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Full text of "The Journal, volume 4 issue 1-12, January 1, 1975 - December 1, 1975"

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VOL. 4 NO. 1 


Cannabis bill designed to create 
flexible laws while discouraging use 

Rv PB'TF'P Miru A ITI cnxi 


OTTAWA— Gingerly side-stepping 
a growing number of claims that 
cannabis may be hazardous to 
health, the Liberal government 
has introduced a long-awaited bill 
to ease the severity of the coun- 
try’s cannabis laws. 

Health Minister Marc Lalonde 
conceded that, despite discrepan- 
cies in the existing law, the bill 
had been given a low priority in 
cabinet. It was introduced in the 
Senate because of a heavy legisla- 
tive workload facing the House of 
Commons, he said. 

The bill, promised by the Liber- 
als more than two years ago, is 

intended to make the laws more 
just and flexible, not to encourage 
cannabis use, Mr. Lalonde told a 
news conference. 

Meanwhile, his officials were 
watching with interest the results 
of international research on the 
effects of cannabis smoking on 

While possession offenders can 
no longer be imprisoned under the 
new laws (unless they default on 
payment of fines), people found 
guilty of possession will still have 
a criminal record and a court 
appearance by which to remem- 
ber the occasion, the minister 

Mr. Lalonde said the existing 

law “is an ass," and referred spe- 
cifically to its provisions, calling 
for a minimum seven-year mini- 
mum sentence for importers or 
exporters, no matter how small a 

More stories— page 2 

quantity of cannabis found on the 

He also said police officials 
were unhappy with the rigidity of 
present laws, particularly with 
regard to trafficking offences. 

Police don’t want to prosecute 
small-fry offenders for traffick- 
ing, particularly teenagers caught 
selling a few grams of cannabis. 

because the present pennies are 
too severe, he said. 

Often, the police were just lay- 
ing possession charges against 
these clear-cut traffickers, a com- 
promise on the police’s part which 
put the cannabis laws in further 
disrepute with all sectors of 

The bill, which might not 
become taw until mid-winter or 
later, after committee study by the 
Senate and the Commons, will 
remove cannabis laws from their 
hard-drug association in the Nar- 
cotic Control Act and place them 
in the Food and Drugs Act with 
the presumably less dangerous 
(See — Inno.awaitoH 

Synanon — “a communal training school for a new social order” — Page 4 

lifestyles’ place unborn babies at risk 


HAMILTON — Any pregnant 
woman who is a chronic user of 
illicit drugs— even marijuana— is 
a high-risk pregnancy, says Dr. 
James E. Anderson, a consultant 
to the LeDain Commission. 

Dr. Anderson, professor of anat- 
omy at McMaster University, said 
direct effects of specific drugs on 

HOUSTON— About 20% of open- 
heart surgery patients in Ger- 
many have developed hepatitis 
after their operations because of 
the decline in volunteer blood 
donors, and the need to buy com- 
mercial blood. 

“The problem is that so many 
of the commercial blood donors 
are drug addicts, who have a high 
incidence of hepatitis’’. Dr. Mrid 
Wende told The Journal 

“They’re the ones who sell their 
blood because they have a desper- 

the fetus are not known, but* the 
lifestyle of the chronic user is apt 
to endanger the baby even if the 
drugs themselves do not. 

He was speaking at an annual 
refresher course in obstetrics and 
gynecology held at Henderson 
General Hospital. 

“With infrequent or intermit- 
tent use of marijuana or hashish, 
there is no evidence they are 

ate need for money. " 

Dr. Wende. a cardiologist at St. 
Georg Hospital in Hamburg, 
added, however, that cardiac sur- 
geons are now trying “a new 
tack" to eliminate the problem of 
addicts" blood. 

“If we know a patient will need 
surgery, we draw blood from him 
or her as much as a year before, 
and then freeze it for use later on. 
This amount will be enough to pro- 
vide the half-litre or litre of blood 
needed to get the heart-lung 
machine going. 

going to confuse their life or 
yours."" he told an audience of 
family physicians. 

“But daily use involves a life- 
style that is not compatible with 
good motherhood. Soft drugs are 
as much of a threat to pregnancy 
as hard drugs. 

“All drug-using females are 
high risk pregnancies. They have 
a higher risk of infection, espe- 

“Other than that, we ve had to saline to avoid the hepatitis 
problem. But then, patients don t 
recover as fast. Of course, they 
don"t recover as fast, either, if 
they get hepatitis. " 

Dr. Wende described the heroin 
addiction problem in Germany as 
“still serious, but it seems to be 

He was interviewed here while 
vi.siting open-heart surgery facili- 
ties at the University of Texas 
Medical Center. 

cially with hepatitis. They have a 
higher rate of malnutrition, par- 
ticularly a lack of protein. Their 
self-care is bad. They make few 
pre-natal visits, and if they are 
hard drug users, often their first 
visit is when they come for deliv- 

“All daily users, including can- 
nabis users, have a higher rate of 
prematurity, low birth weight, 
congenital defects, stillbirth and 
spontaneous abortion."" 

He said all women who have 
had no prenatal visits but arrive 
for delivery should be assumed to 
be narcotic addicts until proven 

Illustrating the dearth of valid 
information on the effects of illicit 
drugs on reproduction. Dr Ander- 
son said 18 months ago a survey of 
100 papers devoted to LSD and 
defective chromosomes of chil- 
dren showed they split 50-50 in 

“It"s embarassing to say a 
great deal of the results depend on 
the social bias or ineptitude of the 
investigator. In the inept area. 

(See— unborn— page 12) 

Addicts' blood harms surgery patients 

Breast growth 
for male 
pot smokers 


MIAMI — New evidence that 
chronic use of marijuana affects 
male reproductive physiology was 
revealed here at the 60th annual 
clinical congress of the American 
College of Surgeons. 

Dr. John W. Harmon and Dr. 
Menelaos A. Aliapoulios. surgeons 
at Harvard Medical School and 
Cambridge Hospital. Boston, 
reported on 16 young men— all 
fairly heavy marijuana smokers— 
who developed the embarrassing 
and often painful condition called 

In this condition the male 
breast becomes enlarged and 
resembles a female breast. " 

The surgeons took detailed his- 
tories and performed comprehen- 
sive physical examinations and 
laboratory tests on several of 
these individuals, to rule out other 
possible causes of their breast 

They also did animal studies to 
try to demonstrate a cause- 
and-effect relationship between 
marijuana and the proliferation of 
breast tissue. The animal studies 
'appeal- to have C(’r'.firmed that 

marijuana is the causative agent. 

Some other drugs are known to 
cause gynecomastia. Dr. Harmon 
noted. These include digitalis, 
employed in treating certain heart 
conditions; reserpine, which 
lowers blood pressure and acts as 
a tranquilizer; and the widely- 
used class of drugs called phenoth- 
iazines. administered for a variety 
of conditions from nausea and 
vomiting to mental illness. 

Tumors of the adrenals or of the 
brain or testes can also cause 
male breast enlargement. So. 
sometimes, can liver disease. 

Physicians are generally aware 
of these possible causes. Dr. Har- 
mon told The Journal. But very 
few realize marijuana can have 
this effect. Thus it is possible that 
many cases have gone unreported 
to date. 

He told of one young patient 
with much enlarged breasts who 
was seen in “a large university 
hospital in another city"". 

Physicians gave the young man 
a thorough examination finally 
diagnosing the condition as “idi- 
opathic gynecomastia." i.e., gyne- 
comastia of unknown origin. They 
(See— Male— page 2) 



Chemical revoltirion 

Pa^e J 

II hat kind of smoker 
arc you ? 

Paite 5 

"Renaissance" at 

Pay'e 7 

Alcohol in The 

Milky lirt)' 

Paye H 

Sex OR sobriety for 
some aleoholics 

Pa^e 9 

Page 2 — THE JOURNAL, January 1. 1975 

Senate committee prepares to debate cannabis issue 

OTTAWA— “The use of soft drugs 
leads almost inevitably to the use 
of hard drugs. . . . Furthermore. I 
am in favor of the death penalty 
for heroin traffickers." 

With that. Senator Joseph Sulli- 
van, a medical specialist and one 
of four Canadians belonging to the 
Royal Society of Medicine, 
launched the first Senate opposi- 
tion speech to the Liberal govern- 
ment’s cannabis bill. 

Tough as his speech was, he 
said later in an interview he is 
“not vehemently opposed to the 
bill," recognizing that it's pri- 
mary intent is to correct discrep- 
ancies in the law. 

What the Conservative senator 
did object to was the implication 
contained in a lessening of canna- 
bis penalties that the drug is prob- 
ably not all that harmful. Senator 
Sullivan, a former chief consult- 
ant in otolaryngology to the armed 
forces, is convinced the drug is 
mentally and physically harmful. 

The bill is expected to go the 
Justice and Legal Affairs Com- 
mittee of the Senate for detailed 
study in January following the 
Christmas recess. Chairman of 
the committee is Senator Carl 
Goldenberg, the eminent authority 
on labor and taxation issues. 

Senator Joan Neiman, the 
Ontario Liberal who sponsored the 
bill, said in an interview with The 
Journal that she believes the bill 
will not create the furor some 
observers predicted. 

There was initially some misun- 
derstanding about the bill; some 
senators had grumbled that it 
would make drugs available to 
anyone who wanted them, she 

Since her Senate speech, how- 
ever, in which she emphasized 
that the entire thrust of the bill is 
to imbue the cannabis laws with ^ 
more justice, several senators* 
have told her they see the issue in 
a new perspective. 

However, that doesn't mean 
they'll vote for the bill, said Sena- 
tor Neiman, noting that several 
senators in both Liberal and Con- 
servative ranks have strong reser- 
vations about any changes to do 

Joseph A . Sullivan 

with a softening attitude to drugs. 

The bill will go back to the Sen- 
ate for third and final reading, and 
then will be re-introduced in the 
House of Commons where it will 
be scrutinized in committee. 

Although some MPs, like Lib- 
eral Simma Holt of British Colum- 
bia where most of the country’s 
hard-core addicts reside, have lob- 
bied for a free vote on the bill, it is 
expected to be voted on along 
party lines and to pass easily with 
the Liberal majorities in both 

The only question is when the 
law will come into force, and with 
what amendments. If Commons 
opposition stalls the bill in com- 
mittee, it may not be passed until 
mid-winter or later. 

Moreover at least one parlia- 
mentarian, Senator Sullivan, says 
he will propose amendments to 
the bill in committee. 

The Senate committee wants to 
hear from the commissioners of 
the five-member LeDain Royal 
Commission on non-medical drug 
use, including chairman of the 
commission, law professor Gerald 

Joan Seinian 

LeDain of Toronto. The commis- 
sion spent about $4 million in a 
four-year study of illicit drugs. 

Senator Neiman said she hoped 
commission members would have 
new information for the commit- 
tee since the commission's final 
report was published in Decem- 
ber, 1973. 

She said the committee is also 
particularly interested in hearing 
from police officers and members 
of the judiciary who wilt be most 
affected by the legislative 

There were early indications 
that deputations for and against 
would appear at the committee, 
“but now I don't believe there'll 
be that many” because of an 
apparent lack of opposition to the 

Senator Sullivan said in his 
speech that drug abuse is indica- 
tive of moral degeneracy. 

Long-awaited cannabis bill introduced 

(continued from page 1) 
controlled and restricted drugs, 
including LSD. 

Whatever Mr. Lalonde may 
think of the need to correct dis- 
crepancies in the present law, he 
apparently remains convinced 
cannabis possession should not be 

“The weight of evidence led us 
to apply a restrictive approach, in 
order to discourage both the use 
and the sale” of cannabis, he said. 

The penalties are still harsher 
than those proposed by the LeDain 
Royal Commission into the non- 
medical use of drugs, which rec- 
ommended in a 1972 majority 
report that simple possession be 
made legal. Only one of two 
minority reports Suggested pe'nal- 
ties— a $25 fine for a first offence 
and $100 for subsequent offences. 

Mr. Lalonde said the commis- 
sion’s final report, published in 
December, 1973, appears to sug- 
gest cannabis use may be more 
harmful than the commission sus- 
pected in earlier reports. 

A main feature of the bill is the 
freedom of choice it offers courts 
in the method of prosecution. 

At present, all offences except 
for possession result in criminal 
proceedings by indictment, which 
is a more formal and lengthy 
court proceeding usually followed 
on conviction by a prison term. 

Under the new law, prosecutors 
would have the choice of proceed- 
ing by summary conviction 
(which often draws only a fine) or 
indictment for all offences except 
simple possession. For this the 
prosecutor is limited to a sum- 
mary conviction. 

Now, said Mr. Lalonde, the 
small-fry trafficker could be 
charged with trafficking and a 
summary conviction might only 
produce a small fine, an appropri- 
ate penalty in some circum- 

Meanwhile, courts still had the 
option of proceeding by way of 
indictment in order to impose stiff 
penalties on organized criminals. 

J. E. Hodges, a justice depart- 
ment lawyer who worked on the 
new legislation, says the new laws 
for possession offences probably 
will not make much difference 
from current practices in the 

However, it is likely the flexibil- 
ity of the new laws for the more 
serious offences will mean a 
greater change from current prac- 
tices in that area, he said. 

Male pot smokers develop breasts 

(continued from page 1) 

operated on the breasts to remove 
excess tissue. 

The youth had been smoking 
marijuana for two years and con- 
tinued to do so. His breasts contin- 
ued to grow. When he was finally 
seen at Cambridge Hospital, he 
had to have surgery again. 

“Clearly a dramatic case of 
very highly stimulated breast.” 
said Dr. Harmon. This patient has 
not been followed long enough to 
find out whether the growth has 
been arrested. He claims to have 
stopped smoking marijuana now. 

Not all young men who develop 
the condition have such massive 
breast development. One college 
student, who smokes heavily at 
college but stops in the summer 
when he is at home with his par- 
ents. has reported that his moder- 
ately enlarged breasts become 
quite tender when he is smoking 
but the tenderness goes away 
when he is abstaining. 

One problem in studying the 
phenomenon is that some young 
men who develop gynecomastia 
will not voluntarily report their 
condition— partly from embar- 
rassment. says Dr. Harmon, and 
partly because of the legal prob- 
lems in admitting marijuana use. 

Of the 16 cases Drs. Harmon 
and Aliapoulios are aware of. they 
have been able to study only seven 
in detail. Four of the seven had 
breast tissue removed surgically 
on request. The other three 
stopped using marijuana and 
report some reduction in both 
breast size and tenderness as a 

In the animal experiments the 

Photomicrographs of breast tissue of rats show control rat I left i and with THC adntinistered (right i 

Harvard surgeons injected male 
laboratory rats with delta- 
9-tetrahydrocannabinoi (THC). 
the psychoactive ingredient of 
marijuana. They also injected an 
equal number of rats with a con- 
trol solution. Injections were 
given daily for periods of from 13 
to 21 days. 

Specimens of their breast tissue 
were then examined in a blind 
manner, i.e, researchers evaluat- 
ing the proliferation of breast tis- 
sue were not aware of which ani- 
mals had been injected with THC 
and which with the control solu- 

They evaluated the proliferation 
by means of a grading system 
(Grades I to IV ) based on the 
density of the small ducts visible 
in the tissue. An immature rat 

will have just a few branches, but 
a lactating rat has a dense net- 

“The type of proliferation that 
we were looking at lies between 
these extremes." Dr. Harmon told 

The Journal. 

“The growth occurs at the ends 
of the ductules and you can see a 
budding. In Grade I there are just 
a few branches with perhaps a few 
buds. In Grade II they are a bit 
more dense and so on to Grade 

The rats injected with THC had 
significantly more proliferation of 
breast ductules than control ani- 
mals. the researchers found. 

“Having the animal data to 
back up our human findings shows 
rather clearly that marijuana 
does indeed stimulate the breast." 

Dr. Harmon noted, “but you 
couldn't say it’s 100% proven until 
some other lab confirms it" 

Other research also suggests 
chronic marijuana use affects 
male reproductive physiology. Dr. 
Robert C. Kolodny and co-workers 
at the Reproductive Biology 
Research Foundation and the Mis- 
souri Clinical and Biochemical 
Laboratory, St. Louis, Missouri, 
found that men who used mari- 
juana at least four days per week 
for a minimum of six months had 
lower levels of the male hormone, 
testosterone, in their blood than 
men who did not use the drug. 

Dr. Kolodny also found that the 
testosterone level was “dose 
related.” i.e., the heavier the 
smoking, the lower the plasma 

The courts have been more leni- 
ent with possession offences in the 
last three or four years, influ- 
enced first by the 1970 LeDain 
report which recommended fines 
of no more than $100 for cannabis 
possession and, second, by the 
promise of then Health Minister 
John Munro in 1972 to change the 
cannabis laws. 

Opening debate on second read- 
ing of the bill. Senator Joan Nei- 
man, an Ontario Liberal who spon- 
sored the bill in the Senate, pro- 
duced statistics to show posses- 
sion offenders seldom receive jail 
terms under current procedures. 

In Canada in 1973, there were 
18,603 convictions for simple pos- 
session of cannabis, she said. 
Courts imposed fines in roughly 
71% of the cases. 

The courts also made use of 
provisions regarding probation, 
absolute discharge and conditional 
discharge in some 4,500 cases, 
leaving less than 1,000 who went to 

Mr. Hodges said some of these, 
such as visitors to Canada without 
money for fines, may only have 
been given one-day jail sentences 
“which consists of taking their 
fingerprints and letting them go”. 

Senator Neiman also noted 
there were '19,929 convictions for 
more serious cannabis offences in 
1973, compared with 1,500 convic- 
tions for other offences under the 
Narcotics Control Act involving 
such drugs as heroin. 

Mr. Hodges^ said the average 
sentence for cannabis trafficking 
in Ontario ranges from three to, 
six months, and ranges as high as 
10 to 18 months in some otlfer 

He suspected these averages 
would come down under the new 
laws but would not further predict 
the courts' attitude or reaction to 
the legislation. 

On another matter. Senator Nei- 
man told the Senate the legislation 
“will not in any way derogate 
from Canada’s international obli- 
gations on domestic commitments 
with respect to cannabis”. 

As a signatory to the 1961 Single 
Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 
Canada recognizes the obligation 
to control cannabis and other 
drugs from domestic and interna- 
tional standpoints, she said. 

She also indicated the frustra- 
tions facing the government in its 
attempts to come to terms with 
drug abuse. 

“The simple truth (about can- 
nabis) is that as yet there is no 
simple truth, and we are left with 
the problem of formulating legis- 
lation that will make sense in an 
area where challenge, contradic- 
tion, and refutation seem to be 
occurring in the scientific com- 

THE JOURNAL, January 1, 1975— Page 3 

NIDA research chief 

Marijuana: ‘Like coffee, heroin, or DES ? ’ 

THE HEAD of the U.S. govern- 
ment’s drug-abuse research pro- 
gram says the important ques- 
tions about marijuana are only 
now being asked, much less 

Dr. William Pollin. director of 
the National Institute on Drug 
Abuse’s Division of Research, has 
a background himself as an inves- 
tigator of mental illness, having 
collaborated on many of the land- 
mark studies on schizophrenia in 
twins that appeared in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Psychiatry in 1971. 

In a wide-ranging interview on 
past, present, and future mari- 
juana studies, he said "some of 
the most important questions still 
remain unanswered ”, 

Only recently, in fact, have 
some of them been asked. For 
example, it is "Impossible to 
answer whether chronic use of 
marijuana leads to amotivational 
syndrome because of design diffi- 
culties in present studies." the 
52-year-old psychiatrist said. 

"Amotivational syndrome’’ is 
the frequently observed— but 
almost unmeasurable— lack of 

Heavy Smokers 

motivation that has been attrib- 
uted to heavy smokers of pot. A 
well-designed study. Dr. Pollin 
said, would follow matched groups 
of users and non-users through a 
period lengthy-enough to draw 
valid conclusions about the effect 
of the drug on their life achieve- 

Current studies along this line, 
he said, are not producing the 
expected results. But the very 
process of matching users and 
non-users may throw the validity 
of the studies into question. 

The best "controlled study.’’ 
currently underway in Costa Rica, 
is about a year from completion. 
It selected 40 users from 160 
heavy marijuana smokers and 40 
non-users from a sample of 80. 
Subjects and controls were 
matched to reflect socio-economic 
status, age, sex and educational 

"But if a person demonstrates 
the motivation to get into college, 
for example, picking him for the 
study at that point throws the 
results off." 

The same thing would be true 
about the "lack of motivation " of 
a person chosen because of his low 
socio-economic or educational sta- 

Dr. Pollin says the ideal pro- 
spective study of amotivational 
syndrome would follow a very 
large group of people (perhaps 


several thousand) from childhood 
through at least early adulthood, 
with "matched" subjects and con- 
trols chosen at random, prior to 
any marijuana use. 

Naturally, only a small percen- 
tage of the chosen "subjects" 
would actually become subjects— 
those who, in fact, began using 
marijuana. And any "controls" 
that began using the drug would 
have to be rejected. Because of 
both these rejections, only a few 
hundred people, at most, would 
actually be followed to the end. 

Such "cohort" studies of 
some 15,000 grade-school children 
are just now getting underway in 
Boston, he said.' "But it will be a 
long time before they will show 
any results." At the same time, 
there is a "tremendous concern 
over maintaining confidentiality", 

Amotivational syndrome is per- 
haps the one effect of chronic 
marijuana use that will ultimately 
determine the drug’s legal status. 
Despite recent reports that the 
drug may be responsible for chro- 
mosome breakage, DNA synthesis 
retardation, testosterone inhibi- 

Dr. Pollin 

tion, and even abnormal breast 
development, the telling legal 
argument for its continued prohi- 
bition may well be its adverse 
effect on society as a whole. 

Otherwise, it invariably will be 
compared with alcohol and 
tobacco— or aspirin and coffee— 
and be found, if anything, merely 
a comparably unhealthy vice. 

Dr. Pollin is acutely aware of 
the hot controversy over each sci- 
entific finding reported by 
researchers his program supports. 
Investigators themselves are 
"troubled by whether their 
findings will be used in legal 
issues." he says. It’s a fact of life 
he has learned to live with. 

"Even when dealing with medi- 
cal issues with no overlay— such 
as oral hypoglycemic agents (anti- 
diabetes drugs)— there is tremen- 
dous controversy," he says. "Phy- 
sicians were at each others’ 
throats as to whether these agents 
are a help or a danger to their 


THE POSSIBILITY that parents 
are actually assisting trend- 
setting advertisers and encourag- 
ing increased alcohol use by their 
children has been raised by a new 

Indeed, liberal reaction to the 
prohibition mentality may have 
gone too far and some sort of 
countermovement back to "mid- 
dle ground" may be called for. 
one of the study’s authors told The 

While it may be valuable for 
children to be taught how to drink 
in their own homes, said 
researcher Dianne Fejer, it 
should probably be a matter more 
of "satisfying curiosity" than giv- 
ing the impression drinking by 
children is acceptable. 

For example, she said, empha- 
sis might more wisely be put on 
"allowing say a 16-year-old a taste 
of wine" rather than on allowing 
him or her a glass of wine with 
meals even if infrequently. 

The study by the Addiction 
Research Foundation is the fourth 
in a series of cross-sectional trend 
surveys of student drug use begun 
in 1968 and repeated at two year 
intervals since then. It is one of 
the few long-term studies in the 
English language of drug use 
among young people. Co-author, 
with Ms Fejer. is Dr Reginald 

Findings indicate the chemical 
revolution of the late 1960s 
"seems to be waning" and that 
use of most, dangerous illicit 
drugs has declined since 1970 
when it peaked. 

"In the case of marijuana, 
everything is complicated by the 
fact the drug has become a sym- 
bol of hotly-debated issues in this 

An historical parallel Dr. Pollin 
sees with the current debate is 
"when coffee was introduced to 
Europe from the Middle East, it 
was thought to have very danger- 
ous effects on behavior. " 

For one thing, coffee houses 
were then a hotbed of radicalism, 
he noted. Tve even heard its use 
was punishable by death. 

"My own feeling about mari- 
juana is that, though there has 
been a burst of very productive 
research, we still don’t know 
whether it’s like coffee, or like 
heroin (which was thought to be a 
safe treatment of morphine addic- 
tion), or like diethylstilbestrol 
(which was thought to be safe for 
pregnant women). 

”We hadn’t realized until 
recently what the essential ques- 
tions are. For example, there is a 
strong suggestion marijuana in 
high dose levels depresses testos- 
terone, or perhaps even the equiv- 


alent female hormone (that study 
hasn’t been done yet). 

"This ties in with isolated 
reports that it produces enlarged 
breasts in the male. So it seems 
as if marijuana is related to hor- 
monal imbalance. 

"The question is, what happens 
if marijuana reduces testosterone 
levels— not in adults, but right 
around puberty? This is a particu- 
larly relevant question because 
data from San Mateo County 
(Calif.) shows that the 7th Grade 
use has increased more than 100% 
in males between 1968 and 1974. At 
age 13, now 22% have used mari- 

However, use of alcohol and 
marijuana has increased consist- 
ently and significantly over the 
past six years. 

Women are also gaining a 
dubious "equality" in the area of 
drug use, according to the report. 

In 1968, and even in 1972, use of 
many drugs was largely a male- 
dominated activity. 

"In 1974, it could no longer be 
said that drug use is more com- 
mon among males than females." 
says the report. 

As for alcohol, the percentage 
of students reporting use "at least 
once in the past six months" has 
jumped to 72.9% in 1974 from 
46.3% in 1968 (70.6% in 1972). 

Asked for the first time ever 
how much of their alcohol con- 
sumption was in the form of tak- 
ing wine with their families, more 

DESPITE A growing body of 
evidence suggesting cannabis 
smoking may be a health hazard, 
there has been a marked increase 
in its use by adults in the past 
three years. 

This is the chief conclusion of a 
two-part survey of adult cannabis 
use in Metropolitan Toronto, one 
of Canada’s largest cities, con- 
ducted in 1971 and then again in 

It shows that 47.6%f of adults 
aged 18 to 24 years, particularly 
males, used cannabis in the past 
year in contrast to the 29.7% who 
reported having used it in 1971. 

The highest proportional 


Dr. Pollin does not believe an 
ethical study of the effect of mari- 
juana on juveniles is feasible in 
the U.S., even though the knowl- 
edge is vital to informed public 

Foreign studies are a possibil- 
ity. although the same ethical 
problems would remain. 
Retrospective studies are always 
open to question, and epidemiolog- 
ical studies involving thousands of 
people are long and costly. 

There are other questions that 
arise from knowledge generated 
from previous studies. Dr. Pollin 

One of the latest findings, he 
said, is that in some areas mari- 
juana has "biphasic action’’— that 
is, like some of the barbiturates, it 
acts as a stimulant or a depres- 
sant at different dose levels. 
"This may be the reason why so 
many reports have been confusing 
in some areas,’’ he said. 

One most intriguing finding 
from current research, he said, is 
that there is some evidence mari- 
juana may actually be addictive to 
some people. 

“Most workers feel it’s not an 
addiction like heroin or cigarettes, 
where a large majority who use 
these can’t control the use. We 
think there is some addiction, but 
we’re not .sure how extensive it 

A surprising finding from the 
national reporting system of U.S. 
addiction treatment centers has 
been that between 12%) and 15% of 
addicts say their prime drug of 
abuse is marijuana. 

"I’m sure it’s an inflated fig- 
ure." Dr. Pollin says. "Many of 
these people are in the centers 

than 42%o said all or almost all 
drinking was done in this setting. 

This "illustrates a widespread 
permissiveness regarding alcohol 
consumption by parents for their 
children, many of whom would be 
under the legal drinking age." 
says the report. 

The "most encouraging 
change" to take place between 
1972 and 1974, it says, involved 

Smoking declined in those two 
years by .five per cent to 22.7%, 
the lowest rate in surveys to date 
However, this was also the area of 
"most notable change" in sex pat- 
tern of drug abuse. 

In 1968 and 1970, males smoked 
tobacco significantly more often 
than females. There was no differ- 
ence between the groups in 1972 
but, in 1974, 34.8%p of females 

increase, however, was in the 25 
years and older group in which the 
2.2% who reported use in 1971 
increased to 7.5% in 1974. 

In 1974, about 44%, of single peo- 
ple (27%) in 1971), and 7% of mar- 
ried people used cannabis. Its use 
among housewives (3%: ), retired 
people (0%)), and people working 
full-time (13%)), is relatively 

Use appears most frequently, 
says the report, among students 
(57%o). and people working part- 
time (29%c). 

Although use was preponderant 
among males, the proportion of 
male adults using on seven or 

only because they were sent there 
by judges or their families. We’re 
sure it’s closer to 2%o.’’ 

Even a 2% addiction rate is 
noteworthy, however. Current 
popular wisdom holds that mari- 
juana is not at all, addictive. Dr. 
Pollin explains that these mari- 
juana "addicts" are heavy users 
who demonstrate irritability and 
sleeplessness when denied the 

”It’s been shown in humans by 
at least one or two researchers," 
he said. "It’s an analogous but 
much weaker process than heroin 

Dr. Pollin said it is important, 
that marijuana researchers report 
negative findings as well as posi- 
tive results. Scientists in general 
have a tendency to keep their neg- 
ative results to themselves, he 
said. "One of their most impor- 
tant jobs is to replicate, document 
or disprove other researchers’ 

"At the same time, we must 
begin looking at a larger set of 
questions more difficult to study. 
How do you find out, without 
retrospective distortions, the 


effect of marijuana use on adoles- 
cent development? Perhaps the 
addictive process itself may be 
more important to study than any 
particular drug." 

Besides marijuana research — 
which gets about $5 million a year 
from the U.S. government— the 
bulk of the program’s $32 million 
of research money ($15 million to 
$20 million) goes into study of her- 
oin addiction and projects all over 
the world, including three large 
private clinical centers and the 
U.S. government’s own addiction 
research center at Lexington, Ky. 

teenagers are using more cannabis and alcohol 
but chemical revolution' is waning : ARF study 

Pot-smoking adults on increase 

smoked tobacco compared to 
32.6%) of males. 

Females were also found to use 
barbiturates and tranquillizers 
more often than males although 
males continue to use alcohol, 
marijuana, and LSD more often 
than females. 

Marijuana use showed a consid- 
erable increase in the six years, 
with 22.9% reporting use in 1974 as 
opposed to 6.7%) in 1968. 

Although the students surveyed 
(3,479) were in Metropolitan 
Toronto, results are markedly 
similar to those obtained in a 
study by San Mateo County 
Department of Public Health and 
Welfare in California between 1968 
and 1974. 

That study also showed a con- 
sistent increase in alcohol and 
marijuana use but a levelling off 
of most other drug use since 1968. 

more occasions in 1974 was less 
than in 1971, with 62.3%c reporting 
such use then and only about a 
third of those surveyed reporting 
such use now. 

In contrast, nearly half of all 
female users now report cannabis 
use seven times or more in 1974 
whereas in 1971 only 32.5%o 
reported such use. 

Co-authors, Drs. Reginald 
Smart and Michael Goodstadt, 
and Marion Gilles, Addiction 
Research Foundation, stress that 
results should be viewed in the 
context that in 1971, 1.200 people 
were surveyed whereas the 1974 
sample (347) was much smaller. 

Page 4 — THE JOURNAL, January 1. 1975 


to a new society’ 

grand-daddy of therapeutic com- 
munities for drug addicts— Syna- 
non— is taking on a new image, 
with increasing emphasis on edu- 
cational functions. 

Developments like its “rotten 
kid” program, and a research 
study of its nursery school chil- 
dren. reflect the role of the Syna- 
non Foundation as a kind of com- 
munal training school for a new 
social order. 

Convinced that juvenile delin- 
quency. drug addiction, and alien- 
ation are no longer just problems 
of the ghetto, but as much or more 
problems of the middle class and 
the affluent. Synanon has gone 
into the “rotten kid” business, 
organizing a “core group” of 
some 25 youth, aged 12 to 17 years 
in a special “education” program. 

These are problem children— 
rebellious. delinquent. pre- 
addicts. They come from parents, 
from the courts, from various 
institutions. In their own peer 
group, they will be introduced to 
the Synanon approach of reversed 
role models. 

Their “hero” will be the honest, 
responsible member of their 
“society”, not the hoodlum, the 
punk, the addict or the gangster. 
Put to the acid test will be the 
Synanon thesis that good behavior 
precedes and fosters emotional 
change; act as if you’re an adult, 
and eventually you’ll become an 

The nursery school, a children’s 
community within the larger Syn- 
anon community, is a natural lab- 
oratory for the study of human 
development. A research study of 
the social structure and behavior 
of peer groups of communally- 
reared children up to four years of 
age, is now in progress at Syna- 
non, funded by a grant from the 
National Institutes of Health. 

These facts highlighted an inter- 
view by The Journal with a 
“panel” from Synanon House in 
Santa Monica. The panel included 
Russell Mumford. coordinator, 
Michael Kaiser, public relations 
director; Louis Delgado, director 
of visual communications and 
graphics; and Bernard Kolb, 
director of public safety. 

They represent a cross-section 
of Synanon membership. Kolb and 
Delgado are ex-addicts or. as Syn- 
anon terms them, “dope fiends", 
and have lived “clean” in Synanon 
for eight and 10 years, respec- 

Mumford and Kaiser are 
“squares” who joined the Synanon 
community for its alternate life- 
style. Mumford, a resident for 
more than seven years, was a 
stockbroker. Kaiser, a resident 
for more than nine, was an adver- 
tising man, and now operates his 
own agency “outside”. 

Lifestylers like Mumford and 

Kaiser make up almost half of the 
more than 1.300 Synanon popula- 
tion at four California residences; 
Santa Monica. Oakland, Tomales 
Bay and Badger. The foundation 
also owns apartment houses, and 
there are Synanon branches in 
Detroit and New York City, oper- 
ating primarily as intake services 
for screening applicants. 

These are not “ghetto houses”. 
The Oakland and Santa Monica 
residences were formerly exclu- 
sive private clubs. The Tomales 
Bay site is a 3,500-acre ranch, 
graced by a once-palatial mansion 
built to lure Italian physicist and 
radio inventor Guglielmo Marconi 
to the United States during World 
War 1. 

Synanon began in 1958. financed 
by a $33 unemployment insurance 
cheque of founder and guiding 
spirit Charles E. “Chuck” Deder- 
ich, now chairman of the board of 

From the start. Synanon has 
maintained it is a pathway to a 
new way of life, even a new kind 
of society, and that its remarkable 
record in curing and rehabilitating 
addicts is just a side effect. 

Viewed in this light, Synanon’s 
new educational image represents 
not so much a transformation as a 
recognition of what Synanon has 
always been, and is now. 

Traditionally, Synanon has seen 
itself, and often has been 
described, as a school, a learning 
environment. The very name, Syn- 
anon, was coined by an early resi- 
dent, a malapropism combining 
“seminar” and “symposium.” 

The approach of a total learning 
environment has had singular suc- 
cess against the hitherto almost 
insoluble character problems of 
addiction. More than half of those 
who enter Synanon stay more than 
three months; of these, almost 
90% are “clean.” 

Former Synanon medical direc- 
tor. Dr. Karl J. Deissler. has said 
therapeutic communities on the 
Synanon model offer the best, and 
perhaps the only, hope of solution 
to the “epidemic” of drug addic- 
tion (The Journal, May 1973). 

The model' has been widely 
copied or adapted by agencies not 
only in America, but in Europe 
and Asia as well . 

There are three cardinal rules 
at Synanon. Two— no drugs and no 
violence— have been in effect 
from the beginning. The third— no 
smoking— was established about 
four years ago. 

Violations may be grounds for 
expulsion. Contrary to gang ethics 
that consider “squealing” or “rat- 
ting” a heinous offence, at Syna- 
non, informing on anyone whose 
behavior is harmful to himself or 
the group is not only condoned but 

Addicts entering Synanon, 
including some who have been on 

heroin since they were 12 years 
old, kick their habit “cold tur- 
key”, with plenty of human 
warmth for support, but no artifi- 
cial or chemical “crutches”. 

Everybody at Synanon works, 
and there is complete mobility in 
job opportunities from scrubbing 
floors and washing dishes to coor- 
dinators and top administrative 
staff. All are paid “walking 
around” money of a few dollars a 
week. They live in “tribes” of 50 
to a 100 residents. There are many 
cultural and recreational activi- 
ties in a society that is self- 
contained, yet involved in con- 
stant interchange with the outside 

Synanon is a multi-million dol- 
lar enterprise, maintained by a 
combination of financial re- 
sources— Synanon industries such 
as automobile service stations and 
an advertising specialty business; 
lifestylers who contribute their 
outside earnings; and donated 
goods and services ceaselessly 
“hustled” by residents. Each con- 
tributes about one-third of Syna- 
non’s income. 

Dederich has stated; “We are 
more of an educational enterprise 
than a therapeutic one. more of a 
learning process than a therapeu- 
tic process; we don’t presuppose 
sickness as much as we presume 

Accordingly, Synanon addresses 
itself to the problem of ignorance 
through a process of mutual 
self-education. It is not a com- 
munity of students or teachers, 
but rather a community of schol- 
ars, each learning and teaching at 
the same time. There are echoes 
here of Jacob Moreno’s definition 
of a total therapeutic community, 
where “everyone is a therapist, 
and at the same time a patient, to 
everyone else”. 

Often quoted at Synanon is 
Dederich’s dictum; “A learned 
man is dead, but a learning man is 

The Synanon philosophy con- 
cludes; “No one can force a per- 
son toward permanent and crea- 
tive learning. He will learn only if 
he wills to. Learning is possible in 
an environment that provides 
information, the setting, materi- 
als, resources, and by his being 
there. God helps those who help 

The reference to God may 
appear incongruous in the tough, 
secular Synanon setting, but there 
is an almost holy dedication, a 
kind of religious fervor, that ani- 
mates this community. And Syna- 
non’s roots are not totally irreli- 

Synanon grew out of Chuck 
Dederich’s participation in Alco- 
holics Anonvmous in the late 

1950s. AA stemmed from Frank 
Buchman’s Oxford Group in the 
late 30s. and has a strong religious 

Dederich and his first -small 
group of drug addicts, however, 
soon broke away from AA, and 


whatever religion there is at Syna- 
non today is religion with a small 

There is little stress on Christi- 
anity, or indeed, on God, except as 
God resides in every individual.. 
The emphasis is on complete hon- 
esty and self-reliance in the 
Emersonian tradition of individ- 
ual responsibility. 

These tenets are reflected in 
Synanon’s philosophy, in its 
prayer, and in its game. The 
prayer, a daily ritual, is addressed 
by the person to himself, and asks 
these things; 

"Please let me first and always 
examine myself: 

Let me be honest and truthful: 

Let me seek and assume responsi- 

Let me understand rather than be 

Let me trust and have faith in 
myself and my fellow man: 

Let me love rather than be loved: 
Let me give rather than receive. ” 
These are the values lived, not 
merely preached, at Synanon; 
absolute honesty, personal respon- 
sibility. cooperation and love. In a 
reversal of the value system of 
outside society, peer group pres- 
sures are used to build a commun- 
ity of “moral heroes”, good citi- 
zens who are totally involved. 

The Synanon game, a prime tool” 
in the search for truth and under- 
standing, is a special form of 
group interaction central to the 
entire program. 

Originally, it was a harsh, even 
brutal, technique, described as “a 
leaderless group encounter for 
creation of aggressive and provoc- 
ative interchange, using weapons 
of ridicule, cross-exam-ination and 
hostile attack.” 

Mellowed somewhat now, the 
game can still be abrasive and 
penetrating, and it is undeniably 
effective. It is played at least once 
a week, and more commonly two 
or three times, by everyone in 
Synanon; newcomer, officer, 
lifestyler or dope fiend. Even chil- 
dren, four years and beyond, play 
the game. 

It usually runs from two to 
three hours, but most residents 
play a 12-hour game once a month. 
There are occasional marathon 

sessions of 24 to 48 hours, and a 
fantastic continuous game called 
the perpetual “stew ” that goes on 
day and night without interruption 
while individual players come and 


The balanced “mix” of game 
players is a living testimonial to 
Synanon’s total lack of prejudice. 
Men and women of all ages, races, 
religions, and walks of life, play 
on equal footing. There is no 
director or leader, though more 
experienced players serve to 
guide the course of the session 
when necessary. No physical vio- 
lence is permitted, but verbally 
“anything goes”. 

Dederich says the game “can 
accomplish a unification and heal- 
ing of the personality, an appre- 
ciation and acceptance of new and 
more constructive forms of behav- 
ior, and the adoption of new and 
sounder value systems; it is a 
therapeutic experience, and most 
residents with character- 
disordered backgrounds believe it 
has saved their lives.” 

The game is a potent educa- 
tional tool underpinning Synanon’s 
growing diversity of “schools 
within a school”. It was necessary 
very early to organize a nursery 
school, because many residents 
brought small children with them, 
and others gave birth to children 
while living at Synanon. 

The nursery children do not live 
with their parents. They are 
taught and cared for in the com- 
munal style of some primitive 
societies or the Israeli “kibbutz”. 

