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tv   60 Minutes  CBS  March 29, 2015 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT

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getting the correct look. but just imagine what his ankle will be like tomorrow. tomorrow they can take care of it. look at this. i think it was off him. >> grant: if duke is fortunate to win, his ankle will feel better. might have gone off of his ankle there. >> bill: a couple three time-outs for both sides. see what mark few comes up with here. >> jim: crucial call here. 1:46 left in the game. if it stays with duke the original call again, they would work it down a little bit deeper. >> grant: i agree. >> jim: off of winslow. they told us. it's gonzaga ball. >> grant: the right call. you're right how big this play is. now you get your defense set. get yourself back in it. they have some people that can get to the rim as well. pangos. >> jim: gonzaga has had too many
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lapses at this end of the game. they had the one in the end of the first half. they have another 4:50 without a field goal. tyus jones called for that his second. >> bill: not a good one for a heady kid. he knows it. >> jim: the fifth team foul on the blue devils. >> bill: they got what they want. he can elevate over. >> jim: if coach k wins this game he would be going to the final four for the 12th time which would tie the all-time report of john wooden. karnowski almost lost it. now powering in -- they call him for traveling. >> bill: look at okafor.
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had him on the back. complementing him. when a leader that kid is. solid defensive play. big broad body. bang! takes some strength too. >> jim: so they bring in sabonis. now they're going to have to really ratchet up the intensity here and the pressure, the full-court pressure. >> bill: play the inbounder, too. not with size. just with rotation. three good hands in the back court. >> grant: tyus jones, excellent free throw shooters. fouling winslow, a little percentage-wise less. trying to get the steal, if not a foul quickly.
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>> bill: tough for mark's wife. come this far. >> jim: they're so close to this particular bunch. the kids are at the impressionable age, to. they look for the roll -- role models and couldn't ask for better than these seniors. >> bill: so far with a great effort. the program continues. they'll amaze people. mark few as the head. major league all the way. >> jim: wiltjer, the three. needed it. duke has it. >> bill: looking to get a trap. >> jim: tyus jones lost it. >> bill: i think they got it wrong. they're going to look at the camera. i think jones lost it. >> jim: tonight on "60 minutes"
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some patients are using words like "cure" and miracle and an interview with president assad. only on "60 minutes." >> grant: you talked earlier act mark few and his players. his seniors. yesterday we sat down and spoke with them. they just want to keep playing and stay together be together. a lot of times -- still down 10. but you can feel the love and affection he has for his players. it was a mutual feeling. they may just come up short here against a talented ball club. >> bill: he said we're a mom and pop deal. he said they treat us as well as anybody in the country. you don't have absolute certainty --
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>> grant: i think that's the right call. duke's ball. >> jim: stays with duke. well the gonzaga program, mark few, has seen it from so many different lenses as an assistant under dan fitzgerald and coach all these years as a assistant coach. sleeping on the floors. >> bill: they embrace this program to an incredible level. >> jim: reality is beginning to set in. duke without a single turnover the last 17 minutes of this game. only two for the entire game. >> bill: you think about the little things that make this team great. his attitude is one of them.
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>> grant: his energy leadership. he lifts everybody up. quinn cook the heart and soul of the blue devils. >> jim: and very close, kyle sinkler. but nolan smith from the duke teams. championship teams. acc player of the year. all-american. duke is within a minute of going back to indianapolis a city where they won a couple national championships. and matt jones lays it in. >> bill: mike krzyzewski rejuvenated. the ponce de leon of college coaching. these guys have energized him. >> grant: that last bucket by matt jones -- >> bill: i don't know if i've seen coach k that hot before.
