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Information retrieval and access have become central technologies for managing and leveraging the ongoing explosion of digital content. While effective, current techniques for designing retrieval models are limited by two issues. First, they have restricted representational power, and generally deal with simple settings that estimate the quality of individual results independently of other results. Second, …
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Azure for Research – Roger Barga and Jared Jackson, Microsoft Research
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Shel Israel and Microsoft's own Robert Scoble will discuss how blogs are changing the way businesses talk with customers. They will discuss what they learned from their reearch and interviews with more than 180 business bloggers. Their work is focused on helping businesses of all sizes understand why blogging will help them get closer to customers and prospects. The authors used Microsoft as their lead case study of how blogging can put a human face on a company. ©2006 Microsoft Corporation....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tamara Pesik, Shel Israe, Robert Scoble
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Without an impending disaster, it’s difficult to motivate people to get prepared. Yet all it takes is for a major earthquake, hurricane, terrorist attack, fire, flood, storm or even a power outage, to cripple or wipe out assets; including our most valuable asset - our people. We can’t afford to be complacent. It is never too late to start preparing for the next earthquake, because much of the damage in earthquakes is predictable and preventable. There are certain simple steps that can go a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Sean Allen, Steven L. Kramer, Michael...
In my talk I will report on the work in progress. The initial idea of the project was to test available compilers of C-like languages. Our plan is the following: Choose a reasonable subset of the language to be tested. Formalize the semantics of the sub-language in AsmL. Produce tons of different programs. Using the AsmL Test tool, build test sequences for all these programs to check the correctness of the executable binary produced by the compiler. We started with a very simple fragment of the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yuri Gurevich, Rostislav Yavorskiy,...
Scalable Parallel Computing on Many/Multicore Systems This set of lectures will review the application and programming model issues that will one must address when one gets chips with 32-1024 cores and “scalable” approaches will be needed to make good use of such systems. We will not discuss bit-level and instruction-level parallelism i.e. what happens on a possibly special purpose core, even though this is clearly important. We will use science and engineering applications to drive the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jim Larus, Geoffrey Fox
For centuries, the general view had been that science is neither good nor bad, that it merely supplies information ad that new information is always beneficial. Now we live in a world where the leaders of Africa nations prefer to let their citizens starve rather than import genetically modified grains, and where childhood vaccines, one of the most effective health measures in history has people marching against their use. In the best universities in the world the research labs are surrounded by...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Michael Specter
Microsoft Research Audio
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The talk presents work of the Institute for System Programming on applications of formal methods into practical software engineering. It considres applications of model based testing to Linux Standard Base, Linux driver verification, test development for mathematical libraries, some works in compiler testing.
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3:15 – 3:45 TBA Pret-a-Voter: overview and open probelms
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Software errors cost the US economy billions of dollars each year. According to reasonable estimates, a third of the cost can be saved through the use of enhanced tools for software quality. My dissertation addresses a key challenge in software verification: how to analyze programs that perform destructive manipulation of linked (or recursive) data structures. I applied the concept of abstraction refinement to the problem of automating shape analysis, static analysis that establishes properties...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Alexey Loginov
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Liz Lawley, Elizabeth Lane Lawley, Dan...