There is ample opportunity for 
parents to spend time with their 
children, and the change from the 
conventional “nuclear” family 
does not appear to have a damag- 
ing effect. The children are 
bright, lively and happy. 

The ultimate Synanon goal is an 
educational complex extending 
from nursery school to college and 
beyond. Already the system is 
expanding to accommodate teen- 
aged addicts and “dropouts”, and 
normal children whose parents 
believe in the Synanon school. 

As for evaluation, the Synanon 
approach is simple. The founda- 
tion is successful for people who 
stay there and off drugs. For those 
who don’t, it isn’t. 

Said one resident; The fact that 
hundreds of agencies are modelled 
after Synanon “tells us all we 
need to know about whether or not 
we work”. 

The Synanon vision may seem 
Utopian, and history is littered 
with the debris of many Utopias. 
Still, ' if children are truly the 
“wave of the future”, Synanon 
may be riding the crest of that 

Synanon House -Santa Monica 

THE JOURNAL, January 1, 1975 — Page 5 

Benefits of elean air 
threatened by smoking 







A. 1 smoke cigarettes in order to 
keep myself from slowing down. 5 





B. Handling a cigarette is part of the 
enjoyment of smoking it. 5 





C. Smoking cigarettes is pleasant 
and relaxing. 5 





D. 1 light up a cigarette when 1 feel 
angry about something. 5 





E. When 1 have run out of cigarettes 

1 feel it almost unbearable until 1 can get 
them. 5 





F. 1 smoke cigarettes automatically 
without even bei ng aware of it. 5 





G. 1 smoke cigarettes to stimulate 
me, to perk me up. 5 





H. Part of the enjoyment of smoking 
a cigarette comes from the steps 1 take to 
light up. 5 





1. 1 find cigarettes pleasurable. 5 





j. When 1 feel uncomfortable or 
upset about something, 1 light up a cigarette. 5 





K. 1 am very much aware of the fact 
when 1 am not smoking a cigarette. 5 





L. 1 light up a cigarette without 
realising 1 still have one burning in an ashtray. 5 





M. 1 smoke cigarettes to give me a lift. 5 





N. When 1 smoke a cigarette, part of 
the enjoyment is watching the smoke as 1 
exhale it. 5 





0. 1 want a cigarette most when 1 am 
comfortable and relaxed. 5 





P. When 1 feel depressed or want to 
take my mind off cares and worries 1 smoke 
cigarettes. 5 





Q. 1 get a gnawing hunger for a 
cigarette when 1 haven’t smoked for a while. 5 





R. I’ve found a cigarette in my mouth 
and didn’t remember putting it there. 5 





(answers on page 12) 

Scottish anti-smoking campaign 


LONDON— The positive health benefits 
produced by the anti-pollution Clean Air 
Act in Britain are threatened by the 
increase in smoking, especially among 
the young. 

This is the gloomy picture painted by 
Dr. D. D. Reid. Professor of Epidemiol- 
ogy. London School of Hygiene and Tropi- 

Lung cancer 
will kill 17,600 
U.S.women in75 

WASHINGTON— The National Cancer 
Advisory Board’s annual report calls for 
federal regulation of tar and nicotine con- 
tent in cigarettes. 

The board, which includes 24 scientists, 
physicians and public figures, says in the 
report, that “cigarette smoking remains 
the most remediable cause of cancer 
deaths in the United States— and the one 
which seems hardest to change. 

“While there is at present no way to 
declare any cigarette safe, it should be 
possible to deny those cigarettes which 
are obviously high in nicotine and tar 
access to interstate commerce and. 
thereby, discourage their manufacture.” 
it says. 

Meanwhile, according to new data from 
the American Cancer Society, lung cancer 
has become the third leading cancer killer 
of women in the U.S. 

The ACS attributes this increase in 
female lung cancer deaths to the fact 
that, in the last 30 years, there has been a 
steady and substantial increase in ciga- 
rette smoking among women. 

The lung cancer death rate for women 
has doubled in the last 10 years, the 
society says. This year, the disease will 
claim the lives of an estimated 17.600 
American women, 2,100 more than were 
expected to die of lung cancer in 1974. 

Lung cancer remains more common 
among men.' who began much earlier to 
smoke in greater numbers than women. 
As the leading cancer killer among Amer- 
ican men. lung cancer will kill an esti- 
mated 63,500 males this year. 

cal Medicine, and a pioneer in research 
on respiratory diseases. 

The Clean Air Act was brought into 
force following studies which showed that 
the foul smog in the winter of 1952 was 
responsible for the deaths of 4.000 to 5.000 
people, mainly elderly. Strict controls 
were placed on open fires and coal burn- 

Based on his studies here, and in' collab- 
oration with scientists in North America 
and Europe. Professor Reid said the 
major factor involved in bronchitis and 
emphysema is smoking. 

“In whatever country you do your 
studies, smoking is clearly related to the 
production of phlegm and is obviously 
very important in the evolution of the dis- 
ease. In the old days pollution compli- 
cated the disease and increased the risk 
of premature disablement ’ 

In his latest research, based on 3.889 
people who are part of a larger group fol- 
lowed since birth in 1946. one of the major 
findings is that children with respiratory 
illness in youth are. as adults, beginning 
to have chest symptoms. 

Professor Reid said the evidence points 
to the fact that many people may have a 
potential liability on contracting bronchi- 
tis but that if they do not smoke they 
might diminish the chances. 

Unless the increased trend in smoking 
abates. Professor Reid believes that dis- 
ease rates, especially among blue collar 
workers, will continue to rise. 

Professor Reid said the Clean Air Act 
was the result of Parliament’s acting for 
the common good and with the agreement 
of the majority. Smoking is a personal act 
and. in a democratic country, cannot be 
legislated against. 

The positive medical benefits of the 
Clean Air Act have been found in a recent 
study by Dr. Peter Howard, of the 
Department of Medicine at the University 
of Sheffield. 

He examined patients with established 
bronchitis attending a hospital outpatient 
clinic firstly during a period when atmos- 
pheric pollution had just started to 
decline, and then again six years later. 

The results, although he said they are 
not yet conclusive, indicate that the rate 
of deterioration of the disease can be 
reduced or arrested and. in some cases, 

Dr. Howard said that those who smoke 
produce more sputum from the chest, 
have more chest illnesses more often, and 
have more rapid deterioration of lung 

“The severity of symptoms is related to 
the number of cigarettes smoked.’’ 

EDINBURGH— A major campaign based 
on a booklet which asks the question 
“What Kind of Smoker Are You?”, is 
being launched early in 1975 in Scotland 
by the Scottish Health Education Unit. 

The booklet is based on data first 
devised by Dr. Daniel Horn of the 
National Clearing House for Smoking and 
Health in America. 

The government-backed Scottish Unit 
decided to update the information and 
produce its own booklet. If the campaign, 
which will be aimed at both young people 
and adults, proves successful, it is 
expected that the booklet will be distrib- 
uted over the whole country. 

The booklet asks a number of questions 
to try and help people to determine why 
they smoke and what sort of smoker they 

If they smoke mainly for pleasure, ten- 
sion reduction, craving, stimulation, and 
handling, suggestions are made in the 
brochure as to how to overcome these 

The booklet campaign will follow on a 
major poster campaign which has already 
proved effective in trying to stop young 
people from beginning to smoke. 

The Scottish Health Education Unit is 
at 21 Lansdowne Crescent, Edinburgh 
EH12 5EH, Scotland. 

Mexico leads Latin American attack on drugs 

MEXICO IS emerging as the 
leader of Latin American efforts 
to study and cope with the prob- 
lems of drug abuse. 

It is the first of the Latin Amer- 
ican countries to have developed 
social and biomedical research 
models tailored to the particular 
needs of the region— which differ 
markedly from those of consumer 

Within the next two years it will 
open some 38 drug treatment 
centres, one of which will be the 
first facility specifically designed 
for heroin addicts. 

And. last year, it was host to the 
first major meeting of the United 
Nations Social Defence Research 
Institute which seeks to spur 
national drug abuse control efforts 
by sponsoring regional meetings. 

The Latin American Seminar on 
National Research Programs in 
Drug Abuse was organized in col- 
laboration with the Centro Mexi- 
cano de Estudios’de Farmacode- 
pendencia (CEMEF). 

It was at CEMEF that the mod- 
els were developed, under the 
direction of Dr. Guido Bellsasso. 

“They have been applied by us' 
for one year now. Our purpose is 
not to draw statistically signifi- 
cant conclusions yet but merely to 
test operations! efficacy of the 
proposed instruments. 

“We have already learned, how- 
ever. it is feasible to apply tech- 
niques for evaluating the incid- 
ence of drug abuse at the national 
level in a country like Mexico with 
its very special social, economic, 
and cultural characteristics." 

At the seminar. Dr. Pieder 
Konz. UNSDRI director, said drug 
abuse control can no longer be 
dealt with effectively through 
“international measures estab- 
lished by jurists and diplomats 
meeting over green-covered 
tables". He urged new initiatives 
must be taken. 

Dr. Konz stressed the cultural 
specificity of drug abuse, its con- 
trol. and the social repercussions 

in each local context to demon- 
strate that research in the field is 
essential for all countries con- 
cerned with the problem, cur- 
rently or in the future, and should 
not be entrusted exclusively to 
foreign experts. technically 
advanced as they may be. 

“Although the authorities and 
international experts are fre- 
quently unaware of the fact." he 
remarked, “the strategies of pre- 
vention and control must be as 
diverse as the causes and 
epidemiological models of the 
drug abuse phenomenon. 

“Obviously, measures taken to 
avoid spreading drug abuse habits 
through foreign tourists or the 
treatment of the few adolescents 
who imitate them must naturally 
be very different from those taken 
for the prevention and treatment 
of drug abuse in the poor districts 
of New York or Bangkok, in pris- 
ons. or among marginal or alien- 
ated sectors of the population.” 

Statements by various repre- 

sentatives outlining the status of 
the drug problem in their respec- 
tive countries served to bear out 
the validity of Dr. Konz's observa- 
tions and to justify the seminar 
and its orientation. 

Panama is a way station to the 
Americas and to a good part of the 
rest of the world, and drug traffic 
is the main concern. 

Argentina: Drug abuse is esti- 
mated to have risen 500% since 
1969 in the main urban centres, 
such as Buenos Aires. Mendoza. 
Cordoba, and Rosario. 

Colombia: When work in this field 
was initiated in the 70s. it was 
realized the country was facing a 
veritable pandemic but no studies 
were available to guide action by 
the authorities. Since then, a 
series of seminars has been organ- 
ized and national agencies formed 
to study the Colombian problem 
from the social, scientific, and 
educational standpoints. 

Costa Rica: Bordering on Pan- 
ama. it shares the problem of 

being a trafficking rather than a 
consuming nation. 

Mexico: Mexico’s main problem 
for many years has been the enor- 
mous drug traffic to the rich U.S. 
market. An increasing amount of 
the country’s scanty resources has 
gone into combating it with as 
many as 12.000 men devoted to 
seeking out and destroying mari- 
juana and poppy plantations and 
pursuing legions of drug smug- 
glers of all kinds. 

The abuse problem is not 
thought to be severe in Mexico. 

Peru: Coca addiction among 
Indian groups represents a major 
problem in addition to another 
special method of drug abuse— the 
smoking of tobacco laced with 
cocaine, called by the Ecuadorian 
expression “maduro con queso" 
(banana and cheese). The fact 
Peru has borders with four coun- 
tries — Ecuador, Colombia, 
Bolivia, and Chile— makes control 
of drug smuggling a very difficult 

Page 6— THE JOURNAL, January 1, 1975 


Gary Seidler 


Anne MacLennan 


Milan Korcok 


Lachlan MacQuarrie (Hong Kong) 
Walt Nagel (Calgary) 

Tom Hill (Rorida) 

Saul Abel (Los Angeles) 

Mary Hager (San Francisco) 
Dorothy Trainor (Montreal) 

Jean McCann (Cleveland) 

Kenneth McCracken (Minnesota) 
Betty Lou Lee (Hamilton) 

Bryne Carruthers (Ottawa) 
Dorsey Woodson (Washington) 
Otha Linton (Washington) 
David Zimmerman (New York) 
Alan Massam (London) 

Tom Land (London) 

David Ehrlich (Geneva) 

Peter Thompson (Vancouver) 
Manfred Jager (Winnipeg) 

The Jeurnal 


Dr. Harding Le Riche, Prof., School of Public Health and Hygiene, University of Toronto 
Dr. Albert Rose. Dean. Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto 
Dr. Gordon Beil. Director, Donwood Institute. Toronto 
Dr. Thomas Bryant. President. Drug Abuse Council. Washington. D.C. 

Dr. Lionel Solursh, Associate Head, Dept, of Psychiatry, Toronto Western Hospital 
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2nd Class Mail Registration No. 2776 
ISSN 0044-6203 Printed in Canada 

Cannabis merry-go-round 

As has been suspected by many for some time, revision of Canada’s 
cannabis laws ranks as a low priority with the Trudeau government. 

Both the substance of the recent legislative proposals and their 
means of introduction— via a Senate bill— offer ample indication of 
Cabinet's apathy on this issue. (See page 1 ). 

As Health Minister Marc Lalonde noted, a heavy workload pre- 
cluded the bill's being introduced in Commons. A ' heavy workload " 
is interpreted as the aborted attempt to ram through a 50% pay raise 
for Members of Parliament. 

Now that the bill has been shuffled off to the Senate, and from 
there to a subcommittee to start a whole new set of hearings on its 
own. one wonders whatever happened to all the information, insight, 
and direction provided by the LeDain Commission? 

It appears the same people and groups called to testify to the 
LeDain Commission will have to repeat the act for the Senate. 

It is as if the LeDain Commission never existed and that painful 
fact is made more evident in the poorly-conceived compromise that 
now serves as this government's response to existing drug laws. 

Shifting jurisdiction for cannabis from the Narcotic Control to the 
Food and Drugs Act. and slicing penalties for simple possession, 
merely points to an objective. It doesn't bring us there. 

In recommending elimination of penalties for simple possession of 
cannabis, the LeDain commission was talking about more than 
bringing the costs of fines within the financial means of casual users. 

It was talking about something much more fundamental to our 
approach to justice— namely that the lifelong stigma of criminal sen- 
tences was a punishment out of all proportion in respect to personal 
use of cannabis, and that imposition of this stigma exerted more 
social damage than the “crime" it was meant to deter. 

But summary conviction, under the Food and Drugs Act. just as 
under the Narcotic Control Act. still leaves the residue of a criminal 
record. When such a record is produced, even 10 years hence, there 
is usually no way of telling whether that conviction was for a sum- 
mary or an indictable offence. A record is a record. 

Under the present proposal there is no guarantee the weight of the 
law will be applied evenly from province to province, or even from 
community to community. Nor is there a guarantee that today's con- 
victed casual user fined $100, will. 10 years from now. not have to pay 
an additional, and far more serious penalty, because of information 
he files on a job application form or a travel document. 

There is no mechanism which guarantees that after a time, a 
record will be expunged, and. except for cases of simple possession, 
there is no guarantee the crown won't choose to proceed by indict- 
ment and the full force of the law. whatever the circumstances. 

If there is any elasticity built into the existing proposals, it would 
all seem to be on the side of law enforcement officials— precious 
little for the accused. 

“Booze? Drugs? Hell, no-“INFLA TION” 

—Milan Korcok— 

It’s called P Jl. 

So. the liquor companies want us to drink moderately do they? 

That's what they have been saying in their “tasteful'', "common- 
sense" advertisements all through this holiday season. 

Well, if a common sense approach to drinking is the only payoff 
they want and expect, why append the names of their corporations to 
each ad? 

Why don't they just state their case? Or wouldn’t that be produc- 
tive public relations? 

Letters to the Editor 


We were pleased to see the arti- 
cle by Anne MacLennan on our 
survey (The Journal, Decem- 
ber 1) and especially delighted 
with her observations in the lead 

We read The Journal with great 
interest around here and find it 
very useful. Our thanks again for 
reporting our survey so thor- 

Ms. Hester J. Dawson 
Media Coordinator 
Morris County Department of 
Drug Abuse 

Morris Plains, New Jersey 

What an absolutely beastly fracas at Upstan Downs, old boy! 


LONDON— On the basis of 
confidential memoranda 
leaked this morning from the 
Ministry of Health, two very 
serious charges have been 
levelled at British official- 

1. That the Ministry of 
Health has covertly juggled 
British narcotics statistics so 
as to continuously titillate 
North American drug 

2. That the British govern- 
ment has for decades con- 
cealed the fact that revenues 
generated from visiting dele- 
gations of North American 
drug experts studying the so 
called ‘British experiment’ 
far exceed the entire cost of 
the British free heroin pro- 

Reached at his country 
home at Upstan Downs soon 
after the allegations surfaced 

in the morning papers. Dep- 
uty Assistant Health Minister 
W. R. Twillingham refused to 
answer questions because of 
‘national security considera- 

The response fueled specu- 
lation that revenues from 
North American drug- 
trippers are considered 
essential to Britain's continu- 
ing struggle to balance her 
payments and stave off bank- 
ruptcy, and added credence to 
the numerous rumours that if 
North America were to stop 
sending groups and individu- 
als to study the ‘British 
experiment’, iftore than one 
West End hotel here might go 
into receivership. 

Contacted at noon at his 
club, Deputy Minister of 
Health Sir Adrian Plucken- 
penny M.B.C.M. angrily den- 
ied the ministry had manipu- 
lated statistics so as to 
encourage North American 

drug-trippers although he did 
admit under persistent ques- 
tioning that Her Majesty’s 
government held expense- 
accounting drug-trippers in 
higher regard than Arthur 
Frommer’s penny-pinching 

In the late afternoon, the 
Minister of Health Sir Hugh 
Bartelberry O.B.E. consented 
to an interview with the 
B.B.C.’s Throcton Downs. A 
transcript of the interview 

T.D. : Sir Hugh, do you have a 
statement to make about the 
very serious allegations that 
have been levelled at your 

Sir H: It is ridiculous to 
accuse us of malfeasance just 
because the behavior of North 
Americans seems incompre- 
hensible. We have been dis- 
pensing heroin' to British 
addicts since 1926 and we con- 
tinue to do so because for us 

it is efficacious. It is as sim- 
ple as that Mr. Downs. 

T.D. : But surely it is a most 
curious thing. Sir Hugh, that 
48 years later the North 
Americans are still sending 
over delegations to study, 
analyse, report, and make 
recommendations about the 
‘British experiment'. 

A sceptical press cannot 
see why they would carry on 
like that for 48 years— almost 
half a century Sir Hugh! — 
unless there were some cov- 
ert effort to confuse them, 
motivated by a desire to keep 
them coming, to keep their 
hard currency rolling in. 

Sir H: I know, I know ... it is 
rather strange. I've often 
wondered why they keep com- 
ing. I’ve often wondered why 
lemmings rush to the sea too. 
Mr. Downs. But ours is not to 
reason why. ours is to encour- 
age them to fly British Air- 
ways, visit our clinics, stay at 

our better hotels, talk to our 
experts, and take them down 
to Piccadilly Circus at mid- 
night so they can have a bal- 
anced view. There has been 
no conscious effort on our 
part to confuse them. 

T.D.: With all due respect Sir 
Hugh, you are asking us to 
believe a society that was 
able to put a man on the moon 
in 20 years is incapable of 
coming to a consensus about 
something as simple as the 
British drug program in 50 

Sir H: Yes Mr. Downs, that 
is what I am asking you to 

T.D. : Come, come. Sir Hugh; 
in this post-Watergate era the 
public is no longer so credu- 

(Wayne Howell is an Ottawa 
physician and freelance 
writer. ) 

THE JOURNAL January 1, 1975— Page 7 

Haight- Ashbury : Harnessing 

the essenee of neighborhood 

driver in Union Square does a dou- 
ble take given the address in 

"Did you say Haight?" 

"Right. Something wrong with 

"No. / guess not. Only I don't 
usually get people from HERE, goin’ 
over THERE." 

When you recall the decay, dis- 
ease. and violence of Haight- 
Ashbury only three years ago. hes- 
itancy about penetrating too 
deeply into this mysterious 
enclave is understandable. 

Sure, there was a time in the 
1960s when the Haight— love, 
peace, and flowers— was a tourist 
attraction. Potheads and acid trip- 
pers were fun to look at. you 
didn’t have them at home. 

But the flowers wilted and the 
love wore thin. By 1970 only the 
toughest could survive. The hust- 
ling was hard, the street was unre- 
lenting. “Nice" people no longer 
went there. And if they had gone, 
they would have seen little but 
decay, peeling paint, garbage, and 
hollow stores. 

"Are things gettin' any better over 
there? They still jumpin ' outta win- 

"If they are they're not screaming 
on the way down. It seems quieter. " 

But the cab driver doesn’t 
believe you. Its hard to live down 
the image. 

To many San Franciscans, the 
only way to change the image is to 
get the bulldozers in. But to people 
in Haight-Ashbury. and there are 
people who live and work there, 
there is rnttre muscle in neighbor- 
hood self-determination than in 
any number of bulldozers. And 
they are starting to flex that mus- 

They are talking of “renais- 
sance". “solidarity”, “political 
consciousness.” At the same time 
they are slapping on fresh paint, 
dressing up store fronts, cleaning 
up the streets. 

It doesn’t look like Disneyworld 
yet. Don’t count on too much rub- 
ber gingerbread. But the Haight is 
changing and the institutions 
within it realize they had better be 
prepared to go along. 

Dr. David E. Smith, founder 
and medical director of the 
Haight-Ashbury Free Medical 
Clinic— which has served as proto- 
type for the energetic free clinic 
movement throughout the country 
—is highly sensitive to the change 
and is pushing as hard as anyone 
to see it realized. 

Unlike merchants in the Haight. 
Smith doesn't need more business. 
The HAFMC complex, which sees 
between 200 and 300 people a day 
in its various units, has as much 
as it can handle right now. But it 
is the essence of “neighborhood” 
Smith and his colleagues would 
dearly love to harness in rounding 
out the treatment potential for 
their addict clients. 

The best drug treatment pro- 
grams are expected to draw on 
resources within the community. 
They are expected to include cri- 
sis intervention, medical and 
detoxification facilities, and psy- 
chosocial services to help patients 
to adjust better to living without 

But where programs most often 
fall down is in the effective repa- 
triation of the addict to a lifestyle 
in which he can support himself 
economically without resorting to 
crime, or drug hustling. 

Once detoxified, treated, and 

readied for entry, the addict is too 
often faced either with the stark 
fact that he doesn’t have the skills 
society wants, or with an 
employer, convinced “once a jun- 
kie always a junkie" and not about 
to take a chance on him. 

It comes as a stunning letdown 
not only to the addict but to the 
teams of people who have worked 
to get him ready for re-entry only 
to find he is all dressed up with no 
place to go. 

When the HAFMC began opera- 
tions in the summer of 1967. the 
emphasis was on responding to the 
drug crises of transients and 
alienated youths attracted. by the 
Haight mystique. 

Emergency treatment of 
adverse reactions to psychedelics 
was the first priority. The cycles 
then shifted through amphetam- 
ines and “downers ”. Then, beyond 

David Smith 

the medical services, it was nec- 
essary to extend into psychologi- 
cal counselling and some forms of 

Today the HAFMC medical sec- 
tion provides physical examina- 
tions. prescriptions and treat- 
ment. V.D. and pregnancy testing, 
blood tests and blood typing; the 
psychological services section 
provides counselling, in crisis sit- 
uations. and ongoing therapy. 

There is a women’s needs 
centre which involves birth con- 
trol education, pregnancy testing, 
prenatal care, adoption referrals, 
abortion counselling; there is a 
dental section; detoxification, 
rehabilitation and aftercare 
(non-narcotic medication for with- 
drawal); and a social rehabilita- 
tion program dealing with voca- 
tional training, welfare counsell- 
ing and job placement. There is 
also a commune health section 
which provides health and referral 
service for commune residents. 

This battery of services should 
be adequate for almost any 
drug-related situation. But it isn’t, 
not fully. The Haight experience 
shows that a given treatment 
facility can go only so far in get- 
ting the addict into shape so he 
can function productively on his 
own. After that point, the com- 
munity must take over. 

The fact is most of the clients 
going into such programs don’t 
need RE-habilitation, they have 
nothing to be rehabilitated to. 
They are too young to have 
learned any trades and skills in 
the first place. The only “job" 
skills they ever learned involved 
stealing, prostitution, selling sto- 
len goods, con games and the like. 

Usually these people lack pati- 
ence and perseverance. They 
think more in terms of fending off 
crises than of long term goals. 
Their job prospects are poor, even 

allowing for the negative attitudes 
of most employers. 

Consequently, job placement 
becomes a crucial component of 
the rehabilitation cycle. At the 
Haight clinic this has meant 
establishment of a drop-in centre 
to aid placement in jobs or in pro- 
jects that prepare clients for tak- 
ing work; and an exciting voca- 

bridge for an addict. It’s not that 
the Haight will be turning out rag 
paper specialists by the score. 
But. in the process of learning 
how to work, the clients are also 
learning what it means to meet 
the expectations of others, to be 
on time for work, to be made 

Clients are not encouraged to 


tional apprenticeship program in 
which clients learn basic working 
skills in a sheltered setting. 

Two segments of this appren- 
ticeship program are attracting a 
lot of local attention— a silk 
screening project, and a rag paper 
plant. Both of these not only pro- 
vide the ex-addict with basic 
working skills, they also yield 
highly saleable products. 

Already, the silk screening 
industry in San Francisco is 
diverting commercial printing 
work to the workshop, primarily 
on a subcontracting basis. 

The rag paper plant is an excit- 
ing project that might in time 
make a bit of money. Rag paper 
(the basic resource is old rags— 
donated by various community 
groups) is a distinctive, high qual- 
ity, specialty paper used for invi- 
tations and prestige stationery. It 
is in high demand by engravers, 
artists and printers. 

The plant, which actively solic- 
its downtown business, has the 
capability of training up to a dozen 
people at a time in a regimen that 
demands cultivation of skills and 
discipline, and offers a good 
degree of self-fulfillment. The 
worker sees what he has done and 
it is a quality product. 

The development of this kind of 
alternative industry is most 
important in that it provides a 

stay more than six months in the 
sheltered workshops as there is 
the risk they will become depend- 
ent on them, in which case the 
sheltering becomes self-defeating. 

Admittedly, there is an artifi- 
ciality in this kind of micro- 
economy; The client is getting 
supports he couldn’t expect on the 
outside. After all. how many rag 
paper specialists can the economy 
of San Francisco support’^’ 

But it is clear that the commun- 
ity ultimately will have to provide 
the opportunity. The community 
will have to become conditioned to 
look upon itself and all its 
resources as the complete thera- 
pist. Thus, the community has to 

In facilitating this change, the 
free medical clinic as an institu- 
tion— be it west coast, east coast, 
or midwest— can be a potent cata- 

The free medical clinic, unlike 
some orthodox health institutions, 
couldn't last very long disregard- 
ing the needs of its neighbours, 
especially when the neighbors — 
businessmen, local health and 
social welfare administrators, 
politicians, landlords and tenants 
—are also active on the clinic 
board of directors, as they are in 
the Haight. 

In the seven years since the 
Haight clinic opened its doors. 

They came to ((aight-Ashbury in 1967 with 
peace and love. And with drug addiction and 

The Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinics 
bloomed in 1967, too. With peace and love. And 
with free health care for everyone with a need, 
because love needs care. 

The flower children are gone now. They left 
behind a legacy of peace and love. And a neigh- 
borhood depressed by drug addiction and disease. 
At least until two years ago when the Haight- 
Ashbury neighborhood began rebuilding itself. 

The Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinics have 
hung in throughout it all. helping to bring' about 
the renaissance in the Haight. Because love still 
needs care. 

From once-delapidated townhouses and old 
store fronts, the Haight-Ashhury Free Medical 
Clinics provide the people of the Haight with: 

• Drug detoxification, rehabilitation and after- 
care for those hooked on drugs. 

• General medi''’i services including pedi- 
atric care, VD treatment, derma- 
tology care and screening for 
most health problems. 

• Obstetric and gynecologic serv- 
ices including birth control 

• Commune health services for 

residents of communes with emphasis on 
preventive medicine and health education. 

• Training and research in the mental health 
and health sciences for professionals dedi- 
cated to community-based health care. 

And to help keep the Haight-Ashbury Free 
Medical Clinics a free clinic, some self-help 
efforts are in operation. Like the leather shop, 
sandal maker and stationery mill and silk screen- 
ery in a store called Crackerjack. 

These retail ventures provide rehabilitating 
jobs for former addicts and keep capital circulat- 
ing through the neighborhood. And they help 
raise much needed revenue for the Clinics. 

But the Free Clinics' free enterprise ventures 
aren't enough. At least not yet. Someday the 
Haight-Ashhury Free Medical Clinics will be a 
self-sufficient model of community-based free 
health care. 

After seven years, we're getting closer. 
The Haight is realizing its renaissance. But 
there's so much more to be done. Love still 
needs care. 

Won't you help by shopping our 
self-help shops? Or if you can't visit 
us in the Haight, please send an 
envelope full of tax-deductible peace 
and love to the Haight-Ashhury Free 
Medical Clinics. 

Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinics 1698 Haight SI., San Francisco, CA 94117 

close to 400 free clinics have 
opened across the United States. 
They respond to more than 2 mil- 
lion client-visits per year, treating 
a wide variety of health problems. 

Primarily, the people who go to 
the free clinics are those to whom 
the orthodox institutions are alien. 

Many of these communities are 
complex, they include white pan- 
thers, black militants, brown 
berets, junkies, hippies, property 
owners, merchants. The clinics 
must reflect the needs of all these 
groups. In reflecting such needs 
they become focal points for com- 
munity action. 

When San Francisco police 
launched a raid on one militant 
group in the Haight, a raid that 
allegedly had strong overtones of 
police set-up and persecution, the 
community arose as one in pro- 
test. Among those lined up with 
the community against unwar- 
ranted intrusion was the clinic. 

■‘We were, and are, of this com- 
munity. On that occasion we iden- 
tified ourselves with the commun- 
ity groups and our relationships 
have been very good since then,” 
says David Smith. 

This kind of identification with 
the community it serves has given 
the Haight clinic an excellent 
track record in terms of surviving 
and fulfilling its mandate in a very 
complex setting. 

Because of this track record, 
the HAFMC has gained world- 
wide respect. As a consequence, 
that Haight itself has benefited, 
as. for example, when Newsweek 
magazine offered the clinic a free 
public service advertisement page 
to promote its services. 

The HAFMC capitalized on this 
for the whole community, devising 
an ad page which spoke of the 
Haight area renaissance and of 
the clinic’s part in that renais- 
sance. It struck an upbeat tone for 
the whole community. 

In an ad titled “Where have all 
the flowers gone?" some powerful 
messages were put through; 

"The Haight-Ashbury free med- 
ical clinics have hung in (through 
all the rebuilding) helping to bring 
about the renaissance in the 
Haight. Because love still needs 

And another segment; “The 
Haight is realizing its renais- 
sance. But there’s so much more 
to be done.” 

It’s the kind of promotion the 
Haight merchants just couldn’t 
buy. For one thing they couldn’t 
afford it, and if they said it them- 
selves it would just be seen as 
plain huckstering. 

When George Harrison and 
Ravi Shankar gave a benefit per- 
formance at San Francisco’s Cow 
Palace in November to raise funds 
for the medical section of HAFMC 
—the whole community benefited 
just by association. 

It’s the kind of association and 
deep involvement in community 
activities that David Smith and 
Rick Seymour, Central Adminis- 
trator of Youth Projects. Inc., see 
as transportable to so many drug 
programs and clinics across the 

(Youth Projects. Inc. of which 
Smith is president, is administra- 
tive. legal, and fiscal agent for the 
HAFMC. and the National Free 
Clinic Council, ) 

Says Seymour; “Each neighbor- 
hood has its own evolving groups 
and coalitions that coalesce about 
specific issues. The cities have 
become so megalopolized that 
unless you have political clout 
within your neighborhood. City 
Hall becomes virtually inaccessi- 
ble to you." 

Says Smith: "I believe this 
reflects the lack of trust with the 
political system. A new politics is 
developing around neighborhood 
self-determination. This is a polit- 
ical issue, it concerns the future of 
America, and its happening in 
other places, not just Haight- 

Page 8 — THE JOURNAL January 1, 1975 

Educators ‘should be losing more sleep’ over 
what doctors have NOT been trained to do 

LONDON— A professor of psy- 
chiatry has claimed that the 
mid-26th Century will become 
known as “the era of tranquillity" 
because of the Western world's 
high consumption of tranquillizing 

Professor William Trethowan, 
professor of psychiatry at the Uni- 
versity of Birmingham, told the 
conference of the World Psychiat- 
ric Association here that drug- 
taking had reached epidemic pro- 
portions in the 1970s— “not only 
illicit drug-taking among young 
people, but drug-taking by those of 
all ages, and on prescription given 
for the most part by doctors, in 
seemingly good faith." 

Giving the available statistics 
of “what has been called the 
relentless progress of the psycho- 
tropic drug juggernaut ". Profes- 
sor Trethowan said that in 1972. 
27.2% of the drugs prescribed in 
England acted on the central nerv- 
ous system. Of this 27.2%, 17.7% 
fell into the category of psycho- 
tropic drugs, and 9.5% repre- 
sented the non-psychotropic drugs 
acting on the CNS. 

The 'psychtropic' group- 
defined as drugs likely to be pre- 
scribed for patients suffering 
from some'kind of psychiatric dis- 
order-represented the largest 
single group when considered sep- 

In terms of cost, the drugs act- 
ing upon the CNS added up to 
more than any other group of 
drugs while the psychotropic 
sub-group fell into third place, 
being surpassed in cost by drugs 
acting on the cardiovascular sys- 
tem including diuretics. 

The cost of anti-infective drugs, 
which includes antibiotics, was 
only marginally less than the cost 
of the psychotropic group. 

The psychotropic group 
exceeded, in terms of cost, all 
other drugs acting on the CNS. not 
just because there was a larger 
number of prescriptions, but 
because the average cost of psy- 
chotropic drugs was higher per 
prescription than that of other 
CNS-acting drugs. 

What were the psychotropic 
drugs being prescribed for? 

“In view of the fact that barbi- 
turate and non-barbiturate hypnot- 
ics account for just under 40% of 
the psychotropic drug sub-group, 
insomnia would appear to be the 
main reason," Professor Tretho- 
wan said. 

According to Dr. Karen Dun- 
nell, a further 30% of psychotropic 
drug users took them for “very 
vaguely defined reasons such as 
'neurosis, depression and to calm 
me down’.” 

This, in itself, the professor 
claimed, suggested these drugs 
were being prescribed for insuffi- 
cient reason or in an ineffectual 

Apart from fairly specific and 
recognizable types of psychiatric 
disorders, there was some 
evidence psychotropic drugs were 
increasingly prescribed “in order 
to try and modify personal and 
interpersonal processes. 

"One of the several dangers 
inherent in this is the promotion of 
what may be regarded as a posi- 
tive feedback mechanism," the 
professor said. 

“By this is meant that, the 
more the habit of prescribing med- 
ications for personal problems 
grows among doctors, the more 
likely it is that their patients may 
come increasingly to demand this 
kind of solution to their difficu- 
lties, a solution which, I humbly 
submit, is likely in the end to turn 
out to be a non-solution. 

"I am not only taking general 
practitioners to task. As I have 

already hinted, are psychiatrists 
so blameless? 

“Could it be that they have only 
too clearly demarcated the steps 
in which the general practitioner, 
like Good King Wenceslas’s page, 
should tread? Worse still, 
although general practitioners are 
possibly more vulnerable to the 
skilful propaganda put out by the 
drug companies, can psychiatrists 
claim they are, by and large, 
more discerning?" 

Professor Trethowan said many 


reasons for overprescribing of 
psychotropics could be given, but 
most were probably rationaliza- 
tions . . . “too many patients, not 
enough time, something must be 
done and at least a little chlor- 
diazepoxide won't do any harm. 
And so on. 

■‘A much better explanation 
may be that doctors are ever 
more being expected to .do for 
their patients what they have not 
been trained to do. 

“This has implications for med- 
ical education about which medi- 
cal teachers ought to be losing 
more sleep than some of them are 
currently doing." 

Even when the physician really 
did know of a better prescription 
than a tranquillizing drug, who 
would dispense it for him? Who 
would dispense human warmth 
and friendship— as Marshall Mar- 
rinker had asked— to an embit- 
tered old spinster who muttered 
around the bedroom in the early 

hours of the morning looking at the 
photograph of her long-dead par- 

Who would provide a home for 
the feckless young couple and 
their two crying toddlers before 
their life in one room strained 
their relationship past mending'’ 

The overprescribing of psycho- 
tropic drugs did surprisingly little 
physical harm, but it undoubtedly 
did do harm to the quality of medi- 
cal practice. 

Crime and drug use 

Offenders ‘very different’ from misusers 


association between crime and 
drug misuse appears to reflect 
more the social characteristics of 
the misusers than the effects of 
intoxication, says a senior 
research officer of Britain’s 
Home Office Research Unit. 

Joy Mott was speaking here to 
the ilth Conference of Directors 
of Criminological Research Insti- 

“The characteristics of drug 
offenders have been found to be 
very like those of the general pop- 
ulation of offenders and very dif- 
ferent from those of self-reported 
drug misusers.” she said. 

“Also, the social characteris- 

tics of offenders who become 
drugs misusers and who continue 
to misuse drugs are more like 
those of offenders than those of 
self-reported misusers." 

In an extensive review of the lit- 
erature. including several of her 
own studies on opiate misusers 
and crime in the United Kingdom. 
Miss Mott concluded that while 
there is some association between 
drug misuse and crime, there are 
several different types of relation- 
ship, depending on the nature of 
the national drug control legisla- 
tion, on the type of drug misused, 
and on the individual characteris- 
tics of misusers. 

Discussing various drugs specif- 
ically, Miss Mott said that “apart 

from the possible effects of canna- 
bis intoxication on driving behav- 
ior. there is little evidence in 
international research to suggest 
that, for the great majority of 
cannabis misusers, their misuse 
has any direct or indirect crimino- 
genic effects as far as non-drug 
offences are concerned. 

“It is possible the situation will 
change if more potent prepara- 
tions become available and/or the 
typical dosage levels increase.” 
she said. 

The majority of the intravenous 
misusers of amphetamine type 
drugs in Sweden and of the misu- 
sers of opiates, mainly heroin, in 
the United Kingdom, had been 
arrested, if not convicted, of both 

‘Homework’ for alcoholics 


CHAPEL HILL, N.C.-A soothing 
record which teaches progressive 
muscle relaxation techniques is 
helping some alcoholics here to 
quit drinking. 

Listening to the record is part 
of the “homework” assigned by 
Dr. John A. Ewing to tense, anx- 
ious alcoholic patients. 

Dr. Ewing is professor of psy- 
chiatry and director of the Center 
for Alcohol Studies at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. He directs 
programs involving several kinds 
of therapies, including this “relax- 
ation therapy”. 

“Because alcoholics are very 
tense and anxious people, muscle 
relaxation can help”, Dr. Ewing 
told The Journal. 

“Muscle tension and anxiety 
are not compatible with muscle 

relaxation, so alcoholics who can 
learn the techniques of deep mus- 
cular relaxation have less need to 
turn to chemicals for relief from 
the pressures of daily living. 

“Muscle relaxation also helps 
with the phobias many alcoholics 
have. The alcoholic who drinks a 
lot because he has to fly all the 
time, and he has a fear of flying, 
is one such person who might be 

Dr. Ewing said he decided on 
using the record for “homework”, 
because it reinforces what the 
professional counsellor can teach 
during office visits, and hastens 
the rate of learning of the tech- 

“It’s also good, because this 
allows me to give something to 
the patient that he can take 

Dr. Ewing said the record he 

has been using has a woman’s 
voice discussing techniques of 
muscle relaxation. 

“This record has been espe- 
cially helpful with male patients, 
who seem to perceive the speaker 
as a kind of Earth Mother”, Dr. 
Ewing said. 

“However, some of the women 
patients have not liked it, I think 
because these women reject their 
mothers. It probably would be 
helpful for them to have a record 
with a male voice.” 

While using a recording to 
achieve relaxation is one tech- 
nique, it is not the only one. Yoga 
classes and transcendental medi- 
tation are other possibilities, he 

Dr. Ewing told The Journal the 
“relaxation therapy” is only one 
part of a many-pronged approach 
here to the alcoholic patient. 

spokesman for the National 
Bureau of Standards told The 
Journal. “This is the first dis- 
covery of alcohol in outer 

“The discovery was made - 
on Sagittarius B2, a dust gas 
cloud near the center of the 
Milky Way”, Arthur Schach 

“Scientists have been 
working for 10 years to try to 
discover what molecules are 
there, and this is the thirty- 
first molecule detected. We 
didn’t expect to find it. 

