying get away from the worst affected ars where budings have collapsed. since thenadang has expericed a night where fires started by the earthque burned as ordiny people led the eration to recover those los underneath t many collapsed ildings. here is a yog man, he is consous.
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but he must wait for lifting equipment to removthe masonry thats trapping him. ma of the injured are beg treated in makhift centers as pang's main hospital have been severely damed by the earthqke. there ha been moments to courage the rescue teams, he a woman covered in dt is pulled alive from the rule where shhas been entombed since the earthquake struck. standing in the remains what was padang best known hotel, donesia's president yudhoyon promised more life sing equipment and medical teams wd arrive soon. but for many it is alrea too late, with aershocks and a second lesser earthqua to contend with ts operation is being rried out in the most desperate circumstces. survivs are finding it hard to understand what has bellen their city a their families.
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>> lehrer: more bodies we also found today on american moa and its neigoring islands. a tsunami struck there o monday, after anffshore earthqua. at lst 150 people inhe islands were cfirmed dead today as the searcfor survivors anvictims went on. we get that part of e story from johray of independent television news, in samoa. >> reporter: the giant waves swam samoare tpw *eufing up their tpwa +*y secrets. >> my dad was found yesterday. just my mom today. >> body ter body recoverd from the sea we foundmid mile ter mile of tangl dris along the rued shore. helen wrht and beckypwhraou suived where others perisd. toou count yourselfucky to be alive? >> oh,y god, yeah. >> so lucky. >> o.. it was seconds between life and death.
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absolute. >>here were people who were in the same place an they didn't make it. >> they were sying here unt two daysgo, a popular beach resort. the sameerrifying waves that destroyed it ao claim it had two-year-old son of a british couple, lld from his father's arms by the chning water. >> t noise you cld hear the wave coming and the noise was st absolutely deafenni and you could hear the buildings crashing. stpwhr-f i remembehearing it behind me. i remember feeling so scare and just running a runningand climbing andlimbing andlimbs d there was all these palm trees under me tha just kept slipping and the i got up kind of as high as iould and the water was byy ankles. d then somebo star screaming "tre's another wave coming" and so i climbed up higher. and, ain, thank god did
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because when the second wave came it swept away where i'd be standing. >> there are piles of passports so far unclimbedy tourists and a teorary morgue to storethe dead. as night fl, samoans kept a watch over tir proper, but in truth, therewas little left to guard. tonight acro these shatterred islands, shock at theheer power of the wes and thecale of the dstruction is gavi we to grief. much here ca beebuilt, but st lives will never be replaced. and e mourning is stl only beginning. >> lehrer:n other news today there were troubling neweports on the u.seconomy. aims for unemployment benefi rose morthan expected last week. factory tivity dropped in september. and most auto make reported sales ll last month as well. it was all too mucfor wall street. thdow jones industrial average lost03 points or 2% to close at 9509.
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the nasdaq fell arly 65 points tolose at 2057, a loss of 3%. a key nate committee neared the end of i work on health care reform today aftea battle over tax. republics tried to kill a mandate at most americans buy health insurance. they said it amounts ttaxing the middlelass. democrats answed the real goal s to gut the bill, and the debate went back and forth >>ll i've done is provide that if that bill resul in an crease in taxes on those making less th $250,000 a year en the taxes will not have t be paid by them. that is the promise and e pledgehat the president has ma to the american people about thtax impact of the legislation that he has said should come beforeim. >> we have to have shared responsibilitynd that shared
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responses that all americans are in this we a have to participe. whish means there has to be shared responsibilitfor individuals to buyealth insurance. esntially, what you're saying is youant to take away the personal responsibility. that's basically whayou're saying. >> lehr: democrats also claimed the bill amounts to $40 billion tax t over the next dade. a final mmittee vote could come next week. the u.s. house is noon record againsreleasing new photos of u.s personnel abusindetainees in iraand elsewhere. the vote today bked a decision byresident obama not to release the photos. as part of theame vote, the house opposed transferri any detainees from the guantano bay prison to e u.s. it now apprs some shipments of the seasonal flu vcine will be delad. the largest suppliers tohe us
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said todayhey have delayed or cut the number of doses beg shipped. they said it'sartly because of the rush to make millionof doses of the sne flu vaccine. china celebrated its 60th anniversary of commust rule today. the regime marked the casion in beijing with a massive ow of patriotic fervor d military might. we he a report from nick payton walsh of independen television news. >> reporter: it was a pay for the party. an unprecedented dplay of militaryight, paralyzing ijing. meant to show the world,nd reover the chinese people, that 60 years of cmunism has built new superpower. and to show the upheaval sacrifice, and cnge has been wortit. esident hu jintao dresd to echo the pas
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in 1949 mao tsung stood here and declared china aeople's republic today's show a backdrofor hu to declarehina "towers majeically in the east". the people who have eir stiny in their own hands and are united, will orcome al difficules and obstacles and will continuouy make great histic achievements. intercontineal nuclear missil, and ranks of armed female militia, all clearl pleang the party secretary. this was authoririanism saying itorks. a day to ignore that china's economic miracle h both poor and ri. police and their civiln helpers swampi a city where evything from pigeons to kites were banned. pictes of the parade are being beamed live to peoplacross beijing and the untry, but the catal is in lockdown, intense security.