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>> grant: coach k -- >> bill: look at him. >> grant: is he excited or what? >> bill: he didn't jump that high playing at westpoint. you know what the winner of the whole tourney has the option to keep? what? the hardwood man. no way, that's not true. look it up. i will look it up. that's like george washington winning at yorktown and being like 'you know what? wrap up the sod, i'm taking it.' you're actually right. hello!? when have i ever lied to you? that time you said you weren't dating my sister but you were! ok. buffalo wild wings. 21 sauces and seasonings tons of taps and countless flat screens. nowhere is sports more alive. n n n >> jim: tonight on cbs begins with "60 minutes" followed by "the good wife" and battle creek." gonzaga led by 4. there's been a 18-point swing
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since then. there's one play that they won't forget. the chance to tie it. the lay-in. wiltjer had it. nobody around. he missed it. he's had a particular season. player of the year in the conference. but duke just down the stretch dominated. gonzaga, looks like it will go the last 6 1/2 without a basket. >> bill: they're going to hold it. get the shot clock violation. get some subs in. the guys get an opportunity. mark few telling us yesterday about the respect for this class, the duke program. they exemplify it too. the subs sitting there after a wonderful year. >> jim: pagliuca gets to come in. the duke blue devils going back
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to the big dance. the ultimate dance. in indianapolis. >> bill: they like that. >> jim: two championships there. two in minneapolis. a total of four. he's tied the one and only john wooden for any coach taking teams to the final four. now for the 12th time. >> grant: any time you tie john wooden that is super impressive. coach k has done a fantastic job leading this team making them believe all season that they could get to the final four. now they're there. it's going to be a good final four next week. >> jim: is it ever. kentucky-wisconsin. they qualified yesterday. duke and michigan state take up the last two spots today. >> bill: three number 1 seeds. >> grant: a lot of blue bloods there. a great game today.
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>> jim: for bill raftery, grant hill tracy wolfson, jim nantz saying so long from houston along with the guys in the truck and the crew. duke is the south regional champion heading to the final four. tonight on cbs "60 minutes" "madam secretary." now to the new york studio after these messages. see you next week from indianapolis. for every hole-in-one at a pga tour event seventeen times. this year, the mortgage we pay could be yours. win a year's worth of mortgage payments from quicken loans. enter today at net? pff, whatever. you know what the winner of the whole tourney has the option to keep?
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what? the hardwood man. no way, that's not true. look it up. i will look it up. that's like george washington winning at yorktown and being like 'you know what? wrap up the sod, i'm taking it.' you're actually right. hello!? when have i ever lied to you? that time you said you weren't dating my sister but you were! ok. buffalo wild wings. 21 sauces and seasonings tons of taps and countless flat screens. nowhere is sports more alive. n n n
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>> how great is this road to the final four been? we're set. we started with 68 teams. down to these four in indianapolis. wisconsin and kentucky. that's the first game. the second is michigan state going against duke. hi everyone. tonight, cbs begins with "60 minutes" and a possible break through with cancer care. and an interview with president
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assad from syria. this has not been a bad tournament at all. there's to reason to expect it will continue. >> four phenomenal teams. duke did it with defense this evening. >> yeah. duke university did a great job of changing some things in terms of -- we kept saying through the tournament versatility. can you do something different when plan a doesn't work. when the game was going up and down they were not ready. all of a sudden they slowed the game down charles. >> two great days of basketball. take my hat off to coach k today. he slowed the game down. that was the difference. >> all right, guys. saturday the road to the final four arrives in indianapolis. the action is on tbs at 3:00 p.m. at the final four. presented by infiniti. at 4:00 p.m. the final four show. michigan state and duke tip at 6:09 followed by wisconsin and kentucky at about 8:49 eastern. again, this year the final four coverage will include team
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streams presented by the bleacher report which will feature team-specific telecasts. duke and kentucky on tnt and michigan state and wisconsin on tru tv. member on cbs, it's capital one championship central at 8:30 eastern followed by the 2015 ncaa men's basketball championship game. tip time is 9:18 eastern. we'll see you in indianapolis. for clark, kenny, charles, everybody here in new york, i'm greg gumbel.
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captioning funded by cbs and ford >> rose: what circumstances would cause you to give up power? >> when i don't have the public support. when i don't represent the syrian interests and values. >> rose: and how do you determine that? >> i have daily contact with the... with the people. how could any... >> rose: so, you're... you determine whether they support you? >> no, no, no. i don't determine. i sense, i feel. i'm in contact with them. i'm a human. >> pelley: under traditional
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standard-of-care treatment stephanie should not be standing here next to us today? >> absolutely not. >> pelley: for ten months, we've been following patients flu an experimental therapy at duke university... >> you might feel a little tug. >> ...that is using the polio virus to attack glioblastoma the deadliest brain cancer there is. >> this, to me, is the most promising therapy i have seen in my career, period. >> pelley: a turning point in cancer care? >> i hope so. i think it may well be. >> pelley: with that kind of promise, the scientists at duke are using the polio virus on other cancers in their labs. what have you been able to kill so far? >> so, we have done this for lung cancers, breast cancers colorectal cancers, prostate cancers, pancreatic cancers, liver cancers, renal cancers. >> i'm steve kroft. >> i'm lesley stahl. >> i'm morley safer. >> i'm bill whitaker. >> i'm charlie rose. >> i'm scott pelley. those stories tonight on 60 minutes.