“Our interest in studying 
these molecules is in the pos- 
sibility of reproducing some 
molecular structures from 
space which are not stable 
here on earth.” 

So far, however, Schach 
says he is not worried about 
drunken spacemen. “After 
all, Sagittarius B2 is 30,000 
light years away ...” 

The discovery of ethanol in 
the interstellar cloud will be 
reported in the Astrophysical 
Journal by scientists from the 
three research groups. 


WASHINGTON - Alcoholism 
in outer space? 

Not just yet. But it seems 
the first settlers of natural or 
artificial planets out there 
will not have to look far for 
the primary ingredient. 

Three different scientific 
groups have now discovered 
alcohol in— of all places— The 
Milky Way. 

“Actually, it’s ethanol, pop- 
ularly known as grain alcohol, 
that was discovered”, a 

drug and non-drug offences at 
some time during their drug-using 
histories. Miss Mott said. 

In the case of amphetamines, 
there is evidence that acute or 
chronic intoxication can result in 
aggressive behavior, and there 
are reports of theft offences being 
committed out of bravado rather 
than for gain, she said. 

While opiate misusers may 
steal to obtain money to support 
the habit, several studies indi- 
cate that, in the United Kingdom 
at least, about one third of male 
drug migusers with criminal histo- 
ries had already been convicted of 
offences prior to any admitted 
drug misuse. 

She also cited a recent study 
done with Marilyn Taylor, and 
issued as a Home Office Research 

In this study. Misses Mott and 
Taylor examined the types of off- 
ences for which a series of United 
Kingdom opiate addicts were con- 
victed during the four stages of 
their drug misusing histories— no 
drug abuse, non-opiate misuse, 
early opiate misuse, and the two 
years following their formal iden- 
tification as opium addicts. 

They found that in the period 
prior to any admitted drug mis- 
use. 69% of all offences were for 
theft, compared with 31% in the 
two year period after format iden- 
tification as addicts. 

“There is no doubt that drug 
use, particularly opiate use, modi- 
fied their criminal histories to the 
extent that their criminal convic- 
tions increasingly became limited 
to drug offences.” 

They also found: 

• There was no evidence of an 
increase in the small proportion of 
convictions of males for offences 
involving violence against the per- 
son during any of the drug using 

• When age and number of pre- 
vious convictions were taken into 
account, there were no consistent 
differences between the observed 
reconviction rates for the addicts 
and the expected rates, although 
there was evidence to suggest that 
a cessation or reduction of misuse 
was associated with a reduction in 

There is little evidence, what- 
ever personality measures are 
used, to suggest that drug mis- 
users possess a unique constella- 
tion of personality characteristics 
which distinguish them either 
from offenders or the general pop- 
ulation, Miss Mott pointed out. 

“The only psychological vari- 
able which has been consistently 
shown to discriminate drug mis- 
users from both the offender and 
the general population is intelli- 
gence. Drug misusers, whether or 
not they are also offenders, tend 
to score above average on stan- 
dard tests of intelligence." she 

‘The search for a unique psy- 
chopathology of drug misuse has 
been notably unsuccessful.” 

THE JOURNAL. January 1, 1975 — Page 9 

Sex OR sobriety: 

Some alcoholics 
must choose 

National effort may follow 

Campaign zeroes in on UK community 


NEWCASTLE, ENGLAND— A $235,000 campaign aimed at alcohol- 
ism and heavy imbibing in general, and teenage drinking in particu- 
lar, has been launched in this northeast corner of Britain. 

If the five-week saturation campaign by the government-backed 
Health Education Council is a success, a national campaign will be 
conducted some time later this year. 

For the first time in this country, anti-alcohol television com- 
mercials will be screened. Newspapers and posters, and teachers and 
physicians, among others, are being used to ram home the message in 
the area, which has a population of about 2,600,000. 

The first television commercial to be shown shows a father 
drinking with his friends in a pub. His young son knocks at the pub 
door and asks a customer to fetch his father. 

He tells his father: “Mum wants you home for dinner.” But the 
father returns for another drink as the boy waits outside. The 
punch-line is: “When you drink too much, it’s your family that pays 
for the last round.” 

Another commercial shows a boy and girl giving their opinions 
on drinking and the third shows the ultimate outcome of excess drink- 
ing— a man drowning in alcohol. 

Teenagers come in for special attention as studies show a grow- 
ing number of young people often use the school lunch break to drink 
to excess. 

The campaign, backed by a number of voluntary bodies includ- 
ing tbe National Council on Alcoholism, was opened at a one-day 
conference of educators, physicians and others in a position to influ- 
ence various groups. 

A spokesman for the Health Education Council said: “The cam- 
paign will be directed at the whole community and will include teen- 

“We are not in any way condemning reasonable social drinking, 
but are trying to prevent people becoming hardened drinkers and 
eventual alcoholics.” 

According to the latest Home Office statistics, in the last year 
the number of drunkenness offences among boys aged 14-17 soared by 
32% from 3,311 to 4,382. It is estimated that some 400,000 people may 
be alcoholics and three to four million others indirectly affected by 

Wine drinking rose by 25 % and liquor drinking by 26%> in 1973, 
the fastest rises ever. In the period 1970-73, consumption of liquor has 
gone up by 53%, wine by 70% and beer by 10%. 

To those who questioned the need for the present campaign. Sir 
Bernard Brain, chairman of the Medical Council on Alcoholism, 
pointed out : 

• Alcoholism is Britain’s fourth major health hazard. 

• The suicide rate among alcoholics is 80 times greater than in the 
general population. 

• Sixty per cent of cruelty to children has a background of alcohol- 

Alcohol can be addictive 

I l i: . 

i II II 

I >19 


Eight pints of beer and four large whiskies a 
aren’t doing her ai^good. 

It^ yourdiildreo who suffer If you 

You may not physically harm them, 
though an alarming number ol heavy 
drinkers do. But you almon certainly 
rteglect them. 

Tbe more a me you spersd with a 

glass In your hand, die less time you can 
devote to your family 

That's not ^1. Children of excessive 
drinkers are more likely to become 
alcoholics themselves later 

Drink coo much and It's your family 
that pays for the last rourtd. 


worried abou c the amoun t 

• The Department of Education and Science claims the misuse of 
alcohol presents a far greater social problem than does the misuse of 

• The number of convictions for drunkenness among young people in 
Britain has more than trebled in the past 10 years. 

• Almost one third of all requests for help at Alcoholism Informa- 
tion Centres now come from persons under 35 years of age. 

Another speaker at the conference, W. R. S. Forsyth, secretary of 
the North East Brewers’ Association, said: “The encouragements to 
excessive drinking are rarely provided by the publican but rather 
consist in certain customs and traditions against which publicans 
exert a considerable influence— such as the pub-crawl or competitive 

He said he believed quite sincerely “the interests of public health 
and the interests of the licensed trade do not in one whit diverge in 
advocating the wise and sensible use of alcoholic beverages.” 

The posters used in the campaign include one showing a battered 
child with the caption: “Eight pints of beer and four large whiskies a 
day aren’t doing her any good.” 

Another shows six hypodermic syringes arranged as drink dispens- 
ers containing beer, brandy, vodka, rum, gin and whisky. Above is 
the warning: “Alcohol can become addictive.” 

Another poster reads: “Everybody likes a drink. Nobody likes a 

Doctors urged to shed their biases 


cians must recognize alcoholism 
as a serious disease and a major 
health problem and diagnose it 
before patients become physically 

They must also overcome their 
own biases to the disease and 
make themselves familiar with 
available treatment resources. 

These observations were made 
at the annual meeting here of the 
American Academy of Family 
Physicians by Dr. W. M. Lukash, 

Rear Adm., M.C., USN, of the 
Naval Medical Center in 
Bethesda, Md. 

Physicians often delay a diagno- 
sis of alcoholism because drinking 
is not only accepted as a social 
way of life but physicians them- 
selves have the highest alcoholism 
rate of any profession, said Dr. 

The disease can be hard to diag- 
nose because patients deny drink- 
ing problems and give false histo- 
ries, and because alcoholism pre- 

cedes actual physical problems. 
Alcoholism also carries the moral 
connotations of misconduct and 

Dr. Lukash defined alcoholism 
as “the inability to control the 
amount of drinking and the devel- 
opment of impairments of inter- 
personal relationships, economic 
productivity or physical health”. 
And he said it is a particularly 
serious problem in the military 
which has an alcoholism rate of 

Twenty-three per cent of offi- 
cers and 34% of enlisted men are 
known alcohol abusers, with an 
average in-service time of 11 
years, he said. 

On a larger scale, of the 10 mil- 
lion alcoholics in the United 
States, 50% are gainfully 
employed, 30% are college gradu- 
ates, 30% are manual laborers and 
one of six are women. 

Thirty per cent are middle 
class, 20% inner city dwellers, 5% 
upper class executives and 
another 5% skid row drunks, he 

Failures in coping with alcohol- 
ism are shown in the progressive 
destruction of the life style of 
alcoholics, the 100,000 violent 
fatalities each year linked to alco- 
hol, 25,000 patients with fatty liver 
disease, he said. 

He added that 50% of homicides 
and auto accidents. 50% of felon- 
ies, 30% of suicides, 30% of psychi- 
atric admissions and 20 % of hospi- 
talizations are alcohol-related. 

He advised a team approach to 
treatment using all available 
resources, including Alcoholics 
Anonymous, family counselling 
and religious advisors. 


WASHINGTON-About 8% of 
male alcoholics who stop drinking 
become sexually impotent, 
according to Dr. James W. Smith, 
director, Schick's Shadel Hospital, 
Inc., Seattle, Washington. 

Of this 8%, about one-half will 
regain full normal sexual func- 
tion; one-fourth will regain partial 
function; and the other fourth will 
remain impotent, Dr. Smith told 
participants in a Sexuality and 
Addiction symposium. 

The symposium, held at the 
Washington DC Veterans Ad- 
ministration Hospital was co- 
sponsored by the VA and the 
Washington Area Council on Alco- 
holism and Drug Abuse, Inc. 

Dr. Smith based his figures on 
17,000 patients treated at the Seat- 
tle hospital during the past 35 

He said he believes impotence 
may result from damage to cells 
in the brain’s hypothalamus, a 
structure which regulates hor- 
mones involved in sexual 

“Initially, alcohol stimulates 
hypothalamic cells. Only after 
long use are they depressed by 
alcohol. During this depressive 
phase,” he continued, “the cells 
are first suppressed. Then, after 
prolonged suppression they are 
eventually destroyed.” 

Following this premise, he said 
the ability to regain sexual func- 
tion depends on whether these 
hypothalamic cells are suppressed 
or destroyed. This depends, in 
turn, he said, on a number of fac- 
tors including the amount of alco^ 
hoi consumed and on individual 
variables such as the drinker's 
metabolism and nutrition. 

Although there has been no sci- 
entific proof alcohol destroys 
hypothalamic cells. Dr. Smith 
feels there is evidence to support 

He cited his study of alcoholic 
patients who took a “detailed 
functional task test. The test was 
developed by scientists at Wash- 
ington University to determine 
evidence of brain lesions and it 
has been found to be accurate, in 
96% of the patients tested there,” 
said Dr. Smith. 

“Although none of the patients 
we tested showed any outward 
signs of obvious organic brain 
damage, about one-third of the 
patients tested out in the brain 
damaged range. 

“The older a person is, and the 
more he drinks, the less chance he 
has for recovery of sexual func- 
tion,” Dr. Smith said. He added 
that if sexual function has not 
been regained within one year 
after sobriety, the chances for 
recovery are “greatly dimin- 

In patients whose hypothalamic 
cells have not been totally 
destroyed. Dr. Smith said the 
Masters and Johnson type of sex 
therapy may be helpful. 

This type of therapy is being 
provided to former alcoholics by 
Dr. Harvey Resnick and his wife, 
Audrey, co-directors of the Center 
for Studies of Sexual Behaviors, in 

Dr. Resnick told symposium 
participants; “It is too early to 
tell whether the therapy is benefi- 
cial to former alcoholics.” 

He said former alcoholics, who 
comprise about 15% of his 
patients, are required to be com- 
pletely off alcohol for six months 
before being treated at the Center. 

According to Dr. Smith, if a for- 
mer alcoholic resumes drinking, 
he may regain sexual function. 
“But most wives of alcoholics vvill 
choose sobriety to se^x,” he said. 

That sinking feeling Down Under 

Australians are drowning in a 
“sea of grog” and making 
very little effort to save 
themselves, a Melbourne psy- 
chiatrist claims. 

“The average Australian 
downs the equivalent of 100 
gallons of beer a year and is 
virtually certain to develop 
serious alcohol-related medi- 
cal problems.” according to 

Dr. George Milner, director 
of alcohol and drug dependen- 
cies services in Victoria. 

In Canberra. George How- 
ells, director-general of 
health, said nearly \ 0 % of the 
average weekly spending is 
on alcohol and tobacco. 

He also noted more is spent 
on alcohol and tobacco than 
on clothing. Between June, 
1972, and June, 1973, Austra- 

lians spent $3.31 billion on 
alcohol and tobacco com- 
pared with $3.16 billion on 

In the same year, they 
drank 372 million gallons of 
beer and 130 million gallons 
of wine, he said. 

“The average drinker is 
damned near the threshold of 
inevitable medical prob- 
lems,” said Dr. Milner. 

Page 10 — THE JOURNAL. January 1, 1975 

Tar g et: North America 

New trafficking network in Europe 

PARIS— The rapid establishment 
of profitable new drug trafficking 
networks across Western Europe, 
has been confirmed by Interpol, 
the Paris-based international 
police organization. 

And tolerant Amsterdam is 
quickly establishing itself as the 
principal European transit station 
through which large quantities of 
heroin and cocaine are being chan- 
neled to Canada and the U.S. from 

At the recent general assembly 
of Interpol, drug trafficking 

claimed the lion’s share of atten- 
tion. And specialists stressed they 
must intensify their fight against 
trafficking, both in Europe and 
Latin America, as a prerequisite 
to coming to grips with the prob- 
lem in North America. 

Every European country is to 
increase its annual contribution to 
Interpol’s drug control operations 
by 20% while the U.S. is to make a 
special contribution of $130,000. 

Europe and the U.S. will also 
finance the posting of a drug liai- 
son officer in South East Asia to 


work in co-operation with col- 
leagues already in France and the 
Middle East. A similar system is 
being organized in Latin America 
to stop cocaine trafficking , which 
has increased recently, particu- 
larly in Colombia. 

Interpol’s plan to control drugs 
(Narcontrol), will be reinforced 
by another information network, 
the Narcotic Intelligence Agency, 
to gather and store instantly- 
available, relevant information at 

the organization's headquarters 

Interpol observers say definite 
improvements are being made in 
the control of illicit drug flows, 
but they doubt whether these will 
have a lasting effect without 
intensified efforts. 

A decline in international traf- 
ficking has been brought about by 
the recently-ended pause in Tur- 
key’s poppy cultivation, by 
improved co-operation between 
the authorities of France and the 
U.S. which led to the smashing of 

CNS Stimulant abuse on increase in Japan 


PARIS— The official number of 
central nervous system stimulant 
abusers in Japan increased 12-fold 
between 1969 and 1973. Dr. Fumi- 
nae Kubo, Managing Director, 
Japan Pharmaceutical Informa- 
tion Center, told the 1st World 
Congress of Environmental Medi- 
cine and Biology here. 

In 1969. the number of such 
offenders was 704, whereas by 
1973 it had risen to 8,510. he said. 

In the same period, the number 
of narcotics addicts also rose, 
although less rapidly, from 1,029 
in 1969 to 1,477 in 197^ 

"Among the kinds of narcotics 
seized for criminal offence." Dr. 
Kubo said, “the amounts of heroin 
and LSD are remarkably increas- 

He added that drug abusers in 
Japan include “white-collar work- 
ers, housewives, and general citi- 

DrT Kubo said a law concerning 
amphetamines and methamphe- 
tamines was passed in Japan in 
1951, when abuse problems among 
veterans were becoming appar- 

Because of this, the two com- 
pounds have been less widely used 
for medical purposes than in coun- 
tries such as the U.S. They may be 
used only at hospitals especially 
approved by the Ministry of 
Health and Welfare, but have not 
been used for weight loss as in 
other countries. 

Although Dr. Kubo did not 
explain why the abuse of CNS 
stimulants has increased so dra- 
matically, he did discuss general 
aspects of legal drug-taking in 

"There is no denying that Japa- 
nese people have a tendency to 
lean upon drugs. 

“Most Japanese, in spite of 
their healthy condition, make it a 

Hashish haul 

TEL AVIV— What is believed 
to be the largest single haul of 
hashish ever credited to the 
Israel police— 1,281 “soles” 
(packages) weighing 345 kilo- 
grams— was discovered re- 

The hashish— from Lebanon 
and of “superior quality” — is 
valued on the local market at 
from IL 1.5 million to IL 3 mil- 
lion, (about $350,000-$700,000). 

It is not known how much of 
the hashish was destined for 
the local Israeli market, and 
how much was to be sent on to 
areas occupied by Israel but 
inhabited by Arabs. 

Another conjecture is it was 
brought to Israel from Lebanon 
through Jordan (Israel has an 
open bridges policy with Jor- 
dan and tons of goods flow 
daily across the Jordan river), 
and destined for the Gaza Strip 
from where Arab fishermen 
would smuggle it into Egypt. 

rule to take habitually a few tab- 
lets or capsules of some drugs 
after every meal. These tablets or 
capsules always contain one of the 
vitamin B-i derivatives and some 
other vitamin preparations such 
as vitamin B- 2 , B-6, B-n, C, etc. 
Some also contain glucuronic 
acid, taurine, or others,” he said. 

The wide use of Vitamine B-i 
stems from the fact that beri-beri 
was common in Japan 50 years 
ago, he explained. 

Besides self-medication, Japa- 
nese expect medicines when they 
see a physician. If a cold sufferer 
is given no medication, the physi- 
cian is considered unkind. 

By contrast, “if a physician 
gives the same patient compara- 
tively expensive antibiotics, 
vitamin preparations, antipyret- 
ics, analgesics, and other drugs 
for symptomatic therapy, he will 
be much thanked”. 

Compounding the problem, he 
said, is that while separate profes- 
sions of physician and pharmacist 
exist, Japanese physicians tradi- 
tionally both prescribe and dis- 
pense medicines. The remunera- 
tion of medical treatment under 
health insurance “aggravates the 
evil tendency of physicians to 
engage in dispensing to enlarge 
their income". 

Payment for drugs occupies a 
comparatively greater proportion 
of the national budget for health 
than in other countries, Dr. Kubo 

Thirty-six per cent goes directly 
for drugs, and if dispensing and 
injections fees are added to this, 
more than 50%. 

By contrast, payment for medi- 
cal services (also including dis- 
pensing and injections fees) 
accounts for only 41.6% of the 
total. Remuneration for hospital 
services, including meals, physi- 
cians' fees, and nursing, is less 
than for a 2nd or 3rd class hotel 
room. Dr. Kubo commented. 

UK dniiihenrwss up more than 10% — 
more offences among young women 

LONDON— Further evidence of 
the spread of drinking among 
young women in England and 
Wales has been provided by the 
latest statistical review published 
by the Home Office. 

This showed that there had been 
a more than 30% increase among 
girls between the ages of 18 and 20 
convicted of drinking offences. 
The review covered the period 
Spring 1973 to Spring 1974. Convic- 
tions of boys between the ages of 
14 and 17 also rose sharply, but not 
as fast as for those of the girls. 

The overall increase of drun- 
kenness was more than 10%— the 
highest annual rise for 12 years. 

Only two of the 47 police areas 
in England and Wales did not reg- 
ister an increase in drinking off- 
ences— Birmingham and Lincol- 
nshire. The biggest rise was 
recorded in the county of Lanca- 

shire. The figures exclude convic- 
tions for drunken driving. 

This continued indication of the 
growth of alcohol consumption is 
sure to bring renewed pressure on 
the Government for some kind of 
restriction on the advertising of 
alcoholic beverages. 

At a recent meeting of the Med- 
ical Council on Alcoholism, for 
example. Dr. Myrddin Evans of 
the University Hospital of Wales, 
Cardiff, said he would like to see a 
ban on advertisements linking 
alcohol with sexual potency. 

Assessing the size of the prob- 
lem, Dr. Evans said it was now 
estimated that there were 250,000 
chronic alcoholics in England and 
Wales. If one counted the families 
and friends directly involved, this 
meant that more than a million 
people were suffering. Added to 
this could be a further million 

workers in the legal and medical 
professions and social services 
who were knowledgeable about 
the destructive nature of alcohol- 

Yet alcohol myths— like the 
association between sexual 
potency and drinking— still pre- 

Dr. Evans said chronic alcohol- 
ism could and must be eradicated 
in Britain within the next two gen- 
erations. Members of the medical 
profession should persuade “an 
alcohol-dependent nation” that it 
should "be rid of this public 

So far there has been no 
response from the manufacturers 
of alcoholic beverages here 
despite the fact that makers of 
aperitifs and liqueurs in France 
are giving substantial support to 
research into the problems of alco- 

Around the world 


A group of London medical scien- 
tists warn that infants whose par- 
ents both smoke have twice the 
chance of getting pneumonia or 
bronchitis in the first year of life. 
The group from St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital and London School of 
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 
claim the increase was about 50% 
when only one parent smoked, and 
that the study confirmed suspi- 
cions that children with parents 
who smoke run greater health 
risks than children of non- 


Venezuelan authorities are trying 
to close down the drug flow which 
brings 200 pounds of marijuana 
and 10 kilos of cocaine from Col- 

ombia to Caracas bi-monthly. 
Officials say that, in terms of 
growth, the problem in Venezuela 
is more serious that that in the 
U.S, Border control between Ven- 
ezuela and Colombia is nearly 
impossible, especially among the 
Indians who continually wander 
back and forth across the interna- 
tional frontier. 


The Dutch police stopped 35.955 
motorists in the first weekend of 
enforced breath tests. Of the total, 
only 317 were judged by the police 
to be in need of the breath test, 
and 92 of these were forced to 
hand over their keys and walk 
home. This seems to indicate a 
small drinking-driving problem in 
The Netherlands, but this will not 

be confirmed until more figures 
are available. 


A recent Japan Times editorial 
notes with dismay that while a 
number of voluntary no-smoking 
campaigns are underway in var- 
ious parts of Japan, the average 
Japanese non-smoker is still 
afraid to ask the smoker to extin- 
guish his cigarette in places where 
it is not only unpleasant, but com- 
pletely forbidden to smoke. The 
article warns that recent medical 
evidence suggests non-smokers 
can also be damaged by the smoke 
in smoke-filled rooms, and not 
complaining because of timidity 
or politeness is no longer a very 
good policy. The article calls for 
greater consideration of the rights 
of the Japanese non-smoker. 

some major European drug rings, 
and by a program of co-operation 
adopted by the 17-nation Council 
of Europe for controlling the illicit 
use and sale of drugs. 

New illicit connections, how- 
ever, are already being estab- 
lished across Europe to cater to 
the lucrative North American 
market for narcotics, illustrated 
by an increase in arrests at the 
sea and air ports of Northern 

Amsterdam, internationally 
known for its traditional tolerance 
to foreigners and eccentrics, is 
now the foremost centre of the 
trade. (London might well have 
attained that unwelcome distinc- 
tion had it not been for recent 
British regulations severely 
increasing penalties for drug traf- 
ficking. ) 

Franco-American pressure on 
European smugglers has also 
increased the importance of Latin 
America in the illicit trade, pro- 
viding both transit routes and 
local sources of supply. 

A large proportion of the esti- 
mated eight tons of heroin con- 
sumed in the U.S. annually is sup- 
plied from hundreds of tiny air- 
strips in Paraguay and from more 
than 100 remote World War II 
landing strips in Panama. 

In the past three years, Colom- 
bia has emerged as Latin Ameri- 
ca’s principal cocaine exporter, 
drawing on raw materials from 
neighbouring Ecuador and Peru, 
converting coca paste into drugs 
at sophisticated laboratories and 
supplying the illicit North Ameri- 
can market through the Caribbean 
islands and Central America. 

Unlike the heroin traffic on that 
continent, which is directed by a 
tight, small group of Europeans, 
the current cocaine rush from 
Latin America hides a contest for 
domination involving something 
like 50 rival organizations. 

The situation is volatile and vio- 
lent. And the large number of con- 
tending groups ensures that even 
major arrests will fail to dry up 



MUNICH-Half of Germany's 
/oung people between 12 and 20 
years of age drink some form of 
alcohol each day or more than 
once a week, according to a sur- 
vey by the Infratest Institute here. 

The survey was commissioned 
by the Interior Ministry and cov- 
ered about 1.8 million youngsters 
living in Bavaria, which of course, 
is world famous for its beer. 

Fifteen per cent of those ques- 
tioned said they regularly drank 
hard liquor, including whiskey. 
Most alarming to the authorities 
was that 25% of those aged 12 to 14 
regularly drank, beer, wine or the 
German champagne, Sekt. and 5% 
of this young group drank "hard" 

Among the 15-to 17-year-olds, 
the figures were 38% and 13%, 

■Youngsters' drinking habits 
closely correlated with their par- 
ent's consumption of alcohol. The 
survey showed that the more 
hardened young drinkers came 
from families where mother and 
father drank habitually This tend- 
ency was strongest among the 
youngest people. 

Regular smokers also came 
from families where one or both 
parents were heavy smokers. 
Thirty per cent of the young peo- 
ple in Bavaria smoke, and more 
than 47% in the 15 to 17 age group 

About 95% of the young favor 
cigarettes, and 57%i already 
smoke more than 10 per day. 
Eight per cent smoke 30 or more 
per day. 

THE JOURNAL, January 1. 1975 — Page 1 1 

Medical ^grid’ pinpoints problem sig ns 

Excessive drinkers can be spotted at early stage 

PARIS — Habitual excessive 
drinkers can be detected medi- 
cally at a stage where 60% can be 
persuaded to diminish their intake 
of alcoholic beverages, Dr. P. M. 
Le Go of the French Ministry of 
Health, said in an interview here. 

The detection is accomplished 
by means of a grid or chart upon 
which the examining physician 
ranks several pertinent signs dur- 
ing the course of a physical exam- 
ination. It requires only a few 
minutes. Dr. Le Go told The Jour- 

He emphasized the grid was to 
be used for the screening of appar- 
ently healthy subjects and not of 
suspected alcoholics, for whom it 
would be unnecessary. 

“Long experience has shown 
that even the best-trained physi- 

cian will not be able to detect the 
number of intoxicated subjects 
that the grid will,” Dr, Le GO said. 

He said the method was particu- 
larly useful in a wine-producing 
country such as France where 
people become alcoholic not 
because of any psychiatric disor- 
der, but by habitual drinking over 
a period of years. About 80% of 
chronic alcoholics in France fall 
into this group, he said. 

“I would think, however, the 
method would still be valuable, 
though perhaps less so, in non- 
wine producing countries,” he 

The grid was developed by Dr. 
Le Go and his co-workers while he 
was working as a physician for a 
section of the French railroads. It 
was begun in the 1950’s, when a 


post-war wave of alcoholism was 
hitting France. 

While the grid was originally 
developed to follow the evolution 
of known alcoholics, it was later 
modified to take account of the 
earliest signs. It has been used by 
60 physicians, in more than 50.000 
subjects, over a period of 20 

The grid consists of 12 compart- 
ments. In the first six, constitut- 
ing the top line, the aspect of the 
face, the conjunctiva, and the 
tongue: and the trembling of the 
mouth, the tongue, and the 
extremities, are rated from 0 to 5. 

On the bottom line, subjective 
problems with nervousness, diges- 
tion, or coordination, including 

Professionals often ul-prepared 
for encounter with drug addicts 


MONTREAL— The orientations of 
the drug addict and his profes- 
sional counsellor are widely diver- 
gent and neither training nor pre- 
vious experience, may have pre- 
pared the counsellor for this 
unique encounter. 

This topic was addressed by Dr. 
Harvey Weiner here at the Cana- 
dian Society of Clinical Pharma- 
cology and Chemotherapy. Dr. 
Weiner. DSW is clinical coordina- 
tor of the large and centralized 
Drug Abuse Rehabilitation Pro- 
gram of West Philadelphia, Pa. 

“ Furthermore," said Dr. Wei- 
ner. ““the worker in the metha- 
done program becomes a part of 
the controversy surrounding this 

How does one reconcile the dis- 
parate ideologies of the drug 
addict and the social worker or 
other professional therapist? How 
does one resolve the difficulties 
inherent in this treatment situa- 

The questions are key ones for 
the professional: Non- 

professionals are often far more 
successful, he said. 

"The addict entering treatment 
has organized his life around 
immediate gratification of impul- 
sive needs. His objectives in the 
program are often at the same 

■'Methadone is the tangible, 
concrete substance that will sat- 
isfy his craving for opiates. 'Talk 
therapy’ is the game one plays to 
get the drug. 

"In most treatment settings, 
patients recognize they are having 
personal and/or social adjustment 
problems. They are willing to talk 
about them. "The addict coming 
into treatment rarely sees any 
value in the talk therapy. Indeed, 
many have had unsuccessful 
experiences with this type of 

In addition to these obstacles. 
Dr. Weiner said, the professional 
is usually denigrated in the 
addict’s view to a do-gooder with 
knowledge limited to books. 

So, the stage is set for conflict. 
The professional enters square 
one. His objective is somehow to 
encourage in the addict a longer 
range point of view, which will be 
necessary for his personal and 
social rehabilitation. 

That counsellor should recog- 
nize at the start. Dr. Weiner 
advised, that the addict has had to 
undergo a drastic change in life- 

’Waking up in the morning 
without having immediately to 
think of a fix is a new experience. 
New patients are often unable to 
think about personal and social 
rehabilitation until they are stabi- 
lized physiologically, which 
usually takes one to three weeks. 

Harvey Weiner 

' Another problem is that the 
new patient is being asked to enter 
into a counselling relationship 
based on trust and long-range 
goals. In his former subculture 
life, the addict’s personal relation- 
ships hav€ been characterized by 
distrust and immediate indulg- 

A basic paradox of methadone 
treatment, he said, is that it fos- 
ters a classic love-hate relation- 

"The patient loves the program 
because it encourages independ- 
ence and frees him from heroin 
dependence. He hates it because 
of his new dependence on metha- 
done and the control the program 
exercises over his life.” 

The program may also involve a 
love-hate duality because of the 
authority invested in the worker’s 

"Nonetheless, this authority 
should be recognized as a prime 
dynamic. Affirmation of this 
authority lends structure to the 
counselling relationship and facili- 
tates rehabilitation.” 

The therapeutic necessity of the 
worker’s authority must be recog- 
'nized by both worker and patient. 
It becomes part of the contract 
which clarifies roles, the patient’s 
expectations, and those of the pro- 

Despite this authority. Dr. Wei- 
ner said, the skill of the worker 
will be seen in the dignity and 
respect - demonstrated for the 
patient. It is important to show 
the addict that he cares: that the 
authority inherent in his role will 
be used to help towards treatment 

"Trust has to be earned by both 
parties to this contract. If the 
worker avoids or minimizes these 
aspects, the counselling relation- 
ship will be seen by the addict as 

The patient is ambivalent about 
giving up the world of addiction. 
Dr. Weiner said, because in it he 
has known some success. He is 
caught in a struggle between 

desire to move towards health, 
and fear of leaving the addict 
world. The importance of that 
subculture cannot be minimized. 

The counsellor must also get 
across to the addict that program 
controls are protective and posi- 
tive and aim to help by establish- 
ing the inner control that he is 
lacking. Urinalysis represents a 
reality both addict and worker 

"Urinalysis results are used by 
the counsellor to detect illegal 
drug use so this can be dis- 
cussed, and the patient encour- 
aged to look at why he continues 
to turn to drugs.” 

How far is the worker commit- 
ted to holding the patient to treat- 
ment goals? 

"It should be clear the worker 
may have to recommend the 
patient be placed on probation or 
even terminated from the pro- 
gram. The worker must demon- 
strate he can be trusted with this 
prerogative. The addict may have 
had unpleasant experiences in sit- 
uations involving an abuse of 

Unfortunately, sometimes the 
patient-therapist relationship 
approaches the stage of actual 
physical confrontation. 

"Because bullying and violence 
are so much a part of the "ripping 
and running’ of the drug culture, 
workers are sometimes subjected 
to personal threats of violence. 

"Male addicts have difficulty 
with sexual role identification, 
resulting in frequent displays of 
machismo and a tendency to react 
aggressively to perceived threats 
to their masculinity. Female 
addicts who have had to hustle and 
defend themselves against vio- 
lence are also prone to violence.” 

A regrettable aspect of this 
therapeutic scenario,, said Dr. 
Weiner, lies in personal satisfac- 
tion— or lack of it— on the part of 
the professional worker. 

Improvement is often incre- 
mental and not noticeable for 
months or years. The professional 
must also face the possibility of 
seeing his patient become read- 
dicted even after he has been sta- 
bilized by methadone and made 
substantial progress. 

"The addict usually has little 
formal education, an unfortunate 
lifestyle, a criminal record and a 
poor work history. People with 
poor job skills have little chance 
of finding decent employment.” 

Not only would a job for the 
ex-addict enhance his battered 
self-image, it would also finable 
him to use his time constructively 
instead of facing the perils of 
"hanging around”. 

" The inability of society to pro- 
vide meaningful jobs and/or train- 
ing opportunities often result in 

accident-proneness, are noted as 
are the condition of the liver, the 
weight and height of the patient, 
and the blood pressure. 

Dr. Le Go and his colleagues 
have long-term studies showing 
that obesity and high blood pres- 
sure are often associated with 
habitual drinking. If the obese, 
hypertensive subject is also acci- 
dent prone, there is at least one 
chance in two that he is ethylique, 
according to Dr. Le Go. If the sub- 
ject stops drinking, his chronic 
hypertension also disappears. 

“This fact is so well established 
in the eyes of the French railroad 
physicians that they will not 
believe a patient who claims to 
have stopped drinking if this high 
blood pressure persists,” he said. 

A healthy person should have a 
ranking of zero on the grid, 
although a ranking of 1 is not suffi- 
cient in itself to lead to a diagno- 
sis of excessive drinking. 

Several signs ranked 1, how- 
ever, interspersed with zero’s, 
usually do indicate the first signs 
of heavy drinking. Dr. Le Go said. 
He added, however, that the grid 
should not be used as a definitive 

Once an excessive drinker has 

been identified, he can often be 
persuaded to moderate his intake 
by being shown that alcohol has 
already caused a deterioration of 
his physical condition. Dr. Le Go 
explained. This is often best 
accomplished by persuading the 
patient to abstain from alcohol for 
a certain period of time, he said. 

““Since most of these habitual 
drinkers are not yet dependent on 
alcohol, there is no need for com- 
plete abstinence for the rest of 
their lives, however.” 

To carry out the follow-up diag- 
nosis and treatment of people 
identified as habitual drinkers by 
means of the grid. France has 
recently authorized the establish- 
ment of Centres d’Hygiene Ali 
mentaire tCHA), so-named to 
overcome the stigma of alcohol- 
ism but also to reflect the fact 
that most drinking in France is 
more an alimentary error than a 
psychiatric one. Approximately 40 
public CHA, as well as about 20 
private ones in industry, are being 
started. Dr. Le Go said. 

A limited supply of pamphlets, 
““le depistage precoce des buveurs 
d’habitude”, and the comparison 
chart of the same name, are avail- 
able from Dr. Le Go. 

Vol. 1 of the Published Proceedings 
of the International Symposia on 
Alcohol and Drug Problems, 

Toronto, 1973. 

Street Drug Analysis 
and Its Social and 
Clinical Implications 


With the increasingly widespread non-medical use of psychoactive 
drugs in the past several years has come the realization that drugs 
purchased "on the street" do not always contain the pharmacologi- 
cally active material(s) alleged to be present. As a result various types 
of street drug analysis facilities have evolved in North America and 
Europe, directing their efforts towards one or more objectives, such 
as clinical care, research into patterns of drug use, education of drug 
users, the public or health care personnel, and facilitation of law 

This symposium was intended to bring together representatives of 
various disciplines, to share their experiences in the area of street 
drug analyses, to determine what has been accomplished by such 
programs, and to look toward appropriate goals and objectives in 
this area for future activity. 

The following papers appear in this volume: 

- A Street Drug Analysis Program - Three Years Later 
J .K Brown and M.H Malone 

- Cc./MS Analysis of Street Drugs, Particularly in Body Fluids of 
Overdose Victims 

C.E Costello 

- The Amsterdam Program: What Now? 

Filidt Kok 

- Street Drug Information for Health Care Personnel: A Preliminary 

j A Marshman and K. Walther 

- Report on the Chemical Corporation of Illicit Drugs 
D J Mattke 

- Is Street Drug Analysis Necessary in Canada? 

R D. Miller 

- The Evolution of Counter-Culture Street Drug Analysis Programs 
D E. Smith 

P-224 Soft cover $5.50 P-225 Hard cover $8.00 

Order by Catalogue No. from: 

Addiction Research 

33 Russell Street, 

Toronto, Canada M5S 2S1 

Attn: Marketing Services 

Page 12— THE JOURNAL, January 1, 1975 

....More letters 


Every time I read, as I did in 
the December issue of The 
Journal (N.B.'s war on drinking 
drivers) about some province or 
authority making bold, ringing 
statements about running the 
drinking driver off the road. I 
can’t help getting a little worked 

As an ex-newspaper man. spe- 
cializing in police and court 

reporting, and a former member 
of my local safety council. I am 
utterly convinced the only protec- 
tion we. the innocent, will ever 
truly have from the drinking 
driver will be heralded by a radi- 
cal redefinition of society’s con- 
cept of criminality. 

In my view, a drunken slob who 
aims three tons of metal down a 
crowded highway at me. my wife, 
and innocent baby, is guilty of con- 

duct far more ’’criminal ” than the 
petty hood who relieves a fat gro- 
cer of $100. 

Yet. in our provincial courts, 
the drunk will likely escape with a 
$150 fine and a three-month 
licence suspension— often regard- 
less of whether or not he kills— 
while the armed robber who has 
harmed no one and committed a 
crime only against property may 
receive a prison term of several 


Only when our politicians have 
the guts to stand up and prescribe 
mandatory jail terms of at least 14 
days for all convicted drinking, 
drivers, will the message get 

The present fine of $150 in the 
Ottawa area is a farce. It’s the 
same penalty whether you are an 
unemployed father of six or a 
wealthy businessman with a six- 
figure income. 

Provincial Court judges must 
bear a great deal of the responsi- 
bility for the slaughter on our 

highways caused by alcohol: They 

have the power to jail on first ofT 
ence but I have never heard of 
such a case. 

It’s all just part of an attitude of 
laxity and permissiveness which 
is’ the main reason our society is 
going down the drain. 

If a drunk driver killed an inno- 
cent family and I were on the 
bench. I’d only regret I didn’t 
have the power to send him to the 

J. M. Bryan, 

Former court reporter, 




In your November 1, 1974. issue 
of The Journal in the article 
entitled ’’Heroin use endemic and 
spreading” by Milan Korcok. it 
was stated that the San Francisco 
City Methadone Program had 400 
patients in December and in July 
had 600 patients. That is not true. 
The actual figures are 693 in 
December and 782 in July. 

In general, we have found for 
the last several years that the 
number of clients is limited by 
the number of treatment slots 
available, our ability to process 
people through intake, and the 
availability of street heroin. 

Lee L. de Barros 

Director of Research Evaluation 
Community Mental Health 

Department of Public Health 
San Francisco 



In your lead article on narcotics 
use in British Columbia in the 
December issue of The Journal, 
you quote Mr. McDonald, the Van- 
couver coroner, to the effect that 
’’since 1970 Vancouver has had 
more than 1.000 drug-related 

While technically correct, in the 
context of an article about narcot- 
ics, this statement could be mis- 
leading especially in view of the 
fact that Mr. McDonald was pre- 
viously misquoted in a Southam 
News Services article (Ottawa Cit- 
izen. Nov. 4, 1974, p. 7) to the 
effect that ’’there have been more 
than 1,000 hard drug-related deaths 
in Vancouver over the past four 
years” (emphasis mine). 

For the information of your 
readers, the study referred to by 


Enter the numbers you have circled 
in the spaces below over the appropriate 
letters. Then total the scores on each line 
to get your totals. For example, the sum of 
your scores on lines A, G & M gives you 

Mr. McDonald was one supported 
by our Directorate. The investiga- 
tor examined the Vancouver coro- 
ner’s records from 1970-1973. 

