and joanna one important thing that you raised in the civil war era, and now relevant today to polarization is technology, and some of the tributes are to the current polarization to the world where it is argued in a book about the role of media, and so can you talk about the polarization of the media in the civil war period and what can we learn from it? >> sure. the moment that i find myself thinking about very often these days is the telegraph, the rise of the telegraph as a form of technology. before the telegraph, there was a certain form of wiggle roo th you were sorry that you said or did, you could rush over to the newspaper office or the reporter, and change what you said and there was wiggle room to keep things away from the public eye, because there was a limited number of reporters in washington, but the telegraph fundamentally changed everything. it takes away the wiggle room, and there is 45 minutes and everybody knows about everything. so there is reporters from all over the nation who can travel that far distance and stay there, and telegraph back home what they are seeing.
party system in the civil war period mirrored the polarization period in society and nicely reinforces joanna's point in congress -- the violence in congress mirrors the violence in society. >> yes. >> ed, your book, the thin line of freedom, argues powerfully at every step those who had advanced freedom found sometimes defeated as history shows black freedom advanced further than their champions dreamed possible precisely because the opponents of freedom proved that with each of the powers of support of the northerners as norman told us of the post civil war period to reconstruction and the system polarized to where reconstruction was ultimately abandoned. >> yes, so as norm was saying the polarization inside of the north between the democrats and the republicans in the north, it was a fundamental fact that people often tend to forget. people would say, well, the democrats lost because they only had 47% of the vote, and as we have seen in our time, the electorate doesn't just go away when they lose. so in 1864, 10,000 votes in different districts and see if that number sounds familiar, would h
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