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a display heavily choreograpd down to theast detail and sessed with pronghatever pain china'speople have seen in the last 60 years and continue to entour, the result has been rth it. lehrer: the anniversary als brought small denstrations, in ho kong. 200 people mched there, condning china's record on human rights. a federal judge has ordered e fbi to releaseotes from an inteiew with vice president cheney in 2004. the interview focused on w leaked the name an operative athe cia. both the bush and obam administrations gued against releing the notes.
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instead, the jud ruled today the vestigation is over, so most of the material mt be made public. there was noord on a possible appeal. the ll of civilians killed in iraq was the lowest st month sincthe u.s. invasion six years ago. the iraqi health ministr reported today 1 iraqis were kill in september. th was down by two-thirds from august when nearly00 people were kled. roadsi bombings and shootings still occur in iraq, b the u.s. military saidttacks have fallen by % in the last two years. >> lehrer: and still to me on the newsho tonight: the iran tas; and a new discovery of old bones. that follows the lest on the challeed afghan elections. margaretarner has the story. >> warner: exactly s weeks have psed since afghanistan's presidenti election and the outcome is still unresolved.
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last month, afghanistan's independt election commission report preliminary results showinincumbent president mid karzai had won 54.6% o thvote, buamid allegations of ballot box uffing and fraud, a higher body, thunited nations-backed electol complaints commission, ordered a partial recot. now, the un's ad entity in kabul, the un assistance msion in afghanistan, haalso become embroiled the election diute. yesterday,he u.n. dismissed the top u.s. officiaat the mission, former ambaador peter galbrah, after a falling out with his boss. u.n. special rresentative kai eide, over how to deal with e widespread chaes. in a letter to u.n. seetary general baki moon monday, lbraith charged that eide ha shown partialityo the karzai
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govement, refusing to take steps torevent the fraud, and trying to conceal it aftwards. he sd eide: t ban fired galbaith from th kabul post, and sued a statement affiriming his "full support" for eide. he said hemade this decision in the best interest of the mission." last night, eide defendehis handling of e election controrsy. >> warner: and peter galbrth joins us now. he served in a number of diplomatic pos, including as u.s. ambassador to croatia i the clton administration.