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>> rose: four years ago, the obama administration declared that syria's bashar al-assad must go. today, president assad is still there, but much of the country has gone. assad's syrian government has lost control over significant amounts of its territory to either isis or syrian rebel groups. four million syrian refugees have fled the country. more than 200,000 have died, most from syrian military bombing of territory controlled by his opponents. with the rise of isis in syria toppling assad is no longer the
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highest priority there for the united states. and last month, secretary of state john kerry told cbs news the u.s. is open to negotiating with syria, something we discovered, assad wants. we traveled to damascus this past week and met with assad for an interview, under the conditions that we use syrian tv technicians and cameras. we began by asking him about american air strikes against isis in syria. how much of a benefit are you getting from american air strikes in syria reducing the power of isis? >> bashar al-assad: sometimes, you could have local benefit but, in general, if you want to talk in terms of isis, actually isis has expanded since the beginning of the strikes. not like some american wants to sugarcoat the situation as the... to say that it's getting better, isis is being defeated and so on. actually, no, you have more recruits. some estimates that they have
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1,000 recruits every month in syria. and iraq, they are expanding in... in libya, and many other al qaeda affiliate organizations have announced their allegiance to isis. so that's the situation. >> rose: how much... how much territory do they control in syria? >> assad: sorry? >> rose: isis-- controls how much territory? 50%? >> assad: yeah, it's not regular war. we cannot... you don't have criteria. it's... it's not an army that makes... it make the incursion. they go to infidels. they try to infiltrate any area when there is no army and we have inhibitance. the question, how much incubator they have, that's the question. how much heart and minds they won so far. >> rose: and how much of that? how do you measure that... >> assad: you cannot measure it, but you can tell that the majority of the people who suffered from isis, they are supporting the government and, of course, the rest of the syrian people are afraid from isis, and i don't think they
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would... i think they lost a lot of hearts of... and minds. >> rose: they've lost a lot? >> assad: they have lost, except the very ideological people who have wahabi state of mind and ideology. >> rose: there is another number that... that is alarming to me. it is that 90% of the civilian casualties, 90% come from the syrian army. >> assad: how... how did you get that result? >> rose: that was a report that was issued in the last six months. >> assad: okay. as i said earlier, the war, it's not about... it's not traditional war. it's not about capturing land and gaining land. it's about winning the hearts and minds of the syrians. we cannot win the heart and minds of the syrians while we are killing syrians. we cannot sustain four years in that position as a government, and me as president, while the rest of the world, most of the world, the great powers, the regional power, are against me and my people are against me. that's impossible. i mean, this logic has no leg to stand on.
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so this is not realistic, and this is against our interests as government is to kill the people. what do we get? what the benefit of killing the people? >> rose: well, the argument is that you... you... there are weapons of war that have been used that most people look down on with great... one is chlorine gas. they believe that has been used here. they said there is evidence of that, and they would like to have the right to inspect to see where it's coming from. as you know, barrel bombs have been used, and they come from helicopters. and the only people who have helicopters is the syrian army. and so, those two acts of war, which has... society looks down on as barbaric acts. >> assad: let me fully answer this. it's very important. this is part of the malicious propaganda against syria. first of all, the chlorine gas is not military gas. you can buy it anywhere. >> rose: but it can be weaponized... >> assad: no, because it's not
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very effective, it's not used as military gas. that's very self-evident. traditional arms is more important than chlorine. and if it was very effective the... the terrorists would have used this on a larger scale. because it's not effective, it's not used very much. >> rose: then why doesn't somebody come in and inspect it and see whether it's been used or not? >> assad: well, we... well we... >> rose: you'd be... >> assad: ... we... we would... >> rose: you're happy for that? >> assad: of course. we all... we always ask a delegation, impartial delegation to come and investigate. but, i mean, logically and realistically, it cannot be used as a military. this is part of the propaganda because, as you know, in the media, when it bleeds it leads. and they always look for something that bleeds, which is the chlorine gas and the barrel bombs. >> rose: you do use barrel bombs? you're just saying... >> assad: no, no. there's no such a thing called barrel bombs. we have bombs, and any bomb is about killing. >> rose: you have often spoken about the danger of a wider war in the middle east. >> assad: yeah.