The following were some of the 
major findings: 

(1) A total of 987 ’’drug-related” 
deaths were reported during the 
four years: 

(2) Alcohol, alone and in combi- 
nation with other drugs was by far 
the most frequently involved drug 
(72% of cases), followed by barbi- 
turates (34%) and then narcotics 

(3) The number of ’’drug- 
related” deaths did not vary much 
from year to year (1970-247: 
1971-223: 1972-267:' 1973-250) : 

(4) The number and rates of 
alcohol-related, barbiturate- 
related and narcotic-related 
deaths was fairly stable over the 
four years: 

(5) The highest incidence of' 
deaths involving narcotics was 
reported in 1972 with a decrease in 

(6) Of the total sample of cases, 
slightly less than one-third (27%) 
were judged to be ’’alcoholics” at 
the time of death and about one- 
sixth (17%) to be ’’drug addicts”: 

(7) The proportion judged to be 
’’drug addicts” was greatest in 
1972 (23%). declining in 1973 (to 
18% ) : 

(8) Deaths were judged to be 
the direct result of drug usage in 
about two-thirds of the cases and 
indirectly involved in the remain- 
ing third. Of those judged to be 
’’alcoholics”, slightly more than 
half (54%) of deaths resulted 
directly from the use of drugs as 
compared to 95% in the case of 
drug addicts.” 

Among other things, these find- 
ings suggest that the incidence of 
’’drug-related” deaths in Vancou- 
ver has not increased dramati- 
cally over the past four years and 
that the incidence of narcotics- 

your score on stimulation. Lines B, H and N 
give the score on handling etc. 

Scores can vary front 3 to 15. Any 
score 11 and above is High. Any score 7 and 
below is Low. 


related deaths, after peaking in 
1972. has started to decline. It also 
suggests that alcohol is probably 
far more important than narcotics 
as a contributory factor in deaths. 

I trust that this summary of 
findings will give your readers a 
better perspective on the meaning 
of your quotation. 

Irving Rootman, Ph.D., 

Chief, Epidemiological and Social 

Non-Medical Use of Drugs 

Ottawa, Ontario KIA 1B6 

WASHINGTON— The District of 
Columbia almost— but not quite- 
instituted a ”no prosecution” pol- 
icy for possession and use of small 
quantities of marijuana. 

U.S. Attorney Earl J. Silbert, 
made famous by his initial efforts 
to prosecute the Watergate bur- 
glars (and criticized for carrying 
the investigation no higher), made 
headlines again last month when 
he unilaterally announced that 
D.C. prosecuters would not act 
against people arrested for per- 
sonal possession and use. 

The decision was made at about 
the time Dr. Robert L. DuPont, 
chief White House expert on drug 
abuse, said in a speech that he 
believed prison sentences for 
using marijuana were wrong. 

Dr. DuPont backed down a few 
days later and ’’clarified” his ear- 
lier remarks. He said neither he 
nor the Ford Administration 
favored abolition of legal penal- 
ties for marijuana use. 

Mr. Silbert, too, backed down 
from his position, which had been 
attacked by metropolitan police 
department officials and conserv- 
ative columnists like William 
Safire of the New York Times. 

Mr. Safire, for example, wrote: 

TORONTO— The public can prob- 
ably do more to curb tobacco 
smoking than a government ever 
can, believes federal health minis- 
ter Marc Lalonde. 

At the annual meeting of the 
Ontario Hospital Association, he 
predicted there would be increas- 
ing public pressure for non- 
smoking areas to protect the 
rights of non-smokers. 

He urged hospitals to play a 
greater role in public education to 
promote health and prevent dis- 
ease. and to practice what they 

While he wasn’t advocating that 
smoking in hospitals be banned— 
’’That’s up to them ”— he thought 
they should set aside more spe- 
cific smoking areas now that 
there is greater awareness of the 
health dangers in smoking. 

‘Even in schools and hospitals, 
in board rooms and concert halls, 
tobacco has long been established 
as a right. Now. the greater 
emphasis on preventive measures 
and risk reduction to improve the 



A recent article by Carolyn Hol- 
stein, ’’Drug users have more sex 
with more people.” (November 
1974) struck a note of interest. The 
article states: ”In contrast, said 
Dr. Piemme. methadone users 
say ’sex is as good as ever’.” 

The statement is of interest in 
that it runs contrary to our clini- 
cal observations and the prelim- 
inary results of our research on the 

’’Because this announcement 
comes as a welcome relief to 
many who do not like to see young 
people ’busted’ for participating in 
a prevailing custom, nobody takes 
notice of a remarkable precedent 
being set.” 

That precedent was that the 
executive branch was deciding 
which laws to enforce and which 
to ignore, he said. 

Actually, the policy received 
support, too. D. C. Superior Court 
Judge Harold H. Greene said he 
felt it would lessen the court’s 
growing logjam of misdemeanor 
trials, which had jumped from 928 
to 1,485 in a 12-month period. 

”I just think the resources of 
the police, prosecutors and courts 
are limited.” Greene said, ’’and 
we should concentrate on the vio- 
lent crimes that are more impor- 

Only about half the 1,500 mari- 
juana cases that entered the D.C. 
Superior Court system went to 

But, pressure from the Justice 
Department was more persuasive 
in the end. ”I do not condone ille- 
gal marijuana use and I do not 
want to do anything that would in 
any way suggest that the law of 
the United States should not be 

nation’s health, increases the hos- 
pitals’ dilemma. I urge the hospi- 
tals to assume new responsibility 
in promoting these ends. ...” 

He said smoking has always 
been banned in some hospital 
areas like operating rooms, but 
’’smoking in lounges, coffee 
shops, washrooms and patient 
rooms is considered sacred and an 
inviolable right”. 

Anti-smoking programs aimed 
at hospital staff ’’hold promise for 
the future”, and some hospitals 
have established smoking and 
non-smoking areas. 

’’The time is now for every seg- 
ment of the health care field to 
accept the challenge and responsi- 
bility of helping to reduce the haz- 
ards to health inherent in smok- 

’’This is only one instance of 
how skilled personnel can estab- 
lish programs and set examples 
through their own lifestyle which 
could, inevitably, succeed to a 
considerable degree, in modifying 
behavior and improving the level 
of health of those they serve.” 

effects of methadone on sexual 

Dr. Andrew Weil in his book 
The Natural Mind stated that 
often times when similar research 
yields contradictory results, the 
researchers may well be asking 
the wrong questions. Perhaps it is 
time to review our questions, and 
basic assumptions. 

Steve Saxon, staff psychologist 

Charles P. Dennett, director 
Solana Beach Clinic 
Solana Beach, California 

fully observed,” said a statement 
issues by Silbert’s office three 
weeks after his original announce- 

U.S. Attorney General William 
B. Saxbe, early this month, added 
his own views: ’’This is already a 
substantial problem. It would 
grow worse if the ban were to be 

Unborn babies 

(continued from page 1) 

there are dosages of LSD that are 
astronomical. . . . Some tissue cul- 
tures have been given enough to 
destroy neurons for 300 years. A 
similar concentration of Paplum 
would give similar results.” 

In another study, there were 96 
congenital malformations per 
1.000 births instead of the five to 
10 expected. The mothers had 
taken LSD, but were all using 
other drugs, as well as living in 
the drug environment. “There’s no 
question something was wrong, 
but that doesn’t finger LSD specif- 

’’The conclusion on chemicals is 
that we don’t know about chromo- 
somal breaks or congential abnor- 
malties. But we do know if the 
mother is part of the drug-using 
culture, she is going to have trou- 

Dr. Anderson said intravenous 
amphetamines cause greater 
damage to the individual than any 
other drug, including narcotics, 
and they are the most prevalent 
hard drug in Ontario. 

”It’s unusual to find a chronic 
speed user getting to term preg- 
nancy. In fact, it’s hard to imag- 
ine some of them having inter- 
course. They probably lose the 
fetus early in pregnancy.” 

The biggest narcotic problem in 
obstetrics is the fantastic increase 
in the number of infants born 
addicted. Dr. Anderson said. In 
1960 in one New York hospital, the 
rate was one addicted for every 
164 births. In 1972 in the same hos- 
pital, it was one of every 27. 

Yet pregnancy is probably 
infrequent among heroin addicts 
because they rarely have normal 
menstrual function. Reproductive 
function does not appear to be 
interfered with by methadone. It 
can also produce false positive 
pregnancy tests. 

Babies of methadone mothers 
often show withdrawal symptoms, 
and at least half of them have 
mild symptoms, he said. These 
may return in one to two weeks, 
with convulsions and respiratory 

H p 1 jq = Handling 

+ ■ 

■ = Pleasurable Relaxation 

■ + ■ 

■ + ■ 

• = Tension Reduction 

D ■ J ' P 
1 1 Q = Psychological Addiction (Craving) 

• + 

= Habit 

(Answers, to questions on page 5) 


District of Columbia pot smokers 
let off the hook...well almost 

Public pressure expected 
to curb tobacco smoking 

THE JOURNAL. January 1. 1975— Page 13 

"Stoned" driving is unpleasant say marijuana smokers 

VANCOUVER— The majority of 
volunteers who took part in a 
two-year study here on the effects 
of marijuana on driving, say driv- 
ers should be as wary of mari- 
juana as they are of alcohol. 

Only 12% of the volunteers, 
. answering a questionnaire as part 
of the extensive study, said no pre- 
cautions should be taken. 

Most said that in their private 
lives, they had smoked marijuana 
or used marijuana in combination 
with alcohol before driving. 

The study, by Professor Harry 
Klonoff and a team of researchers 
at University of B.C., included 
testing the driving ability of volun- 
teers under the influence of mari- 
juana, in downtown Vancouver 

The major finding (The Journal, 
November 1, 1974) was that mari- 
juana and driving are as danger- 
ous a combination as alcohol and 

However, answers by volun- 
teers to a lengthy questionnaire 
and in interviews, provide addi- 
tional insights into the results. 

The volunteers, male and 
female, were young and the 
majority were either university 
students or professionals. As a 
condition of the study, all had pre- 
viously smoked marijuana. 

After smoking marijuana and 
driving in the study, volunteers 
were asked: “Would you have 
"driven on city streets being as 
stoned as you are, if you had not 
been participating in the test situ- 


Forty-two per cent answered 
yes, 37% said yes but with reser- 
vations, and only 217o answered 

While driving, volunteers were 
asked how they felt. Dr. Klonoff 
said 72% of volunteers’ replies 
indicated it was an unpleasant 

Of the 64 subjects, five reported 
that their driver’s licence had 
been suspended in the past. One 
had been suspended for reckless 
driving, another for being 
impaired, and three for other rea- 

Answering questions on their 
previous driving habits, 80% said 
they had driven ahcr smoking 

marijuana and 55% said they had 
driven while smoking marijuana. 

Thirty-eight per cent said they 
had been driving ahcr smoking 
marijuana for a period of three 
years, and another 28% said they 
had been doing the same for one 

Forty-two per cent said they 
had smoked while driving for three 
years. Frequency, over the past 
year, of driving after smoking was 
about once a month. The fre- 
quency of driving while smoking 
was less. 

The volunteers reported driving 
while smoking in daylight hours as 
well as at night. 

Part of the questionnaire was to 
determine the amount of mari- 
juana used in association with 

Propranolol neither helps nor hinders 
narcotics withdrawal^ studies suggest 

PARIS— Propranolol has neither 
an antagonist action on narcotics, 
nor does it ameliorate the course 
of withdrawal from them. Dr. L. 
E. Hollister, Veterans Adminis- 
tration Hospital, Palo Alto, Cali- 
fornia, told the Collegium Interna- 
tionale Neuropsychopharma- 

"Propranolol is not a very use- 
ful drug in the treatment of nar- 
cotic addiction,” Dr. Hollister 
said. “It may be useful in patients 
whose addiction is not strong, but 
this could be handled by other 

His conclusions were reached 
after three studies. Although the 
first two open studies indicated 
propranolol might be effective, 
the third, which was double-blind, 
showed no effect. 

The studies were started. Dr. 
Hollister said, following sugges- 
tions in the Letters section of The 
Lancet that propranolol was a'nar- 
cotic antagonist. Other investiga- 
tors were reporting it was useful 
in helping withdrawal from alco- 

“One would expect propranolol 
to aggravate withdrawal reactions 
from opiates if it were a narcotic 
antagonist, but it might amelio- 
rate these if it lacked this effect,” 
he said. 

In the first study, 19 patients 
being detoxified from opiates 
were treated in an open study, 
receiving 160 mg daily of propra- 
nolol and methadone as needed. 

“These patients generally 

Sports report 

TORONTO— The use of drugs by 
athletes to improve performance 
is a serious problem and should be 
curbed, a report to the Toronto 
Board of Health by the city’s men- 
tal health director has recom- 

Director E. D. Wong suggests 
rigid fines and suspensions should 
be imposed by sports groups, 
team owners, and managers, to 
deter athletes from non-medical 
drug use. 

The report, to be referred to fed- 
eral and provincial governments 
for action, will also go to local 
boards of education as it calls for 
education programs on the haz- 
ards of drug use. 



Medical Inquiries Solicited 

Abstinence and 
Maintenance Programs 


8917 W. Cermak Road 
North Riverside, III. 60546 USA 
Telephone 312-447-3322 

required less methadone for suc- 
cessful detoxification than did 
those treated immediately prior,” 
Dr. Hollister said. 

A second study suggested pro- 
pranolol also decreased metha- 
done requirements. However, “we 

later concluded this was an arte- 
fact due to lessened dependence in 
these patients.” 

In the third, double-blind study: 
“No differences were found 
between patients treated with pro- 
pranolol or placebo in their 

requirements for methadone for 
adequate detoxification,” Dr. Hol- 
lister reported. 

Following his presentation, two 
members of the audience said 
they had done similar studies on 
propranolol, with similar results. 

driving and the effects the volun- 
teers said it had. 

The most common amount 
smoked before driving was 
reported to be slightly more than 
one joint. Slightly less than this 
amount was smoked while driv- 

Sixty per cent reported that 
their driving experience was 
unpleasant, with characteristics 
such as anxiety, less attentive- 
ness, slower reflexes, lack of con- 
trol, poor judgement, and being 
bothered by light. 

Sixty-one per cent of the volun- 
teers, Dr. Klonoff said, “reported 
that marijuana slightly detracts 
from or impairs driving”. 

Another part of the question- 
naire dealt with restrictions on 
driving while under the influence 
of marijuana or other drugs. The 
volunteers were asked: “If mari- 
juana is legalized should there be 
precautions regarding marijuana 
and driving?” 

Twelve per cent were undecided 
and another 12% said there should 
be no restrictions, while 60% said 
the restrictions should be as they 
are with alcohol and 16% said 
there should be other restrictions. 

Of the group, 28% said they had 
used other drugs in combination 
with marijuana before driving and 
13% while driving. 




The biggest thing you’re 
up against in business isn’t 
your nearest competitor. It’s 
the future. And your future 
in business depends on many 
things. Not the least impor- 
tant of which is people. 

People planning is your job. 
And a very important one. 

It’s also a job that any one of 
over 400 Canada Manpower 
Centres can help you do. 

The people on our Canada 
Manpower planning staff pos- 
sess a variety of skills and 
abilities and have been care- 
fully selected and trained 
to help you cushion your 

By helping you plan for it 
now. They’ll provide you with 
information on labour market 
conditions.The demand and 
supply of specific types of 
labour. Regional and national 
industrial trends. In short, 
everything you’ll need to 
know to help keep your busi- 
ness growing. 

Then they’ll work with you. 
Forecasting future needs, 
establishing on-going pro- 
grams of recruitment, 
training and retraining. And 
also, helping you make 
better use of the people you 
already have. Because the 
future starts now. 

“People Planning". A 
feature of the new improved 
Canada Manpower. And 
a very useful idea in helping 
you make your business 
run better. Now and in the 

Centre de Main-d'ceuvre 


Manpower Centre du Canada 
Manpower Main-d' oeuvre 

and Immigration 
Robert Andraa 

et Immigration 
Robert Andraa 

Canada Manpower. 
Let'S work together. 

Page 14 — THE JOURNAL, January 1, 1975 

Book Report 

The following books have 
recently been acquired by 
the Addiction Research 
Foundation library in 
Toronto. These books are 
not for sale at the library, 
but general enquiries may 
be directed to The Library, 
33 Russell Street, Toronto, 
Ont. MSS 2S1 (595-6144). 

Phoenix House: Studies in a 
Therapeutic Community 
(1968-1973): De Leon, George 
(ed. ) MSS Information Corpo- 
ration. New York. 1974, 214p., 

Studies of the Effectiveness of 
Treatments for Drug Abuse: 
Vol. I: Evaluation of Treat- 
ments: Sells. S. B. (ed. ) Bal- 
linger Publishing Company, 
Cambridge, 1974. 534p., 

Studies of the Effectiveness of 
Treatments for Drug Abuse: 
Vol. II: Research on Patients, 
Treatments and Outcomes: 
Sells, S. B. (ed.) Ballinger 
Publishing Company, Cam- 
bridge, 1974, 418p. 

Behavioral and Social Effects 
of Marijuana: MSS Informa- 
tion Corporation, New York, 
1973, 175p.,$17. 

Marihuana: Biochemical, 

Physiological and Pathological 
Aspects: MSS Information 
Corporation. New York. 1973, 
289p., $17. 

Immunoassays for Drugs Sub- 
ject to Abuse: Mule. S. J., Sun- 
shine, I.. Braude, M., and Wil- 
lette, R. E. (eds. ) CRC Press. 
Cleveland, 1974, 126p., $25.64. 
The Treatment of Alcoholism: 
Theory, Practice, and Evalua- 
tion: Larkin, E. J. Addiction 
Research Foundation, 

Toronto. 1974, 73p. Program 
report series no. I: causes and 
cures: disease concept; treat- 
ment programs: termination: 
behavior modification:’ evalua- 
tion of programs. 

An Alcoholic in the Family: 
Burton, Mary. Faber and 
Faber, London, 1974. 175p., 

Accreditation Manual for Alco- 
holism Programs: Joint Com- 
mission on Accreditation of 
Hospitals, Chicago, 1974, 86p., 

Drug Experience, Attitudes, 
and Related Behaviour Among 
Adolescents and Adults: Abel- 
son, Herbert. Cohen, Reuben, 
Schrayer, Diane, and Rappe- 


The Treatment 
of Alcoholism 




The Treatment of Alcoholism 

Theory, Practice, and Evaluation 

by E.J. Larkin, Ph.D. 

Psychologist, Operations 
Research, Metropolitan Toronto 
Region, Addiction Research 

This book was written to summarize the litera- 
ture related to current trends in the treatment of 
alcoholism and to provide some theoretical and 
practical information on the evaluation and 
monitoring of clinical service programs. 

Coverage provides a review of recent literature 
related to: 

(a) The possibility of teaching some alcoholics 
to drink in a “socially acceptable” manner (cont- 
rolled drinking). 

(b) The premature termination of treatment by 
patients attending out-patient clinics. It suggest 
some possible reasons for this problem and 
includes suggestions for reducing the number 
of “drop-outs . 

The book also describes difficulties with the 
“Loss of Control” concept and the use of “Abstin- 
ence” as the sole criterion for successful treatment 
of alcoholism. Included is a chapter on program 
evaluation with some ideas about monitoring 
the achievement of program objectives. 

This book should be of interest to professionals 
and students in the field of deviant behavior and 
to administrators in related fields faced with the 
problem of evaluating their programs. 

CAT. NO. P-238 SOFT COVER 73 PAGES 2 . 95 

Discount to booksellers: 30% 
To order, send payment to: 

Addiction Research Foundation 
Attn: Marketing Services 
Toronto, Canada MSS 2Sl 

port, Michael. Response Anal- 
ysis Corporation, Princeton, 
1973, 191p. Part I, main find- 
ings: “a nationwide study for 
the National Commission on 
Marihuana and Drug Abuse.” 

A Treatment Model for Acute 
Drug Abuse Emergencies: 
Bourne. Peter G. (ed.) U.S. 
Government Printing Office. 
Washington, 1974, 178p., $2.15. 
Therapeutic Effectiveness of 
Methadone Maintenance Pro- 
grams in the Management of 

Drug Dependence of Morphine 
type in the U.S. A.: Wilmarth, 
Stephen S., and Goldstein, 
Avram. World Health Organi- 
zation, Geneva, 1974, 53p., $3. 
The Breathalizer Legislation: 
An Inferential Evaluation: 
Carr, B. R., Goldberg, H.. and 
Farber. C. M. L. Information 
Canada. Ottawa, 1974, 118p., 

Social Aspects of the Medical 
Use of Psychotropic Drugs: 
Cooperstock Ruth (ed.). and 
Lambert, S. L. (gen. ed.). 

Addiction Research Founda- 
tion, Toronto, 1974, 179p. 

Papers presented at the Inter- 
national Symposia on Alcohol 
and Drug Research. 

Research on Methods and Pro- 
grams of Drug Education: 
Goodstadt, Michael (ed.), and 
Lambert, S. L. (gen. ed.). 
Addiction Research Founda- 
tion, Toronto, 1974, 191p. 

Papers presented at the Inter- 
national Symposia on Alcohol 
and Drug Research. 

The One-Minute 
Urine Assay System 
Evaluation l^st 

A. Advantages of On-Site 
Emit Urine Assays 

B. Advantages of Off-Site 
TLC Testing 

1. Test results are available 
immediately for use in 


2. Sample handling, shipping 
and confusion are minimized. 


3. Your dollar investment in 
urine testing stays in your 


4. In a recent study, 80 urine 
samples spiked with realistic 
concentrations of drug 
metabolite were analyzed by 
three Emit-equipped 
methadone clinics and three 
leading commercial TLC 
laboratories. The labs made 

39 errors out of 240 analyses, 

. . .- an 84% accuracy rate. 

The clinics made 2 errors out 
of 240 analyses, ... a 99% 
accuracy rate. 


5. On-site urine test results are 
seldom questioned by 
methadone clinic patients. If 
questions are raised a new 
sample can be analyzed 


(If you have trouble filling in column B, 
fill in the coupon.) 

Until the introduction of the Emit system, urine testing was a necessary hut 
not very useful process at most methadone clinics. Urine specimens were 
collected and submitted to outside laboratories, and test results were re- 
ceived several days later. And, when the results finally did arrive, neither 
the patients nor the staff had a great deal of confidence in the data received. 
These clinics fulfilled the legal requirements for urine testing, but little 
constructive use was made of the information collected. 

Now, at many North American methadone clinics, on-site urine testing by 
Syva’s Emit system provides immediate, valid determinations of a patient’s 
usage of heroin, methadone, barbiturates, amphetamines and cocaine. At 
these clinics, counselors know whether the patient is "clean” or "dirty” with- 
in minutes of sample collection. 

€ 3181 Porter Drive 

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City ^ State Zipi 

Emit IS a registered trademark of Syva, No license is granted, either express or implied, under any Syva Company patent 

Palo Alto, California by purchase or lease, except as specifically provided for in writing. 

THE JOURNAL January 1, 1975 — Page 15 

Coming Events 

In order to provide our 
readers with adequate 
notice of forthcoming meet- 
ings please send announce- 
ments as early as possible 
to The Journal, 33 Russell 
Street, Toronto, Ontario 
M5S 2S1. 

National Clergy Conference on 
Alcoholism and Related Drugs 

—Jan. 6-10, Miami. Informa- 
tion: Rev. John P. Cun- 
ningham, 2749 N. Marshfield, 
Chicago, 111. 60614. 

Midwest Institute of Alcohol 
Studies— Jan. 26-31. Kalama- 
zoo. Michigan. Information: 
Jean Wright. Division of Con- 
tinuing Education. Western 
Michigan University. Kalama- 
zoo, Michigan 49001. 
Southeastern Conference on 
Drug Use/Abuse— Interven- 
tion/Prevention— Feb. 20-22. 
Atlanta. Georgia. Informa- 
tion: Dr. T. J. Gleaton. P. O. 
Box 313, Georgia State Univer- 
sity. Atlanta, Ga. 30303. 

31st International Congress on 
Alcoholism and Drug Depend- 
ence— Feb. 23-28. Bangkok. 
Information: Archer Tongue. 
Executive Director, ICAA. 
Case Postale 140. 1001 Lau- 
sanne, Switzerland. 

Recent Advances in the Man- 
agement of Alcoholism and 
Drug Addiction — March. 
Toronto. Ont. Information: 
The Director, Division of 
Post-graduate Medical Educa- 
tion, University of Toronto, 
Toronto. Ont. M5S 1A8. 
Postgraduate Day on Clinical 
Pharmacology— Antimicrobial 
Drugs— April 5, Toronto. Ont. 
Information: The Director. 
Division of Postgraduate Med- 
ical Education, Faculty of 
Medicine, Medical Sciences 
Building, University of 
Toronto. Toronto. Ont. MSS 

Sixth Annual Scientific Confer- 
ence of the National Council on 
Alcoholism — April 28-29, Mil- 
waukee. Wisconsin. Informa- 


Volume 3 of the Published 

Proceedings of the International 
Symposia on Alcohol and 

Drug Problems, Toronto, 1973. 

Research on 
Methods and 

Programmes “1 



edited BY MICHAEL 


The papers presented cover the broad spectrum of drug 
education in an attempt to advance the progress of drug 
education through an appreciation of the many social and 
psychological dynamics involved in drug use and its 

The following papers appear in this volume: 

— A Conceptual Analysis of the Effectiveness of Alcohol 
Education Programmes: G. Clobetti. 

— The "Object" in Drug Education: D. Hawks. 

— Motivation for Drug and Alcohol Use: P. Kohn. 

— Communication - Persuasion Models for Drug 
Education: W. J. McGuire. 

— Sometime Allies: The Mass Media and Drug Abuse 
Education: M. T. O'Keefe. 

— Effectiveness of Drug Education: Conclusions Based 
on Experimental Evaluations: J. D. Swisher. 

— Motivation for Drug and Alcohol Use: A Social 
Perspective: R. A. Steffenhagen. 

— General Health Education Context for Change in Drug 
Behaviour: G. W. Stuart. 

190 PAGES, SOFT COVER $6.25 
Order by Catalogue No. 228 from 

Addiction Research 

33 Russell Street, Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 
Attn: Marketing Services 

tion: George C. Dimas, 
National Council on Alcohol- 
ism, 2 Park Avenue, New 
York. N.Y. 10016. 

Institute on Crime, Justice and 
Heroin — May 19-June 3. Lon- 
don, England. Information: 
Dr. A. S. Trebach. Centre for 
the Administration of Justice. 
The American University, 
Washington, D.C. 20016. 

21st International Institute on 
the Prevention and Treatment 
of Alcoholism— June 9-15. Hel- 
sinki. Finland. Information: 
Archer Tongue. Executive 
Director. ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

Third International Confer- 
ence on Drug Abuse— Sept. 1-5, 
London, England. Informa- 
tion: Archer Tongue, Execu- 
tive Director, ICAA, Case 
Postale 140, 1001 Lausanne, 

First National Conference on 
Occupational Alcoholism and 
Drug Abuse— Sept. 22-25. Eto- 
bicoke. Ont. Jointly sponsored 
by Humber College and Addic- 
tion Research Foundation. 
Information: Jim Simon, 

A.R.F.. West Toronto Branch. 
4143 Dundas St., W., Toronto, 
Ontario M8X 1X2. 
International Conference on 
Alcoholism and Drug Depend- 
ence— Oct. 26-Nov. 1, Sao 

Paulo. Brazil. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

International Symposium on 
Alcohol and Drug Dependence 

— Nov. 29-Dec. 5. Bahrain, 
Arabian Gulf. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

Drinking drivers 
may face 

mandatory medical 

Positions Available 



Part-time positions or one full-time position available for staff doctor(s) 
in a Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program. Internal medicine or 
psychiatric background desirable. Affiliation with Medical School (University 
of Connecticut) being developed. Faculty appointment and teachina 
opportunities open. 

Please send curriculum vitae to: 

Mrs. Patricia LePage, 

The Hartford Dispensary, 

45 Retreat Avenue, 

Hartford, Connecticut 06106 


The Comprehensive Mental Health Board contracts with nine community 
agencies to provide alcoholism, drug abuse and mental health services 
to a three-county area in Central Illinois with a population of 370,000. 

Responsibilities of the Director for Substance Abuse involve directing 
the organization’s activities in the areas of drug and alcohol abuse. This 
includes coordination, program development, program monitoring and 
overall leadership. Existing services include Federally funded drug abuse 
freafmenf and rehabilitation services as well as programs for alcohol 
abusing persons. 

Qualifications desired: Program experience in field of drug and/or alcohol 
abuse at leadership level. Ability to work well with people and a variety of 
community agencies and organizations. 

Salary: $1 7,000 and up depending on qualifications and experience. 
Position Available Immediately. 

Contact: Larry M. Grinwis 
Executive Director 

Comprehensive Mental Health Board of Central Illinois 
P.O. Box 2200 

East Peoria, Illinois 6161 1 Phone; (309) 694-4394 




The Metropolitan Regional Board on Drug Dependency has 
an opening for the following position effective on or about 
Feb. 1, 1975. 

LONDON — A compulsory medi- 
cal examination has been pro- 
posed by the Royal Society for 
Prevention of Accidents here for 
any driver, convicted by a court, 
who has a drink problem. 

The proposal has come from the 
society in its evidence to a 
Government committee now 
reviewing Britain's drinking and 
driving legislation. 

Under the society's plan, the 
court could order a driver to have 
a medical examination if it deter- 
mined he had a serious drinking 
problem and if he was brought 
before the court for driving with 
more than the legal maximum of 
alcohol in his blood. 

A medical examination would 
be mandatory if the blood alcohol 
level was higher than 150 mg per 
100 ml of blood or where there is a 
second offence. The legal limit is 
80 mg per 100 ml. 

The driver's licence would then 
be withdrawn and not returned 
until it was decided he had been 
treated successfully for his alco- 
hol problem. 



Under the direction of the Metropolitan Regional Board and in co-opera- 
tion with the Executive Director of the Nova Scotia Commission on Drug 
■Dependency, the Regional Project Co-ordinator is responsible for the 
overall planning, organization, supervision, co-ordination, recruitment, and 
budgeting as they relate to a regional program of education, prevention, 
treatment and rehabilitation as regards chemical dependency problems 
and provides professional leadership to those programs which are 


Masters Degree in Social Work, Clinical Psychology or related fields such 
as Community Development, Community Planning, or Community Organiza- 
tion with at least six (6) years experience in community clinical work 
preferably in the field of alcoholism and drug dependency. 


Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Full 
benefits similar to Civil Service. 

Apply with resume and three (3) references to: 

The Metropolitan Regional Board 
c/o Ms. Judith Giffin 
Chairperson, Personnel Committee 
5970 University Avenue 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Beer tops U.K. consumption poll 

ons consumed some 61.4 million 
gallons of absolute alcohol during 
1973, according to calculations 
made by the Merseyside Council 
on Alcoholism here. 

The estimate of absolute alco- 
hol consumption is based on the 
assumption that all beers contain 
an average 3% absolute alcohol, 
all wines 12% absolute alcohol, 
and all liquors 57%. 

Mr. William Kenyon, council 
director, said that calculating 

drinking on the basis of this figure 
gave a much better picture of con- 
sumption in this country. 

Surprisingly, he said, beer still 
comes out as the biggest source of 
absolute alcohol last year— 39.5 
million gallons. This was followed 
by 14.1 million gallons of absolute 
alcohol from liquors andJ.S mil- 
lion gallons from wine. 

Mr. Kenyon said three factors 
indicate the prevalence of alcohol- 
ism in Britain has risen dramati- 
cally since 1969— consumption. 

drunkenness offences and hospital 
admissions of drinkers. 

Drunkenness offences have 
risen from 80,502 in 1969 to almost 
100,000 in 1973 and proceedings 
against motorists for drunken 
driving in the same period have 
increased from 29,427 to more 
than 66,000 cases. 

Hospital admissions for alcohol- 
ism and alcoholic psychosis rose 
from 9,141 to 14,007 in the same 
five-year period. 

Page 16 — THE JOURNAL January 1. 1975 


‘Underground’ organization 
sparked by UK Stones’ fans 


LONDON— The word “Release” 
is stuck in paper cut-out letters on 
the door, otherwise one could eas- 
ily miss the crumbling Victorian 
mansion that is the headquarters 
of Britain’s largest “under- 
ground ” organization 

Inside is a wooden stdircase, 
threadbare floor covering, pic- 
tures on the wall, appeals for 
working class unity, and other 
signs of “youth culture". A poster 
says: “Cannabis is a herb". 

Upstairs is where the action is. 
Young men and women, in sweat- 
ers and jeans, are busy talking, 
telephoning, writing. Some are 
clients, or “customers” as 
Release workers prefer to call 
them; some are members of the 
staff. Distinguishing the helper 
from the helped— visually at least 
—is not always easy. 

Release exists to “help young 
people in difficulties” and handles 
400 inquiries a week. 

When it started, in 1967, the 
emphasis was on sorting out the 
problems of youngsters charged 
with drug offences and “whose 
unorthodoxy and dissent, long hair 
and unconventional dress, were 
often met by public prejudice and 
police harrassment ”. 

The impetus came from the 

anger felt by many young fans of 
the Rolling Stones pop group after 
its members had been charged 
with alleged cannabis offences. 
Britain's largest Sunday newspa- 
per, the News of the World, ran 
the story prominently and a dem- 
onstration of Rolling Stone sup- 
porters was staged outside the 
newspaper’s London offices. 
From this demonstration Release 
was born. 

Since then, as one of the work- 
ers, Don Aitken, explains, the 
tendency has been to look beyond 
the drug problems, to tackle all 
the associated difficulties in a 
practical way. and essentially, to 
offer friendship, support and 
advice to those who seek it. 

To-day Release operates exclu- 
sively from its headquarters in 
Elgin Avenue, West London (1 
Elgin Av London W9 3PR Tel 
01-289-1123) and has no branches in 
any other part of Britain. 

A spokesman for the organiza- 
tion told The Journal: “We are 
essentially an informal group. Of 
course we have contacts with 
sympathetic doctors and solicitors 
in towns throughout the country. 
If we get calls for help from any- 
where in Britain we can usually 
advise the caller whom to 
approach. This service is provided 
at all times through our 24-hour 
telephone service. ” 

One of Britain’s best-known 
sociologists, Michael Schofield, 
says anyone who spends more 
than a few hours at Release will 
find the work compelling and 
gelf-evidently important. 

Although Release’s clients 
sometimes get the same advice as 
they might receive from the statu- 
tory social welfare agencies “the 
difference is that in the latter situ- 
ation they would be inclined to 
reject this advice”, says Mr. Scho- 

“Coming from someone with a 
similar life style, they find it 
more acceptable,” he says. 

Aitken estimates that as many 
as 75% of the clients who seek aid 
from Release are too alienated 
from “straight” society to be 
reached by the statutory agencies 
(e.g. probation officers. Citizens 
Advice Bureau and local author- 
ity social workers). 

In fact. Release workers quote 
the definition used in the Le Dain 
report to explain the unique con- 
tribution such voluntary organiza- 
tions can make. 

Le Dain said “straight” organi- 
zations were “too rigid, imper- 
sonal, detached and often too com- 
mitted to traditional values to 
respond to the unique problems of 
this generation”. 

They were often “characterised 
by punitive and condescending 
attitudes and excessive profes- 
sionalism. Bureaucratic and for- 
mal procedures are dehumanis- 
ing; they embrace conventional 

middle class morality with its 
work ethic, sexual propriety, 
cleanliness and moderation. ...” 

Release’s amateur, but essen- 
tially dedicated and effective 
approach, is the complete con- 

Its activity can be divided into 
three main categories— legal, 
medico/social, and proselytizing. 

On the legal front it has three 
full-time counsellors who advise 
those charged with drug offences, 
people with immigration prob- 
lems, tenants in difficulties with 
landlords, and individuals who 
have complaints against the 

This consists largely of referral 
to sympathetic lawyers, but on 
two nights every week the Release 
headquarters have solicitors on 
the premises to help those needing 
immediate professional aid. 

One unique service offered by 
Release is its assistance to people 
arrested for drug offences abroad. 

Says Aitken; “Arrest in a for- 
eign land where the language and 
customs are unknown is always a 
difficult and usually a desperate 
situation. We employ one full-time 
worker who collates information 
about foreign legal procedures 
and advises bewildered relatives 
of newly-arrested people about 
what to do to help them. 

“We also write to prisoners, 
send them magazines and books 
as a way of boosting their morale, 
and send medical supplies which 
are often urgently needed. ” 

An extension of this work has 
been the publication of the 
Release guide to avoiding trouble 
when travelling abroad, the 
Trucker_j Bible.* 

Medico/social work includes a 
pregnancy section which offers 
help with referrals for abortion, 
advice on contraception and adop- 
tion, and support for single moth- 
ers. This department uses the 
, counselling of a full-time psychiat- 
ric social worker. 

“At present, we offer advice, 
information, and counselling on 
family, marital, personality or 
sexual difficulties; psychiatric 
treatment, and alternative psy- 
chotherapies,” says Aitken. 

There is also psychiatric and 
medical help for people dependent 
on drugs, patients attending hospi- 
tals for mental illnesses, and 

“People use Release as a sound- 
ing board, to test out other possi- 
bilities of help, or to assess 
whether or not their rights are 
being infringed,” says Aitken. 

“Their faith allows us to pro- 
vide an immediate and continuous 
service offering support, reassur- 
ance and short-term therapeutic 
relationships under conaitions of 
maximum informality and availa- 

Both the medical and legal 
arms of Release can be effective 
at any time. The agency’s 24-hour 
telephone answering service deals 
with all emergencies outside 
office hours ( 10 am to 6 pm Mon- 
day to Friday). 

Release workers like Don Ait- 
ken refer to the agency’s proselyt- 
izing as “education and press liai- 
son.” Its views on cannabis, how- 
ever, are sometimes expressed in 
propagandist terms. 

An explanatory leaflet. What’s 
Release? says: “Release’s own 
experience with a great number of 
cannabis smokers has led us to the 
inevitable conclusion that there 
should be no criminal or civil pen- 
alties for cannabis possession or 
use and that serious consideration 
should be given to realistic mea- 
sures of supply and control. 

“A considerable amount of 
medical research has failed to 
identify any serious adverse phys- 
ical or mental effects resulting 
from cannabis use. 

“The Release position is based 
not only on availabte medical 
evidence, but also on the fact that 
the harm caused by enforcing can- 
nabis laws far outweighs the sup- 
posed social benefit to be derived 
from the vigilant implementation 
of these laws. 

“Not only are the cannabis laws 
used as a method of harassment 
against young, long-haired, and 
black members of society, but the 
effects of cannabis law enforce- 
ment have resulted in a genuine 
distrust of laws, lawmakers, and 
the police.” 

Another sociologist, Jeremy 
d’Agapayeff. reported after study- 
ing Release that its caseload of 
welfare work was divided into 
three categories— arrests, 38%; 
pregnancy advice. 21%; and 
“other legal and medical advice”, 

People ranging in age from 14 to 
60 years sought help from the 
agency, but most (68%) fell into 
the aged 18-24 group. Twenty one 
per cent of the “customers” seen 
while Mr. d’Agapaveff was doing 
his study, gave a local address, 
thus emphasizing Release’s role 
of serving its immediate commun- 

Altogether. 55% came from 
within the London postal district 
area and a further 10% lived in the 
adjacent Home Counties, showing 
that Release was predominantly 
London-area oriented. 

But 27% of the people given help 
lived well outside London or came 
from abroad, indicating that the 
organization also reached out to a 
wider geographical area. 

Clients who could be identified 
by class analysis were divided into 
the middle and working class cat- 
egories at 52% and 48% r-espec- 
tively. thus discouraging any idea 
that Release was a “self-indulgent 
middle-class organization”. 

Mr. d’Agapayeff concluded that 
self-help was a vital part of the 
Release philosophy and it was for 
this reason that it had tended to 
recruit staff from the community 
it served. This was done by “util- 
izing a direct, personal, empath- 
etic and immediate approach”. 

Being seen as part of the com- 
munity was essential for the 
maintenance of Release’s credi- 
bility. People sought help from the 
agency because they trusted it. If 
they had any doubts they would 
cease to come. The staff had been 
described as 'welfare rights advo- 
cates’ who took up the causes of 
others who were in difficulties. 

Release is linked with a number 
of “alternative” groups who 
might act as agents for the organi- 
zation up and down the country. 
But they all remain autonomous 
and are not controlled by Release 
in anyway. 

This also applies to a number of 
organizations also called Release 
or similarly -named throughout 
Western Europe. A Release 
spokesman said: “Most of these 
were modelled on our experience 
and we maintain friendly links 
with them. But they are in no way 
controlled by London Release and 
in many cases have evolved differ- 
ent roles.” 

Sex and drugs advice 


A centre called “Off the 
Record”, which will offer 
advice to young people on drugs 
and sex, has opened here. 

The centre sponsored by the 
Nottingham County Council, is 
staffed by people ready to 
answer any questions. People 
are encouraged to telephone 
and are assured that no names 
or ages will be asked. 

Bill Blackamore. area youth 
officer, said the centre is 
aimed primarily at people 
under 30 years. However, there 
is no age limit on the lower end 
of the scale. 

Asked what the answers 
would be if a young person 
sought advice on whether to 
take marijuana or sleep with 
friends, an official at the 

for youths 

centre said no firm line would 
be taken. 

He added: “We shall not say 
that because society says you 
must not take pot, you mustn’t. 
We will help callers think 
through the implications of 
doing something— ask them if 
they are just doing it for kicks, 
doing it through group pressure 
and so on.” 