This talk was presented as a part of the MSR EdgeNet Summit 2006 on issues in campus and enterprise networks. More information available on that site. Traditional systems management has not been successful, and with ever-increasing scale, complexity and agility the problem keeps getting worse. The central problem is a lack of knowledge of the managed systems: what they are like, and what they should be like. We need formalized knowledge, in the form of system models, that allow automated...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Victor Bahl, Kirill Tatarinov
The machine translation and text summarization communities have both benefitted greatly from the introduction of automated evaluation procedures. Automatic evaluation methods facilitate faster turnaround for system development and assessment cycles, thus making them an essential part of the research problem. However, at the present, methodologies used in the evaluations are limited to lexical identity matching. The lack of support for word or phrase matching that stretches beyond strict lexical...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Lucy Vanderwende, Liang Zhou
Microsoft Research Audio
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Daniel Maia
The Global Challenge, recently sponsored by the National Science Foundation ITEST program, supports young women and minority high school students to develop the knowledge, skills and personal vision to see science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) studies as feasible and desirable choices for college majors. Students are formed into mentored international teams that learn together and compete for significant privately raised scholarships while working with IT tools of science -...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Nordlinger, David Gibson
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Concurrent programs are notoriously difficult to write and debug, a problem that is becoming acute as concurrency becomes more common. A fundamental and particularly insidious concurrency bug is a race: a condition in which a pair of threads simultaneously access the same memory location and at least one of those accesses is a write. Despite thirty years of research on race detection, today's concurrent programs are riddled with races. This talk presents a novel approach to detecting races in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tom Ball, Mayur Naik
The multiplication of computing devices with which a person in the developed world interacts has grown rapidly. From laptops and mobile phones to automobiles and urban infrastructure, bits are being computed all around us. Each of these platforms brings with it a suite of sensors which are measuring the world of the user. Sometimes the sensors are intentional like GPS and speedometers, but other times they emerge from the repurposing of other hardware, such as Wi-Fi and camera phone location...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Krumm, Donald J. Patterson
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The notion of a ”market” has undergone a paradigm shift with the Internet – totally new and highly successful markets have been defined and launched by companies such as Google, Yahoo!, Amazon, MSN and Ebay. Another major change is the availability of massive computational power for running these markets in a centralized or distributed manner. In view of these new realities, the study of market equilibria, an important, though essentially non-algorithmic, theory within Mathematical...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kamal Jain, Vijay Vazirani
Modern managed languages, such as Java and C#, derive many software engineering benefits from the use of virtual machines. While the performance penalty of VMs has received significant attention, the information penalty has not: extra layers of virtualization make program behavior (and misbehavior) much more difficult to understand. The garbage collector, for example, takes over the job of freeing objects, eliminating a large class of memory errors. As a result, however, programmers no longer...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Ben Zorn, Sam Guyer
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Consider the Stochastic Knapsack problem where items have deterministic values but random sizes. The motivation for this problem is in the area of stochastic scheduling where a sequence of jobs should be scheduled on a machine within a limited amount of time. The running times of jobs are considered random and independent. A priori, only some information on their probability distributions is available. When a job has been scheduled and completed, its precise running time is revealed and this...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Laci Lovasz, Jan Vondrak
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by Microsoft Research
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This talk has three purposes. The first is to explain to a general audience what is involved in retrieving a web page or performing some other complex network task, and what can make it slow, and why the problem of slowness is likely to get worse as networked applications become more complex. The second is to describe to those who program networked applications certain facts that we have learnt from modelling communication networks, which may allow more efficient applications to be written. The...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Albert Greenberg, Damon Wischik
Dynamic binary translation (DBT) is a runtime instrumentation technique commonly used to support profiling, optimization, secure execution, and bug detection tools for application binaries. However, DBT frameworks may incorrectly handle multithreaded programs due to races involving updates to the application data and the corresponding metadata maintained by the DBT. Existing DBT frameworks handle this issue by serializing threads, disallowing multithreaded programs, or requiring explicit use of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Onur Mutlu, JaeWoong Chung
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by Microsoft Research
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In this talk I illustrate a decade of my visualization-centric software engineering research. I will focus on lightweight 2D and immersive 3D software visualization for program comprehension and software evolution analysis, but I will also touch other areas I am interested in, such as mining software archives, software ecosystems, software defects, and collaborative software engineering. ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tom Zimmermann, Michele Lanza
In this talk, I will address the feature dimensionality reduction problem within a unified framework from three aspects: Graph Embeddingand Extensions: A unified framework for general dimensionality reduction In the past decades, a large family of algorithms-supervised or unsupervised; stemming from statistics or geometry theory-has been designed to provide different solutions to the problem of dimensionality reduction. Beyond different motivations of these algorithms, I present a general...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Gang Hua, Shuicheng Yan
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Contracts play a major role in establishing binding relationships between various business units and also between businesses and their customers. A contract consists of numerous activities that have to be carried out by the involved parties and contract clauses that address specific concerns in the business process interaction. It is a fact that, large number of contracts are created, executed and managed, everyday. The key question is How do we model and enact electronic contracts by...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Venky Ganti, Kamal Karlapalem
Grand unification theories have long been a holy grail in science, and in our search for an elegant theory of the universe we must consider everything from quarks to black holes. The two main concepts we will explore here are the “Grid” and the “Core”—the grid is a conceptual descendant of ether, that mysterious substance once believed filled empty space. Some physicists theorize that space is highly structured by the grid, and the substance from which all physical matter is formed....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shobana Balakrishnan and Kirsten Wiley,...