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>> rose: can you talk about the parties involved? and characterize how you see them. let me begin with saudi arabia. >> assad: saudi arabia is an anarchic autocracy. medieval system that's based on the wahabi dark ideology. actually, say, it's a marriage between the wahabi and the political system for 200 years now. that's how we look at it. >> rose: and what is their connection to isis? >> assad: the same ideology, the same background. >> rose: so isis and saudi arabia are one and the same? >> assad: the same ideology, yes. >> rose: same ideology. >> assad: i don't... it's wahabi ideology. they base the... their ideology is based on the books of the wahabi in saudi arabia. >> rose: so you believe that all wahabis have the same ideology as isis... >> assad: exactly. definitely. and that's by isis, by al qaeda, by al nusra. it's not something we discover or we... we try to promote. it's very... i mean, their book... they use the same books to indoctrinate the people. the wahabi books... >> rose: what about turkey? >> assad: turkey-- let's say it's about erdogan, his muslim brotherhood fanatics.
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>> rose: and you... >> assad: it doesn't mean that he is a member. but he's a fanatic. >> rose: president erdogan is... >> assad: is a muslim brotherhood fanatic. and he's somebody who's suffering from political megalomania. and that he thinks that he is becoming the sultan of the new era, of the 21st century. >> rose: you think he could stop the border if he wanted to? >> assad: yeah, of course. definitely. he... he doesn't only ignore the terrorists from coming to syria. he support them, logistically and militarily, directly on daily basis. >> rose: tell us what the russians want. they are a strong ally of you. >> assad: yeah. >> rose: what do they want? >> assad: definitely, they want to have balance in the world. it's not only about syria and small country. it's not about having a huge interest in syria; they could have it anywhere else. so, it's about the future of the world. they want to be a great power that have their own say in the future of this world.
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>> rose: and what do they want for syria? >> assad: stability. they want... >> rose: stability. >> assad: ...stability and political solution. >> rose: and what does iran want? >> assad: the same. the same. syria and iran and russia see eye-to-eye regarding these conflicts. >> rose: and what is your obligation to both of them? >> assad: what do you mean obligation? >> rose: what is your... what do you owe them? >> assad: yeah, i know. but they didn't ask me for anything. nothing at all. that's why what i said-- they don't do that for syria. they do it for the region, and for the world. because stability is very important for them. >> rose: you and your father have held power in syria for how many years? >> assad: is it a calculation of years? >> rose: yes. >> assad: or public support? >> rose: no, years. how long...? >> assad: there's a big difference. it doesn't matter how many years, the question... >> rose: well, it does matter. >> assad: no, what's matter for us, do the syrians support these two presidents. doesn't matter is they are
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father and son. we don't say "w"... george w. bush is the son of george bush. it's different. he's president, i'm president, he has support from that generation, i have support from this generation now. >> rose: but the question, how do you... >> assad: doesn't matter how many. it's not... it's not the family rule, as you want to imply. >> rose: it's not? >> assad: no. >> rose: why do you think that they... people in the west question your legitimacy? >> assad: this intervention in syria matters. i don't care about it, to be frank. i never care about it. as long as i have the public support of the syrian people. that's my legitimacy. legitimacy comes from the inside, but why? i will tell you why. because the west used to have puppets-- not independent leaders or officials in any other... other country. and that the problem with putin. they demonize putin because he can say no and he wants to be independent. because the west, and especially the united states, don't accept partners. they only accept followers. even europe is not partner of the united states. that's to be very frank with you. so, this is their problem with syria. they need somebody to keep saying yes.
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yes-- a puppet, marionette. and so on. >> rose: what circumstances would cause you to give up power? >> assad: when i don't have the public support. when i don't represent the syrian interests and values. >> rose: and how do you determine that? >> assad: i have daily contact with the... with the people. how could any... >> rose: so, you're... you determine whether they support you? >> assad: no, no, no. i don't determine. i sense, i feel. i'm in contact with them. i'm a human. how... how can a human make that expectation of the population? i mean, the war was very important lab for this support. i mean, they could have...if they don't support you, they could have... go and support the other side. they didn't. why? that's very clear. that's very concrete. >> rose: i came here after secretary kerry had made his remarks. my impression, once i got here is that, when you heard those remarks, you were optimistic. the state department backed... back a little bit, and said we
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still think there needs to be a new government. but... but you were optimistic after you heard that. you believe there is a way for your government and the american government to cooperate? >> assad: yeah. >> rose: and coordinate? >> assad: that's not the main point after... i mean, regarding that statement. i think... i think the main point we could have feeling, and we hope that we are right, that the american administration started to abandon this policy of isolation, which is very harmful to them and to us. because if you isolate country isolate yourself, as the united states, from being influential and effective, in the course of events, unless you are talking about the negative influence like make embargo, that could kill the people slowly. or launching war and supporting terrorists that could kill them in a faster way. so, our impression is that we are optimistic, more optimistic- - i wouldn't exaggerate.