*The Trucker’s Bible (second 
edition) was published in the 
summer of this year and has 
been described by police drug 
squad members as “the best 
piece of crime prevention we 
have seen for some time”. 

The book seeks to discourage 
the “amateur smuggling” of 
drugs from abroad by stressing 
the severity of the penalties for 
so doing. 

There are also lists of helpful 

organizations, advice on a 
defence against a charge of 
smuggling, special notes for 
Americans and Canadians, and 
details of drug legislation and 
penalties in different lands. 
The Trucker’s Bible can be 
obtained from Release, 1 Elgin 
Ave., London, W93 PR, Tel 
01-289-1123. Proceeds from 
sales of the book go to the 
agency’s “Foreign Bust 

A ‘ver y conservative’ estimate 

SIO in ^74s 

US A)use bill 


John Devlin 

First TC in 
Cdn. jail 


MONTREAL— For the first time 
in Quebec, and possibly in Canada, 
a therapeutic community drug 
rehabilitation program has been 
introduced directly into a federal 

It could prove an important 
move toward changing the life- 
style of the incarcerated drug 
addict or drug abuser. 

The Portage Program for Drug 
Dependencies (based on the Day-' 
top model) has been conducting 
milieu therapy sessions for six 
months at Cowansville Institution, 
a medium security prison at Cow- 
ansville. Que. 

The three-hour, once-weekly, 
sessions are for drug offenders 
serving lengthy sentences and not 
currently eligible for parole. 

John Welch, special assistant to 
Solicitor General Warren All- 
mand, told The Journal the solici- 
tor general’s office is deeply inter- 
ested in the project. 

It is still too early to say 
whether it might serve as a model 
for other federal prisons, he said. 
“But, we are watching this devel- 
opment very closely”. 

Provincial authorities also have 
expressed marked interest in the 

John Devlin, executive director 
of the Portage Program, says 
although the therapeutic commun- 
ity has proved to be a reliable 

(See— TC— Page 2) 

Cannabis bill 

OTTAWA— The special Senate 
committee hearing on a bill 
designed to ease the severity of 
Canada’s cannabis laws was 
scheduled for the last week in Jan- 

The hearings are expected to 
last about one month, which 
means the bill could be passed to 
the House of Commons for final 
consideration early in March. 

The Senate legal and constitu- 
tional affairs committee, chaired 
by Senator Carl Goldenberg, 
planned to call as witnesses: 
Health Minister Marc Lalonde; 
Toronto lawyer Gerald LeDain 
who headed the lengthy Royal 
Commission on Non-Medical Use 
of Drugs; RCMP Commissioner 
M. J. Nadon; and representatives 
of the Canadian Association of 
Chiefs of Police, the Canadian Bar 
Association and several other 
interested groups. 

Further details on Page 2. 

cost of weeding the United States 
garden of drug abuse and heroin 
addiction cost taxpayers more 
than $10 billion in 1974. 

And this $10 billion figure is 
only a “very conservative esti- 
mate” of the real costs of drug 
abuse in the United States, 
according to Dr. Robert DuPont, 
director of the Special Action 
Office for Drug Abuse Prevention 
(SAODAP) and the National Insti- 
tute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). 

Perhaps more unsettling is the 
fact that earlier reports suggest- 
ing the U.S. had “turned the cor- 
ner” in its warlike approach to 
heroin addiction were premature 
at best, totally inaccurate at 

Speaking at the North American 
Congress on Alcohol and Drug 
Problems, Dr. DuPont said of 
SAODAP’s study: 

“This social cost study is the 
first attempt to bring the human 
tragedy of drug abuse into 


OTTAWA— Federal drug enforce- 
ment officials are fighting a 
curious, and until now unpubli- 
cized, regulatory battle to try and 
undercut Canada’s growing num- 
ber of sophisticated and inventive 
underground laboratories special- 
izing in manufacturing new syn- 
thetic psychedelics. 

In the past, these laboratories 
have been evading prosecution by 
keeping a few steps ahead of fed- 
eral drug regulations: When one 
psychedelic chemical is uncov- 
ered by federal drug enforcement 
officials and made illegal to pos- 
sess and manufacture, under- 
ground chemists produce a new, 
closely-related chemical with as 
much psychedelic effect but not 
covered by the federal prohibition. 

Now, RCMP drug squads are 
working more closely with federal 
health department drug officials 
in trying to turn the tables on the 
underground labs. 

The new approach is aimed at 
uncovering new psychedelics 
before they are available on the 
street, and making them illegal 
before profits can be made. 

At the same time, federal 
health department chemists are 
trying to block the manufacture 
and use of closely-related drugs by 
making prohibitions more severe. 

It’s a curious combination of 
espionage and counter-espionage, 
combined with a battle of back- 
room chemists. And with the 
RCMP’s new drug squads special- 
izing in illicit labs, there has been 
more success for the “feds” and 
more frustration for the under- 
ground chemists. 

The latest example of the tech- 

perspective and to broaden the 
context for public concern about 
drug abuse. 

“In the past, estimates of these 
costs have been limited by lack of 
information in important areas 
that impact on the total costs of 
drug abuse.” 

Dr. DuPont said most previous 
estimates focused exclusively on 
the relationship of heroin acidic- 
tion to property crime. 

Still, the new study does not 
measure the indirect costs of indi- 
vidual, family and community 
impairment. Also not taken into 
account are the welfare, insur- 
ance and other public health costs. 

The study arrived at the $10 bil- 
lion figure on the following basis: 

• $200,000,000 for health costs — 
drug-related hospital emer- 
gency room visits, in-patient 
care and mental hospital days; 

• $? ,500 000,000 for productivity 
costs — absenteeism, unemploy- 

nique involved the amphetamine 
variant 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphe- 
tamine, which surfaced on the 
street in Halifax, St. John’s, Nfld. 
and Toronto, during the Christ- 
mas-New Year holiday period. 

Police heard of the new chemi- 

(See— Illicit— Page 2) 






DALLAS— Further evidence that 
smoking is bad for your heart was 
presented here at the annual con- 
vention of the American Heart 

Evidence was also presented 
that alcohol, even in moderate 
amounts, damages heart muscle. 

The two aspects of heart dam- 
age through these addictive habits 
were presented by Dr. Arthur L. 
Klatsky of the Kaiser-Permanente 
Medical Care Program in Oak- 
land, California, and Dr. Leigh 
Segal, of the University of Califor- 
nia at Davis. 

Dr. Klatsky described a study of 
197 men who were enrolled in the 
Kaiser-Permanente plan in Oak- 
land, and who dropped dead of 
heart attacks. 

All of these men had previously 
completed a detailed question- 
naire on their ingestion habits. 
None of them had any history of 
severe angina pectoris, chronic 

(See— Heart- Page 5) 

ment related to drug abuse, loss 
of earnings ; 

• $620,000,000 for criminal jus- 
tice system costs— state and 
local police salaries, court 
costs, correctional systems; 

• $6,900,000,000 for property loss 
—income-producing crime to 
support heroin habits; 

• $1,100,000,000 for direct pro- 
gram costs— federal, state, 
local and private rehabilitation 
and drug traffic prevention 

In recognizing that the measur- 
ing of “social cost” is a process 
rather than an event which occurs 
at a given point in time. Dr. 
DuPont said the $10 billion figure 
is significant in that “it helps us to 
view the drug abuser in a social 
context and to understand how his 
behavior affects our institutions, 
expenditure of government funds, 
and the quality of life in our com- 

“Likewise, the social cost esti- 
mate serves as a barometer of 
this country’s attempts to grapple 
with the situation and provides a 
measure against which we can 
evaluate the effectiveness of pre- 
vention efforts.” 

The SAODAP disclosure is part 
of a sober picture painted by 
DuPont and showing the drug 
abuse problem apparently worsen- 
ing in the United States. 

“What looked like a continuing 
national trend of decreasing her- 
oin addiction 18 months ago, has 
turned out to have been a regional 
and temporary reduction in heroin 
use,” DuPont remarked. 

He cited several recent reports 
to support the gloomy outlook: 

• Analyses of federal treatment 
program data on incidence in 32 
metropolitan areas indicated sig- 
nificant increases in the number of 
new heroin addicts in 1973. Texas, 
California and Oregon had to 
request more federal funds for 
adclitional treatment capacity. Illi- 
nois, Pennsylvania and Massachu- 
settes, identified by the Drug 
Enforcement Administration as 
major Mexican “brown” heroin 
trafficking centres, report 
increased demand for treatment. 

• In June, 1974, SAODAP dis- 
patched teams to investigate the 
spread of heroin use in smaller 
population centres. It was known 
that heroin use had peaked in some 
larger cities in 1968-69 but from 
treatment data, it appeared that 

To enhance sex 
marijuana is 


have ever wondered about the 
“real” reason for using mari- 
juana, you need wonder no longer. 
A team of researchers at the 
Haight-Ashbury Free Medical 
Clinic here has an answer. 

And you probably knew what it 
was all the time. 


A survey of 59 men and 36 
women from both the medical 
clinics and the heroin detoxifica- 
tion unit showed that “insofar as 
frequent, deliberate use of drugs 
to enhance sex is concerned, mari- 
juana is non-pareil”. 

Two of every five people sur- 
veyed said they used marijuana at 
least several times a week, or 
more often, in conjunction with 
sex, which led researchers to 
observe that “for sheer quantita- 
tive, everyday importance in the 
sexual lives of the young, ‘hip’ 
San Franciscans sampled in this 
study, marijuana is quite possibly 
as significant as all other drugs 

Yet, marijuana was not the only 
drug used for sexual enhance- 
ment. Others listed included alco- 
hol, tobacco, heroin, amphetam- 
ines, barbiturates and methaqual- 

Some also had used psychedel- 
ics to enhance sex, but only occa- 
sionally, because of the “heavy” 
total experience. 

Half of the group said they 
enjoyed sex more while straight 
than while high, but half also 
reported the quality of their sex 
life had changed since they began 
using drugs and for 75% of them, 
the change was for the better. 

Of all the drugs mentioned, 
cocaine was regarded as the most 
positive, or sexually potentiating 
and “there is little question but 
that, were cocaine as cheap and 
readily available as marijuana, it 
would supplant grass as the prem- 
ium pharmacologic adjunct to the 
erotic practices of our youthful 
population,” the researchers 

Next in ranking for positive 
effects on sexual functioning were 
mescaline, LSD and marijuana, 
with a large gap between these 
and the next ranked drug, 
“speed.” Alcohol, amylnitrite and 
PCP were next, with the three 
“downer” drugs, methaqualone, 
barbiturates and heroin, at the 
bottom of the list. 

Heroin was placed at the bot- 
tom of the list in such areas as 
one’s “chance of achieving 
orgasm” and the effect on one’s 

(See— Sexual— Page 5) 

(See— Social— Page 3) 


Women swell AA 
ranks Page 3 

U.S. to grow 

opium poppies Page 4 

North American 

coverage Pages 8 & 9 

Smoking Sam in 

San Diego Page 12 

Jellinek Awards Page 3 

Government fights 
‘"^underground^’ labs 

Page 2— THE JOURNAL, February 1, 1975 

New federal dru g bill 

Police powers may be curtailed 

OTTAWA— Under the new federal 
drug bill before the Senate, the 
current almost limitless police 
powers of search for illicit drugs 
would be curtailed substantially. 

And when the drug bill is pas- 
sed, probably later this year fol- 
lowing special Senate Committee 
hearings and then Commons con- 
sideration, police could find them- 
selves in civil law courts being 
sued for searching individuals for 
drugs without “reasonable” 
grounds for suspecting the individ- 
uals had illicit drugs in their pos- 

Hidden in the legal verbiage of 
the bill to change sections of the 
Food and Drugs Act and the Nar- 
cotics Control Act (along with rel- 
evant sections of the Criminal 
Code which covers both acts), is a 
small but important change in 
wording on police powers of public 
or private search of individuals 
for drugs. 

Federal lawmakers would 
restrict police officers to seaffeh- 
ing only persons they “reasona- 
bly” suspect to have in their “per- 
sonal possession” an illicit drug 
such as cannabis, heroin, or 
restricted and controlled psyched- 
elics covered by the Food and 
Drugs Act or the Narcotics Con- 
trol Act. 

The change, say federal offi- 
cials, was designed to prevent a 
repeat of the infamous Fort Erie 
drug raid last year, in which local 
police subjected dozens of custom- 
ers in a Niagara peninsula bar to 
searches for drugs. Some of the 
women were subjected to intimate 
body searches for hidden drugs. 

Subsequently, a public enquiry 
was held on the necessity and 
appropriateness of such a sweep- 
ing drug search, especially as the 
raid had been thwarted when 
police agents were spotted in the 
bar just before the raid. 

Only a small quantity of drugs 
was uncovered by the raid. Under 
current drug laws, police can 
search anyone in such raids, 
whether or not there is reasonable 
suspicion the individuals might 
possess illicit drugs. 

And as victims of the Fort Erie 
raid have discovered, little can be 
done under current drug laws, 
against unreasonable drug 

But that will all change under 
the proposed drug law changes. 

Federal officials explain that 
police would be able to search 
only people a police officer “rea- 
sonably” suspects to have in his 
personal possession a “controlled 
drug” (as in the case of cannabis 
and other hallucinogens that 
would be covered by a modified 
Food and Drugs Act) or a “nar- 
cotic” (as covered by the Narcot- 
ics Control Act, including heroin). 

A private citizen who believes 
he was subjected to a search not 
based on such reasonable suspi- 
cions could launch a civil suit 
against the police officer, who 


would then have to “show cause” 
for the search. 

Federal officials claim the 
change is designed to protect the 
civil rights of Canadians against 
unreasonable drug searches. 

But they admit it will not be 
“foolproof” and prevent all unnec- 
essary drug searches and “has- 

On the other hand, should some 
policemen face civil suits alleging 
unreasonable searches, police 
would undoubtedly think twice 
about large-scale drug raids of 
public (and private) places. 

Even as federal officials 
express concern for protecting 
civil rights, other changes to the 
two acts would still seem to vio- 
late individual civil rights. 

One example is the change that 

would require people charged with 
possession of a controlled drug 
(such as cannabis) or a narcotic 
(such as heroin) for the purposes 
of trafficking (a more serious off- 
ence than simple possession) to 
prove they are not, in fact, pos- 
sessing the drug with the intent of 

Under the proposed drug 
changes, people charged with pos- 
session for purposes of trafficking 
would, in effect, be put on trial for 
two separate crimes. 

First, if the accused pleaded not 
guilty to the original charge, the 
trial would focus on the crime of 
simple possession. 

If it was not shown that the indi- 
vidual was in possession of the 
illicit drug, then the original pos- 
session for the purposes of traf- 
ficking charge would be dropped 

and the individual found not guilty. 

But, if it was decided the indi- 
vidual was in possession of the 
drug, then the accused would be 
given an opportunity to “adduce 
evidence”, i.e. prove, it was sim- 
ple possession, not possession for 
the purposes of trafficking. The 
Crown prosecutor would try to 
refute the evidence. 

If the accused could not con- 
vince the court the drug was for 
personal use, the individual would 
be convicted of the more serious 
charge of possession for purposes 
of trafficking. 

If the accused successfully con- 
vinced the court it was simple pos- 
session, then the possession for 
trafficking charge would be 

But the accused would then be 
found guilty of simple possession^ 

Cannabis o f fences 

Changes across the board 


OTTAWA— The Senate cannabis 
bill proposes to change the exist- 
ing penalties for five categories of 
cannabis offences, reducing maxi- 
mum penalties for all but one. 

The bill would also allow prose- 
cutors to proceed by way of the 
less serious summary conviction 
for all offences. Under existing 
penalties there is provision for 
summary conviction only on pos- 
session charges. 

The new laws would also pre- 
vent courts from prosecuting pos- 
session charges by way of the 
more-serious indictment. 

Cultivation is the only offence 
with a longer maximum jail term 
under the new laws, an anomaly 
which federal officials justify, by 
saying severe maximum penalties 
are needed for organized,crimi- 

Simple possession 

Under proposed penalties, a 
first offence would be liable for a 
fine of up to $500 or imprisonment 
for up to three months in default. 
A subsequent offence could draw a 
fine of up to $1,000 or imprison- 
ment for up to six months in 

Existing penalties on summary 
conviction call for a fine of up to 
$1,000 or imprisonment for six 
months or both on a first offence, 
while setting a maximum fine of 
$2,000 or imprisonment for one 
year or both on subsequent off- 

The proposed penalties prevent 
courts from proceeding by way of 
indictment but the existing laws 
set a maximum seven-year term 
for indictable conviction. 

The majority recommendations 
of the LeDain cannabis report rec- 
ommended no prohibition against 

Illicit laboratories 

(Continued from page 1) 

cal just before it was detected on 
the streets. And regulatory wheels 
were put in motion immediately 
to make the new chemical variant 
illegal, under Section H of the 
Food and Drugs Act. 

Such a prohibition provides 
police with a basis for laying drug 
charges against operators of such 
laboratories, should the labs be 
uncovered. Without the pro- 
hibition, the federal government 
would have to try and charge the 
underground labs on a host of 
lesser charges, such as operating a 
drug manufacturing business with- 
out properly notifying the federal 
government, or producing drugs 
not pre-cleared by Ottawa. 

Just as important, the prohibi- 
tion quickly makes use of the new 
chemical unpopular— or so the 
theory goes— thus minimizing its 
use and the profits made from its 
manufacture underground. 

The new regulatory prohibitions 
came into effect within days of 
Maritime federal chemists’ identi- 
fication of the new chemical. 

The federal government pub- 
licly announced, on Jan. 3, the 
presence in Canada of the new 
drug, which it described as being 
“very dangerous”. It also said 
the 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine, 
which had been offered for sale as 
a yellow or beige powder some- 
times containing dark specks and 
in capsule form as well, might be 
offered for sale as PMA, MDA or 
other hallucinogenic drugs. 

Curiously enough, it never 
announced that the new drug had 
quickly and quietly been added to 
the restricted schedule H of the 
Food and Drugs Act. 

Not so strangely, the prohibition 
not only covered 2,4,5-trimethox- 
yamphtamine, but also covered all 
of the chemical’s salts and iso- 
mers. This broader prohibition 
should block underground labs 
from simply switching to a close 
chemical relative of the new psy- 
chedelic as they have done so often 
and so quickly with other banned 
hallucinogens in the past. 

The first example of this regula- 
tory warfare against underground 
laboratories occurred almost 
three years ago when federal drug 
enforcement officials uncovered a 
new drug on the streets of Toronto 
that was called Harmaline. The 
drug and its relative, Harmalol, 
was put on the restricted list of the 
Food and Drugs Act. 

Similarly, when MDA (another 
amphetamine drug) was first dis- 
covered, the federal government 
quickly banned it and its relative 
MMDA. The same occurred with 

More recently, when one sam- 
ple of dimethoxyamphetamine 
was found on the streets, it and 
four related compounds were 
made illegal. 

The reaction time on 
2,4,5-trimethoxyamohetamine was 
vastly improved compared to 
problems experienced in warning 
the public about Haramline and 
then making it illegal. 

The ideal is to uncover the new 
illegal drugs before they are on 
the streets, make them illegal, 
and preferably raid the under- 
ground labs before they can get 
their new, and now illegal, drug on 
the market. 


A summary conviction under 
the proposed penalties calls for a 
fine of up to $1,000 or imprison- 
ment for up to 18 months or both. 
There is no provision for sum- 
mary conviction under existing 

Indictable offences under the 
proposed laws call for a maxi- 
mum 10-year sentence while exist- 
ing laws could send offenders to 
jail for life. 

The LeDain majority report 
recommended a maximum pen- 
alty of 18 months for summary 
conviction, with a fine in lieu of 
imprisonment. On indictment, the 
report recommended a maximum 
of five-years imprisonment and, 
again, a fine in lieu of imprison- 

Possession for the purpose of traf- 

Proposed and existing penalties 
are the same as for trafficking. 
The LeDain commission also 
made the same recommendations 
it had for trafficking, but said the 
accused should not be charged if 
he can raise a reasonable doubt as 
to his intention to traffic. 

Importing or exporting 

The proposed laws call for 
imprisonment for up to two years 
on summary conviction, while 
existing laws have no provision 

for the courts to proceed by way 
of summary conviction. 

By way of indictment, the pro- 
posed laws call. for imprisonment 
up to 14 years and not less than 
three years. However, the three- 
year minimum would not apply 
where the convicted person can 
prove he imported or exported for 
his own consumption only. 

Existing laws call for a maxi- 
mum sentence of life imprison- 
ment and a minimum of seven 

The LeDain majority recom- 
mended that importing and 

exporting be included in the defi- 
nition of trafficking but subject to 
higher maximum penalties. 


Summary conviction under pro- 
posed laws calls for a fine of up to 
$1,000 or imprisonment for 18 
months or both. Again, existing 
laws have no provision for sum- 
mary conviction. 

A 10-year jail term is possible 
under the proposed laws for 
indictable offences, compared 
with a maximum seven-year 
imprisonment under existing 

The LeDain commission recom- 
mended cultivation not be a pun- 
ishable offence unless done for 
trafficking. If done for the pur- 
pose of trafficking, it should carry 
the same penalties as trafficking. 

TC for Canadian prison 

(Continued from page 1) 

change-agent in drug dependen- 
cies, the same concept introduced 
into the prison setting must still 
be considered experimental. 

Deprivation of liberty creates 
its own set of special problems 
and the question is whether the 
concept that has served well on 
the ‘outside’ can break through 
even more complicated ego- 
defences with prison walls. 

Devlin told The Journal he is 
optimistic, noting that the back- 
grounds, of the Cowansville prison 
population in therapy are almost 
identical to those of the population 
at the Portage residence, at Lake 
Echo, Que. 

“One sees the same childhood 
fixations, negative self-image, low 
frustration tolerance, social rejec- 
tion and aggressiveness. In terms 
of behavior, both groups are 
deviant. In many instances, the 
only difference is that the prisoner 
got caught.” 

The Portage Program has also 
become involved in other correc- 
tional areas. 

An association with the crimi- 
nal justice system began with the 
setting up of a Court Diversion 
Program. Portage now maintains 
an office at the Palais de Justice 
in Montreal and its staff works 
closely with judges and probation 
and parole officers regarding drug 
treatment referrals. 

In this way, drug users facing 
sentences not yet served can be 
diverted— at the discretion of the 
judge— to the Portage Program. 

“The referrals we propose, 
however, are not just to the Por- 
tage Program,” Devlin said, “but 
to other rehabilitation settings as 
well— depending upon the need of 
a specific model. 

"More recently. Portage has 
been designated as a 
community-based residential 
treatment centre by Canada’s Sol- 
icitor General, thereby making 
our program eligible to take 
parolees into treatment. This 
means prisoners can be paroled 
directly to Portage for rehabilita- 

In all. Devlin said, more than 
30% of Portage residents come 
through such legal channels. The 

remainder come through various 
referrals or voluntarily. 

With the approval of the Solici- 
tor General, psychologist Louise 
Nadeau, assistant director of 
treatment at Portage, is conduct- 
ing an eight-week training work- 
shop at a federal staff training 
centre near St. Vincent de Paul 
Penitentiary. The program, which 
introduces prison personnel to 
concepts of milieu therapy, was 
established on the suggestion of 
the Portage group that this type 
of therapy could work within the 
prison setting. 

According to Devlin: “The 
guards and correctional officers 
who are being trained under 
Louise Nadeau are getting excited 
about the possibilities of more 
interaction with the prisoners. 

“They have gone out of their 
way to visit us at Lake Echo. They 
don’t want just to be guards— they 
want to help. Above all. they 
would like to see some rehabilita- 
tive results from their work. 

“The provincial Ministry of Jus- 
tice is also very interested in 
these areas of our work,” said Mr. 

THE JOURNAL February 1, 1975 — Page 3 

AA ranks 

are gaining a dubious equality in 
the once male-dominated world of 
Alcoholics Anonymous. 

Women account for nearly one 
in three (31%) of new members of 
Alcoholics Anonymous in the last 
three years, and more than one 
quarter of AA's total membership. 

These facts were revealed in a 
survey of 13,467 AA members in 
the United States and Canada, the 
largest-ever survey of recovered 

Dr. John L. Norris, AA board 
chairman, told a press conference 
at the North American Congress 

Women swelling 

on Alcohol and Drug Problems 
that drinking no longer is 
regarded as purely a man’s 
domain and that women are less 
inclined to hide their drinking. 

“When I was coming up, the 
acceptable social drink for women 
was tea.” said Dr. Norris. “Now, 
it's cocktails.” 

Women now make up 28% of the 
group’s membership compared to 
22% in 1968 and 267o in 1971. The 
survey was designed to provide a 
profile of Alcoholics Anonymous 
and is conducted every three 
years among AA groups in North 


■The latest survey also showed 
that one in four members of AA at 
a typical meeting has not had a 
drink for five or more years: 91% 
of these, each succeeding year, 
will enjoy continued sobriety and 
will continue to attend AA meet- 
ings regularly. 

Over the last six years, the per- 
centage of young people in AA 
shows no increase. Dr. Norris 
reported. The 1974 survey puts 7% 
in the under- 30 years bracket, 55% 
between 30 and 49 and 377c at 50 or 

Thysicians in ‘alcoholic haze’ 


alcoholic patient often becomes 
the physician’s “whipping boy,” 
an attitude reflected in the way 
many physicians treat, or refuse 
to treat, alcoholic patients, a 
North Carolina psychiatrist sug- 
gested here recently. 

Dr. John A. Ewing, director of 
the University of North Carolina’s 
Center for Alcohol Studies, 
observed that many physicians 
have a great deal of trouble deal- 

( Continued from Page 1) 

heroin use might be spreading to 
smaller cities. 

• Nationally, and in every region 
of the U.S., hospital emergency 
room treatment for heroin over- 
dose has increased dramatically 
every quarter since September, 
1973. Specifically, the period 
July-September, 1974 has shown an 
overall increase of 667o above the 
July-September, 1973 quarterly 

• Thirteen million Americans are 
estimated to be regular users of 
marijuana, with V-lz million esti- 
mated daily users. In one high 
school, where complete data 
exists, the number of freshmen 
using the drug doubled to 507o 
between 1968 and 1974. (Recently, 
new evidence has been presented 
indicating potentially significant 
medical problems which may be 
encountered from long-term or 
moderate-to-heavy use of mari- 

• A recent report from a nation- 
wide survey of 78 schools in 10 
cities for the school year 1973-74 
indicates more than one-third had 
used synthetic drugs non- 
medically and, of these, 247o had 
used barbiturates and 227© had 
used amphetamines. An estimated 
307o of those in federally-funded 
treatment programs are being 
treated for non-opiate problems. 

During a press conference, 
DuPont conceded the Federal gov- 
ernment had previously thought of 
the drug abuse problem as a war 
which could be won given suffi- 
cient troops and armament. 

But with the growing realization 
that the problem is constant, he 

Carter, a declared candidate for 
the 1976 Democratic Presidential 
nomination, has called for greatly 
expanded federal efforts in the 
fight against alcoholism. 

“Alcoholism is our greatest 
drug problem.” he said. Yet "we 
have failed at the national level to 
give it the priority and the 
resources it deserves.” 

He said the United States has 
about 9 million alcoholics and 

ing with their own feelings about 
alcohol and alcoholism. 

To the physician, alcoholism 
implies a lack of control, and con- 
trol is extremely important to the 
physician who must exercise a 
great deal of it, first to become a 
physician, and then to practice. 
Dr. Ewing told members of the 
American Medical Association for 

During training, the physician 
has had to work hard, postponing 
his rewards. When he does get to 
enjoy his rewards, “the contrast 

drew the analogy of weeding a 

“If you keep at it all the time 
there are major benefits.” 

Referring to the 1973 statement 
that “the corner had been turned” 
with respect to increasing heroin 
addiction, DuPont later told 
reporters the major source for 
this optimistic statement had 
related to a decline in incidence of 

Between 1969 and 1972, the 
incidence of hepatitis as related to 
intravenous drug use increased 
from 19,500 in 1969 to 36,000 in 

In 1973, this figure dropped to 
•29.000, according to a well- 
established national reporting sys- 

He explained that in 1969, the 
problem was primarily concen- 
trated on the east and west coasts 
of the U.S., essentially in New 
York and in California. \ 

In the following years, heroin 
use began spreading throughout 
the country, to middle America, 
at a more uniform rate. 

This served to counteract the 
relative reduction, or at least sta- 
bility, of heroin use in the high 
concentration areas. 

DuPont further explained that 
while there was a significant 
reduction in heroin coming into 
the country when the Turkish Gov- 
ernment banned poppy cultivation 
in 1971. importation of the drug 
from Mexico has now been firmly 

“The replacement of the Turk- 
ish-Marseilles route with heroin 
from Mexico is one of the primary 
factors in the (current) deteriora- 
tion,” DuPont said. 

another three million problem 
drinkers. Between 407© and 507© of 
convicted felons have a history of 
alcoholism and more than half of 
those arrested for criminal homi- 
cides were drinking heavily prior 
to killing, he said. 

Gov. Carter emphasized the 
need for a single federal alcohol/ 
drug abuse agency, noting that 30 
states have already consolidated 
their alcoholism and drug abuse 
agencies but at the federal level 

between the long hours of respon- 
sible decision-making with their 
emotional demands is counterbal- 
anced by the rewards of relaxa- 
tion, often accompanied by an 
alcoholic haze, ” he continued. 

Dr. Ewing contended physicians 
rarely admit to being drunk or to 
having a problem with alcohol. 

They feel, he said, that alcohol- 
ics are always from a different 
social class or have different 
backgrounds and belong on skid 
row and that, somehow, there is a 
barrier between “normal drink- 
ers” and “alcoholics”. 

Yet, far more drinking goes on 
among physicians than among the 
general population, he said. And 
physicians do not recognize prob- 
lems they have with alcoholism 
because they view alcoholics as 
weak and self-indulgent and see 
themselves as strong and self- 
controlled, he said. 

This, he suggested, is one rea- 
son why they may have trouble 
dealing with alcoholic patients. 
Physicians cannot imagine such 
self-indulgent tendencies in them- 
selves and tend to “‘vent my rage 
upon anyone who gives in like 
this,” he explained. 

The physician’s own problems 
dealing with alcoholism are far 
more important than other rea- 
sons given for their rejection of 
alcoholic patients, he said. 

For instance, if it were true 
that physicians avoid long-term 
cases and only like fast results, 
“we would all be hearing about 
poor diabetic patients who cannot 
get anyone to take them on for 

■ The idea that physicians don’t 
learn about alcoholism in training 
because they only get a bit here 
and there doesn’t make sense, he 
said. Diabetes, for example, is 
taught in many different depart- 
ments and from many viewpoints, 
yet the medical student is able to 
synthesize the information. 

Dr. Ewing suggested the physi- 
cian who openly refuses to treat 
the alcoholic patient probably 
does less harm than the physician 
who is not aware of his attitudes. 

The doctor who refuses invaria- 
bly refers the patient to someone 
who will treat while the unaware 
physician “may hospitalize unnec- 
essarily, prescribe excessively, 
and perhaps create an iatrogenic 
dependence on drugs other than 

such agencies remain separate 
and “largely uncoordinated”. 

“There is no clear definition at 
the national level of what our 
goals are in dealing with alcohol- 
ism. There is no clear concept of 
what a model, national program 
should be." 

He cited increasing duplication 
and overlap at the federal level as 
a hindrance to progress, and 
charged that recent administra- 
tions have ignored research on the 

Thirty-eight percent of the 
membership polled, identified 
themselves in the executive- 
professional-technical category. 
Another 327© were identified as 
clerical or blue-collar workers 
and 117© as housewives. 

Counselling agencies are men- 
tioned more often as a primary 
factor in coming to AA by those 
entering in the last three years. 
There is a corresponding decline 
in the citing of “another AA mem- 
ber” as a prime factor, although 
this remains the single reason 
most often named. 

In a separate survey, question- 
naires were distributed to some 

Joan Curlee-Salisbury 

cal psychologist and a psychiatrist 
are the first United States recipi- 
ents of the E. M. Jellinek Memo- 
rial Award for outstanding contri- 
bution to the study of alcohol prob- 

Dr. Joan Curlee-Salisbury, a 
psychologist at Veterans Adminis- 
tration Hospital, Indianapolis, and 
Dr. Donald Goodwin, a psychia- 
trist at Washington University, St. 
Louis, received the international 
award at the opening here of the 
North American Congress on 
Alcohol and Drug Problems, Dec. 

Presentation of the awards— 
bronze castings of the head of E. 
M. Jellinek and a cash prize— 
were made by Archer Tongue, 
executive director of the Interna- 
tional Council on Alcohol and 
Addictions and president of the E. 
M. Jellinek Memorial Fund, and 
Mark Keller, editor of the Quar- 
terly Journal of Studies on Alco- 
hol, Rutgers School for Alcohol 

The fund was established in 1963 
following the death of Dr. Jelli- 
nek, regarded as the dean of 
research scientists in the field of 

Dr. Jellinek was introduced to 
the problems of alcoholism in 
1939. “He was the greatest scholar 
who came to work in this field and 
many who knew him during the 
next 25 years thought him a gen- 
ius,” Mark Keller told an audi- 
ence of approximately 2,000 
attending the Congress. 


“There is a desperate need for 
sufficient funds to encourage addi- 
tional research and the willing- 
ness to use that research in 
designing treatment programs." 

He said Georgia has made great 
progress in prevention and treat- 
ment of alcoholism, using existing 
personnel and resources. And he 
attributed this progress to Geor- 
gia's establishing a single agency 
to coordinate drug programs. 

1.000 U.S. and Canadian correc- 
tions institutions which have func- 
tioning AA groups. 

An inmate's chances of “mak- 
ing it on the outside” are 
improved by participation in AA, 
according to 967© of the respond- 
ing administrators. Further, 907© 
regarded AA as “contributing to 
the objectives of the institution”. 

Alcoholics Anonymous operates 
chiefly through more than 22.000 
local AA groups meeting in 92 
countries. There are nearly 13,000 
such groups in the U.S. and over 
2.100 in Canada. Estimated world- 
wide membership stands at 

Donald Goodwin 

“He quickly became the foun- 
tainhead of knowledge and think- 
ing about alcohol problems. But 
he also turned out to be a creative 
activist. He was an originator, a 
moving spirit, an inspirer of all 
the activities and events and 
organizations that culminated in 
this very congress.” Mr. Keller 

The 1974 award winners were 
determined by a U.S. selection 

Dr. Curlee-Salisbury, the first 
woman to receive the award, has 
been interested in alcoholism 
problems since the beginning of 
her graduate academic career. 

Her dissertation for her PhD in 
psychology at the University of 
Minnesota in 1968, dealt with a 
comparison of men and women 

She later turned her attention to 
problems of treatment of alcohol- 
ism, particularly problems of atti- 
tudes, and to combined Alcoholics 
Anonymous and psychotherapy. 
She subsequently studied black- 
outs and depression, and most 
recently a phenomenon of fear of 
heights among alcoholics. 

Dr, Goodwin’s interest in alco- 
holism began with clinical trials 
of drugs having a disulfiram-like 
action. He has also studied theo- 
retical aspects of alcoholism and 
the action of alcohol, especially in 
relation to memory, blackouts, 
and state-dependent learning. 

He was the leader of an interna- 
tional team of researchers who 
investigated the life histories of a 
group of adoptees of alcoholic 
fathers who were raised by non- 
alcoholic adoptive parents. This 
study provided new hints of a pos- 
sible genetic factor in the develop- 
ment of alcoholism. 

Previous Jellinek Memorial 
Award winners were: Dr. Jena- 
Pierre Von Wartburg, a Swiss 
enzymologist (1968): Dr. Kettil 
Bruun, a Finnish sociologist 
(1970): Dr. Harold Kalant. a phy- 
siologist. and Mr. Robert 
Popham, an anthropologist, both 
with the Addiction Research 
Foundation of Ontario, Canada 

Social cost estimate 

Presidential candidate seeks greater federal effort 

,,,In memory 
of Jellinek 

Page 4 — THE JOURNAL, February 1, 1975 





Turkish opium poppies- U.S. bound? 

U.S. faces codeine shortage 


WASHINGTON— Swallowing their 
disappointment at Turkey's return 
to poppy culture, US drug officials 
say they are relatively pleased by 
the Turks’ announcement they 
will switch to a method of harvest- 
ing poppies that allows less oppor- 
tunity for diversion of the mate- 
rial into illegal channels. 

The Turks say from now on they 
will use the poppy straw method 
of harvesting, rather than their 
traditional technique of lancing 
the capsules and scraping the 
opium gum from their outsides. 

"We have indicated we are 
pleased with this decision,” said 
Ms. Candace Cowan, chief of 
international affairs for SAODAP. 

"The decision the Turkish gov- 
ernment made (to restore opium 
poppy culture) was very disap- 
pointing to us. But we’re hoping 
they will police it very tightly, and 
we’re hoping this (poppy straw 
harvest method) will help them in 

The difference between lancing 
and poppy straw extraction, and 
the reasons the latter is consid- 
ered less dangerous, were 
explained recently in The Journal, 
(September, 1974) by Mr. Donald 
Fishier, an international pro- 
grams officer at the US Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Beltsville, 

In lancing. Fishier said, the 
farmer— usually assisted by the 
rest of his family, since the proce- 
dure requires considerable labor 
—goes into the fields after the pet- 
als have fallen from the flowers 
and the seed capsules are ripen- 
ing. He uses a sharp instrument to 
cut holes or gashes in the sides of 
the capsule. 

Overnight, the sap oozes 
through the cuts, and collects and 
hardens on the outside of the cap- 
sule as latex, or gum. The farmer 
returns the next day to scrape the 
gum from the outside of the cap- 

The gum can be easily pro- 
cessed into heroin, and thus the 
farmer may be tempted to sell 
some, or all, of his harvest to ille- 
gal traders. 

In harvesting what is called 
“poppy straw”, the farmer simply 
cuts off the top of the plant— cap- 
sule, leaves and stem. He then 
dries it and sells it. 

The straw, unlike the latex, is 
very difficult to process. Fishier 
explained. A major industrial pro- 
cess is required that he said is out- 
side the capabilities of illicit oper- 
ators. For that reason, harvest of 
poppy straw, particularly if 
accompanied by a ban on lancing 
poppy capsules in the field, can 
limit illegal diversion. 

The criticism has been raised. 
Fishier added, that the farmer 
might cut his poppy crop, and, 
once he had it safely in his shed, 
harvest some of the gum by lanc- 

This criticism is uninformed, 
the agricultural expert said, 
because a lanced capsule will only 
bleed if it is. still attached to a liv- 
ing plant, for it is capillary pres- 
sure in the growing stem that car- 
ries the sap up into the capsule and 
through the wound in its wall. 

The Turkish government, 
according to Ms. Cowan, has said 
it will buy all the farmers’ poppy 
straw, and sell the unprocessed 
straw to countries that can pro- 
cess it to extract the morphine and 
thebane for the manufacture of 
codeine and other analgesics. The 
Turkish government, she said, 
may also build its own poppy 
straw processing plant. 

WASHINGTON— A drastic change 
in stance— from world poppy 
policemen to poppy growers— 
may be forced on the United 
States by a codeine shortage. 

For 1975, officials expect to deal 
with the problem by temporarily 
lifting the ban on the importation 
of poppy straw extract. 

This would help both to bolster 
sagging supplies of poppy gum and 
to prevent depletion of the US 
stockpiles of opium. 

For the long term, however, the 
US may have to consider permit- 
ting domestic growth of poppies; 
notably the species bracteatum. 

The prospect was broached as a 
possible long-term solution in a 
White House memo authored by 
Ed Johnson, chairman of the 
Opium Task Force, and leaked to 
the press. 

Johnson, also special assistant 
to the deputy director for Federal 
Drug Management of the Office of 
Management and Budget, admits 
touching on domestic growth as 
one solution but plays down the 
likelihood that it will come about. 

Not only does it require three 
years to establish a crop of the 
perennial bracteatum but also US 
policy is to discourage countries 
from growing poppies, the ulti- 
mate goal being to eliminate their 

It may be easier to be persua- 
sive, Johnson reasons, if the US 
refrains from growing the pop- 
pies. Even if bracteatum proves 
to be a good source, foreign coun- 
tries may be encouraged to grow 

smokers who have smoked low tar 
(filter) cigarettes for 10 years or 
more have a significantly lower 
risk of lung cancer than those who 
continue to smoke non-filter ciga- 

This is true even though the 
non-filter user is smoking a ciga- 
rette lower in tar than the ones 
produced 20 years ago, according 
to Dr Ernst Wynder of the Ameri- 
can Health Foundation, New 

He told the Xlth International 
Cancer Congress here that studies 
have shown that patients with lung 
cancer now started smoking with 
cigarettes in vogue in the 1940s 
and early 1950s. 

So, “we may assume that those 

it instead, he says. 