Bridging art and architecture, Christian Moeller's work explores how emergent digital media have transformed our landscapes of experience across multiple scales, from the fleeting granular image to the topology of cities. Moeller analyzes a site (a moment, a site, a city, a surface, an image) not as a static form, but as a system in flux. Instead of freezing finished works, Moeller embraces the structures of our society-in-motion and designs transient systems for the unfolding of events that...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Lili Cheng, Christian Moeller
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The most widely used concurrent software techniques, which are based on threads, monitors (or approximations to monitors), and semaphores, yield incomprehensible and untestable software. Bugs due to race conditions, timing unpredictability, and potential deadlocks can go undetected for a very long time. Unexpected interactions between even loosely coupled software components can destabilize systems. Yet increased parallelism in general-purpose computing (particularly multicore systems),...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Edward A. Lee
The question whether a given program terminates for all its inputs is one of the fundamental problems in program verification. Thus it has been researched quite thoroughly in the past and many techniques and tools have been developed, most notably in the term rewriting and the logic programming community. However, until very recently, hardly any of these techniques could be used for real programming languages. Instead of starting from scratch and developing completely new techniques, we want to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Wolfram Schulte, Peter Schneider-Kamp
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The Internet has achieved great creative success, opening our eyes to radically new communication capabilities and distributed control opportunities. Yet for all the critical and commercial success of the past twenty years, we remain essentially unable to quantify or trace the actions of services and devices on the network. The Internet is a maelstrom of packets and protocols, an infrastructure built to speed it all along to quick completion, but constructed without detailed measures, without...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Victor Bahl, Mark Poepping, Chas DiFatta
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We define (with machine-checked proofs in Coq) a modular operational semantics for Concurrent C minor—a language with shared memory, spawnable threads, and first-class locks. By modular we mean that one can reason about sequential control and data-flow knowing almost nothing about concurrency, and one can reason about concurrency knowing almost nothing about sequential control and data-flow constructs. We present a Concurrent Separation Logic with first-class locks and threads, and prove its...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Rustan Leino, Aquinas Hobor
The key to creating scalable, robust natural language processing (NLP) systems is to exploit correspondences between known and unknown linguistic structure. Natural language processing has experienced tremendous success over the past two decades, but our most successful systems are still limited to the domains and languages where we have large amounts of hand-annotated data. Unfortunately, …
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Despite years of research on static techniques, the state of practice for analyzing concurrent software remains relatively primitive. Recent advances in program analysis technology, however, hold out some hope for significant progress. This talk will present the approach and initial results of a project to build an effective static race detector, namely one that developers can use routinely to reliably identify dangerous races in realistic scale systems. We'll discuss how far we've advanced...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Spencer, Alex Aiken
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Over the last few years, we have seen a number of real-world systems using live data from sensors (e.g., sensor motes and webcams). A crucial requirement of these systems is high availability. However, achieving high availability is extremely challenging due to three factors. First, due to their harsh deployment environments, sensor and communication failures are common. Second, sensors are often resource constrained. Third, the systems must run mostly unattended. In this talk, I will address...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Alec Woo, Suman Nath
Over the last decade, design of enterprise wireless networks have gone through a radical shift. While initial wisdom pointed to a completely distributed design, increasingly more and more functions are getting aggregated into a centralized architecture. In our recent work, we have focused on four interesting aspects of designing robust enterprise wireless networks: (i) a systems approach to mitigating some of the most challenging scenarios in these wireless environments, — hidden and exposed...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Suman Banerjee
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A substantial amount of work today is accomplished through collaborative activities, which may be open-ended and opportunistic or structured and well defined, with participants with similar skills and knowledge or from different disciplines. Our group has been investigating, and developing tools to support, several different scenarios of collaborative work. On one end of the spectrum, …
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Over the past decade and a half, considerable time and money has been invested in the realization of ubiquitous computing. Yet iterative design is still difficult and rare, which limits the speed with which the field can move forward. Based on the literature and interviews with 28 developers, we show how issues of sensing and scale cause ubicomp systems to resist iteration, prototype creation, and ecologically valid evaluation. Our work has focused in particular on a tool for enabling...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mary Czerwinski, Jen Mankoff
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It's natural to assume that network protocol design is a well-known science, where the designers of today's standards take care to understand the tricks and pitfalls learned from previous protocols. This talk dispells this and other myths. This talk describes things that should be considered when designing a protocol, such as being able to manage parameters while the network continues to operate, designing to allow graceful migration to new features, scalability, and robustness. It talks about...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Radia Perlman
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shobana, Rick Rashid, Rico Malvar
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Can we save the Internet from ourselves? The Internet and PCs that connect to it are “generative”: they can be changed by anyone, anywhere. This quality has fueled innovations that enhance our lives in ways we could never have predicted. Wikipedia, Facebook and YouTube are all products of this generativity, created by individuals with good ideas and the freedom to explore and share them. Yet the same openness that nourishes innovators makes these systems vulnerable to abuse, and with the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kim Ricketts, Kirsten Wiley, Jonathan L....