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from the unid nations, we have edwin moulet, and welcome to you both, thank you both for being with us. mr. galbraith, beginni with you, thesere very serious charges, t's start with the runup to the electio. you say that the u.n. special representati failed and blockeyou from taking steps thatould have preventedr limid the fraud. at could the u.n. have done? >> in ju i before the elections i came to thekey problem was going to cme from best to lling stations. that is to sayolling statis which re located on maps that were in ars that were either too insecure to open or eve controlled bthe taliban andso these, of course, wouldbe places th no obseers could two, nocandidate agents could
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go and, inact, voters would go. but th materials would t out, they wldn't, of course, two to theseocations, they would be an opportunityto rig them and they wou come back. i pushed e afghan ministers of defense and interioand the independt election commission to elimite these from t ster they complained tothe chief of the mission and he ordered me n to do anything rther on this matter. w it wasn't a matte of the u.n. ming the the sigs it was simply advice and urging of the election commission ofhe afans to make the decision. >> warner: what's your response to that, mr. mout? >> i think it's e role ofhe uned nations mission in ghanistan right now to support and provide al the techcal assistance to th electoral bodi and ititutions in afghanistan the eectoral
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independent commison and the electoral complaints comssion. independent bodies and th is our role. this is... these elections belong to the afte fwan people and then we cannot meddle and w cannot judge the way these institutions are worki. the is nowngoing an audit that mr. galbrth has been supportive of that will deteine the fraud allegations. d this audit will be completed some time in theext days and low prsure determine if there's a need for a second round of runoff electis or not. deed, there was a fraudit was determined that way but less claims of fraud this tim conducted by thefghans themselves, is election, tn in previs elections so weave to give time to these ins us to do their jobnd deliver t outce. we cannot be jged andiddle into the internal affairs.
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>>arner: ambassor the ball brait, what about th point that it would have beemeddling to try to at least pemptively prevent pollingstations from oping on the part of the u. at least=.. >> first, marget, while these are after fwan-run elections they are paid r by the internatiol community top the tune of $300 million mostly from u. taxpayers and the united nations haa manda to suppt free, fair, and transparent elections now 40 these ghost polling station prose deuced hundreds of thousands of vot that were ner actuallyost by voters and ofoursehe people who obcted to a u.n. interference were ministered whose contind tenure in office was i fact to turn outo be befited by the fraud that tk placeso i tink
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it w correct forhe united nations to engagen usole as supporting these elections with the after fwan institutions to sh them to deal with the oblem. s tently, there was question of closing anyolling statio. these were plas that had never been visited by the after fwan ar, the afgn police or the afghan election offials. >> are. >> warner: are yuggested thatembers of the hight level of the karzai government were deliberatelengaged in aiding abetting the fraud or did not want interrence. >> well,hey did n want interferen that wou have prented the it shl or reduced the risk of fraud and th later in the process when the indendent election commission-- whi really isn't independente it'sppointed by
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rzai, it's be backing him up ey made a decisio on september 6 of this year to abandon priouslypublished safe forwards which woulhave excluded fraudulentallots from the cot. theyade the decisn to abandon because they discovered thatif they had excluded those ballots, then karzai woulde below 50%. so in fact on one day the sixth september they affirmed thei prious guidelines, they disdiscovered by doing s would put karza under 50% andhe next day they miracuusly discovered othe after fwan electoral lathey had no leg authority to exclude fraudulent ballots anthey left that then to thelection complaints coission. >> so wh about what i your vi about whether karzai vernment officials werdoing everything they could to ensure a free and fair election or were in fact parcipating in some sort of putting their umb on the scale here. >> wel we do lievehat
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fraud wascommitted. i don't know exactl at what levebut this is clearlyhe casend the secretary genel has presented to the secity council in his latest report that indication. it was also mentionedthis issue which is of grt concern f the secretary general. but fraud was detect and the after fwan institutions are dealing with that. they were it shall ty're tealing with it and this is why this audit is being conducted right now under iternational standards and pervision. i must mtion also that e ectoralcomplaints commissi is integrad by five respected... >> warner: that' a separate body, yes. >> that's a separate independent bodynd three of the fivere inteational cannot be really acsed of not doing teir job
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and at we are only asking is for the instutions, these afghaned institions to do their job and we will see in t next days if th rount and this audit willetermine the amount ofraud, if f this w ough to force a scond election, a runoff election, or not. t we are trusting tt the afghan institions, independent institutio are ting their job. >> couric: now mr. galbith you had another whole set of charges ich had to do with afterhe election and you say the u.n. speciarepresentative, m i tashgs actively blocked efforts to exposehe fraud and, in fact your letter suggests he tried to help conceal it. what's the basis of that? >> the utama setup anlection ceer that ran for a day bore the election thugh the voting
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and through the initial talation period. >> couric: that's the u.n. mission you're talking about? the u.n. mission. and we collected hundreds of cases of fraud. we alsocollected extensive information on turnout because this was key todetected fraud. we knew thaw in key southern province it turnout was minuscule. less than 10% in some cases, and yetarge numbers of votes were repted from those princes. now wanted to make use of this information b turning it over botto the idependent electi commission, this afan body, and he election colaints commission, an investative body which i both afghan andnternational set up under afghan law. these are investigative bodies. wead evidence that couldave helped them in their investations. bu the head of the mission ordered us not to d anythi wi this material. he has subsequently said that,
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course, thisasn't proven. buwe are not investitors. we're not court of law in afghanisn, we had collected evidence that coulhaveelped thinvestigators. >>arner: let me go to . mulet? this w data collecd by your own staff? >>ell, the... i don't want to dwell into thisersonality disputbetween mr. ida and mr. galbraith galbrai. >> it's poly dispute. policy dpute. >> and theifference here is do we support thelectoral institutions and allow the process to follow its d course or not? andthe ectoral cmplaints commission is... has been very happy, i mu insist that, with the cooperation th have been receiving from unama. we've been worng extrely we and we have been working with them an supporting themas much as we can within our mandate.