Bracteatum may be grown now 
in the US but only for ornamental 
purposes. One problem, says 
Quentin Jones, staff scientist for 
the US Department of Agricul- 
ture, is that seed is not readily 

That there is an increasingly 
serious shortage in the US of 
pain-killing drugs derived from 
opium was charged in a signed 
editorial in the Dec. 26 New Eng- 
land Journal of Medicine. 

(Codeine, the major medicinal 
drug derived indirectly from 
opium, accounts for about 90% of 
the medicinal opium used in the 
United States, says the editorial. ) 

In any major epidemic or other 
national emergency, a shortage 
could cause great suffering, it 

Last year. Congress authorized 
release of more than 200 tons of 
opium from the Federal strategic 
materials stockpile to meet civil- 
ian needs. That release cut the 
stockpile by more than half. 

The present stockpile, said the 
editorial, would be “grossly inade- 
quate” for a national emergency. 

The editorial was signed by Dr 
Leonard Greentree, a physician in 
Columbus, Ohio. While signed edi- 
torials do not necessarily express 
the opinions of the editors of the 
highly respected journal, they do 
represent points of view to which 
the journal is sympathetic. 

"There is obviously only one 
long-term solution to the present 
medicinal opium crisis in the 

who began their smoking careers 
with the new low tar cigarettes 
will have lower lung cancer risks 
than the smokers of 20 years ago.” 

Dr. E. Cuyler Hammond, 
vice-president, department of epi- 
demiology and statistics, Ameri- 
can Cancer Society, reported on 
studies of the interaction of ciga- 
rette smoking on asbestos work- 
ers in Canada and America. 

He said when occupational 
exposure to asbestos was found to 
increase the risk of lung cancer, 
the question arose as to whether it 
acted alone or in combination with 
some other agents. Cigarette 
smoking is by far the most com- 
mon agent associated with 
increased death rates from the 

United States. The United States 
must become self-sufficient in 
opium. . . . must plant, cultivate 
and harvest the opium poppy for 
its own use.” wrote Dr Greentree. 

The physician has been con- 
cerned about consequences of 
medicine shortages since the late 
1930s when he was caught up in 
the exodus from Nanking after the 
Japanese captured that Chinese 
city. He and many companions 
trying to reach Shanghai had dys- 
entery and could obtain no medi- 

“I would have given everything 
I had for some medicine then,” he 

The mild properties of the fed- 
flowered bracteatum which grows 
wild in Iran, were discovered 


ALCOHOLISM IS one disease in 
one world but that central fact is 
being obscured, says Dr Frank A 
Seixas, medical director. National 
Council on Alcoholism,, New York. 

The underlying facts of alcohol- 
ism “vary little between rich and 
popr, social environments, cul- 
tures, or nations”. Dr. Seixas told 
the Second International Congress 
of the Rehabilitation Medicine 

However, great confusion exists 
because of the ‘"multiplicity of 
inputs”— legal, psychological, 
sociological. anthropological, 
medical— that modify the circum- 
stances in individual cases, he 

To lighten the conceptual bur- 
den. Dr. Seixas outlined criteria he 
believed might clarify the situa- 

The criteria, crystallizing 
expert opinion on diagnosing alco- 
holism. were: 

— Alcoholism is a subacute 
brain syndrome to be distin- 
guished from the acute form that 
arises from casual drinkihg and 
chronic, permanent syndrome, 
such as Korsakoff’s psychosis. 

—Development of tolerance is 
necessary to achieve high blood 
levels of alcohol over long periods 
of time. High levels over a long 
period have now been observed to 
underly most of the physical con- 
sequences of alcohol. Studies in 
experimental cirrhosis in 
baboons, for example, have dem- 
onstrated the disease is not pro- 

about two years ago and the poppy 
is now being grown successfully in 
Norway, Iran. Turkey, and Belts- 
ville, Maryland. Several US phar- 
maceutical companies are also 
experimenting with its growth. 

However, among other things, 
scientists want to know whether 
the poppy yields any undesirable 

For the moment, one advantage 
is that bracteatum yields the- 
baine, unlike the poppy Papaver 
somniferum which yields mor- 
phine which, in turn, is the source 
of heroin. 

Bracteatum also requires fewer 
acres to produce larger yields. 
And, the latex must be extracted 
chemically as it is too thin to col- 
lect manually. 

duced until at least 50% of total 
caloric intake is made up of alco- 
hol. This links together late physi- 
cal effects and other known under- 
lying attributes of alcoholism. 

—It is essential to make the 
diagnosis of the psychiatric back- 
ground of the patient when he is 
alcohol-free In order to determine 
whether or not drug treatment, 
such as lithium for manic- 
depressive conditions, is called 

—According to the latest fig- 
ures, while death from heart dis- 
ease has decreased 15%, mortality 
from cirrhosis of the liver has 
risen 67%, with highest incre- 
ments among the non-white popu- 
lation. On the other hand the num- 
ber of new groups formed in Alco- 
holics Anonymous in the United 
States has climbed steadily in 
recent years. After remaining sta- 
ble from 1960 to 1969, there has 
been a steady yearly rise. 

The Hughes-Javits Bill, passed 
in 1968, stimulated money-flow 
into identification, treatment, and 
referral to Alcoholics Anonymous 
and other modalities. These 
treated people not only provide a 
model of the probabilities of enjoy- 
ing life without alcohol but also 
directly assist other alcoholics to 

The positive conclusion is that if 
a critical mass of recovered 
alcoholics were to be obtained, 
there might be a natural feedback 
that would tend to reduce the gra- 
vest aspects of the problem of 
alcoholism, said Dr. Se^as. 

Low tar cigarettes 
'^‘^lesser of two evils^^ 

B y 'multi p licity of inp uts' 

Alcoholism 'obscured' 

THE JOURNAL. February 1, 1975 — Page 5 

Cape Breton’s *^hliieprint for planning’ 

From 4ocal effort’ to model program 

Marvin Burke 

(Continued from page 1) 

congestive heart failure, or other 
medical conditions. 

“What we did in this part of our 
study”, Dr. Klatsky told The Jour- 
nal, “was to try to find out what 
predictive factors there might be 
for sudden cardiac death.” 

Dr. Klatsky said the study 
showed no correlation between 
consumption of alcohol and sud- 
den cardiac death, although a cor- 
relation had previously been 
shown between heavy drinking 
and myocardial infarction. 

Questions on coffee drinking 
and aspirin use did not indicate 
these were either risk factors or 
favorable factors (as with aspirin, 
by thinning the blood). 

Data on cigarette smoking, 
however, bore some fruit. In the 
sudden death cases there was an 
especially high correlation among 
sudden death and young heart vic- 
tims who smoked. 

However, “the proportion of 
smokers was similar for those 
who suffered instantaneous death 
to the proportion for those who 
had a longer duration of symp- 
toms before dying. This suggests 
that cigarette smoking does not 
provoke sudden cardiac death pri- 
marily by provoking fatal arrhyth- 
mias, but rather that the effect of 
smoking acts either on the under- 
lying atherosclerotic process, or 
on factors precipitating acute 
myocardial infarction.” 

In her presentation. Dr. Segal 


CAPE BRETON, N.S. — The use of 
local initiative to combat drug 
dependency programs in discreet 
geographical areas has remained 
a principle easier to talk about 
than achieve in many areas. 

But, in the Gape Breton region 
of Nova Scotia, not only has this 
mobilization of local effort 
resulted in a model program, it 
has yielded something of a blue- 
print for drug planning in the rest 
of the province and, very possibly, 
for other parts of Canada. 

The core of the demonstration 
program, the Cape Breton Addic- 
tion Centre, which functions under 
the aegis of the Nova Scotia Com- 
mission on Drug Dependency, has 
in recent months undergone inten- 

described studies she made to 
determine “the fundamental caus- 
ative role of ethanol (alcohol) in 
the pathogenesis of myocardial 

“The possiblity that alcohol 
may exert a direct toxic action on 
heart muscle has been suggested 
by the increased prevalence of 
cardiomyopathy in patients with a 
history of chronic excessive 
ethanol ingestion.” 

To test the hypothesis that alco- 
hol exerts a direct effect on the 
heart muscle, Dr. Segal studied 
male rats given either a 5%, 10% 
or 25% solution of ethanol for peri- 
ods ranging from 25 to 45 weeks. 
The percentage of daily calories 
consumed as ethanol varied from 
9.5% in one group to 32% in 

However, gll the animals 
received the standard require- 
ments of vitamins in their food, 
which may not parallel the state 
of some human drinkers. 

Dr. Segal next studied the con- 
dition of the myocardium of the 
rats under an electron micro- 
scope. Even after only seven 
weeks, in the group consuming the 
5% ethanol, amounting to 9.5% of 
their daily calories. Dr. Segal 
found a number of ultrastructural 

“All of the alterations noted in 
the group which consumed 5% 
ethanol were more prominent and 
numerous in the animals who con- 
sumed 10% and 25% ethanol,” she 
said. In the animals consuming 

sive evaluation by drug program 
planners from several other prov- 
inces, and groups from federal 

Reports from all of these evalu- 
ators show strong support for the 
way local groups, acting through 
regional planning boards, can 
function effectively. 

The Cape Breton program 
includes a detoxification unit, an 
outpatient department, a short- 
term therapy program, a ward for 
homeless male alcoholics at the 
Cape Breton County Mental Hospi- 
tal, a half way house, and a long- 
term rehabilitation facility. 
Supplementing these facilities is a 
program emphasizing community 
participation in drug treatment. 

As one of the evaluators noted: 
“This (emphasis) should eventu- 

the most ethanol, there were addi- 
tional abnormalities. 

While animal data cannot be 
directedly extrapolated to 
humans. Dr. Segal noted, the ani- 
mals in the 10% ethanol group 
“might be compared to a person 
taking a couple of cocktails a 

“Also, none of our animals— 
even on the highest ethanol diets— 
would be comparable to an adult 
human on skid row, most of whose 
diet consists of alcohol. So our ani- 
mals were really receiving low to 
moderate amounts of alcohol. 

“In the animals consuming 10% 
ethanol we found, as early as 
seven weeks on that kind of diet, 
that there were abnormalities in 
the ultrastructure of the heart, but 
we did not at any time see any 
muscle dysfunction. 

“However, at the higher levels, 
in addition to the ultrastructure 
damage, we saw the beginnings of 
muscle dysfunction, which took 
the form of a shorter time to peak 
tension of the papillary muscles. 
This would be indicative of a 
shorter duration of the active 
state of the muscle, dysfunction in 
the isolated mitochondria, and in 
the ATPase activity of the iso- 
lated myofibrils. 

“I think that someone who regu- 
larly drinks alcohol should 
re-evaluate what he’s doing, after 
seeing the body of evidence that 
ethanol, or one of its metabolites 
after it’s been consumed, is caus- 
ing cardiac damage.” 

ally facilitate more direct involve- 
ment of non-professional people in 
treatment, at considerable relief 
to the Nova Scotia taxpayer.” 

Under the Nova Scotia plan, 
funding comes from the provincial 
commission to regional boards for 
all programs. 

The current organization of the 
commission calls for its work to 
be carried out through local com- 
mittees and regional boards. 
There are five regions and one 
regional board planned for each of 
these. Within each region there 
may be many local committees 
which are the actual action 

When the Drug Dependency 
Commission was formed, it pro- 
vided small amounts of seed 
money to various communities to 
help them develop programs. 

The local committee in Cape 
Breton, however, was not satis- 
fied with what the commission 
offered and about 15,000 people 
signed a petition to the provincial 
government asking for adequate 
services to be set up in Cape Bre- 

As a result, the demonstration 
project was established and this 
region now has the best developed 
services in the province. 

Much of the emphasis in devel- 
oping this network has been on 
involving professional and volun- 
teer civil groups already in exist- 

Marvin Burke, executive direc- 
tor of the Commission on Drug 
Dependency, indicates certain 
priorities for further development 
of the Cape Breton program and 
implementation of similar efforts 
elsewhere : 

• Increased integration for exist- 
ing services 

• Increased involvement of the 
medical profession 

• Expansion of the industrial pro- 

• Increase education programs 

• Implementation of a documen- 
tation, evaluation and research, 

Drug dependency in the Cape 
Breton region has been of growing 
concern to the local community. 
Union and management officials 
at Sydney Steel estimate alcohol 
dependency among their work- 
force of 3,500 to be as high as 10%. 

Another high risk group can be 
found within the native (I^anadian 
communities. Indian spokesmen 
have been concerned about 
dependency among their people 
for some time. Inhabitants of geo- 
graphically remote areas are seen 
as another target population. 

Heart damage and alcohol 

Sexual enhancement with marijuana 

(Continued from page 1) 

sexual desire. The “downers”, as 
a group, had a poor reputation in 
all areas of sexual functioning, 
despite the fact that downers have 
traditionally been considered sex- 
ual enhancers. 

However^ the study continued, 
“our subject group was fairly well 
experienced sexually and very lib- 
eral in their attitudes” leading to 
the speculation that “the capacity 
of ‘downer’ drugs to disinhibit 
one’s sexual behavior— i.e. to 
weaken the inhibitive effect of 
moral restraint, social fears, or 
physical distaste— is fairly 
inoperative as far as our respon- 
dents are concerned. 

“With a more uptight, sexually 
inhibited group of Americans, the 
importance of ‘downers’— and 
alcohol— in encouraging sexual 
acting-out would be much 

A common view of alcohol in 
the study was that “alcohol makes 
for sloppy sex” and barbiturate 
users were regarded as “without 

When respondents were asked 
to choose between the drug of 
their choice and sex with anyone 
of their choice, three of four 
favored sexual contact. Of those 
who selected a drug, most chose 
heroin or cocaine. 

This finding “that anyone would 
choose a drug in this situation 
would surprise many young Amer- 
icans brought up to regard sex as 
the essence of one’s fantasy life,” 
the study noted. 

For two of five in the survey, 
sexual contacts were usually 
related to drug-using situations. 
However, a similar number said 
their sexual contacts were rarely 
related to drug use. 

The respondents judged alcohol, 
cocaine,, heroin and the psychedel- 
ics as relatively equal in their 
aphrodesiac or “seducing” capac- 
ity— i.e. making one “more likely 
to have sex with a partner whom I 
would not be attracted to while 
straight”, but heroin was poorly 
regarded as far as control over 
erection and orgasm was con- 

Heroin was also most com- 
monly linked with “losing interest 
in sex” followed by speed, barbi- 
turates, psychedelics and alcohol. 

The study noted that heroin and 
alcohol were described both as 
sexual stimulants and as depres- 
sants, and suggested that the dif- 
ference for alcohol is dose-related 
but for heroin is not as easy to 

Dr. George R. Gay, director of 
clinical activities, and John A. 
Newmeyer, epidemiologist at the 
clinic, who conducted the survey 
with research associates Richard 
A. Elion and Steven Wieder, con- 
cluded that the survey demon- 
strated “we certainly are now 
dealing with an experienced and 
sophisticated drug/sex wise young 

Drs. Gay and Newmeyer also 
evaluated the differences between 
addicts and non-addicts in regard 
to drugs and sexuality and the dif- 
ferences between homosexuals 
and heterosexuals in the survey. 

They found that addicts had 
higher ratings for the ways in 

which various drugs enhanced 
sexual performance than non- 
addicts. This was “surprising, in 
that we would expect the junkie 
group to be more drug- 
experienced, and hence more 
‘jaded’ and less susceptible 
to whatever sexually-enhancing 
qualities may be intrinsic in var- 
ious drugs.” 

The addicts in the survey gener- 
ally felt drugs enhanced sexual 
performance while the non-addict 
group found drugs more important 
in the areas of touching and the 
ability to have and act out sexual 
fantasies. This lead to specula- 
tions that the addict group, made 
up of working-class or “macho” 
individuals, was more concerned 
with sexual performance while 
the non-addict group— described 
as a socioeconomically more priv- 
ileged and “gayer” group— was 
more concerned with “sensuality/ 
fantasy” sexual aspect^ 

Homosexual males enjoyed sex 
and drugs separately while the 
females combined the enjoyments 
of drugs and sex. 

Judianne Densen-Gerber 

gives up job 
at New York's 
Odyssey House 

NEW YORK— The founder and 
director of Odyssey House, Dr. 
Judianne Densen-Gerber, has 
resigned as head of all city- 
financed Odyssey operations in 
New York City. 

The resignation came in 
advance of a new report on Odys- 
sey by the city’s Addiction Ser- 
vices Agency (ASA), which. Dr. 
Densen-Gerber indicated will be 
highly critical of Odyssey’s pro- 

“I don’t believe in slavery or 
indentured servitude,” she said. 
“I will not be told who I can and 
cannot treat.” 

The new director of New York 
Odyssey Houses is James Murphy, 
an ex-addict, who has been asso- 
ciated with Dr. Densen-Gerber 
and Odyssey since Odyssey’s 
inception in 1966. 

Dr. Densen-Gerber said she will 
assume the presidency of a parent 
corporation called Odyssey Insti- 
tute. But, she said, she will play 
no direct role in supervising New 
York City Odyssey programs. 

“I will conduct no treatment 
nor in any way guide the New 
York operation,” Dr. Densen- 
Gerber said. “Mr. Jerome Horn- 
blass (ASA Commissioner) has 
succeeded in driving out compe- 
tence. ” 

The report that appears to have 
triggered Dr. Densen-Gerber’s 
resignation is the fifth on Odyssey 
prepared by or for ASA. Like 
those that preceded it (The Jour- 
nal, June, 1974) this one, from all 
indications, will be highly critical 
of Odyssey. 

The report had been delivered, 
confidentially, to Dr. Densen- 
Gerber and Odyssey and was to be 
returned to ASA, with any rebuttal 
comments that they wished to 
make, by late last month. It was 
then to be released to the press, 
following a policy established by 
Commissioner Hornblass that 
ASA’S evaluations are in the pub- 
lic domain. 

Dr. Densen-Gerber said the 
report is “filled with distortions 
and misunderstandings”. She indi- 
cated that one complaint in the 
report is that she and other high 
Odyssey officials, who have been 
paid for 35 hours of work each 
week, do not spend 35 hours 
weekly working for New York 
City Odyssey projects. There are 
Odyssey facilities in several other 

Dr. Densen-Gerber, in the past, 
has complained that evaluators 
sent to study Odyssey were pro- 
fessionally incompetent, particu- 
larly with reference to assessing 
its psychiatric services. Because 
of this criticism, a psychiatrist 
participated in the soon- 
to-be-released evaluation. 

Page 6 — THE JOURNAL, February 1. 1975 


Gary Seidler 

Anne MacLennan 


Milan Korcok 


BrYr>e Carruthers (Ottawa) 
Dorsey Woodson (Washington) 
Otha Linton (Washington) 
David Zimmerman (New York) 
Alan Massam (London) 

Tom Land (London) 

David Ehrlich (Geneva) 

Peter Thompson (Vancouver) 
Manfred Jager (Winnipeg) 

Lachlan MacQuarrie (Hong Kong) 
Walt Nagel (Calgary) 

Tom Hill (Rorida) 

Saul Abel (Los Angeles) 

Mary Hager (San Francisco) 
Dorothy Trainor (Montreal) 

Jean McCann (Cleveland) 
Kenneth McCracken (Minnesota) 
Betty Lou Lee (Hamilton) 

The Journal 


Dr. Harding Le Riche. Prof., School of Public Health and Hygiene. University of Toronto 
Dr. Albert Rose, Dean, Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto 
Dr. Thomas Bryant. President. Drug Abuse Council. Washington. D.C. 

Dr. Lionel Solursh. Associate Head. Dept, of Psychiatry. Toronto Western Hospital 
Dr. Wilf Boothroyd. Senior Medical Consultant. ARF 
Henry Schankula. Director of Administration, ARF 
Dr. Eugene LeBlanc, Assistant Head. Research Division, ART 
Dr. David Smith. Medical Director. Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic, San Francisco 
Or. Thomas Ungetieider. Associate Professor of Psychiatry. UCLA Medical Centre 

Published monthly by the 

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Creating a monster 

THE RECENT North American Congress on Alcohol and 
Drug Problems which attracted some 4,000 workers to glo- 
rious San Francisco (how many would have attended the con- 
gress had it been held in Podunk, U.S.A. ?) provided ample 
opportunity for reflection. 

To even the vaguely skeptical, it now appears one of the 
most crucial problems is coping with the huge, industrialized 
monster that is the alcohol and drug abuse field. 

It is somewhat encouraging that at least some leaders are 
beginning to express concern about the pitfalls of empire 

Some are going so far as to whisper frightening confessions 
— ‘we now have people with a vested interest in making the 
drug scene look worse than it really is’. 

When drug abuse emerged as an international concern in 
the 1960s, the field was fraught with ignorance and shortcom- 
ings. In the process of developing sophistication, along with 
professional standards, the field inevitably became institu- 

As Senator Harold Hughes noted during the opening of the 
recent North American Congress: 

“The alcohol and drug industrial complex is not as powerful 
as its military-industrial counterpart, but nonetheless there 
are striking similarities. 

“We have the ever-enlarging structure of scientists, 
‘think-tank’ personnel, administrators, governmental funding 
agencies, lobbyists, associations, consultants, evaluators, 
technical assistants, and so on. 

“A huge and influential industrial empire produces most of 
the substances we are engaged in trying to control.’’ 

These are sobering thoughts from a man largely responsible 
for placing alcoholism on the map of respectability. 

There is, of course, nothing intrinsically wrong with the 
whole development so long as workers can preserve their 
perspective, humility and professional integrity. 

Perhaps the real answer lies in continual awareness of this 
problem of growth. Certainly, constant self-analysis is 

Editorial Board welcome 

THE JOURNAL is pleased to announce the appointment of three new 
members to the publication’s Editorial Board. 

They are : 

Dr. David Smith, founder and medical director of the Haight- 
Ashbury Free Medical Clinic, San Francisco; Dr. Thomas Ungerlei- 
der, associate professor of psychiatry, UCLA Medical Centre; and 
Dr. Eugene LeBlanc, assistant head, research division, Addiction 
Research Foundation of Ontario. 

We are confident our readers will continue to benefit from the 
contributions of the eminent members of our Editorial Board. 

Letters to the Editor 


An article, “Spray Paint Inhala- 
tion A New Teenage Fad,” which 
appeared in the November 1974 
issue of The Journal has been 
brought to our attention. 

We concur that it is indeed 
alarming that abuse of a normally 
safe and convenient product can 
lead to bodily damage and perhaps 
death. However, it is because of 
this need to inform and educate 

the public on the safe and proper 
use of aerosols that the Aerosol 
Education Bureau (AEB) was 
formed five years ago by the Ad 
Hoc Aerosol Committee as its 
informational and educational 
arm. Our extensive efforts have 
effectively reached hundreds of 
thousands of youth and adults. 

To explain proper use, we at the 
bureau have produced and are dis- 
tributing the pamphlet, “Safe Use 
of Aerosols Around the House.” 

This pamphlet has been widely 
acclaimed by national associa- 
tions including the National Coor- 
dinating Council on Drug Educa- 
tion, the American Red Cross, the 
National Conference of Parents 
and Teachers, and others. We are 
most eager to promote aerosol 

Daniel Leinweber 
Aerosol Education Bureau 
300 East 44th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10017 

A little reefer maiJness for Dr. Faustus 


; A DARK and stormy night. Alone 

■ in his laboratory, Dr. Faustus, 
: marijuana researcher, looked 
: about him and despaired. 

: His prospective study on canna- 
: bis use had come to grief for rea- 

■ sons various. His retrospective 
: study had been savaged by his col- 
: leagues who had attacked his 
I methods, his statistics, and his 
: conclusions. His controlled group 
•study had produced inconclusive 
j results. His double-blind experi- 
:ment had faltered because of inad- 
• equate controls. He sighed. 

: If only he could know the true 
•facts about cannabis sativa. If 
jonly he could KNOW! 

: An anguished cry escaped his 
•lips and he buried his despondent 
jface in a pile of hard-won statis- 
;tics which were, according to a 
•learned colleague, not mathemati- 
jcally significant. Even as he did 
•so, he felt a chill at the nape of his 

neck and noticed a strange sulfur- 
ous odour in his nostrils. When he 
looked up, there stood before him 
a tall dark stranger. 

“Who are you?” demanded 
Faustus of the sinister apparition. 

“They call me Mephistophe- 
les,” said the stranger softly. “I 
come to offer you the eternal truth 
about marijuana. Now and for 

“But what must I offer in 
return?" asked Faustus, his heart 
fluttering like a caged sparrow in 
his chest. 

‘‘Your immortal soul, Dr. Faus- 
tus,” whispered the stranger. 
“That is all I ask.” 

“No. No!” cried Faustus, tear- 
ing himself away from the Evil 
One’s seductive gaze. 

“Faustus— listen to me. Do you 
want to know once and for all if 
marijuana is a curse or a blessing 
to mankind? Do you want to know 
what really happens to a mortal 

being who smokes the weed for 10 
years ... 20 years ... 30 years? 

“Does it rot the brain? Or does it 
lead to aesthetic perceptions 
beyond the normal human ken? 
Does it shrivel the testes and 
engorge the breasts of youthful 
swains? Or does it elevate sexual 
sensation to a heavenly sphere? 
Does it calm anxieties? Or does it 
lead to neurosis? 

“What about the amotivational 
syndrome anyway? Are reefers 
madness? Or are they sublime? 
Do you want to know, Dr. Faus- 
tus? Do you want to KNOW once 
and for all and for evermore?” 

“Yes! Yes!” cried Faustus. 
Desire welled within his breast. 
Inchoate yearning seized his 
fevered imagination. (Or some- 
thing like that did. ) 

“Faustus— listen to me. If we 
strike a bargain then you will 
KNOW. Compared to your knowl- 
edge, the combined knowledge of 

all the LeDain commissioners 
shall be as a grain of sand. Com- 
pared to your knowledge, all the 
intelligence in the volumes of the 
Addiction Research Foundation’s 
library shall be as children’s fairy 
tales,” whispered Mephistopheles. 

“It’s a deal! ’’ cried Faustus. 

“Sign here in blood, or a ball- 
point will do . . . there! The deed is 
done, now there is no escape from 
our awful covenant.” 

“Yes. Yes. Now give me the 
knowledge that I may KNOW,” 
cried Faustus. Eagerness burst 
inside him like an exploding star 
(or something). 

“Fine Faustus. First, let us 
deal with amotivational syn- 

“According to Lucifer, who 
studied 586 fallen angels for a 
period of 18 months, there is abso- 
lutely no evidence marijuana 
causes such a syndrome. I would 
be less than candid, however, if I 

did not admit that some of his col-ij: 
leagues have questioned his find-j::; 
ings and accused him of bias.|ij: 
Indeed, Moloch and Mammon,:*:; 
who have done some fine work in;:*: 
this area, say Lucifer did not take:;:; 
into account certain socio-::*: 
economic variables in the sample::|: 
group and they submit, on the!;:; 
basis of their findings— which by::*: 
the way are not taken seriously by:*:; 
Screwtape’s group— that there is:;!; 
a distinct possibility, yes even a;:*; 
probability, that amotivationall;:; 
syndrome may be a clinical ent-;:;: 
ity. As to the question of memory^:; 
loss Faustus— we can at the pre-:;:- 
sent time definitely postulate,!:;: 
barring any new evidence from;:* 
Baalim, Chemos et al to the con-;*: 
trary, that there is reasonable:;': 
possibility . . . Faustus? . . . Faus- •:; 
tus?'...Why are you weeping,:;: 
Faustus?’’ :J; 

(Wayne Howell is an Ottawa phy-;:* 
sician and freelance writer. ) :•: 

THE JOURNAL, February 1, 1975 — Page 7 

TREATMENT: Still a long way to go 


THE PROMISE has turned to frustration. 

Despite the money, the politics, and the professional 
activity expended in the development of approaches 
such as methadone maintenance, therapeutic commun- 
ities, and detoxification programs, the current state of 
drug abuse treatment is still sadly wanting. 

There are still too many drug users with unmet needs 
slipping through the cracks. 

As is claimed in a recent survey commissioned by 
the National Institute on Drug Abuse “ . . . treatment 
for individuals involved with drugs (needs) to offer not 
only two or three approaches, but also a wide variety of 
modalities geared to highly specific needs that go 
beyond merely dealing with a person’s propensity to 
consume drugs.” 

In effect, drug treatment emphasis to date has been 
too restricted, too narrowly defined, perhaps too intent 
on finding the one, single technique which would be the 
“answer” to all the problems of drug abuse. 

The report, prepared by Meteor, Incorporated, under 
contract to the Division of Resource Development of 
NIDA, is a massive effort exceeding 2,000 pages and 
including chapters written by some of the most promi- 
nent drug treatment authorities in the field. 

(The report is one of a series of assessments of treat- 
ment approaches commissioned by NIDA that will be 
emerging in the months to come. ) 

Fortunately, because of the report’s bulk, a sum- 
mary and overview of all the submissions was prepared 
by Dr. Peter Bourne, consultant to the Drug Abuse 
Council. Inc.; Dr. Donald Wesson, psychiatrist and 
chief of the West Coast Polydrug Project (associated 
with the Haight Ashbury clinics); Dr. David Smith, 
medical director of the HAFMC; and Jonica Homiller 
of Meteor. 

The report not only assesses various new treatment 
methods but emphasizes the need to look at the whole 
continuum of treatment services, from the acute crisis 
stage of drug use, through the addict’s rehabilitation 
and integration back into society. 

The point is well made that to date, treatment efforts 
have been spurious, ill-planned, and concentrated on 
only small segments of that continuum. 

The summary discusses this entire continuum partic- 
ularly treatment and rehabilitation programs for spe- 
cific populations— young people (and subgroups 
within), women with special needs, pregnant women, 
criminal users and diversion programs, homosexuals, 
ethnic, cultural and social groups, and others. 

But among its most interesting recommendations 
are those reserved for a small group of relatively new 
individual treatment techniques which can be scientifi- 
cally measured and which relate to the psychophysiol- 
ogical factors that induce drug seeking behavior. 

These recommendations cover many variations of 
pharmacological treatment, among them Darvon N and 
propranolol, extend to acupuncture, biofeedback, hyp- 
nosis, meditation, and they even touch lightly on elec- 
trosleep, and nutritional therapy. 

This is how the summary judges the potential of 
these various techniques; 

Biojeedback- technique alters neurological and behavioral 


The recent use of acupuncture in the treatment of 
addiction dates from the work of Dr. H. L. Wen who in 
Hong Kong in 1972 alleviated withdrawal symptoms of 
40 heroin and opium add.icts treated on an inpatient 
basis for up to three weeks. 

The technique involves applying acupuncture needles 
to the “lung” points of the ears and then attaching the 
needles to an electro stimulator for approximately 30 

This procedure does rapidly alleviate withdrawal 
symptoms, and although it has to be repeated with 
steadily decreasing frequency over a period of several 
days, it appears to be very effective in maintaining 
patients in relative comfort. 

Slight variations, such as staple techniques, are used 
in certain locations in the United States. 

Acupuncture does fit into the same constellation of 
treatment methods as transcendental meditation, hyp- 
nosis, and biofeedback. But it does appear to have a 
more direct physiological effect on the brain than do 
other “relaxation” techniques. Some believe that it 
acts by suppressing para sympathetic discharges in the 

The conclusion reached in the report is that acupunc- 
ture remains an apparently effective, but as yet inade- 
quately researched and tested approach to treatment. 


This technique also appears to alter neurological and 
behavioral functions through either self-induced or 
technically-induced events. 

A prime authority in this field. Dr. Joe Kamiya, of 
the University of California, contends that in the pro- 
cess of achieving self-control of physiological activity, 
the individual comes to discover many of the psycho- 
logical variables of mood, attention level, and a variety 
of physiological and emotional sensations. 

Kamiya suggests that biofeedback training effec- 
tively reduces anxiety levels, a prime motivating fac- 
tor in the drug taking behaviour of many addicts. 

At the same time he remains cautious about the 
potential of biofeedback in the concern that few addicts 
would want to become actively involved in such a long 
training process. 


Hypnosis can link some aspects of drug-using behav- 
ior and the drug itself with nausea, anxiety and other 
aversive situations. It can also produce a re-living of 
the drug experience without the injection of drugs and 
it can allow the patient to go back to the pre-drug using 
years to relearn certain behavioral patterns. 

To date, however, the data on hypnosis is entirely 
empirical and no matter how effective it might be in 
some patients, there is considerable doubt that it would 
be practical to implement on a large scale. As the sum- 
mary suggests, hypnosis will always have to be limited 
to a relatively small number of competent practition- 
ers of hypnosis. 


The issue appears to be not whether transcendental 
meditation can be effective (given a highly motivated 
subject, it certainly can be), but how appealing this 
treatment methodology might be to a large, young pop- 

Dr. Herbert Benson, of Harvard, warns against the 
cultism which has surrounded the use of transcendental 
meditation. He says that the hypometabolic state 
achieved with this technique can be attained in a vari- 
ety of other self-induced ways which are free of cultic, 
religious overtones. 

There is nothing unique about transcendental medita- 
tion that makes it different from other meditation 
states, says Dr. Benson. 

The physiological process involved in transcendental 
meditation seems in many ways to be similar to both 
hypnosis and biofeedback. 

Acupuncture, hypnosis, meditation and biofeedback 
all have overlapping characteristics in that they are 
capable of inducing relaxation and reducing those phe- 
nomena that lead to drug use. However, all four 
approaches require a lot of interest and motivation 
within the patient. 

“Limited appeal, not the efficacy of the technique, 
appears to remain the most serious problem in achiev- 
ing widespread use of these treatment methods,” says 
the report. 

Besides recommending further investigation of these 
approaches to drug abuse treatment, the summary sug- 
gests more precise evaluations of some purely pharma- 
cological techniques which are now getting a good deal 
of attention. 

The summary says that despite all the attention paid 
to Darvon N, there is little evidence of a pharmacologi- 
cal nature that this chemical has anything to offer over 
more traditional drug substitution approaches. What it 
does have, however, is a remarkably high acceptance 
among some addict populations, an acceptance which is 
not granted methadone. 

Consequently, the emphasis of further study in 
respect to Darvon should be directed to examining the 
reasons for this acceptance. 

The use of propranolol has also received a good deal 
of attention recently but “on balance, this drug has 
very little to offer,” says the summary. 

A number of other pharmacological approaches to 
detoxification have been reported recently, insulin, hal- 
operidol, Lomotil, Bionar. Other pharmacological 
agents as well as several variations of “cold turkey” 
have also been cropping up. But the report is clearly 
sceptical about their value. 

“The refinement of existing pharmacological tech- 
niques and the ability to make them generally avail- 
able, particularly for detoxification, is clearly more 
important and valid than searching for new chemical 
agents,” declares the summary. 

The report also comments oh electrosleep (cerebral 
electro stimulation), and nutritional therapy, but finds 
investigations in these areas far too preliminary to 
make any conclusions. 

In respect to the nutritional therapy, there is a lot of 
scepticism about the theory that metabolic imbalance, 
particularly hypovitaminosis and hypoglycemia con- 
tribute to the development of polydrug use. 

It is acknowledged that heavy drug users tend to neg- 
lect their nutrition and appear debilitated when they 
present for treatment. 

But the claim that nutritional imbalance is a cause of 
the drug use is still nothing more than a notion. 

Pages— THE JOURNAL, February 1, 1975 

A device for massaging our own egos? 

The ever-enlarging drug empire 

SAN FRANCISCO— A swan song 
or the ill-natured quack of a lame 

With that prefacing question. 
Senator Harold Hughes, chairman 
of the North American Congress 
on Alcohol and Drug Problems, 
presented some candid observa- 
tions as to what the future may 
hold “in our national effort to 
combat chemical addictions”. 

Sen. Hughes, who is retiring 
from the United States Senate 
after 16 years as an elected offi- 
cial, said professionals in the field 
have “embarked on a new phase 
of a long struggle— a phase that 
has great and unprecedented 
potentials along with a few sub- 
stantial hazards. 

“However great our efforts, we 
how know we are not going to 
stamp out the use and abuse of 
dangerous substances. 

“Realistically, we can't expect 

to conquer drug dependency as we 
conquered polio and tuberculosis. 
Perhaps all we can do is educate, 
minimize the damage, and make 
sure the measures we take don’t 
compound the problems, as in the 
case when we retain criminal pen- 
alties for the use of marijuana.” 

Sen. Hughes told an opening ses- 
sion audience of some 2,000 that 
workers in the field must subject 
themselves to serious self- 

Comparing the national under- 
taking in the alcohol/drug area to 
the waging of a war, Sen. Hughes 
said: “We have, in effect, a new 
civilian army that has now 
become institutionalized. The 
alcohol and drug industrial com- 
plex is not as powerful as its mili- 
tary-industrial counterpart, but 
nonetheless there are some strik- 
ing similarities. 

“We have a growing body of 


trained and skilled counsellors 
who are the soldiers in the field. 
We have the ever-enlarging struc- 
ture of scientists, ‘think-tank’ per- 
sonnel. administrators, govern- 
mental funding agencies, lobby- 
ists, associations, consultants, 
evaluators, technical assistants, 
and so on. 

“A huge and influential indus- 
trial empire produces most of the 
substances we are engaged in 
trying to control.” 

Sen. Hughes, largely responsi- 
ble for the Comprehensive Alcohol 
Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, 
Treatment and Rehabilitation Act 
of 1970. posed some sobering ques- 

• Are (we) truly interested in 
helping human beings in need, or 
is our involvement a device for 
massaging our own egos by regi- 

menting people in the guise of 
helping them? 

• Do (we) feel ourselves begin- 
ning to surrender to the false glory 
of bureaucratic empire-building? 

’• Are (we) in the alcohol and drug 
treatment scene because we like 
the gamesmanship— the exhilara- 
tion of writing grant applications, 
running training programs, doling 
out money, travelling around giv- 
ing advice, savoring the title of 

• Have (we) become so hidebound 
with our own methods and 
approaches to the problem that we 
can’t fairly consider alternative 

• Do (we) feel ourselves drifting 
into the carping criticism syn- 
drome— the stage where we sit 
back and find fault with the crea- 
tive workers in the field, split 
hairs over the language of 
research findings, and wrangle 

fruitlessly over issues that don’t 
make an ounce of difference to the 
sick person, the supposed benefi- 
ciary of all this effort? 

“These are all human failings, 
but we can resist them as long as 
we are aware of their existence 
and are willing to subject our- 
selves to the necessary introspec- 

Sen. Hughes said that while 
there is great reason for encour- 
agement over the progress of the 
last few years, the remaining 
unknowns should suffice to keep 
workers from overconfidence. 

Although much has been 
learned about addiction, success 
rates are still far too low in rela- 
tion to the size of the overall 
effort . . . “in fact, we haven’t 
even agreed on what success’ 
itself is,” he said. 

"Also, we haven’t yet learned 
how to orchestrate a comprehen- 










Drug abuse-crime 
link documented 

A STUDY of a more than 43,000 
drug addicts who entered treat- 
ment programs between 1968 and 
1973 has documented the heavy 
involvement of these abusers in 
criminal activities prior to treat- 

The study showed that more 
than 80% of the drug abusers had 
been arrested at least once, 

:iuv.a iwu VI lllt«c atTCSts,- W7o-naa 

one or more criminal convictions 
and 28% had been in prison for one 
or more years. 

Dr. John Ball of Temple Univer- 
sity Medical Center’s department 
of psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pa., 
suggested results actually under- 
estimate the criminal behavior of 
the subjects “as it is known that 
only a small proportion of crimi- 
nal behavior results in apprehen- 
sion and arrest”. 

For instance, he said, 43% of 
the male drug abusers and 34% of 
the females stated they had a 
steady illegal source of income. 
This demonstrates “the continual 
involvement in a criminal behav- 
ior pattern among these narcotic 

While 80% of the overall patient 
population had been arrested prior 
to treatment, significant regional 
differences in arrest rates were 
noted, with rates higher on the 
East and West coasts and lower in 
the Midwest and South, he said. 

A difference in prior criminal- 
ity was also seen between male 
and female patients, with male 
patients more likely to have been 
arrested, to have had repeated 
arrests, to have been convicted, 
and to have been incarcerated, he 

While 86% of the males had 
been arrested prior to treatment 
and most of them at least four 
times, only 77% of the females 
had been arrested and only 27% of 
these had four or more arrests, he 

Also, while 54% of the males 
had been incarcerated for more 
than a month and 20 %i for at least 
three y^ars, only 30% of the 
females had been in jail for at 
least a month and only 6% for 
three years or more, he continued. 

Dr. Ball considered the finding 
that one-fifth of the males had 
been in jail for three years or 
longer was especially significant 
as it indicated “that a sizeable 
proportion of the male patients 
are deeply enmeshed in a criminal 

He also said it was important to 
note that the findings do not sup- 

port the hypothesis of “greater 
deviance or pathology” among the 
female drug abuse population. 

The findings indicate the treat- 
ment of persistent drug abusers 
requires considerable attention to 
penal rehabilitation as well as to 
the illicit consumption of drugs,” 
he emphasized. 