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that at least when they're thinking about dialogue, doesn't matter what kind of dialogue and what the content of the dialogue, and even doesn't matter for the real intentions. but the word "dialogue" is something we haven't heard from the united states on the global level for a long time. >> rose: but you just did, from the secretary of state. we need to negotiate... >> assad: exactly, that's... >> rose: that's a dialogue. >> assad: that's what i said. i mean, that's why i said it's positive. that's what i said, we are more optimistic. i mean, when they abandoned this policy of isolation, things should be better. i mean, when you start the dialogue, things will be better. >> rose: why don't you reach out to secretary kerry and say "let's talk." >> assad: are they ready to talk? >> rose: "let's talk." >> assad: we... we are always open. we never close our doors. they should be ready for the talk, they should be ready for the negotiation. we didn't make an embargo on the united states. we didn't attack the american population. we didn't support terrorists who did anything in united states. actually, the united states did. we were always... we always
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wanted to have good relation with the united states. we never thought in the other direction. it's a great power. nobody... not a wise person think of having bad relation with united states. >> rose: yeah, but can you have good relationship with a country that thinks you shouldn't be in power? >> assad: no, that's not going to be part of the dialogue that i mentioned earlier. this is not their business. we have... we... we have syrian citizens who can decide this. no one else. whether they want to talk about it or not. this is not something we're going to discuss with anyone. >> rose: this cannot end militarily. do you agree with that? >> assad: yeah, definitely. every conflict, even if it's a war, should end with a political solution. >> rose: we'll have more from president assad tomorrow on cbs this morning. you can see the entire interview on my pbs broadcast monday night.
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>> cbs hundred watch update sponsored by lincoln financial. calling all chief life officers. >> glor: good evening. carley fiorina says there's a better than 90% chance for president. duke energy was hit with a $600,000 pay cut over a coal ash spill last year, and the charles dickens museum in london has purchased the author's desk and chair for $1.2 million. i'm jeff glor, cbs news. ...and the wolf was huffing and puffing... kind of like you sometimes, grandpa. well, have copd it can be hard to breathe. it can be hard to get air out, which can make it
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>> pelley: the long war on cancer has left us well short of victory. radiation flashed on in the 19th century, chemotherapy began to drip in the 20th but, for so many, 100 years of research adds up to just a few more months of life. well, tonight, you're about see a discovery for the 21st century that may be a big leap forward awakening the power of the body's immune system. for ten months, we've been inside an experimental therapy at duke university. some of the patients there use words that doctors don't use like "miracle" and "cure."
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and that's remarkable, because these patients were handed a death sentence, a relentless brain cancer called glioblastoma. to beat it, researchers are doing something that many thought was crazy-- they are infecting the tumors with polio, the virus that has crippled and killed for centuries. in just a moment, polio will be dripped into the brain of 58- year-old nancy justice. her glioblastoma tumor was discovered in 2012. surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation bought her two and a half years. but the tumor came roaring back. now, the virus in this syringe which mankind has fought to eradicate from the earth, is the last chance she has in the world. >> you might feel a little tug. >> pelley: in october this past year, half a teaspoon of polio flowed into her tumor. >> okay. ready to go?