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Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Contextual information can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the author(s) of a biomedical publication, or implicit, such as the positive or negative sentiment that an author had when he/she wrote a product review; there may also be complex context such as the social network of the authors. Many applications require analysis of patterns of topics over different contexts. For...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Li-wei He, Qiaozhu Mei
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A large percentage of recent security problems, such as Cross-site Scripting or SQL injection, is caused by string-based code injection vulnerabilities. Most of these vulnerabilities exist because of implicit code creation through string serialization. Based on an analysis of the vulnerability class’ underlying mechanisms, we propose a general approach to out?t modern programming languages with mandatory means for explicit and secure code generation which provide strict separation between...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Helen Wang, Martin Johns
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Many real-world applications such as gene expression clustering and collaborative filtering can be modeled by matrix factorization. A common challenge for applying matrix factorization is determining the dimensionality of the latent matrices from data. Indian Buffet processes enable us to apply the nonparametric Bayesian machinery to address this challenge. Given data, however, learning nonparametric Bayesian matrix factorization models remains a difficult task. Based on equivalent classes on...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Dengyong Zhou, Alan Qi
Location awareness is an important capability for mobile computing. Yet inexpensive, pervasive positioning—a requirement for wide-scale adoption of location-aware computing—has been elusive. Place Lab is designed to overcome the lack of ubiquity and high-cost in existing location sensing approaches. Place Lab is software allowing commodity laptops, PDAs and cell phones to estimate their position by listening for radio beacons such as 802.11 access points, GSM phone towers, and fixed...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Krumm and Patrick Baudisch, Jeffrey...
Start with n particles at each of k points in the integer lattice Z d , and let each particle perform simple random walk until it reaches an unoccupied site. The law of the resulting random set of occupied sites does not depend on the order in which the walks are performed. We prove that if the distances between the starting points are scaled by n 1/d , the set of occupied sites has a deterministic scaling limit. In two dimensions, the boundary of the limiting shape is an algebraic curve of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Lionel Levine
I will give an overview of my research and present a 5-year research program focusing on activity awareness and knowledge sharing in computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). I will first present two studies on activity awareness with pairs performing a collaborative editing project and then two studies with teams performing an emergency management planning task on maps. Many failures in CSCW systems are attributed to inadequate support for the collaborators’ awareness. In the studies of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kori Quinn (Inkpen), Gregorio Convertino
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With the widespread adoption of broadband residential access, live video streaming may be the next disruptive IP communication technology. As an indication of the potential of live video streaming, recently a commercial P2P streaming system broadcasted the 2006 Chinese New Year’s celebration to over 200,000 users, generating an aggregate bit rate in the vicinity of 100 gigabits/sec. CoolStreaming, PPlive, and ppstream are among the most successful deployments, all of which use pull-driven...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li (MICROSOFT RESEARCH), Keith Ross
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Network games play a fundamental role in understanding behaviour in many domains, ranging from communication networks through markets to social networks. In this talk we will study in which individual buyers and sellers trade through intermediaries. Typically, not all buyers and sellers have access to the same intermediaries, and they trade at correspondingly different prices that reflect their relative amounts of power in the market. We model this phenomenon using a game in which buyers,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Eva Tardos
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Michael Gamon, William Lewis, Manuela...
Computer systems design is based on many commonly-held beliefs and heuristics, many of which have never been challenged: Thousands of server farm 'load balancing' policies do exactly that: they aim to balance the load among the servers. But is load balancing necessarily a good thing? Consider a choice between a single machine with speed s, and n identical machines with speed s/n. Which would you choose? Are you always right? Scheduling policies which favor 'short' jobs, like...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes & Ken Church, Mor...