Information for the study was 
obtained from the national data 
bank of treatment data at the 
Institute of Behavioral Research, 
Fort Worth, Texas. The data bank 
contains some 200,000 records on 
the 43,000 patients included in the 

Almost 4,000 people 
involved in the alcohol 
and drug field gathered 
in San Francisco, 
December 13-18, for 
what is believed to be 
the biggest conference 
of its kind ever held . . . 
The North American 
Congress on Alcohol 
and Drug Problems. 
continue its coverage 
of this conference in its 
next issue. 

For alcoholics 

Sexual counsel! 

BY HELPING the alcoholic 
accept himself as a person and 
adjust to his own sexuality, the 
counsellor may be removing the 
problem which could otherwise 
drive the alcoholic back to drink. 

Jack E. Ryan, community alco- 
holism director for Youngstown, 
Ohio, suggested this type of coun- 
selling may be essential to the full 
recovery of the addict. 

The average addict may never 
have made an adjustment to his 
sexuality, said Ryan. 

He said he had noticed the 
problem in approximately 100 men 
between the ages of 25 and 35 who 
were successfully overcoming 
drug and alcohol abuse until they 

Tough exterior a facade 
pregnant addict ‘Vulnerable” 

WHILE SHE may appear as ‘a 
tough as nails street woman”, the 
pregnant woman on methadone or 
heroin is as “vulnerable and sensi- 
tive as anyone”. 

She also faces some severe emo- 
tional crises which must be han- 
dled with compassion and under- 
standing, says Arthur Maglin of 
Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. 

Some of the crises, and some of 
the steps which may help to alle- 
viate them, were outlined by Mr. 

One real source of anxiety for 
street mothers, he said, is they 
are likely to have their babies 
legally removed from their care 
since addicts are generally consid- 
ered unfit to care for children. 
Often, he said, this is true as the 
addiction can cause the mother to 
put her drug needs ahead of her 
children’s needs. 

Another source of stress for 
mothers is the knowledge that 
their babies willl probably have 
withdrawal symptoms after birth, 
he continued. 

In addition, many street addicts 
do little or nothing to prepare 
themselves for motherhood until 
the pregnancy is quite advanced, 
he said. This may be because they 
refuse to accept the pregnancy; or 
are ambivalent. In the case of her- 
oin addiction, a woman may not 
know she is pregnant until her 
stomach makes it obvious, he con- 

Because the street addict so fre- 
quently refuses to acknowledge 
pregnancy, or because she 


actually doesn’t know she is preg- 
nant until the pregnancy is far 
advanced, abortion is frequently 
not an option, he noted. 

And, since the pregnant addict 
is usually unwed, she must face 
the emotional crises involved with 
her pregnancy, alone. Many enroll 
in rehabilitation programs once 
pregnancy is discovered and get 
some support there, he added. 

Maglin suggested mothers on 
methadone maintenance have 
some different, but very real 
problems. Sometimes they enter 
programs because of the new 
responsibility and sometimes 
because they need drugs but are 
no longer able to raise money 
through prostitution, he said. 

The woman on methadone 
maintenance also must consider— 
and must be helped in her decision 
—whether she is mature enough to 
take care of a child, whether the 
child would conflict with her other 
goals, whether there is someone 
to share in child care responsibili- 
ties, whether adequate housing is 
available and whether there is 
financial support, he continued. 

He said pregnant women who 
enter methadone programs 
usually do so late in pregnancy but 
that many women already in pro- 
grams do become pregnant. Many 
of the latter group, Maglin added, 
are living with men also in the pro- 
gram who, contrary to most 
views, report increased sexual 
activity after joining the program. 

Methadone mothers fear what 
methadone might mean to their 
children and often start adjusting 
dose levels, which can be damag- 
ing to the fetus, he cautions. No 
correlation between dosage levels 
in the mother and withdrawal 
symptoms in the infant has yet 
been shown, he added. 

Methadone mothers often are 
anxious about whether they will 
be able to get off methadone 
before their children know that 
they were once “junkies,” he said. 
Also, many are concerned that 
they are not legally married. 

Maglin stressed that the expect- 
ant mother has to be told again 
and again that there is no 
evidence methadone is harmful to 
the child, aside from the with- 
drawal symptoms. Yet, they must 
also be told that like any other 
medication, methadone is not to 
be taken lightly and that careful 
supervision is necessary. 

The mother also needs reassur- 
ance that her baby won’t be taken 
away from her, which does occa'- 
sionally happen in rehabilitation 
programs, he said. A social 
worker can prevent this by help- 
ing the mother prepare for and 
care for the baby adequately. 

The social worker must also 
give emotional support without a 
judgmental attitude, he continued, 
and must “patiently repeat over 
and over” the information the 
mother needs to know such as 
keeping clinic appointments and 
avoiding irregularities in methe- 
done dosage. 

became involved in a relationship 
involving sex. 

He defined “sexuality” as the 
quality which allows a man to 
relate to other people as a man, or 
a women to relate to other people 
as a woman. 

Relating is the key, he sug- 
gested, since 'addicts probably 
never have learned to relate to 
other people. And while sexuality 
is the deepest expression of a per- 
sonal relationship, addictive peo- 
ple tend to keep sex separate from 
relating, he s'aid. 

While the addict has learned the 
basics of sex, “it’s quite possible 
he has never used sex without the 
presence of a mind-altering chem- 

The problem with alcohol 
begins in teen years, frequently to 
give an individual the “nerve to 
make out” with a member of the 
opposite sex ; The primary aim is 
personal gratification, not the sat- 
isfaction of his partner, he said. 

When this individual sobers up, 
years later “he has to face the 
fact he has always used sex sel- 

“You have often heard it said 
that the emotional development of 
an alcoholic stops when he begins 
to use chemicals, and does not 
start again until the drinking 
stops,” he said. 

“Therefore, we have a chrono- 
logically and biologically mature 
individual who is emotionally still 
a kid. He has used sex selfishly 

as tl 







it Ibi 









Women shunth 
during pregnoni 

WOMEN WHO drink cut their 
alcohol consumption nearly in half 
during pregnancy, a study of 156 
women has shown. 

The average alcohol consump- 
tion dropped, in the group, from 
about five standard highballs per 
week before pregnancy to two dur- 
ing pregnancy, the study revealed. 

Ruth E. Little of Johns Hopkins 
University and Francia A. Schultz 
of the University of Washington 
reported that most of the women 
in the study drank “just to be 
sociable" although about one-third 
of them said alcohol helped them 
to relax. 

The study also showed beer was 
the favorite beverage of the heavy 
drinkers— those who had five or 
more drinks at least several times 
a week— while none of the women 
drank wine heavily. 




1(1 S[ 


THE JOURNAL. February 1. 1975— Page 9 

Treatment programs must recognize 
^^speciaV’ needs of women addicts 

Harold Hughes 

« sive social policy for dealing with 
® alcohol and drug problems— the 
tla- most effective mix of criminal 
till law enforcement, education, 
(li treatment, the use of legal con- 
® trols on availability, and changes 
in social environment, to mini- 
twl mize the damage of substance 


ARE THERE distinct patterns of 
drug abuse peculiar to women? 

Do women drug addicts have 
special treatment needs which are 
not being met? 

Not surprisingly, a number of 
people think the answer to these 
questions is yes and some of them 
explained why at the congress. 

Marsha Martin, a drug program 
coordinator from Sacramento, 
Cal., identified several patterns of 
drug abuse she felt were peculiar 
to females and which have distinct 
implications for treatment. 

The woman alcoholic, she said, 
has played her traditional femi- 
nine role, nurturing and caring for 
her family, but once her children 
leave, she turns to alcohol to com- 
bat her loneliness, anger and 

A large number of women 
become addicted to such legal and 

filing "a must" 

isiip and unemotionally for years.” 

Ryan contended that the self- 
ifc image of the alcoholic decreased 
»i; as the drinking increased and 
w since the alcoholic couldn’t love 
spit himself, he could not love anyone 
else, or accept love. 

Homosexual encounters during 
sHj addiction can also cloud the sexual 
fU identity of the alcoholic, he said, 
lily ,, He advised counsellors who 
a- * ,'e not ‘‘come to grips” with 

‘‘their own sexuality to refer the 
alcoholic to someone more capa- 
ble of dealing with the problem, 
edtlif Sobriety in a married couple 
issitii may disclose a non-alcoholic part- 
jilfe ner who is chronologically and 
cte- emotionally aged 40 and an alco- 
holic partner who is chronologi- 
itoli cally aged 40 but emotionally 17, 
ailys he noted. 

The idea that the alcoholic has 
'oli to be a “man" may be a new and 
frightening experience as he real- 
tlieiii- izes that another person really 
gii loves him and wants to know and 
be involved with him, he contin- 
jctiR ued. 

The single recovering alcoholic 
may need to understand that a 
iigj relationship must be developed on 
ufiits many levels before a sexual 
encounter is involved. This is par- 
((sso: ticularly difficult for someone 
fjjiiij used to bar-room romances, since 
he will have trouble understanding 
(liijiif that someone will accept him as 
]i)t® he is and that he does not need to 
illvsij prove himself, he said. 

(ijislli The alcoholic who had homosex- 

the bottle 
egiancy; study 

ual involvements may help find 
his identity by recalling who he 
watches walk down a street or 
what ads catch his eye, he contin- 

The counsellor, Ryan noted, 
should help the alcoholic to realize 
“that he is a person for whom sex 
activity is a viable but not a 
required option”. 

1 Ikii 






Prior to pregnancy, 12 of the 
group were classified as heavy 
drinkers and 24 as abstainers. By 
the eighth month of pregnancy, 
the number of heavy drinkers had 
dropped to three and of abstainers 
risen to 36. 

Age and parity did not appear 
related to drinking during preg- 
nancy. although women with 
fewer children tended to drink 
more during pregnancy, Ms. Little 

However, a relationship was 
noted between alcohol consump- 
tion and smoking and this pers- 
isted throughout pregnancy. The 
women who consumed the most 
alcohol were also the heaviest 
smokers. A possible relationship 
between heavy use of alcohol and 
use of psychoactive drugs during 
pregnancy was also noted. 

30 years old: 
at the brink 

THIRTY IS the magic age, the 
turning point which determines 
whether a heavy drinker will or 
will not become an alcoholic, 
studies suggest. 

Discussing evidence for the 
role of heredity in the alcohol and 
drug fields, Mr. Mark Schuckit of 
the University of California San 
Diego School of Medicine, said in 
this society males between the 
ages of 18 and 25 tend to drink 

Anyone who has a predisposi- 
tion to drinking doesn’t have to 
seek alcohol for any reason if he is 
normal, he continued. 

But by the age of 30, the alco- 
holic continues to drink, and drink 
heavily, while the non-alcoholic 
doesn’t, he said. 

Schuckit said studies on the role 
of heredity in the development of 
alcoholism have been contradic- 
tory and have not provided a defi- 
nitive answer. 

Twin studies have shown a sig- 
nificantly higher association in 
identical than non-identical twins 
in alcoholic populations, he said. 
Also, in some families alcoholism 
and alcoholic tendencies seem to 
vary with a specific genetic mar- 
ket, he noted. 

Studies of half siblings who had 
a single alcoholic parent but were 
raised separately have shown that 
the biological alcoholic parent 
was a more important factor in 
predisposition to alcoholism than 
either a broken home or the drink- 
ing habits of the parent who raised 
the child, he reported. 

Yet, the person with a biologic 
alcoholic parent who was raised 
by another alcoholic parent had a 
lower risk for alcoholism than the 
person with the biologic alcoholic 
parent who was raised by a non- 
alcoholic parent. This suggests 
that those raised in an alcoholic 
family have a first-hand warning 
and stay away from alcohol, 
despite a predisposition, he said. 

quasi-legal drugs as barbiturates, 
sedative hypnotics, diet pills, and 
pep pills, frequently given to them 
by their physicians as an accept- 
able way to' solve the “emotional 
stress” to which women are con- 
sidered especially vulnerable, she 

The female narcotics abuser is 
invariably someone’s ‘‘old lady” 
who has been “exploited by men” 
and has become addicted because 
of her involvement with men, she 

She suggested the feminist 
movement will have a strong 
impact both on women addicts 
who seek treatment and on the 
type of treatment they receive. 

Women who are aware of the 
sex stereotype problems will 
examine their own personal goals 
and motives, be better equipped to 
handle their own rehabilitation, 
and be ready to move in new 
directions, she said. 

More women are now seeking 
treatment even though many ele- 
ments of society seek to protect 
the woman addict, she said, 
explaining that women addicts are 
often arrested on other charges 
and that physicians often treat 
women addicts for ‘‘emotional 
distress” or some ‘‘psychoneu- 
rotic condition” in an attempt to 
shield her from the stigma of drug 

This, she said, only prolongs the 
problem and physicians ought to 
“eliminate the idea that a woman 
needs chemical help for stress”. 

In terms of treatment, women 
ought to have their own living 
quarters and child care services 
should be available. Also, she 
said, the number of women on the 
treatment staff should be propor- 
tional to the number of women in 

Esta Solder, who surveyed a 
number of women in treatment at 
the mental health center in New 
Haven, Conn., reported that the 
women felt they were treated as 
“sluts” or “whores” by the treat- 
ment staff, regardless of their 
backgrounds and simply because 
they were addicts. 

The women in treatment said 
they were given contradictory 
images; While the image of the 
straight, middle-class woman, the 
“monogomous, lady-like house- 
wife”, was extolled, male counsel- 
lors, at the same time, tried to 
seduce female patients, she said. 

Few of the women said they 

were encouraged to be independ- 
ent or creative and few found posi- 
tive aspects in treatment, 
although some found at least one 
staff member interested in them 
as individuals. 

Treatment programs will 
always be difficult for women as 
long as the programs try to tell 
them what they are and who they 
ought to be, she stated. 

In a survey of drug-use among 
middle-aged housewives in a Mas- 
sachusetts community, John S. 
Down of the department of mental 
health discovered that a substan- 
tial number of women use mood- 
altering medications, but do not 
view these medications as a prob- 
lem for themselves. 

The survey included women in 
150 households, of whom 19% 
reported using mood-altering 
medications. Most commonly 
used were diazepam, chloridiaze- 
poxide hydrochloride and butalbi- 
tal. More than half used the medi- 
cations for emotional problems 
while the others took the medica- 
tions for physical reasons. 

Less than half took the drugs 

daily and 75% had taken the drug 
for more than a year. Yet only two 
of the women felt the medication 
was a problem and none felt they 
were dependent. 

Four women in the study said 
they drank more than twice a 
week and none of the women 
reported the use of illicit drugs, he 

The study did not indicate a sub- 
stantial group of women who 
abuse medication but do not seek 
treatment, he said. None of. the 
women had any desire to discuss 
their use of medication with a 
social worker or a self-help group 
and none felt they were abusing 

He defined two significant dif- 
ferences between the women who 
used the mood-altering drugs and 
those who did not. 

The women who used the drugs 
were, first, more likely to have 
friends who used similar medica- 
tions and second, less likely to 
have children living at home than 
those who did not. No other signif- 
icant differences between the two 
groups were noted, he said. 

F etal growth affected 
by methadone dosage 

THE SIZE of the baby born to a 
mother taking methadone during 
pregnancy appears related to the 
size of the dose during the first 

As analysis of birth weights and 
use of heroin or methadone by the 
mother during pregnancy at the 
Albert Einstein College of Medi- 
cine in the Bronx, New York, has 
shown that the larger the dose of 
methadone in the first trimester 
of pregnancy, the larger the baby. 

Dr. Stephen R. Kandall of the 
department of pediatrics, sug- 
gested it could be due to one of 
three causes— altered fetal car- 
bohydrate metabolism leading to 
hyperglycemia, (the same mecha- 
nism which frequently leads to the 
overgrowth of the babies of diabe- 
tic mothers); endocrine changes 
involving a pattern of adrenal 
hyperfunction and fetal over- 
growth; or a change in the cell 

Dr. Kandall said the finding 
raises some important questions 

in the management of an addict’s 

The study also showed that 
infants born to mothers using her- 
oin during pregnancy were of low 
birth weight, although most of the 
babies were born at or near term, 
he said. This suggested that heroin 
affected fetal growth rather than 
the length of gestation. 

Birth weights were also low in 
mothers who said they were 
ex-heroin users, suggesting that 
past heroin abuse also contributes 
to growth retardation of the fetus, 
Dr. Kandall said. This would 
mean heroin causes physiologic or 
biochemical changes extending 
beyond the period of addiction, he 

The study involved a review of 
more than 6,600 births, 207 of them 
to mothers using heroin and/or 

Of the 207 infants, only those 
born to mothers who had used her- 
oin in the past had no withdrawal 
symptoms, Dr. Kandall said. 

Raise standards or lose 
financial support: ASA boss 

DRUG PROGRAMS in the United 
States risk losing federal, state, 
and municipal support in the cur- 
rent recession if they do not raise 
their standards. 

This warning was delivered to 
the North American Congress on 
Alcohol and Drug Problems by 
Jerome Hornblass. commissioner 
of New York’s Addiction Services 

Hornblass. whose $80 million- 
a-year agency funds and directs 
160 drug programs caring for 
52.000 addicts, said the drying up 
of funds threatens the existence of 
rehabilitation programs unless 
there is commitment to prove to 
the public and funding authorities 
that the work being done is 

“We can no longer afford slip- 
shod programs that promise much 
but deliver little. The drug pro- 
grams that survive the recession 
economy will be those that oper- 
ate according to professional stan- 
dards. that keep clear up-to-date 

Jerome Hornblass 

treatment records, that keep 
accurate detailed financial 
records, that have dedicated 
staffs more interested in the wel- 
fare of clients than in building lit- 
tle empires or proving their phi- 
losophy of treatment.” 

Speaking at a panel discussion 
examining trends in drug pro- 
gramming. Hornblass said the 
growth of drug programs has 
meant local and state agencies 
are now faced with the problem of 
providing jobs for rehabilitated 
addicts. “ . . . true rehabilitation 
implies freedom from dependency 
in all its forms, including drugs 
and alcohol, but also dependency 
on welfare”. 

He said a major effort is now 
underway in New, York City to 
provide basic education for 
addicts in treatment because 
research has shown many cannot 
read or write well enough to work 
at available jobs. 

Hornblass also stressed the 
necessity of upgrading clinical 
standards in most programs run 
by former addicts. The typical 
drug abuser in 1974 in treatment is 
mentally sicker than the heroin 
addict of the 1960’s, and diagnostic 
and treatment standards must be 
upgraded to deal with this new 
type of client. 

Page 10 — THE JOURNAL. February 1. 1975 


Ukraine drug abuse 

—‘a hideous leprosy^ 

THE FOLLOWING article on 
drug abuse in the Ukraine, was 
written exclusively for The 
Journal by Laura Stump of the 
New York State Drug Abuse 
Control Commission. 

It is based largely on an 
interview, conducted through 
an interpreter, with four offi- 
cials in the Ministry of Public 
Health, Kiev. 

“We view narcotic addiction as 
more than just a public health 
problem. It is a hideous leprosy in 
our society which must be eradi- 

The speaker is Dr. Vsevelod 
Kozluk, head of the department of 
prophylactic medicine, Ministry 
of Public Health, Ukrainian Soviet 
Socialist Republic. 

To this end, the force of social 
pressure is backed by police pow- 
ers, presenting the addict with 
Hobson’s choice— treatment on a 
voluntary basis or “compulsory 

Identifying the drug abuser and 
taking the necessary action is con- 
sidered the social responsibility of 
his fellow workers and neighbors. 

A poor work performance is 
usually the first clue that an indi- 
vidual is a drug abuser. Other 
indications may be revealed at 
periodic medical check-ups in fac- 
tories or in the course of arrest 
for some criminal involvement. 

Pressure is applied on the fam- 
ily to convince the individual vol- 
untarily to enter treatment at a 
local psychiatric clinic. Failing 
this, he is brought up on charges 
at a meeting of the local govern- 
ing council. 

Once the decision of compulsory 
commitment is arrived at, he is 


the exception of a few serious 
newspapers and articles, the 
French press has been useless, or 
even positively damaging, to the 
cause of fighting drugs, Maxime 
Florio of the French Ministry of 
Justice, told the 11th Conference 
of Directors of Criminological 
Research Institutes here. 

The charge was made partly on 
the basis of two studies performed 
in France in 1971. The first dealt 
with the press itself, and the sec- 
ond with how it was interpreted by 
young people, Mr. Florio said. 

The first, an analysis of five 
major Paris dailies in the second 
half of 1971, was made by Domi- 
nique Vaille. She found that 
although there had been no ideo- 
logical exploitation of the drug 
phenomenon by the five papers of 
diverging political slants, there 
had been exploitation of the sensa- 

They attempted to appeal to 
their readers with an unpleasant 
subject; “They accordingly con- 
demned narcotics ‘pushers’ and 
addicts, dramatized situations, 
tried to compete with filmed 
information, looked for pictur- 
esque and sensational angles, 
over-simplified facts rather than 
took pains to explain them, and 
printed information that had not 
been checked and so was inaccur- 

On the whole, there was an 
abundance of odd news items but 
few efforts to explain the phenom- 

The study accused the press of 
accentuating the natural youth- 
adult conflict. It also found that 
readers less than 25 years old 
formed no more than 7%-237o of 
the total readership, depending on 

placed immediately in police cus- 
tody to await transportation and 
admission to the main narcotic 
treatment centre. 

This facility, which serves the 
whole of the Ukraine, is on the 
grounds of a large psychiatric hos- 
pital outside Kiev. 

The period of commitment is 
for five years of which the first 
one or two are spent in “compul- 
sory isolation”. This is followed by 
a period of aftercare with periodic 
reporting to the nearest local psy- 
chiatric clinic. 

The aim is total physiological 
and psychological rehabilitation. 
The cornerstones of the program 
are hard work and intensive ther- 
apy. “We believe work makes the 

Detoxification is accomplished 


by gradually reduced dosages of 
morphine. Methadone is not held 
in high esteem. 

For the first six months of 
treatment the addict is almost 
totally isolated from the rest of 
society. Visitors and gift packages 
are prohibited. 

“We don’t want to make things 
easy or pleasant for him.” 

Work assignments are paid for 
at the prevailing wage. However, 
the individual must pay for his 
room and board at the treatment 
center: The remainder is sent to 
his family. 

Addicts committed on an invol- 
untary basis are not eligible for 
medical insurance benefits. 

A minimum of two therapy ses- 

the newspaper, whereas 80% of 
drug addicts were under 25. 

The second study. Les Lrceens 
devant la drogue, by Dr. F. David- 
son, M. Choquet and M. Depagne, 
found that only 30%-49% of the 
lyceens (high school students in an 
academically-oriented program) 
surveyed, read a daily newspaper. 

Sixty per cent challenged the 
effectiveness of information cam- 
paigns even when they were 
totally opposed to drugs them- 
selves; of these, 15%-19% thought 
that such campaigns encouraged 

LONDON— Tests for traces of the 
muscle building anabolic steroids 
will, in future, be performed at 
meetings under the European Ath- 
letic Association. 

Anabolic steroids have long 
been banned but have been used 
by most top athletes in events 
where muscles count. such as the 
shot-put, discus, hammer, and 

Major campaign 
for Glasgow 

EDINBURGH— A major cam- 
paign against alcoholism in Scot- 
land, which has the highest rate in 
the United Kingdom, is being 
planned for early 1975. 

The campaign will centre on 
Glasgow and cost $105,000 in its 
first stages. 

One of the objectives is to 
remove the stigma which is 
attached to alcoholism in Scot- 
land, often for religious reasons. 

sions daily with a psychiatrist or 
psychologist is a required part of 
the treatment program. In addi- 
tion, a psychiatrist is on call 24 
hours a day. 

All therapy is on an individual 
basis. “We don’t feel group ther- 
apy has any effect with drug 

Staff workers at the facility are 
carefully screened. “We don’t 
want anyone around who might be 
influenced by the addicts.” 

Security precautions are rigid— 
the responsibility of the police 

According to Dr. Jeanne 
Koretzky, specialist in psychiatry 
for the Ministry of Public Health, 
it takes at least a year of treat- 
ment for an addict to progress to 
the point where he can withstand 
those pressures of the “outside” 
world that contributed to his 

At the time of this interview, 46 
patients were in the first stage of 
treatment and about 250 were in 
aftercare. A client reverting to 
drug use while in aftercare is 
immediately readmitted to the 
closed treatment centre. Rarely is 
urinalysis used to determine 
reversion to drug use. 

“We know all the techniques 
you use. We can do them too. But 
we feel an experienced psychia- 
trist who knows his patients can 
immediately spot any drug use.” 

people to experiment with drugs. 

Between 62% and 71% thought 
those in control of the mass com- 
munications media were more 
interested in punishing than in 

Mr. Florio said the situation in 
other European countries is, in 
many ways, similar to that in 
France. The often considerable 
activity of the media has been 
considered definitely damaging in 
Norway and Sweden, and difficult 
to evaluate in West Germany. In 
only one country, Austria, did it 

The weight-inducing . drugs 
carry serious health risks includ- 
ing the possibility of jaundice, 
gallstones, and, in women, more 
marked masculine characteris- 

Until recently the drug could 
not be traced in guilty athletes. 
Now, however, doctors at St. 
Thomas’ Hospital, London, have 
developed a test which is effec- 
tive. It was given a trial run at the 
last Commonwealth Games in 
Christchurch, New Zealand. 

Athletes were told they would 
be tested in the European athletic 
championships in Rome earlier 
this year but the threat was not 
implemented. Starting with the 
European Indoor Championships 
in Poland in March, however, 
tests will be routine. Any athlete 
found with traces of the steroid 
will be disqualified. 

Several disadvantages are 
already apparent; European ath- 
letes will be at a great disadvan- 
tage in competing against North 
Americans if similar steps are not 

Said Dr. Koretzky: “We can 
‘declassify’ 90% of those we’ve 
treated if we get them into treat- 
ment within the first year of 

“It becomes much more diffi- 
cult the longer they’ve been 
addicted. And there are a few 
whom we’re never going to be 
able to turn around.” 

Almost all of the addicts are 
males. The average age is close to 
30. Most have criminal records 
and a history of drifting from one 
job to another. 

Dr. Kozluk credits an intensive 
sports program and participation 
in cultural events for the almost 
complete absence of teenage 

“We keep our youngsters too 
busy for them to develop ‘unheal- 
thy interests’.” 

Though the country has an 
intensive education campaign to 
combat the spread of alcoholism 
(which is regarded as separate 
and apart from drug use), there 
are no such efforts in the area of 
drug abuse. 

“The problem is minuscule,” 
said Dr. Kozluk, “and we’re 
afraid if we start showing films 
about drug abuse we might 
develop a ‘morbid curiosity’ 
where none now exists.” 

The penalties for inducing oth- 
ers to use narcotics are stiff— five 
to 10 years in prison— with the 

seem useful, he added. 

He also cited a study in Italy by 
Luigi Cancrini showing that the 
press there had exploited the 
myth of the ‘long-haired, dirty, 
delinquent, weak, ailing, perv- 
erted, left-wing, trouble-making 

In contrast to the generally neg- 
ative actions of the mass media, 
Mr. Florio said, the underground 
press had sought to provide its 
readers with objective informa- 
tion on drugs and on what it meant 
to use them. 

taken there. And, if athletes stop 
taking the steroids a few weeks 
before the meetings, no traces 
will be found in their urine. 

Athletic officials are hoping the 
threat of life-long disqualification 
will be enough to stop what is now 
a world-wide problem in athletics. 

Israel moves up 

JERUSALEM— About 1,000 peo- 
ple in Israel are now using hard 
drugs. Dr Ludwig Tramer, head of 
mental health services in the Min- 
istry of Health here, has told the 
Knesset (Parliament). 

On a percentage basis, he said, 
that puts Israel in the same league 
as France, Italy, England and 
Canada. However, the problem in 
Israel is still less serious than in 
the United States, Japan or Swe- 

He said figures did not include 
hashish users as no recent surveys 
in this area have been done. How- 
ever, the “feeling” is that hashish 
use is declining, he said. 

possibility of a life sentence for 
involving minors in drug abuse, 
according to Dr. Kozluk. 

Morphine is the primary drug of 
abuse and Dr. Kozluk said that, in 
the past, too many citizens 
became morphine addicts through 
irresponsible prescribing of the 
drug by physicians. The medical- 
ly-addicted form a separate cate- 
gory and are maintained on the 

Though denying other drugs of 
abuse. Dr. Kozluk mentioned bar- 
biturates are as rigidly controlled 
as morphine and stressed 
research efforts being made to 
find satisfactory pharmacological 
substitutes for both morphine and 
barbiturates. Heroin, he claimed, 
is unknown in the Soviet Union. 

Professing he knew nothing 
about the drug scene outside of the 
Ukranian Republic, Dr. Kozluk 
nonetheless admitted to having 
heard of black market traffic in 
drugs in port cities, placing the 
onus for this on “seamen and 
other foreigners”. 

From unofficial sources one 
hears of hashish smuggling across 
the borders of the Trans Cauca- 
sian and Central Asian republics 
and the manufacture of hallucino- 
gens in scientific institutes which, 
along with the illegally diverted 
medicinal drugs, are the stock in 
the black market drug trade. 

Supposedly, the use of mari- 
juana is fairly widespread among 
artists and university students. 

Several university students 
questioned on whether they felt 
they had a social responsibility to 
report drug use among their 
peers, answered a unanimous 
“no”. As long as it didn’t harm 
anyone else, drug use was a “pri- 
vate affair”, they said. 

China- USSR 
drugs clash 

THE SOVIET press is broadening 
its campaign against China by 
accusing Peking of taking part in 
large-scale narcotics trafficking 
in order to earn huge profits in 
foreign currency. 

Pravda, the official Communist 
party newspaper, recently con- 
tended that the Chinese leadership 
wanted to preserve Macao as a 
Portuguese colony because the 
enclave, on China’s southeastern 
coast, was a key outlet for an 
opium-smuggling operation by 
Peking in Southeast Asia. 

Previously, according to a 
report in The New York Times 
(Nov. 18, 1974), the Soviet press 
sought to link Peking to drug- 
peddling through selective quotes 
from foreign press. 

The Times report speculates; 
“The new accusations backed, 
Pravda says, by details, suggest 
the Russians are prepared to go 

Meanwhile, a November issue 
of a magazine published by the 
young Communist League, 
includes an article on narcotics 
traffic charging that China built 
up her arsenal of nuclear weapons 
with the help of narcotics sales. 

The article, according to The 
New York Times, asserts that 
China’s trade in narcotics has 
grown to more than double her 
official foreign trade turnover and 
that the Chinese are responsible 
for most of the heroin that is sold 
in the United States. 

The writer of the Molodaya 
Gvardiya article described the 
United States as the epicentre of 
world drug addiction”, says The 

It further quotes the article: 
'Just like the American Mafia, the 
Chinese leaders are actively 
engaged in selling opium and nar- 
cotics because of the fabulous 
profits. The difference is only how 
they use their profits.’ 

'Exploitin g the sensational' 

French press 'useless' in fight against drugs 

Athletes will be screened 

THE JOURNAL, February 1. 1975— Page 11 

More laymen playing 'Dr. ' 

GENEVA— A “new phenome- 
non’’, of self-treatment not only 
with over-the-counter remedies 
but with prescribed drugs, must 
be studied and controlled, a Hun- 
garian expert warned here at an 
international conference. 

Prof. I. J. Bayer, director. 
National Institute for Pharmacy, 
Budapest, said more information 
and better “safety requirements’’ 
are needed in all countries. 

He would ban all drug advertis- 
ing to the general public, further 
restrict availability of drugs, and 
intensify educational efforts. 

The conference.' on drug control 
and evaluation, was sponsored by 
the World Health Organization’s 
European Region and held in Hei- 
delberg under a grant from the 
Federal Republic of Germany. 

. Almost 50 experts from 24 coun- 
tries and agencies participated. 

Prof. Bayer saw two forms of 
growing “misuse”. 

“The patient often ‘persuades’ 
the medical practitioner to pre- 
scribe a medication that the 
patient himself has chosen.’’ he 

“The patient also makes use of 
drugs that have been prescribed, 
paid for by his (insurance or) 
national health service, and accu- 
mulated as ‘household stocks’.” 

Doctors have not paid sufficient 
attention to the phenomenon, the 
official said. Minor tranquillizers 
were called the most striking 
example and allegedly “liberally 
prescribed without much thought 
by practitioners, often at the 
patient’s request, because they 
are ‘relatively harmless’." 

Hungary has long been a major 
producer of pharmaceuticals and 
is often openly called the “drug 
factory of the East”. 

“Pharmacists could also con- 
tribute very valuably to improving 
our knowledge of the true situa- 
tion with regard to self- 
medication.” Prof. Bayer said. 

“Their observations on trends 
and patterns in drug taking should 
be systematically collected. Such 
‘drug consumption monitoring' 
could be undertaken as a pilot pro- 
ject for one or two types such as 
hypnotics, sedatives and tranquil- 
lizers. . . . Studies of this type are 
badly needed, as they could pro- 
vide doctors and authoritieswvith 
the data we need.” 

Eastern as well as Western 

countries’ professions and authori- 
ties have campaigned periodically 
to make people destroy or turn in 
all old prescribed and other medi- 
cation in family cabinets. In one 
collection in an English town 
recently, a 50 year old preparation 
against worms, an older anti- 
snake venom, and thalidomide 

“The pharmacists are crucial,” 
Prof. Bayer said, “as health edu- 
cators in the medicines sector. 
Their key position in self- 
medication must be enlarged to 
include the misuse of prescriptions. 

“The general public is not 
competent to make a diagnosis, to 

choose the appropriate drug for a 
complaint, to establish the correct 
dosage or to evaluate the results 
of treatment. There are no ‘good 
drugs’ and ‘bad drugs’. They are 
not like other ‘consumer goods’, 
and talk of ‘dangerous’ or ‘harm- 
less’ drugs is meaningless when 
laymen choose them. . . . 

“Self-treatment has always 
existed . . . and cannot be pre- 
vented. ... All that health profes- 
sionals can do is to try to defend 
public health by restraining lay- 
men. . . . 

“Health policy is wrong when 
based only on pharmacology. . . . 

Alcohol-cancer link; 
evidence accumulates 

FLORENCE. ITALY— A positive 
association between alcohol con- 
sumption and the morbidity (dis- 
ease rate) of cancers of the phar- 
ynx, esophagus and liver has been 
found among two groups of Fin- 
nish men who are alcohol abusers. 

The study, reported to the Xlth 
International Cancer Congress 
here, was carried out in two parts 
by Dr. T. Hakulinen and his col- 
leagues at the Finnish Cancer 
Registry in Helsinki. 

In the first part of the study, the 
files of the cancer registry on can- 
cers of the esophagus, liver, colon, 
and lung, in men during 1965-68, 
were compared with the names on 
the registry of alcohol abusers of 
the State Alcohol Monopoly. 

The alcohol registry consists of 
some 200,000 men who have been 
registered following conviction for 
drunkenness under sanctions 
imposed by municipal welfare 
boards, or for breach of the regu- 
lations covering alcohol use and 

Dr. Hakulinen said excessive 
morbidity in the men who were on 
the State Alcohol Registry was 
found for cancers of the esopha- 
gus, liver, and lUng but not of the 

The second part of the study 
concerned a group of skid row 
alcoholics in Helsinki who were 
among the 4.400 registered alco- 
holics over the age of 30. 

Dr. Hakulinen said that a per- 

Around the world 


Muslims and non-Muslims alike 
will be liable to between 10 and 
40 strokes of the birch for drink- 
ing, selling, possessing, or mak- 
ing alcohol under a new law in 
Libya. The law was promulgated 
by the government in accordance 
with the principles of Islamic 
law. Last year Muammar Al- 
Kaddaffi, Libya’s leader, had his 
government revive a 
1,400-year-old Islamic religious 
law under which adulterers and 
fornicators will be liable to im- 
prisonment and public flogging. 
Another new law calls for ampu- 
tation of a convicted thief’s right 


Russian scientists claim to have 
discovered a pill that is capable 
of making even heavy smokers 
quit within three weeks. Trud, a 
trade union newspaper, reports 
extensive tests have proven that 
eight out of ten chronic smokers 
were able to quit smoking after a 
20-day course using the pill which 
is based on the alkaloid of anaba- 
zin sulphate, an insecticide com- 
monly used in the USSR. The 
government has given approval 
for commercial production of the 

son in Finland can be registered 
as a chronic abuser of alcohol if he 
has come into custody of a drug 
abuse organization or has been 
sent, or voluntarily applied, to a 
welfare institution for treatment 
of alcoholism, or brought to a 
labor exchange on the basis of 
vagrancy laws. 

When the skid row alcholics 
were compared with the people on 
the cancer registry for 1969-70, an 
excessive morbidity was found in 
them of cancers of the pharynx, 
esophagus and lung. And overall 
their total morbidity of all can- 
cers was higher than expected. 

Dr. Hakulinen said that the 
excess morbidity of lung cancer 
as well as that of the esophagus 
may be attributed to parallel 
heavy smoking. 




A.R.F.'s colorful new booklet, Coffee, Tea, & 
Me, is a primer on drug use and abuse designed 
to serve as an introduction to the subject. 

Brief, simply-worded copy covers drug basics: 
why people use them; how they work in the 
body; and the mechanics of dependence. 

A feature of the booklet 
is a fold-out information- 
packed chart describing, 
in mini-fact-sheet style, 
the most commonly used 

Coffee, Tea, & Me (Cat. No. P-118) is now 
available to purchasers outside the Province 
of Ontario at 45" per copy, with quantity 
discounts on orders of 500 or more. 

Write to: Marketing Services 

Addiction Research Foundation 
33 Russell St., Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 


The Portia Trust is asking more 
than 20 British temperance socie- 
ties to help set up a treatment 
center for alcoholics as an alter- 
native to prison. The group be- 
lieves that perhaps half the UK’s 
prisoners have alcohol problems. 
It also claims that instead of the 
$93 a week spent on each person 
,in prison, an alcoholic treatment 
center could operate at a cost of 
about $65 per person per week. 
The trust is trying to raise about 
$115,000 to build a center some- 
where in the north of England, 
complete with a fence and securi- 
ty system to quell fears that the 
inmates would “escape and roam 
the country”. 


Venezuela, with the highest con- 
sumption rate of cigarettes per 
capita in South America, has just 
passed a new anti-smoking law. 
It is now forbidden to smoke in 
trains, planes, buses, theaters, 
movie houses, museums, super- 
markets, hospitals and any other 
closed places where people gath- 
er. The fines for breaking the law 
range from $230 to $1,100. Offi- 
cials hope this law will cut down 
on Venezuela’s consumption of 
2,064 cigarettes per year, per per- 



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Page 12— THE JOURNAL, February 1, 1975 

Alcohol among Chinese 

New evidence destroys old myths 

HONG KONG— New evidence sug-. 
gests alcoholism among the four 
million Chinese here is not as rare 
as was formerly believed and that 
its incidence may indeed be 

A common impression has been 
that although Chinese may con- 
sume alcohol in large amounts 
and in various forms, they do not 
become alcoholics. 

However, according to Dr K 
Singer, professor of psychiatry, 
Hong Kong University, most liter- 
ature on Chinese drinking patterns 
has been "impressionistic and 

The few clinical studies which 
have been done, have examined 
alcoholism among Chinese in such 

places as New York or Hawaii 
where they are a non-indigenous. 
minority population, writes Dr 
Singer in the Hong Kong Mental 
Health Association’s publication. 
Aspects of Mental Health in Hong 

Dr Singer studied the drinking 
patterns of the Chinese in Hong 
Kong where they are in the major- 
ity and the indigenous population, 
but where there are unique combi- 
nations of Chinese and Western 

He concludes that while the 
incidence of alcoholism here is not 
high, there are signs it may be 

Traditional Chinese attitudes 
and beliefs about alcohol are 


mixed. On the one hand, alcohol is 
believed to help digestion, to 
improve the complexion, and to 
increase blood circulation and 
blood production. 

Certain Chinese wines are cus- 
tomarily taken by women after 
childbirth in order to "improve 
the blood". 

On the other hand, it is widely 
believed that alcohol has such 
harmful effects as shortening the 
life span, impairment of fertility 
and sexual performance, and pre- 
disposition to physical illness. 

Dr. Singer says “the Chinese 
regard drinking as immoral but do 

not feel strongly about it”. There 
is little public concern with drink- 
ing or alcoholism as a problem, 
but aggressive behavior and pub- 
lic drunkenness are looked upon 
with disfavour, he notes. 

Both Chinese and Western alco- 
holic beverages are available in 
Hong Kong. The Chinese types are 
mostly wines made from rice or 
millet and with such ingredients 
as rose petals, tiger bone, pres- 
erved snakes, and various herbs 
for flavor or medicinal potency. 