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>> nancy justice: i'm ready, bring it on. >> we're starting. 9:21. >> annik desjardins: if you feel anything, you let us know. >> justice: i will definitely. >> desjardins: perfect. >> pelley: well, let me ask, do you feel anything? >> justice: no. so far so good. don't feel a thing. >> pelley: her husband, greg constantly inflates a buoyant optimism to save him from the weight of the unknown. glioblastoma was diagnosed in the 21st year of the georgia couple's marriage, just as they could make out the finish line for zach and luke at college. her tumor can double in size every two weeks. and when glioblastoma returns, time is short-- doctors gave her seven months. but good ones? maybe just three or four. the tumor was aggressive. >> justice: yes. >> pelley: so you wanted an aggressive treatment. >> justice: yes. yes. >> pelley: you're a medical explorer. does it feel that way to you? >> justice: i'm taking it one day at a time. it sounds very lofty to say
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"medical explorer." but, you know, throughout all of this, if this gives other people hope, i'm all for it. >> pelley: greg, you mentioned that nancy was there for every important event in the boys' lives. >> greg justice: right. >> pelley: but there are a lot of important events to come. >> nancy justice: exactly. >> pelley: what do you hope to see? >> nancy justice: so i am going to see those boys walk across the stage at their college graduation. i am going to see them get married. and i am going to see the grandkids, preferably in that order. and i know, it's, like, such a mom bucket list. but i'll love every minute of it. >> pelley: it was the day before that we saw nancy preceded by her shield, the smile that she rarely lets slip. >> nancy justice: i'm ready. >> pelley: nancy was wheeling into an intricate surgery to insert a path for the virus. that white mass is the tumor back of her skull, near the top. duke's chief of neurosurgery dr. john sampson, used 3-d m.r.i.s to plot his course. he tacked between the lime green
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strands that connect to every vital function in her body. and he brought the catheter to the center of the lethal mass. >> john sampson: it's just like a sniper's bullet. if it doesn't go to the right place, it's not going to hit the target. and it's not only important to get it to the right place, but also to make sure that it doesn't go to the wrong places doesn't cause any harm to the patient. >> pelley: it doesn't travel throughout the brain? >> sampson: it won't travel too far throughout the brain because it's a relatively big molecule and the brain's a tight space, so it's limited in how far it can travel. >> pelley: at least, that's what they expected, as nancy became the 17th patient in the experiment. the polio infusion was slow-- that half a teaspoon took six and a half hours. but that's it, one dose and she's done. no more surgery, chemo radiation, nothing, if this works. >> desjardins: you're doing fantastic. >> nancy justice: all right. >> desjardins: now, show me your smile. >> pelley: on nancy's way home that same day, oncologist dr.
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annick desjardins showed her how it went. >> desjardins: so we can exactly see where the polio virus went. so that's the m.r.i. you and i looked at on monday. then, you see here the brighter area there? can you see that? >> nancy justice: yes. >> desjardins: that's the polio virus. >> nancy justice: wow. >> desjardins: exactly where we needed it. >> nancy justice: oh. cool. okay. >> desjardins: right where it should be. >> pelley: in a few months they'll take another m.r.i. to see which is stronger, glioblastoma or polio. >> henry friedman: the number of calls are increasing. >> pelley: this is duke's polio team. as usual in such studies several of them have a financial stake, so they'll benefit too if it becomes commercial. can you pick out the deputy director of the brain tumor center? well, when you're one of the world's leading cancer doctors turns out you can wear what you like. and after 34 years, folks at duke are used to how dr. henry friedman's brain views fashion. >> friedman: it's really good to see that things are going well. >> pelley: it was friedman who
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encouraged nancy justice to gamble on the polio experiment. i wonder-- of all the trials and all of the theories and all of the treatments that you have hoped for all of these years how does this stack up? >> friedman: this, to me, is the most promising therapy i've seen in my career, period. >> pelley: a turning point in cancer care? >> friedman: i hope so. i think it may well be. >> pelley: why would he say that during an early clinical trial with barely enough patients to fill an elevator? because of the decades of work that have led to this moment. the virus is the creation of the obsession of dr. matthias gromeier, a molecular biologist who's been laboring over this therapy 25 years, the last 15 at duke. when you went to your colleagues and said, "i've got it. we'll use the polio virus to kill cancer." what did they say? >> matthias gromeier: well, i got a range of responses from... from "crazy" to "you're lying"
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to all kinds of things. most people just thought it was too dangerous. >> friedman: oh, i thought he was nuts. i mean, i really thought he was using a weapon that produces paralysis. >> pelley: other researchers are experimenting with cancer treatments using viruses including h.i.v., small pox and measles. but polio was dr. gromeier's choice because, as luck would have it, it seeks out and attaches to a receptor that is found on the surface of the cells that make up nearly every kind of solid tumor. it's almost as if polio had evolved for the purpose. gromeier re-engineered the polio virus by removing a key genetic sequence. the virus can't survive this way, so he repaired the damage with a harmless bit of cold virus. this new modified virus can't cause paralysis or death because it can't reproduce in normal cells.