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COMPANIONS is an EU project that aims to change the way we think about the relationships of people to computers and the Internet by developing a virtual conversational 'Companion'. This is intended as an agent or 'presence' that stays with a user for long periods of time, developing a relationship and 'knowing' its owners preferences and wishes. The Companion communicates with the user primarily through speech. This paper describes the functionality and system modules of the Senior Companion,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tim Paek, Yorick Wilks
In this talk, I will report on the results of the SCALE workshop that was held at the JHU Human Language Technology Center of Excellence. This summer I worked for 8 weeks alongside 18 other researchers on improving the quality of Urdu-English machine translation. Working with Urdu is different than working with Arabic and Chinese …
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2:00 - 2:30 Olle Häggström (Chalmers) Percolation, mass transport and cluster indistinguishability 2:35 - 3:05 Yuval Peres (Microsoft) Connectivity Probability in Critical Percolation: An unpublished gem from Oded ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Wilson, Yuval Peres, Prasad Tetali,...
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by Microsoft Research
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Systems code is prone to termination errors. Inferring preconditions excluding such errors is both tedious and hard.This is true in particular for heap manipulating functions.Both, a precondition and the invariants used to prove termination must express what heap locations or regions can be aliased, inter-reachable, separated or shared. Shape analysis to compute such heap assertions is notoriously expensive. Our new termination analysis with precondition inference calls shape analysis on...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Andreas Podelski
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Coloring a k -colorable graph using k colors ( k≥ 3 ) is a notoriously hard problem. Considering average case analysis allows for better results. In this work we consider the uniform distribution over k -colorable graphs with n vertices and exactly cn edges, c greater than some sufficiently large constant. We rigorously show that all proper k -colorings of most such graphs are clustered in one cluster, and agree on all but a small, though constant, number of vertices. We also show that some...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Uri Feige, Dan Vilenchik
Battelle’s blog: www.battellemedia.com What does the world want? According to John Battelle, a company that answers that question—in all its shades of meaning—can unlock the most intractable riddles of business and arguably of human culture itself. Battelle will discuss the past, present, and future of search technology and the enormous impact it’s starting to have on marketing, media, pop culture, dating, job hunting, international law, civil liberties, and just about every other...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tamara Pesik, John Battelle
A trajectory model, derived from the HMM by imposing explicit relationship between static and dynamic features, is developed and evaluated. The derived model, named 'trajectory-HMM', can alleviate some limitations of the standard HMM, which are i) piece-wise constant statistics within a state and ii) conditional independence assumption of state output probabilities, without increasing the number of model parameters. In this talk, a Viterbi-type training algorithm is also derived. This model was...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Alex Acero, Heiga Zen
How do we get programmers to routinely write parallel software? We have been working in earnest on this problem for over 25 years; actually much longer if you consider that the first multi-threaded machine appeared in 1958 (the Gamma 60 by Bull). But at this point, I’m not sure we’re really getting any closer to solving it. If we study the history of parallel programming, it is clear that in order to solve the parallel programming problem we need to: (1) understand how people write parallel...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Feo, Tim Mattson
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In this talk, we will provide a brief overview of the research that we have conducted in the area of digital rights management (DRM) systems. This will include a discussion of DRM architectures, along with a consideration of how particular features and design decisions affect interoperability. Next we will consider DRM in a setting that …
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Brilliance is more than just being smart – when you are Brilliant you are approaching your professional and personal life energized, in control and achieving results never imagined. When you are Brilliant, you go from operating as a human doing to human being. In this presentation participants will explore: The Principles of Brilliance - the integration of an individual’s intelligences, personality, energy and passion. How to connect your personal passion with your work-life achieve genuine...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tamara Pesik, Lindsay Andreott, Brian...
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The ultimate display will not show images. To drive the display of the future, we must abandon our traditional concepts of pixels, and of images as grids of coherent pixels, and of imagery as a sequence of images. So what is this ultimate display? One thing is obvious: the display of the future will have incredibly high resolution. A typical monitor today has 100 dpi—-far below a satisfactory printer. Several technologies offer the prospect of much higher resolutions; even today you can buy a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mike Sinclair, Benjamin Watson, David...