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>> wner: are you ying you think that your office in kabul was in retrospect a aggressive as it should have beeno make sure that if there w widespread fraud that the evidence come out andcome out publicly and get to e right authorities? >> absolutely. and this was do repeatedly all the time. l our colleagues in unama we doing that all the time, and assisting e complaints commission to their job. so we wereery much in touch with them all the time, but al supporting the and dng their job. >> warner: all right, wehaveo leave it there. per galbraith and edmun mulet thank you very muc >>hank you. >> lehrer: we have more out afghanistan on ourebsite you can previe"obama's war" on ontline. it includes foote of battles withhe taliban and an interview with the commanderf coalition forc, general mcchryal.
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>> lehrer: next tonit, iran at the negotiating table th the u.s. and oer major world pors. that happed today in geneva, where iran's nlear program was e main issue. presidenobama talked about the talks this afteron at the white use. today in geneva, the united states along with r fellow permanent memberof the united nationsecurity council namely russia, china, france, and the ited kingdom as well as geany held talks with the islamic republic oiran. thesmeetings came after seral months of intense diplomatic effor. the p 5 a plus 1s united and we have an international community that h reaffmed its commitment to n-proliferation and disarmament. that'shy the iranian governme heard a clearnd
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unified mesge from the international counity in geneva iran must demonstrate i commitment to transparenc earlier this month presented clear evince that iran h be building aovert nlear facility in qum. since iran has now agreedto cooperate fully and immediately the internation atom energy agency, must grant unfettered access to i.a.e.a. ispectors within two weeks. we support iran's right to peaceful nuclear power king the step of transferring its low enriched unium to a third country would a step towards building confince that iran's program is, in fact, peaceful going forward we expect to see swift tion. we'rcommitted to seriousnd meaningful engagement but we're not intereed in talking for ke of talking. if iran does not take steps in e near future to live up to its obligaons, thenhe united
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states will not continue to negotiate indefitely and we are prepared to move towards increased pressure if iran takes concrete steps and lives up to its obgations, there is a path towards a bett relationip with the united states ineased integration for iran within the international commity, and a tter future for all iranians. let me reiterate, at is constructive beginning but hard work lies ahea. we've entered phase of intensive internatiol negotiatio and talk is no substitute for actn. pledges of cooperatn must be fulfilled. we he made it clear that we will do our part to gage the anian government on the basi of mual interest and mutual respect, but our patience is n unlimid. this is not aboutingling out ir, tht not aut creating doubletandards, this is about the obal non-proleration
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regimend iran's right to peaceful nlear energy just as all nations have it but with that rht comes responsibilities. the burden of meeting these responsibilies lies with the iranian government and the are now the one that need to make that choice. >> lehrer: jeffreyrown takes the sty from there. and to talk abt the negotiatio and state of retions, we turn to: suzanne maloy, a senior fellow at the saban center for midd east policy at t brookings instition. she served on the policy planng staff at the state department from 2005 to 07; and james dobbins,irector of th'international security and dense policy center' at the rand corporation. 's held top state department and white house pos under four presents. constructive beginning, but hard work lies ahead. does this sound like a successful stt out of negotiatio? >> i think it's both a successful startnd it is exactly thright tone for the obama admistration to be
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adopti at this point in what is going to be vy early and long process and onthat is likely to be quite difficult. but really going in these talks todai think expectation re very low as a relt of the tensns that had been raised over the past week o so after the revelaon of this fcility inum and the iranian resnse which involves some sabre rattling. so as far as i know, no one at thstate department went into talks with high expectation of getting specific responses from the iranians so that was the goal andhe idea that thes talks would continue a involve some rl concessions,ome real steps by the iraniansto meet international concer about their nucar program is a very positive start. >> brown: mr. dbins, we heard the present, the emphasis on unfettered accesby the i.a.e.a., the internation watchdog gro, within two week that part of it sounds like an timatum. >> i don know that it's an ultimatum. i mean, the iranns have said they're prepared to give t