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but in cancer cells, it does and in the process of replicating, it releases toxins that poison the cell. duke went to the f.d.a. for approval of this new frankenstein virus. they were afraid you might create a monster? >> friedman: they were afraid we might create something which could infect the general community. i mean, look at me, i'm a scientist. i'm a physician. and i said, "this is nuts." i think that their reaction was appropriate. >> pelley: to satisfy the f.d.a., they did seven years of safety studies. tests on 39 monkeys proved they didn't get polio. and in 2011, the f.d.a. approved a trial in humans. someone had to go first. it's a hell of a thing to be told that you have months to live when you're 20 years old. in 2011, stephanie lipscomb was a nursing student with headaches. a doctor came in to say that she had this glioblastoma tumor the
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size of a tennis ball. >> stephanie lipscomb: i looked at the nurse that was sitting there holding my hand and i said, "i don't understand. like, what did he just say?" it was kind of hard for me to process. >> pelley: you had 98% of the tumor removed. >> lipscomb: exactly. >> pelley: as much radiation as you can have in a lifetime, and chemotherapy. >> lipscomb: exactly. >> pelley: and then in 2012, what did the doctors tell you? >> lipscomb: "your cancer's back." >> pelley: with recurrent glioblastoma, there were no options except the one that had never been tried before. did they tell you that it had never been tried in a human being before? >> lipscomb: they did. but at the same time, i had nothing to lose, honestly. >> pelley: i wonder what your mother said? >> lipscomb: she looked at dr. desjardins and she said, "you want to do what with my daughter? you want to do what?" and i'm like, "lets do it. come on, lets go." >> pelley: i have the sense that
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this scared you a lot more than you've let on. >> lipscomb: it did. i knew how scared my family was, and i didn't want it... them to see me scared. >> pelley: but of course, you were. >> lipscomb: uh-huh. >> friedman: in point of fact, we didn't know what the polio was going to do. we thought the polio virus might help her. we had no idea what it would do in the long haul. it was a crap shoot. it's roll the dice and hope that you're going to get an answer that is coming up sevens and not coming up snake eyes. >> pelley: but in the months that followed, it looked like a bad bet. >> desjardins: so we treated her in may. then in july, the tumor looked bigger, looked really inflamed. i got really concerned, got really worried. >> pelley: you thought this wasn't working. >> desjardins: i thought it wasn't working. >> pelley: dr. desjardins wanted to go back to traditional treatment, maybe another surgery, but stephanie decided against her advice, to wait. by october, five months after her infusion, an m.r.i. showed
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that the tumor hadn't been growing at all. it turned out it only looked worse because it was inflamed. stephanie's immune system had awakened to the cancer and gone to war. why didn't the immune system react to the cancer to begin with? >> gromeier: so, cancers-- all human cancers-- they develop a shield or shroud of protective measures that make them invisible to the immune system. and this is precisely what we try to reverse with our virus. so by infecting the tumor, we are actually removing this protective shield, and telling the... enabling the immune system to come in and attack. >> pelley: so, essentially what's happening here inside the tumor is you have a polio infection. >> gromeier: yes. >> pelley: and that sets off an alarm... >> gromeier: yes. >> pelley: ...for the immune system. >> gromeier: yes.
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>> pelley: the immune system says, "there's a polio infection. we better go kill it." >> gromeier: exactly. >> pelley: and it turns out it's the tumor. >> gromeier: yes. >> pelley: it appears the polio starts the killing, but it's the immune system that does most of the damage. stephanie's tumor shrank for 21 months until it was gone. this is an m.r.i. from this past august. three years after the infusion something unimaginable has happened for a patient with recurrent glioblastoma. and there's no cancer in this picture at all. >> desjardins: and we don't see any cancer, active cancer cells in this tumor at all. >> pelley: she is cancer free. the only thing that remains is this hole, which is an artifact of an early surgery. under traditional standard-of- care treatment, stephanie should not be standing here next to us today? >> desjardins: absolutely not. >> pelley: stephanie, when they showed this to you, what did you think? >> lipscomb: i wanted to cry with excitement this time. >> pelley: how surprised are you by that? >> friedman: i'm surprised
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because you never expect, on a phase one study in particular, which is what she is on, to have these kinds of results. >> pelley: you're not expecting to cure people in a phase one trial. >> friedman: you're not even necessarily expecting to help them. you hope so, but that's not the design of a phase one study. it's designed to get the right dose. when you get anything on top of that, it's cake. >> pelley: quite a cake. >> friedman: quite a cake. biggest cake we've seen in a long, long time. >> pelley: tell me what you see there. dr. fritz andersen showed us the results in another patient himself. he's a retired cardiologist, and at age 70, he became the second person in the polio trial. >> fritz andersen: this is a fairly sizeable temporal tumor which means... >> pelley: that we see right here. on the left is his tumor before treatment; on the right, a hairline scar where it used to be. like stephanie, that was nearly three years ago. >> andersen: so when they said that "this thing is just a small scar and we think it's possibly cured," i nearly fell off my chair.
