Future science missions will require the use of multiple spacecraft with multiple sensor nodes autonomously responding and adapting to a dynamically changing space environment. The acquisition of random scientific events will require rapidly changing network topologies, distributed processing power, and a dynamic resource management strategy. Optimum utilization and configuration of spacecraft communications and navigation resources will be critical in meeting the demand of these stringent mission requirements. There are two important trends to follow with respect to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) future scientific missions: the use of multiple satellite systems and the development of an integrated space communications network. Reconfigurable computing and communication systems may enable versatile adaptation of a spacecraft system's resources by dynamic allocation of the processor hardware to perform new operations or to maintain functionality due to malfunctions or hardware faults. Advancements in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology make it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips and provide the basis for a dynamically reconfigurable communication system. Advantages of higher computation speeds and accuracy are envisioned with tremendous hardware flexibility to ensure maximum survivability of future science mission spacecraft. This paper discusses the requirements, enabling technologies, and challenges associated with dynamically reconfigurable space communications systems.