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i.a.e. access to this new facility that they'rebuilding so i don't thinkhat was a great surprise. i think as susan said, expectations were low. there was serious dangerhat the iranians wouldimply rese talk about their nuclear progm, which they don't seem to have done. th seem to have reaffirme in a positive sense thin they' said ithe last few days. d the tenor of e discussions seem to indicate that there wa some give and ke and so i mean my minimal expectation w they might agre to meet again. they seem to hav done aittle more than that. they sm to have had a sious discussi on what we think is our prinpal issue. iranians d't seem to have said no, we wan to ta a about a lot ofther things and we wot talk about that and as susan saidthe president in his remarks, which were firm bu alsoddressed the iranian concern whh is that ty not beingled out, they not b differently om every other country in the world a that ey're right to aeaceful
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clear program be anowledged. he did thaall those thing >> brown: h did that several times, refer to the right to a peacefuluclear program. my ear there was th sort of balancing of the got t get in ere within a couple eks but we're talking about thgs like that, the peaceful right. well, i think, again, the obama admistration has been woing hard t set outhis idea they're willing t enga. th set aside the pe-condition for u.s. partication in the talks. ey com without the baggage of the bu administration which tually had made this reversal an changed u.s. policy to brace the idea of an iranian civil nuclear capality. so the obamaadministration came in with a ctain leaning forward mentality and pture given that the president had already sent seral communicatio to the government of the islamic republic. but the mood over the past few weeks has be a very negativ on there's be pressure buding, a lot of talk sanctionand it wasn't clear, as ambassador dobbins suested, whether the iranns would come in and simply b rals trant, simply
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as they have in the pa used this meeting as an opportunity for diatribe. so i think the obama administration obvioly has gotten somethingight about this balance between pressure and oprtunity offering to the iranians. >> wel you actually... you have, as iaid, negotiated wh irania before but not this governmentit should be said, right? what insight would you bring to the right proach to them? >> wel i negiated with the iranians after/11. we had a common interest in defeating thealiban and installing a new gernment in pacifying afghanisn and we rked quite closely and quite effectively togeth. i found them ry professial, candid and forthcoming. now, it was a reformist government rathethan t current more conservative government. we had a clear coincidence of interest. but, you know we'v not negoated with the iranians for so long that the's a feeling that they're so etic and they're so differe and this is so unique. it isn. it's just like negotting with
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any other country with whom you have some serious differences and some potenti coincident ofnterest. weid this with the russians for thsoviet union for 50 years. and we'v done it with a lot regimes that are even me irraonal, unstable, and threatening thanran. i think we ought to stop looking at the as somethin exotic and different andust recognize this is a serious negotiation with a cntry we have differences with, but if it's condued in a profesonal d consistent fashihere's some reonable prospectthat we'll make progress. the. >> brown: what about th iranian positi now? you mentioned the rent acknowledgment of the ne nuclear plant, of course the elections and the oppositi that ctinues to oil along the. what are they coming to the table withs this are they in a weakened positioning? a better position? how do you see it? >> well, i think they arin a weakened positioni in a sense that there is a greater degree of global consensus about the reat that the iranian nuear prograposes. there is areater, i think,
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cooperation between the membs of the p 5 plus 1, particula n particular the russians d the americans anwith that esumably so additiona cooperatn from the chinese. it's not clear, though, whether the iranians always understand that the position may be weaker and oftenhen we perceive them to be weak, that's exactly en they striveo be as aggssive and assertive as ssible. and so think thatis why many ofhose of us whve been watchi these talks were not particularly heful about today. we alshave a fairly hard line leadership that is in the midst of an enmous amount of political turmoil. both the afteath of the stets of the june election ich was quite dramatic a violent buthis continug division and fts among the ite, among the clergy, among all the polical actors who've formed the sort of basis of the lamic republic. i think that the iranians chose to cooperate today, it not cleawhether that will necessarily mean tt they'll continue to cooperatein a really robust fashion, but they obviously recogne that there were some pressus on the