Context-free languages combine expressiveness with polynomial parsing, making them very appealing for practical applications. In fact, they are possibly the most widely used class of languages in Computer Science. Thus, models of computation which slightly extend context-free models, without losing parsing efficiency, seem to have great potential for applications in fields such as Programming Languages, Formal Verification, Computational Linguistics, and Computational Biology, and are therefore...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yuri Gurevich, Tamar Aizikowitz
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, LeenKiat Soh
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Concurrency in user applications is on the rise. Modern computers have multiple hardware threads per processor and multiple processors per chip, each of which may switch to a different software thread many times per second. Applications of the future will be heavily multithreaded. My research aims to make such programs easier to write and more resilient to the performance programs historically caused by preemption. After surveying work in several areas (including preemption-tolerant locks and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jim Larus, William N. Scherer III
The field of linguistics has seen a remarkable broadening of interests on the part of grammatical theorists in recent years. Not long ago, grammarians confined themselves purely to constructing rules and principles governing the surface distribution of forms. Now, most pay attention to meaning, discourse, variation both between and within speech communities, and to stochastic processes. The current debate in the field is not over WHETHER grammarians should take account of these phenomena, but...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Michael Gamon, Fritz Newmeyer
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The ASTREE analyzer is an abstract interpretation-based static analyzer tailored to prove the absence of run time errors (division by 0, out of bounds, overflow, null pointer dereference, ...) in critical embedded synchronous software as found in earth transportation, nuclear energy, medical instrumentation and aerospace applications. Its design started in November 2001 at the Laboratoire d'Informatique of the Ecole Normale Superieure (LIENS). The ASTREE analyzer was able to prove fully...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Francesco Logozzo, Jerome Feret
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Someday soon, a ninth-grade biology class, the EPA, and a police department may each seek information from the sensors in a single instrumented city park. How can the police department collect acoustics and other high-rate signals from the distributed sensor network, given the low-bandwidth radios these networks use? How will the biology class and police department be able to request different information from the network at the same time? How might the network combine separate user tasks to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Feng Zhao, Benjamin Greenstein
The infusion of new information technologies in customer-firm interactions has redefined the roles customers can play in value creation and product innovation. Several companies (e.g. Microsoft, HP, Procter & Gamble, Volvo, Samsung, and Peugot) have established online or virtual product communities, virtual product prototyping and testing centers, and other virtual product forums – which I collectively refer to here as Virtual Customer Environments (VCEs) – to facilitate rich...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Marc Smith, Satish Nambisan
One important feature of a parallel programming model is deterministic semantics: that is, a program produces the same output on every execution with a given input, regardless of the parallel schedule chosen. Determinism makes parallel programs much easier to write, understand, debug, and maintain. Further, many (though not all) parallel programs are, in fact, intended to have deterministic semantics. However, general-purpose languages, particularly those that allow arbitrary updates to shared...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Feo, Robert Bocchino
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Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs) have emerged as the common choice for processor manufacturers to take advantage of CMOS scaling trends that lead to greater numbers of smaller transistors on a single chip. CMP architectures feature multiple simple cores that help mitigate wire delays and energy consumption issues facing complex monolithic designs. However, with the exception of server applications such as database programs, the majority of commonly used applications on desktop machines have yet to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Richard Draves, Suleyman Sair
Traditional runtime analysis of training Support Vector Machines, and indeed most learning methods, shows how the training runtime increases as more training examples are available. Considering the true objective of training, which is to obtain a good predictor, I will argue that training time should be studied as a decreasing function of training set size. I will then present both theoretical and empirical results demonstrating how a simple stochastic subgradient descent approach for training...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Ofer Dekel, Nathan Srebro
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Angela Kernan, Mark Hereld
Program instructions uniquely identified by their program counters (PCs) provide a convenient and accurate means of recording the context of program execution and instruction-based prediction techniques have been widely used for performance optimizations at the architectural level. Operating systems, on the other hand, have not fully explored the benefits of instruction-based prediction for resource management. This research explores the potential benefits provided by instruction-based...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jeremy Elson, Chris Gniady
The factors that harm the speech recognition results for un-tethered users are the ambient noise and the reverberation. While we have pretty sophisticated noise suppression algorithms, the de-reverberation is still an unsolved problem due to the difficulties in estimation and keeping track of the changes in the room response model. Sound capturing with microphone arrays provides partial de-reverberation and ambient noise reduction due to the better directivity. This improves the speech...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Ivan Tashev, Daniel J. Allred