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i said, "that's... that's impossible." they said, "well, we don't know, but >> pelley: do you consider yourself cured, or do you call it remission? >> andersen: i feel it is a cure, and i live my life that way. >> pelley: fritz and stephanie met for the first time here at "60 minutes" when we interviewed them last fall. >> andersen: we should do a head bump. there you go. there you go. >> lipscomb: was yours on your right side? >> andersen: no, on the left. which one's yours? >> lipscomb: my right. >> andersen: well, let's do it right to left. there we go. >> pelley: with the early success, the team raised the dose in the next few patients in hope of an even better result. but that's when the polio trial encountered its first tragedies. when we come back we'll look at how the virus is working in nancy justice, who we met in the beginning, and at what they've discovered after trying polio against lung cancer, breast cancer and many others.
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>> welcome to the cbs sports update. i'm greg gumbel in new york. the final four is set. wisconsin and kentucky in one national tem final, a rematch of one of last year's semi, a game kentucky won 74-73. and in the other semi,ites michigan state and duke. combined coach izzo and coach krzyzewski have reached 19 final fours. action kicks off next sunday at 6:09 eastern time. but here's the thing: about half of men over 40 have some degree of erectile dysfunction. well, viagra helps guys with ed get and keep an erection. and remember, you only take it when you need it. ask your doctor if your heart is healthy enough for sex. do not take viagra if you take nitrates for chest pain; it may cause an unsafe drop in blood pressure side effects include headache, flushing, upset stomach and abnormal vision. to avoid long-term injury,
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a great entrance never goes out of style. dresses start at $25. the eva mendes collection. exclusively at new york and company. >> pelley: for nearly a year we've been following the clinical trial at duke university, where the polio virus is being used to kill a vicious brain cancer called glioblastoma. the goal of the experiment was to discover the right dose of the virus. the first two patients saw their tumors melt away. so, with that remarkable result at small doses, the researchers increased the potency of the virus in the next patients. that's how they made a tragic but vital discovery about the power of immunotherapy in killing cancer.
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>> desjardins: maybe you just close an eye... >> pelley: it's been three years since stephanie lipscomb became the first patient to see her recurrent glioblastoma wiped out by polio. >> desjardins: problem with memory? >> lipscomb: no. >> desjardins: vision? >> lipscomb: no. >> pelley: she gets a checkup at duke every four months. >> lipscomb: hey! >> donna clegg: how are you? >> lipscomb: good. >> pelley: and she's become a celebrity to the new patients starting the polio trial. 60-year-old donna clegg, a social worker from idaho, will be patient number 14. >> clegg: we're going to do it! >> lipscomb: yes, high five. >> clegg: thank you. >> pelley: this was donna clegg before cancer. and this is how we found her last june-- puffy from the steroids they used to limit the swelling in her brain. like others in the trial, she'd had surgery, chemo, and radiation, but the glioblastoma came back and the polio virus was her last chance. >> clegg: i want to be able to live. so that's kind of how i feel that this is going to be my
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opportunity to have a full life. >> pelley: donna's polio infusion was three times more potent than the one that worked for stephanie. and that's the whole idea behind this phase one trial-- to increase the dose in succeeding patients, step by step, in search of the best result. dr. henry friedman is deputy director of duke's brain tumor center. >> friedman: we believe in the philosophy we've learned in chemotherapy that more is better. so if we were getting a good response at dose level one or dose level two, then go to dose level three, four, five. >> pelley: in donna clegg, doctors saw the expected inflammation as her immune system attacked the tumor. but the higher dose caused an immune response that was much too powerful. the inflammation put so much pressure on her brain, she became partially paralyzed. back home in idaho, she decided


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