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horizon,articularly economic ones, at they needed to pay tention to. >> ihink what's interting is that, you know, there was some concern that give their domestic turmoil they wouldbe too stracted to put together a serious position a engage in a dialogue. seems that onhe conary, the fact that their position domestically is weaken, their legitimacy is in qstion and they do face a certain degree of domestic turmoil,has made them re serious about negotiations. >> brow of course,here's also some concern, there's so who say that we are questi... e we gitimizing them by sitting down with them at time like this when they are under such straiat home?. >> if there s areasonable prospect that a few weeks fore they could complete the replaced, i thk we would have case. if you asse, however, that hower weakened they are they're not abt to be overthrown ithe next few weeks or en months and that this is the vernment that is conducting the clear program about whicwe are concerne, i don't think we have much choice but to engage them. d it's interesting that even
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the opposition in iran isnot urging us toot talk t them. and is certainly urging us not to engage in large scale sanctions that will affect the anian population. so i don't tnk we're acting in a way that's inconsistent with the interests of the democric oppotion. brown: briefly, the president emphasized our patience not unlimited. so what is the next st here? >> i think the timerame of the presidenas artilated in the past is one that probab runs through the end of tis year. that's not to say we have to have afinal solution to the iranian nuclea threat by that timeut we have to see at they're continui to cooperate, that they're acally following through on whatever commitments they may have ma today. and let me ju add to jim's point, as i understand, the issue of huma rights was raised in the discussionsoday and i think th was an important and appropriate stepor the administraon to take. >> curic: susan loney and mes dobbins, thank you both very much. >> thank you
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lehrer: now, new findings about the orig of man. ray suarez haour story >> suaz: science has long taught that humans evolvedrom a species silar to chimps and gorillas. but researchers announced ne findings today that lls that belief io question, suggesting the line of evolutn may have been me complex. the research was publishedn e journal "science," and chronicled in a new docuntary produced by the scovery channel. scientis say the species lived more than 4 million yearago and cod be a common ancestor for humans and chimps. it was nicknamed ardi, shortor ardipithecus ridus. the findg was of a female fossil, thought to be four ft tall and weighg about 120 poun. the story of t discovery began 1992 at a site in ethiopia' afar rift, about40 miles northeasof addis ababa. at the time, teeth a other
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small fragmentof a skeleton we discovered. it would take mo than 15 yrs of work, diggi, reconstruction, and computer mulation to confirm that an earlier ancestor had bee discovered. >>t took years to figure it all out because we he not seen anythi like this before. >> suare until today, anropologists had thought that cy, a skeleton dating back re than three million years was the oldest aestor known to huns. she, too, was discovered i ethiopia. but at a press cference today, scntists said ardi came first. c. owen vejoy was part of the team. >> if yowere to ask someone on the street today, what d an eay ancestor of humans look like, they would probly say
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wellit would look like lucy and before that, iwould look like ahimpanzee. but the fosss that are being descbed in science today, will te you is that both of those conclusions arvery incorrect. suarez: as shown in this animation done for t discovery channe ardi was an agile tree climber, like chimps a apes, but she wamore inclined to lk upright on two legs. >> what ardi ds tell us is that in the homid line, our first phases oevolution were a mixture of uight walking on the grnd and what we call "pomigating" or upright imbing in the tre. that very different than gorillas and chimpanzees. gollas and chimpanzees are alsoerrestrial, but they modified their hands a feet so mu that they utilized a totally different sort o
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locomotion called knuckl walking, and artilophicus tells that that sort of locomotion neverccurred in the hun line. >> suarez: the skeleton is bng unveiled in etopia today. re to tell us more about ard is tim white, a leo- anthropologi from university of califora, berkeley, and a leader of the research team. professor white,hat does this discovery do t shake up the timeline and what we thought we knew about the origins of early hopl nidz. >>ctually, the diovery is re than a skeleton. hominid. it's a very act intel on the. it has hands, feet head, mny partof the body that are very importaninnderstanding our olution and it's one of 36 individuals all found inne geological horiz, 4.4 million years ago. it's just one species of my
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pee seize found in ts horizon, giraffe, rhino slews, bats, birds, seeds, pollen. it takes us almost like aime cap solell beyond the lieu zi species where we had no information at all. so it's really illuminatedd formerly complety dark era of human pre-history. >> well, you mentioned you had a pretty intac is skeleton. how doou extrapolate from tat skelon the things that we saw in that report? being walking trough a forest instead ofalking on all fours. standing upright and then climbing into the ees. how do you know tha stuffrom the bones? >> well, the fit thing you do when you find a time capsu like this with th kind of eviden is asmble a team, a team of experts. and this particular team, the announcement we're mang morrow in sciee, is 47 total people, specialists in everhing from the soil isotopes to the plants to the is rues to the bats to the
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honidss. and then weiece it togeth slowly and carefully because this i world heritage. shw. weay never find a sleton as inta as this one. so every piece w extracte i mirror imaged, computer high resolutionc.t.omography was used to look inside the teeth of this creature. we've examined its blogy in detail and by doi that it ovides a kind of a foundion a substrait. we brought in jay mattern, the world'leading natural history artist, to create these storationsnd turn them from his charcorawingings that are accute in detail to the millimeter based on the bes, digitally render them d put them into th world that al of these experts haveeen able to reconstruct from their woron similar fossils of the pnts d the animals that lived at thsame time. >> the tremendous advances that
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you descbe helpus see ardipiecus, but it sound like thers also been a lot of advances in the science of palenthropology, so there's just a lot more that you can know fm a molar, l's say. >> we havehe kind of techlogy today that weid not have 20 years ago. so now when one find aroken and fragmented skull li the one that we found, this i not the original,he iginal is nationaleritage inethiopia. it was anunce there had earlr today in ads ababa. that was lhograph. this was a series of pieceshat re imaged in tokyo and then put together tee dimensily to create this repca of what theskull... the original one looked like when restored. we couldt have donehat 20 years ago. on t original teeth, the sampleof the enel when that amel was developing, aen an ice topic signature based on the plancommunity was preserved in th enamel. we can extract th signal that's 4.4 llion years old.
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soe understand thebiology in a detail we've never been able to do fore. >> suar: whenever i've inteiewed people in your lne of wk, there's ver an end, really, when you find somethg that opens up all this new inrmation, there's still things that you needto know an still things you're looking for. what wou help youout? that's lurking in the soil of ethiopia still somewhere. >> well, if you'd hve asked that question ck at the me that lucy was found-- and lucy ened up a wonderfulorld of 3 tnt 2 miion years ago-- i would have said if we jus have some success in the ros older than fr million years we can maybe find a sleton. maybe we canind an animal communit make reck recover a lot of data. so we went out there bause we were curious to explore that unknown part of the pa. just as we se planetary missions do deep spacethis was a mission into t deep past, into planet ear's past and in our past. so by recovering these data, a
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of ts evidence, we've opened up a new window, a new capter in human evolution. what chapter lies beyond? it's out in the desert in ethiopia >> suarez: but are there limits? this is a.4 million yea timate. beyond that are the ings that you fi likely to be ju too degraded, to too fragmentary, tohard to find? >> no, w just need the right conditns of preservation. we got fortunate this time. ancient river flood plain embedded this community, including all o its inhappen habitants. we're looking for older and older rocks in similar circumstances where e remains of the plants andanimals can become fossilized. we hold out hope. as a paleontologist, that's all you can do. hope a take the best psible team of experts into the field. the other great news f african scholarship is that it is african scholars whore now leading is research and ts gives me a great deal hope becae they're table to go out to sites and expand the number
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of people the fie, expand e science being done and we'll get more and me data fom the deep past. that'shat it's all about: getting th eviden. the evidence that darwin didt have. >> suaz: professor white, thks a lot. >> you're weome. he's the only polt to twin nation book critics circle awd twice. last year he received th mark twain prize fo hmor for the poe tray trifoundation. goldbah has publiced more than 25 books o poetry, hislatest was publisd this pa summer. we visited him as his home in wichit kansas. >> we're re in albert ldbarth's space collection room and i ve this stuff sure i spend mostof my te writin poems, it's my chief most passion, but as youan tell by
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looking around the room, this stuff has also taken up good deal of time andenergy, a little bitf money, too, and it really ininvigorate misinsides all the the time. most owhat you'relooking at here is athentic vintage 50s spac toy stuff, a lile bit of it en goes back to the 0s or '30s. so y know sometimes la at ght-- and i stay up until about 3:00n themorning most days the house is quiet, i'm by myself, i doy writingnd thinking then, i' walk into this room d just kind of pivot around 36 degrees and think, yes yes, the nspaper tells the world is a pretty crappy place, but in here i'm also told that there's a rightness the universe. i teach at wiita state univsity in wicha, kans, i'm theadel. ve davis distinguished professor humanitie there. e english departmt has a well intentioned sleepy little m.f.a. program and i teach poetry workshops and literature courses it.
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it feels to me as if i wer born to right. that tt's why i was put on eart i've been trying to b the best poet inow how to be. i try toeave as much time and energy available for writing a cannd i don own a computer not aet home, n at my office at schoo my fingertips are couter virginal, theve never touched a computer keyboard a all of the wting i dois long hand, just regular everyday 59 cent ballpoint pennd a regular 99 cent sral bound noteboo and finally when the poem is ght i type up a final veion. the poemis called shall. i confess i like . it seems to me to bespeak a little of who i and what i'm about. the few times my wife has been in the audience when i've done thist a poetry reading i'v reminded herhat this, in fact, is what i would like on my gravtone one day and she always h this little lookin her eye that says t me "oh,
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that's ssweet, honey, but it's 14 lines." in any case, i now ta you to a eyhound bus going cross country. hawl." "eight hours by bus andnight was on them. he could see himself now in t window, see s head there with the country running throug it like a long thought made of steel and wheat. darknessutside, darkness in the bus as if the sea were dark tend the belly of t whale were dark to match it. he was 20, of course, his eyes returned reatedly to the knee of theoman two rowsup,
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positioned so occasional headlights suck it into life. but more riable w the book. he was discovering himself to be among tribe that reads. now his,he only overhe turned on, now nothing else existed, only him and the book andhe light thrown over his oulders as luxuriously as cashme shawl." >> lehrer: again, the her major develoents of the day.
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the death toll sred to at least 7 in the indonesian earthquake. and, aop u.n. official said there could be 1,100 dead,t least 150 peop were confirmed dead in the unami that hit american sam and its neighborg islands. wall street took hit after repos that unemployment benefits rose lasteek, and factory tput fell last month. thdow jones industrial average lost 200 points. d the u.s. and five other nations oped nuclear talks th ira diplomats said iraagreed to open aewly disclosed plant to u.n. inspectors. on newshour.pbs.g, three online-oy features tonight. you can watch r interview with homeland secity secretary napolino about the arrest of a terror suspect in new rk and more. sten to judy woodruff's reporter'sotebook on the clate change panel she moderated this week in califoia.
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and read a story abouthe economic pluseand minuses for ties chosen to host the olympic games. we'll seyou on-line, and again here tomorrow ening with mark shields and david brooks, amg others. i'm jilehrer. thank u and good night. major fundg for the newshour with jim lehrer is provided : chevron. intel. supporting math and science education for tomoow's innovators. >> and by bnsf railway >> andy wells fargo advisors. together, we'll go farm and withhe ongoing support of these institutions and foundations.
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and... this proam was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributio to your pbs statn from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored macneil/lehrer oductions captioned b media accesgroup at wgbh sturbed.
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i can't go back.
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hey. ah. [ laughs ]
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