Western beverages are consid- 
ered by some Chinese here to be 
more palatable and prestigious: 
They are certainly more expen- 
sive. Whisky and brandy, which 
are considered to have medicinal 

In communit y ^laborator y’ 

“^Smoking Sam’ leads concerted effort 


SAN DIEGO, CAL.— A significant 
drop in cigarette smoking among 
junior and senior high school stu- 
dents in San Diego, in a period 
when smoking was increasing 
among the same age groups 

Charles A Ithafer 

nationally, has been reported in a 
community laboratory project 

Project coordinator, Charles 
Althafer, told The Journal that 
evaluation data gathered from 
student and adult samples in the 
community too, reflected “mean- 
ingful progress toward the project 
goal of reducing cigarette con- 
sumption in San Diego county”. 

Among San Diego students in 
grades seven through twelve, the 
percentage of boys smoking ciga- 
rettes dropped substantially in all 
grade levels in the preceding five 
years, Althafer said. 

Among tenth grade boys, the 
figure fell from 31.8% to 19.7%. 
Among seventh grade boys, it 
dropped from 16.9% to 9.5%. 

The proportion of girls smoking 
cigarettes increased in grades 
7-10, but decreased in 11 and 12. In 
the same 1967-71 period, percen- 
tages nationally were increasing 
for both boys and girls. 

The San Diego community labo- 
ratory is a joint pilot project of 
the National Cancer Institute and 
the National Clearinghouse for 
Smoking and Health. 

Designed to determine how 
anti-smoking techniques can be 
adapted for cancer control on a 
community basis, the smoking 
research and education project 
was conducted on a contract basis 
by a consortium of agencies and 

The county medical society 
served as contractor, supported 
by the San Diego County Council 
on Smoking and Health. Council 

members, in addition to the 
county medical society, include 
the city and county schools, the 
Department of Public Health, the 
San Diego Cancer Society, the San 
Diego Heart Association and the 
San Diego Lung Association. 

The San Diego County Council 
on Smoking and Health further 
broadened the community base of 
the project by organizing five 
commissions— schools, adult 
community, health professionals, 
mass media and the military. 
These were composed of inter- 
ested citizens, many of them 
non-agency “consumers ’, who 
helped plan and conduct programs 
in their schools, industries, com- 
munity organizations and profes- 
sional groups. 

The “poly-group” format devel- 
oped a pattern of mutual rein- 
forcement of smoking information 
by areas of overlap. 

Good school programs, for 
example, were reinforced by adult 
programs in the mass media, in 
industry, in medical and dental 
offices, in hospitals, and in every 
feasible milieu. 

“By contrast, before the com- 
munity laboratory program was 
launched, most cigarette control 
efforts were centred in the junior 
high school health education pro- 
grams," Althafer said. 

These efforts were ineffective 
because they received virtually no 
support in the “real ” world out- 
side the schoolroom, he added. 

Highlights of the community 
laboratory activities in the schools 
included classroom demonstra- 
tions by specially selected young 
teachers in elementary schools, 
junior and senior high schools. 
The presentation featured a man- 
nequin called “Smoking Sam,” 
about the size of a 12-year-old boy. 

Sam is equipped with two glass 
jar “lungs” which collect ciga- 
rette smoke drawn in by an aspi- 
rator bulb. As a background to 
their discussion of smoking prob- 
lems, students can see the accu- 
mulation of condensates in Sam’s 
“lungs.” Over 140,000 students 
have taken part in these pro- 

In another school activity, a col- 
oring book was developed for kin- 
dergarten through fourth grade 
students. Based upon a skit by sec- 
ond graders, the book tells a story, 
and children draw their own 
impressions of the story, which 
stresses forest animals and fires 
rather than chronic disease. 

Students from 11 Key Clubs 
were trained to conduct student- 
to-student presentations in ele- 
mentary schools and junior high 
schools feeding into their own sen- 
ior high school. 

“Nicoteena" was the name 
’ given to hundreds of small dolls 

distributed to all elementary 
schools in the county. Nicoteena 
is constructed around a simple 
aspirator bulb, enabling the 
teacher to draw cigarette smoke 
through filter paper in a graphic 
demonstration of tars and other 
condensates left on the surface. 

Two special teacher aids were 
distributed to city, county and 
parochial schools. One was a cur- 
riculum guide, color -keyed so the 
teacher could readily select teach- 
ing content by grade level and aca- 
demic area. The other was a sci- 
ence teacher’s kit consisting of 
experiments, color slides, over- 
lays and other resources. 

In the health professional field, 
a series of scientific meetings was 
aimed at physicians, dentists, psy- 
chologists, nurses and other 
health workers. Cigarette sales 
have been banned or curtailed in 
most hospitals in the county. 
Office signs reading “For Your 
Health’s Sake and the Comfort of 
Others, No Smoking, Please” 

A back view of Smoking Sam 

were placed in over 400 offices. 
Both the American Medical Asso- 
ciation and the American Dental 
Association have developed their 
own versions of this sign. 

“Quit smoking” groups were 
coordinated by a psychiatrist, and 
600 pairs of Gough-Wentworth 
lung sections distributed for physi- 
cians’ use in counselling patients. 

In-service nursing education 
programs were presented at var- 
ious hospitals, dealing with etiol- 
ogy, diagnosis, treatment and 
rehabilitation of cigarette-related 
.chronic disorders such as cancer, 
cardiovascular disease and 
obstructive lung maladies. 

Adult community programs 
have included effective exhibits 
displayed at the Southern Califor- 
nia Exposition, which attracts 
50,000 visitors annually, and at 
numerous fairs and shows. 

Demonstrations and exhibits 
were presented at many major 
shopping centres, and pulmonary 
function tests were offered to the 
public to allow comparison of 
"smokers' test results with 
accepted norms. 

Industry interest in the anti- 
smoking drive has been strongly 
stimulated, beginning with an 
Environmental and Occupational 
Health Conference, stressing ciga- 
rette problems, and supported by 
the San Diego Chamber of Com- 
merce and the county medical 

A broad spectrum of activities 
was conducted in the mass media, 
featuring amateur and profes- 
sional sports stars, and a regular 
newsletter. Two major television 
documentaries were filmed— the 
“Smoking Spiral” broadcast on 
National Educational Television, 
and the “National Smoking Test" 
shown on the Columbia Broadcast- 
ing System. 

Among the mass communica- 
tions devices produced and dis- 
tributed in large quantities were 
attention-compelling automobile 
bumper stickers reading “Ciga- 
rettes are Bummers” and “Morti- 
cians Dig Smolcers.” 

The community laboratory pro- 
ject has expended more than 
$850,000, but Althafer noted that 
“compared to other saturation 
campaigns like new commercial 
product promotions or political 
election campaigns, this is a rela- 
tively modest cost, and on a per 
capita basis the outlay for a 
five-year period does not even 
approach that for cigarette adver- 
tising in a single year.” 

He paid tribute to the essential 
role of physicians, dentists, 
nurses, psychologists and other 
health professionals, without 
whose support the program would 
“lack credibility and become 
steeped in moralizing”. 

qualities, are the most popular of 
Western beverages. 

For the 10-year period from 1960 
to 1970, Dr. Singer notes, con- 
sumption of Chinese beverages 
has remained fairly constant. 
However, consumption of Western 
types has steadily increased to the 
point where the total consumption 
of both types by adult males in 
Hong Kong may not be much less 
than consumption by U.S. males. 

Despite this increase, alcohol- 
ism in Hong Kong, unlike narcotic 
addiction, has so far not been a 
major social problem. Law 
enforcement officials consider the 
relationship between drinking and. 
criminal offences to be negligible: 
Less than 2% of all arrests involve 
excessive drinking. The incidence 
of alcoholic cirrhosis has not been 
high. Apart from Hong Kong’s 
psychiatric hospital, there are no 
facilities for prevention and treat- 
ment. An Alcoholics Anonymous 
group does exist in Hong Kong but 
it is made up mainly of expa- 
triates rather than local Chinese. 

While warning of the dangers of 
speculation in explaining this low 
rate of alcoholisin. Dr. Singer sin- 
gles out for special mention “the 
traditional Chinese socio-cultural 
structure, informed by Confucian 
philosophy which proscribes 
excesses, teaches propriety in 
interpersonal behavior, and 
stresses emotional control rather 
than emotional display”. 

The restriction of drinking to 
meals and the lack of drinking- 
centred institutions and groups 
may also be significant he says. 

Under Western influence some 
bars have been established in 
Hong Kong, but these are mostly 
patronized by tourists and expa- 

Pacific States 
expand program 

KUALA LUMPUR-The 19 West- 
ern Pacific states in the World 
Health Organization’s region have 
agreed to expand their joint pro- 
gram to control drug dependence 
by including alcoholism. 

Health officials of the member 
states, including the United States 
of America and the United King- 
dom, met in Malaysia for the 25th 
annual meeting. 

“While drug dependence at pre- 
sent affects relatively few ... of 
the region’s population,” they 
concluded after discussion and 
reports, “it could become a more 
widespread and grievous problem 
in the future. ... 

“The problems created by 
excessive use of alcohol and 
tobacco are of great importance 
in this region.” 

The program is supervised by 
the WHO Office in Manila, whose 
specialists are assisted by consult- 
ants from many parts of the 
world, including physicians, phar- 
macologists, psychiatrists, behav- 
ioral scientists and public offi- 

The plan includes epidemiologi- 
cal reporting; exchange of 
research findings dealing with 
prevention, treatment and reha- 
bilitation: health education strat- 
egy! and professional training. 



Medical Inquiries Solicited 

Abstinence and 
Maintenance Programs 

8917 W. Cermak Road 
North Riverside, 111. 60546 USA 
Telephone 312-447-3322 

THE JOURNAL, February 1, 1975— Page 13 

Training centre stresses alternative lifestyles 


sentence in a brochure of the 
National Drug Abuse Training 
Centre here, strikes the unini- 
tiated as something of a cop-out : 

•Vo aitenip! is made lo provide the 
trainee with any kind of clear and 
final solutions to any aspect of the 
drug problem . 

But it means exactly what it 
says, according to Thomas J. Cah- 
ill. Jr., deputy coorinator of the 

"We don’t have the answer to 
the ‘drug abuse problem’. As far 
as I’m concerned, no one has the 
answer. But what we can do for 
our trainees is show them the var- 
ious elements that go into what we 
perceive the phenomenon to be. 

"We follow the school of 
thought that considers the drug 
addiction problem as really a peo- 
ple problem.” he adds. “For the 
most part you’re talking about 
people who have problems they 
cope with— in certain circum- 
stances— by using drugs. Other 
people use different coping mech- 
anisms-like eating too much or 
too little, working too hard or too 
little, smoking too much, or jog- 
ging too much. 

“Drugs happen to be available 
and they’re promoted. Since 
they’re around, and are used as a 
coping mechanism, it’s our view 

Thomas Cahill, Jr. 

drug abuse can best be combated 
by teaching people how to deal 
responsibly with situations of 
stress, anxiety, tension and so 
forth. There’s tension and anxiety 
in everybody’s life. 

"You’re not going to eliminate 
these anxieties. People have to 
cope with them. So the drug abuse 
problem really becomes one of 
value-setting. Drug abusers are 
basically people who have not 
learned to make the value judg- 
ments that would enable them to 
set values and opt for something 
different from the type of behav- 
ior they have. Sometimes they can 
be helped by just exposing them to 
other types qf behavior.” 

Much of what Cahill and his col- 
leagues teach trainees revolves 
around the concept that the person 
coping with problems through 
drugs or alcohol needs help to 
develop an alternative life style. It 
calls for more than conventional 

“It’s important for the counsel- 
lor to have an awareness of the 
needs of the person he’s counsell- 
ing and to be able to deal with 
those needs, either directly or by 
referral.” Cahill told The Journal. 

“A multitude of factors may be 
involved. If you, as a counsellor, 
can’t be that person’s lawyer. 

accountant, and bookkeeper, as 
well as therapist— you should 
know where he can get help in 
these areas. I'm not saying family 
backgrounds aren’t important. 
But they may be only 20% of the 

A wide range of questions must 
be considered in counselling, 
many of them questions that used 
to be answered in absolute terms 
by priest, minister or rabbi says 
Cahill. But young people now are 
raising new questions and are dis- 
inclined to accept absolute 

The programs and sessions of 
the NDATC recognize this and 
stress there are no definitive 
answers, and that it is a mistake 
to counsel a youngster or an adult 
as if there were. 

The centre, set up under the 
auspices of the National Institute 
on Drug Abuse, is part of the Uni- 
versity of Miami’s Applied Social 
Services Section and one of about 
half a dozen in different parts of 
the country. Training programs 
are conducted at the centre and in 
the field, in cooperation with Dade 
County’s Comprehensive Drug 
Program, the university’s School 
of Medicine, and the rehabilitative 
resources of numerous Dade 
County social agencies and drug 
treatment programs. 

In some ways, the Coral Gables 
centre is unique. For one thing, it 
is in an area with a high propor- 
tion (about 50%) of people of 
Spanish-American background. 
This led to its being asked by the 
federal' government to develop 
courses in Spanish for trainees 
from various Latin American 
countries. Several have been 
organized and attended by train- 
ees from nearly a dozen of the 
republics of Latin America. 

Some 8,000 people have taken 
courses in the centre in the four 
years since it was set up. 

Trainees spend about 40% of 
their time in academic activities 
and 60% with patients in drug 
treatment programs. A trainee 
successfully completing any 
course receives a certificate of 
completion. If he is doing univer- 
sity work, he may earn from one to 
three undergraduate credits, for 
transfer through, the School of 
Continuing Studies of the Univer- 
sity of Miami. 

"Trainees include representa- 
tives from the Surgeon-General’s 
office, officers and enlisted men 
from the U.S. Army, Air Force, 
and Marine Corps, privates from 
Turkey, captains from England, 
physicians from Southeast Asia, 
psychologists and social workers 
from South America— and nurses, 
counsellors, paraprofessionals, 
psychologists, sociologists, high 
school students and housewives 
from the immediate area. 

“We like it that way,” Cahill 
says. “In drug programs, all sorts 
of different people have to work 
together. One of their problems, 
in many cases, is that they don't 
work together. They’re in a peck- 
ing order that can lead to all sorts 
of frustrations. You see it in drug 
programs— a sort of rivalry 
between the MD and the parapro- 
fessional or the nurse, for 
instance. Who’s going to run the 
group? Is the nurse going to do it? 
Or is the ex-addict? 

“Considering the wide range of 

Decriminalize pot: ASHA 

decriminalization of marijuana 
has now come from the American 
Social Health Association’s Drug 
Abuse Task Force— West. 

In a forthright position state- 
ment, the task force, which has 
been active for many years com- 
bating drug abuse in the western 
states, opposed use of criminal 
law against people who “despite 
the policy of discouragement” do 

smoke marijuana. 

The 14-person task force con- 
curred with conclusions of the 
National Commission on Mari- 
juana and Drug Abuse that “nei- 
ther the marijuana user nor the 
drug itself can be said to consti- 
tute a danger to public safety”. 

It also concurred with the Com- 
mission’s recommendation to 
eliminate criminal penalties 
against the user. 

problems that any single drug 
abuser may have, we think it’s a 
good idea for people with different 
qualifications to be trained 
together, so they can absorb some 
ideas about teamwork.” 

All the courses offered at the 
centre are subject to evaluation 
although a cutback in funding this 
past year has meant a reduction in 
evaluation programs. 

"I regretted this.” says Cahill, 
“because to me it was one of the 
most beneficial parts of the pro- 
gram. We still have some evalua- 
tion— an in-house system of pre- 
and post-training testing and later 
we send out a written form as a 
followup. I wouldn’t defend it 
before a group of statisticians, but 
it’s something. 

"The real way to evaluate a 

training program, as far as I’m 
concerned, is in terms of services 
being delivered to people. Our 
ultimate aim is not what we do 
with the trainee on a test or exam- 
ination. Rather, we need to ask if 
the trainee is able to go back to 
his or her community and provide 
services to people in a better, 
more effective fashion. That, to 
me, is the crux of everything.” 

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Until the introduction of the Emit system, urine testing was a necessary but 
not very useful process at most methadone clinics. Urine specimens were 
collected and submitted to outside laboratories, and test results were re- 
ceived several days later. And, when the results finally did arrive, neither 
the patients nor the staff had a great deal of confidence in the data received. 
These clinics fulfilled the legal requirements for urine testing, but little 
constructive use was made of the information collected. 

Now, at many North American methadone clinics, on-site urine testing by 
Syva’s Emit system provides immediate, valid determinations of a patient’s 
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Page 14— THE JOURNAL February 1, 1975 

Book Report 

The following books have 
recently been acquired by 
the Addiction Research 
Foundation library in 
Toronto. These books are 
not for sale at the library, 
but general enquiries may 
be directed to The library, 
33 Russell Street, Toronto, 
Ont. M5S2S1 (595-6144). 

Students Speak on Drugs: The 
High School Student Project: 

Drug Abuse Council, Inc., 
Washington. 1974, 150p., $2.25. 
Drug Education: Current 
Issues, Future Directions: 
Smart, Reginald G., and 
Fejer, Dianne, Addiction Re- 
search Foundation, Toronto, 
1974, 112p. 

A Guide to Addiction and its 
Treatment: Glatt, M. M. Medi- 
cal and Technical Publishing 
Company, Ltd., Lancaster. 
1974, 346p., $7.79. 

Organization and Administra- 
tion of Drug Abuse Treatment 
Programs: National and Inter- 
national: Cull, John G., and 
Hardy, Richard E. Charles C. 
Thomas. Publisher, Spring- 
field. 1974, 342p., $15.75. 

Drug Abuse and Drug Addic- 
tion: Rosenbaum, Max (ed.) 

Gordon and Breach Science 
Publishers, New York, 1973, 
98p., $9.80. 

The Marihuana Conviction: 

Bonnie, Richard J., and White- 
head, Charles H. University 
Press of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, 1974, 368p., $12.25. “A 
history of marihuana prohibi- 
tion in the United States”. 

The Marijuana Farmers: 
Hemp Cults and Cultures: Fra- 
zier, Jack. Solar Age Press. 
New Orleans, 1974, 133p.. $2.75. 
America’s Worst Problem: 
Alcohol: Reilly, Richard L. 
Liquori Publications, Liquori, 
1974, 128p. 

Executive Life-Styles: A Life 
Extension Institute Report on 
Alcohol, Sex and Health: John- 
son, Harry J. Thomas Y. 
Crowell Company, New York, 
1974, 221p., $6.81. 

Drug Use, the Labor Market 
and Class Conflict: Helmer, 
John, and Vietorisz, Thomas. 
Drug Abuse Council, Inc., 
Washington, 1974, 44p., $1.25. 
Recent Spread of Heroin Use 
in the United States: Unan- 
swered Questions: Hunt. Leon 
Gibson. Drug Abuse Council, 
Inc., Washington, 1974, 29p., 

More 'mental eiJucation' 

less 'drug info', urged 

JERUSALEM— Money must be 
channeled away from "drug edu- 
cation” programs and into 
"responsible forms of mental edu- 
cation." says Dr. Evert Dekker, 
sociologist and chief of the depart- 
ment of mental hygiene of Hol- 
land’s Ministry of Public Health. 

He participated in the Third 
International Symposium here on 
Drug Abuse, and discussed experi- 
ence in his country with "The 
Education of Youth and Drug 

"A social mechanism that sees 
the ‘drug problem’ as an isolated 
one, threatening public health, is 
kept in the news artificially and 
approached weightily,” he said. 

“The selective attention results 
in a self-fulfilling prophecy— drug 
expectation .... Thus govern- 
ments . . . feel obliged to avert the 
danger, to take preventive mea- 
sures, to provide information .... 

"As it is now becoming clear 
that most information on drugs is 
ineffective, it should be possible to 
use the resources— money, time, 
manpower— for responsible forms 
of mental education.” 

Dr. Dekker, however, saw one 
advantage in “selective attention 
to drugs”— exposing the obvious 
"discrepancy” between the 
approach to illegal drugs on the 
one hand and to “other dangerous 
substances” such as alcohol, psy- 
chotropics, and tobacco on the 
other. He welcomed the conse- 
quent return to fashion of anti- 
alcohol information 

“The worst form of drug educa- 
tion is the once-only, deterrent, 
unspecified provision of informa- 
tion on drugs pure and simple, in 
isolation from other preventive 
measures, and aimed at absti- 
nence,” he said. 

Reporting on two new research 
projects dealing with drug educa- 
tion in his country, he said it took 
five to 10 years before objective 
research findings in mass commu- 
nications and group dynamics 
could be used. 

This delay was caused by 
"underdevelopment of health edu- 
cation in general” and the "emo- 
tional, ethical approach to the 
phenomenon which made rational 
use of the knowledge impossible,” 
he suggested. 

"The complexity of the phenom- 
enon has been underestimated,” 
he said, "Relations between pol- 
icy, police action and mass media, 
on the one hand, and drug use, 
have been ignored. The totality of 
government policy, mass media, 
socioeconomic factors and youth 
culture determines the attitude 
towards drugs. Information must 
be based on attitudes and selec- 
tive knowledge and thus make 
allowance for the totality of back- 
ground factors. . . . Among young 
people the factors of age, parents 
and nonconformism have been 
proven to play decisive roles. . . . 

"Today in the Netherlands, chil- 
dren fromT^ to 16 years are well 
acquainted with alcohol, 75% of 
them having drunk it . . . but the 
same group knows little about ille- 
gal drugs and uses them very 
moderately: 6% have used them 
on some occasion. 

"This means that drug educa- 
tion, as a part of mental health 
education, must be given to chil- 
dren within a frame of reference 
of the most widespread substance, 
alcohol. As this use is “learned’ in 
social settings, especially the 
family, education should start 
with that setting." 


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new directions ° alcoholism 


^Impact’ for smokers 

MONTREAL— One of every five 
hard-core cigarette smokers can 
be salvaged with one 45-minute 
treatment of ‘‘impact therapy”, 
says the New York psychiatrist 
who devised the technique. 

“Every habitual smoker moti- 
vated to stop should be exposed to 
this treatment,” Dr. Herbert Spie- 
gel told The Journal. 

Dr. Spiegel is associate profes- 
sor of psychiatry. College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, Columbia 
University. He was interviewed at 
a meeting here of the Society for 
Clinical and Experimental Hypno- 

Dr. Spiegel’s therapy— an hyp- 
notic relaxation procedure— puts 
the emphais on what the smoker is 
Jor rather than what he or she is 


Having brought the patient into 
a state of meditation through hyp- 
notic relaxation technique, the 
psychiatrist asks his patient to 
concentrate on three critical 
points— the protection of the body, 
the patient’s need of his body if he 
is to live, and the respect to which 
the body is entitled. 

• For your body, not for you, 
your smoking is a poison. 

• You need your body to live. 

• You owe your body this 
respect and protection. 

The procedure includes the tak- 
ing of brief clinical and smoking 
histories, a test for hypnotizability 
and some instruction in self- 

When the patient has learned to 
enter the receptive state, the con- 
cepts mentioned are repeated and 
elaborated upon. The main 
emphasis is on an overtly positive 
reinforcement. Negative rein- 
forcement is only inferred. 

“The use of hypnosis is by no 
means primary,” Dr. Spiegel 
said. “It is ancillary in that it cre- 

ates an atmosphere of attention. 

But why one treatment? If one 
is good, would not two be better? 

“No,” said Dr. Spiegel. “When 
the patient comes in for a session, 
it is understood there will not be a 
second session. There is a momen- 
tum here. You can get the optimal 

Dr. Spiegel’s research also 
focuses on smokers apparently 
resistant to all “cure” methods, 
including his own. 

With data on about 1,000 people, 
he is trying to establish criteria 
to identify those who may yet be 
salvaged and how they might be 


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back issues (131 reviews) 
are available in a binder complete with indexing 
and summary of review procedures. Price: $20.00 

Write to: Marketing Services 

Addiction Research Foundation 

33 Russell St., Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 

Quality Audio Aids for Professionals 


Practical discussions of alcoholism recorded by experts in the field. 

Helpful for program administrators, alcoholism workers, trainers, & students. 


A-1 Claude Steiner, Ph.D. — 

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A-2 Don Cahalan, Ph.D. — Drinking 
Practices and Drinking Problems 
A-3 Stephen Pittel, Ph.D. — Diagnosis 
and Referral 

A-4 E. Mansell Pattison, M.D. — 

The Differential Selection of 
Alcoholics for Differential Treatment 
A-5 Mark and Linda Sobell, Ph.D. — 

A Realistic Consideration of 
Alternatives to Abstinence 
A-6 Vernelle Fox, M.D. — The Physician’s 
Role in the Treatment of Alcoholism 

A-7 (1) Donald Kubitz, M.D., Ph.D. — 

The Treatment of Alcoholism by 

(2) Lee Slimmon — Issues in Drug 
and Alcohol Education 

A-8 (1) Richard Santoni, Ph.D. — 

Training in Alcoholism 
(2) George Staub and Leona Kent — 
The Non-degreed Professional in 
the Treatment of Alcoholism 


S-1 All eight cassette tapes with binder — 

S-2 All eight cassette tapes, binder, and 
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California residents please add 6% sales tax. Allow 

THE JOURNAL. February 1. 1975— Page 15 

Coming Events 

In order to provide our 
readers with adequate 
notice of forthcoming meet- 
ings please send announce- 
ments as early as possible 
to The Journal, 33 Russell 
Street, Toronto, Ontario 
MSS 2S1. 

American Group Psychother- 
apy Association, Inc. 19th 
Annual Institute and 32nd 
Annual Conference— Feb. 4-8. 
San Antonio, Texas. Informa- 
tion: American Group Psy- 
chotherapy Association, Inc., 
1865 Broadway, 12th Floor, 
N.Y. 10023. 

Southeastern Conference on 
Drug Use/Abuse— Interven- 
tion/Prevention— Feb. 20-22, 
Atlanta. Georgia. Informa- 
tion: Dr. T. J. Gleaton, P. 0. 
Box 313, Georgia State Univer- 
sity, Atlanta, Ga. 30303. 

31st International Congress on 
Alcoholism and Drug Depend- 
ence— Feb. 23-28, Bangkok. 
Information: Archer Tongue. 

Executive Director, ICAA, 
Case Postale 140, 1001 Lau- 
sanne, Switzerland. 

Recent Advances in the Man- 
agement of Alcoholism and 
Drug Addiction— March 1, 
Toronto. Ont. Information: 
The Director, Division of 
Post-graduate Medical Educa- 
tion, University of Toronto, 
Toronto. Ont. M5S 1A8. 

American Orthopsychiatric 
Association— Fourth Annual 
Institute and 32nd Annual 
Meeting— March 21-25, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Information: 
American Orthopsychiatric 
Association, 1775 Broadway, 
N.Y. 10019. 

59th Annual Meeting of the 
Federation of American Socie- 
ties for Experimental Biology 

— April 13-18, Atlantic City, 
New Jersey. Information: 
Mrs. T. C. Heatwole,- Director, 
Public Information, 5110 W. 
Franklin St., Richmond, Vir- 
ginia 23226. 


Volume 3 of the Published 
Proceedings of the International 
Symposia on Alcohol and 
Drug Problems, Toronto, 1973. 

Research on 
Methods and 

Prooranrnres or 

Drug Educahon 


edited by 

The papers presented cover the broad spectrum of drug 
education in an attempt to advance the progress of drug 
education through an appreciation of the many social and 
psychological dynamics involved in drug use and its 

The following papers appear in this volume: 

— A Conceptual Analysis of the Effectiveness of Alcohol 
Education Programmes: C. Globetti. 

— The "Object” in Drug Education: D. Hawks. 

— Motivation for Drug and Alcohol Use: P. Kohn. 

— Communication - Persuasion Models for Drug 
Education: W. J. McGuire. 

— Sometime Allies: The Mass Media and Drug Abuse 
Education: M. T. O'Keefe. 

— Effectiveness of Drug Education: Conclusions Based 
on Experimental Evaluations: J. D. Swisher. 

— Motivation for Drug and Alcohol Use: A Social 
Perspective: R. A. Steffenhagen. 

— General Health Education Context for Change in Drug 
Behaviour: G. W. Stuart. 

190 PAGES, SOFT COVER $6.25 
Order by Catalogue No. 228 from 

Addiction Research 

33 Russell Street, Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 
Attn: Marketing Services 

Postgraduate Day on Clinical 
Pharmacology— Antimicrobial 
Drugs— April 5, Toronto, Ont. 
Information: The Director, 
Division of Postgraduate Med- 
ical Education, Faculty of 
Medicine, Medical Sciences 
Building, University of 
Toronto. Toronto, Ont. M5S 

National Drug Abuse Confer- 
ence— April 4-7, New Orleans. 
Information: Mr. V. Shortly, 
Director, Desire Narcotic 
Rehabilitation Center, 3307 
Desire Parkway, New Orle- 
ans, Louisiana 70126. 

National Alcoholism Forum- 
Annual Conference of the 
National Council on Alcohol- 
ism— April 27-May 2, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin. Informa- 
tion: George C. Dimas, Execu- 
tive Director, National Council 
on Alcoholism, 2 Park Avenue, 
N.Y. 10016. 

Sixth Annual Medical Scien- 
tific Conference of the 
National Council on Alcohol- 
ism— April 28-29, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin. Information: 
George C. Dimas, Executive 
Director, National Council on 
Alcoholism, 2 Park Avenue, 
N.Y. 10016. 

Institute on Crime, Justice and 
Heroin— May 19-June 3, Lon- 
don, England. Information: 
Dr. A. S. Trebach, Centre for 
the Administration of Justice, 
The American University, 
Washington, D.C. 20016. 

10th Annual Conference of the 
Association of Halfway House 
Alcoholism Programs of North 
America, Incorporated— June 
8-11, Hot Springs, Arkansas. 
Information: Jack Shea, Con- 
ference Coordinator, Associa- 
tion Office, 786 E. Seventh St., 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55106. 

21st International Institute on 
the Prevention and Treatment 
of Alcoholism — June 9-15, Hel- 
sinki, Finland. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

Sixth International Congress of 
Pharmacology— July 20-25, 
Helsinki, Finland. Informa- 
tion: Secretariat, Sixth Inter- 
national Congress of Pharma- 
cology, Siltavuorenpenger 10, 
SF-00170 Helsinki 17, Finland. 
Third International Confer- 
ence on Drug Abuse— Sept. 1-5, 
•London, England. Informa- 
tion: Archer Tongue, Execu- 
tive Director, ICAA, Case 
Postale 140, 1001 Lausanne, 

First National Conference on 
Occupational Alcoholism and 
Drug Abuse— Nov. 17-20, 
Ottawa, Ont. Jointly sponsored 
by Humber College and Addic- 
tion Research Foundation. 
Information: Jim Simon, 

A.R.F., West Toronto Branch, 
4143 Dundas St. W., Toronto, 
Ontario M8X 1X2. 

International Conference on 
Alcoholism and Drug Depend- 
ence— Oct. 26-Nov. 1, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

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Masters Degree in Social Work, Clinical Psychology or related fields such 
as Community Development, Community Planning, or Community Organiza- 
tion with at least six (6) years experience in community clinical work 
preferably in the field of alcoholism and drug dependency. 


Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Full 
benefits similar to Civil Service. 

Apply with resume and three (3) references to: 

The Metropolitan Regional Board 
c/o Ms. Judith Giffin 
Chairperson, Personnel Committee 
5970 University Avenue 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 

!n Scotland 

Physicians demand government action 

A FIVE-POINT statement of 
demand has been issued to the 
Secretary of State for Scotland by 
a group of prominent physicians, 
psychiatrists and social workers 
in the alcoholism field. 

The step follows the presenta- 
tion last summer to the Secretary 
of a statement of concern deplor- 
ing the lack of facilities for deal- 
ing appropriately with drunken 
offenders in Scotland. (The Jour- 
nal, October, 1974). 

The 39 signatories claim, how 

ever, that the first statement was 
unsuccessful in stimulating the 
government into reviewing the sit- 
uation and introducing appropriate 
alternative measures. 

‘‘This is reflected in the con- 
tinuing non-appearance of the 
anticipated Government Circular 
on community services for alco- 

The new statement demands 
that the Circular be issued imme- 
diately in draft form; that the fin- 

alized version be issued incorpo- 
rating additions and amendments 
with a minimum delay: that an 
advisory committee on alcoholism 
be set up (as has been done in 
England and Wales); that the 
committee should have sufficient 
government resources to promote 
services in accordance with guide- 
lines and recommendations; and 
that procedures used in the legal 
system for dealing with drunken- 
ness offenders should be urgently 

Page 16— THE JOURNAL. February 1, 1975 

In Maritimes 

Elicit drugs behind increasing violence 


MONCTON— The recent kidnap- 
ping and murder of two policemen 
in this Maritime city is part of a 
larger picture of increased vio- 
lence here caused by illicit drugs. 

This is the opinion of Superin- 
tendent C. A. J. J. Philion, the 
officer commanding the Moncton 
Detachment of the RCMP. 

In the past year, this commun- 
ity of 58,000 people has seen two 
gangland murders, a wounding 
and, most recently, the kidnap- 
murder of the policemen. 

Illicit drugs underly the vio- 
lence, according to Supt. Philion. 
And federal penitentiary release 
practices are compounding the 
problem, he charged. 

Supt. Philion was speaking 
shortly after the bodies of the 

Moncton policemen were found in 
a shallow grave 15 miles northeast 
of the city. 

He said drug-related crime had 
prompted him to request addi- 
tional men and equipment prior to 
the police murders. In the last 
couple of years Moncton has suf- 
fered a spate of armed robberies. 

“Most of our major crimes such 
as armed robberies . . . are involv- 
ing drugs. We feel that robberies 
are being made for payment of 
drugs and often under the influ- 
ence of drugs.” 

Late last year, local police and 
RCMP seized 70 pounds of hash- 
ish, with an estimated street value 
of $30,000, and a quantity of the 
restricted drug Phencyclidine 
(PCP). Although only PA pounds 
of PCP was seized, police believe 

Treatment results poor, 
global review shows 


uative studies of the treatment of 
drug dependent persons, when 
they exist, show very poor results 
no matter what the therapy, the 
11th Conference of Directors of 
Criminological Research Insti- 
tutes was told here. 

Only about 15% of drug- 
dependent persons, delinquent or 
not, can be considered drug-free 
two or three years after discharge 
from either in-patient or out- 
patient therapy, said Dr. Helmut 
Remschmidt, a professor of psy- 
chiatry at University of Marburg, 
West Germany. 

“Even in these cases it is not 
sure if this is due to therapy or to 
some other (probably unknown) 

In a global review of various 
treatment methods. Dr. Remsch- 
midt noted that the failure of tra- 
ditional forms of treatment has 
led to many new experiments, 
such as self-help groups, therapeu- 
tic communities, contact and con- 
sultation centres, relaxation and 
meditation techniques, and thera- 
peutic excursions. 

For most of these experiments, 
he said, evaluative studies do not 
exist or are not known. 

“It is not possible to decide 
which methods of therapy are 
most efficient. But there is a lot of 
empirical evidence that punctual 
and fragmentary experiments in 
therapy, which are not integrated 
into an overlapping concept ( ther- 
apeutic chain), work worst.” 

In his strong plea for a multi- 
disciplinary approach to therapy. 
Dr. Remschmidt admitted that 
while the idea of such an approach 
has been accepted for some time, , 
“a smooth and fruitful coopera- 
tion does not always exist”. 

This may be because of commu- 
nications problems among mem- 
bers of the various disciplines due 
to different modes of thinking and 
different linguistic concepts, he 

It may also be due to disputes of 
competence; “While medical 
competence is unquestioned for 
the phase of withdrawal and 
detoxification, members of other 
disciplines always point out that 
these two steps are only the basis 
for further therapeutic measures 
which no longer necessarily fall 
into the doctor’s competence.” 

Finally institutions may block 
a multi-o'isciplinary approach by 
barring the transfer of drug misu- 
sers from one institution to 
another, he noted. 

The greatest barrier for a ther- 
apy, however, said Dr. Remsch- 

midt, is that “there is too little 
reliable knowledge about the true 
causes of drug dependence.” 

an additional dozen pounds were 
distributed from Moncton. 

Supt. Philion said police author- 
ites believe money realized from 
robberies “ ... is used to pay for 
shipments of drugs coming into 
the city” for trafficking purposes. 

Increasingly efficient policing 
activities in major centres are 
forcing suppliers of illicit drugs to 
establish delivery in smaller 
centres, with a re-routing of the 
supplies back to the areas of large 
drug-using populations. 

Although trafficking in Moncton 
has been in such so-called soft 
drugs as marijuana and hashish, 
with some LSD and amphetam- 
ines, Supt. Philion voiced concern 
that heroin may taketiold. 

Moncton is only 30 miles from 
the Maritime Federal Peniten- 
tiary at Dorchester, New Bruns- 
wick, and many inmates are 
paroled or released into the local 

“We are concerned . . . that par- 
olees from Western Canada who 
have been using heroin are being 
paroled in this area. We feel that 
in the long run (this) may create a 
market for heroin ... a situation 
that is non-existent in' the pre- 

Supt. Philion said although 
there is little evidence of ties 
between local traffickers and 
organized crime “ ... we have 
noticed an increased communica- 
tion between local dealers from 
other major cities. . . Montreal, 
Toronto and Vancouver.” 

In addition, more local crimi- 
nals are carrying handguns and 
restricted weapons. 

Increased trafficking, robber- 
ies, drugstore break-ins, and an 
emerging pattern of dealers using 
east coast points of entry for 
drug-running, combine to portray 

a Maritimes being brought rudely 
to face one of the less-pleasant 
aspects of modern life. 

But, if criminals can turn to a 
small city such as Moncton to 
maintain the illicit drug traffic, so 
can the law authorities use this 
geographically well-located city to 
combat such activities. 

As Supt. Philion said: “We need 
more personnel and equipment to 
curb the situation. I’m thinking 
here of specialized units for a spe- 
cific type of work. We have 
already taken steps to form spe- 
cialized units, hopefully to work 
out of Moncton.” 





Four incisive discussions by Father Joseph C. Martin, internationally known 
for his lectures on alcoholism and for his film, "Chalk Talk." 

Practical solutions for the alcoholic, his family and friends. 

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VOL. 4 NO. 3 


TORONTO March 1, 1975 

Alcohol mathematics 

Lopsided equation 

WINNIPEG— Alcoholism has 
become such a serious problem 
in Canada that for every alco- 
holic who manages to over- 
come his problem, two more 
confirmed alcoholics emerge 
to take his place, says R. M. 
Anthony, chairman of the 
Albert Alcoholism and Drug 
Abuse Commission. 

Mr. Anthony urged partici- 
pants in the Canadian Council 
of Christians and Jews seminar 
on chemical abuse to support 
more restrictive liquor laws. 

But those who give such sup- 
port, Mr. Anthony warned, will 
be “marked by the media, 
scorned by the brewing and dis- 
tilling industry and bruised by 
the populace who do not under- 

Mr. Anthony said legislative 
controls are needed to: 

• Limit future development 
of off-sales outlets and com- 

mercial drinking establish- 


• Rigidly enforce controls 
against liquor consumption by 
those under age 18. 

• Prohibit consumption at 
sporting events and other pub- 
lic places and events. 

• Curtail liquor advertising. 

• Prevent the further lower- 
ing of the legal drinking age. 

• Eliminate those beer par- 
lors that are little more than 
“watering troughs and pig wal- 

The Alberta expert said pro- 
vincial governments “fell 
under the axe” of the press and 
pressure from the brewing and 
distilling industries when they 
lowered the legal drinking age 
to 18 years. 

“Happy hours”, airlines 
“pushing” drinks on travellers, 
the lowered drinking age, and 
legislation permitting liquor 
sales at sporting events, are all 
signs of continuing pressure 
being applied by the industry. 

Richard Anthony 

said Mr. Anthony. And the 

media are on tfie side of the 


He said Canada stood ninth 
in world liquor consumption in 
1967 according to a survey by 
the World Health Organization, 
and came first in per capita 
consumption of distilled hard 

“Among the top 10 consum- 
ing countries in the world, Can- 
ada rates top in percentage of 
distilled spirits consumed, with 
36% as compared with France 
and its 137o, and Italy, which 
has 12.6%,” he said. 

The commission chairman 
said the study showed the cost 
of alcohol has dropped steadily 
compared with average per- 
sonal disposable income. 

Brewers and distilling com- 
panies, faced with zero popula- 
tion growth in Canada, are 
finding it necessary to find new 
customers among non-drinkers 
and to convince those who are 
already consumers to drink 
even more each year. 

Cannabis hearings intensify 
as Canadian TV zooms in 


OTTAWA— Despite a warning 
from Health Minister Marc La- 
londe not to duplicate the work of 
the LeDain Commission, the Sen- 
ate committee on legal and consti- 
tutional affairs has dived headlong 
into its consideration of Mr. La- 
londe’s bill to modify cannabis 
laws in Canada. 

Public interest in the cannabis 
issue is already on the upswing. 

And it should grow even more 
now the Senate has set a Parlia- 
mentary precedent by allowing 
television cameras into the Senate 
committee while it considers sub- 
missions relating to the cannabis 

The CBC television cameras 
were scheduled to start rolling 
early this month, after the full 
Senate finally decided to allow the 
experiment for this bill alone. It 
was only after a full Senate 
debate, though, during which some 
Senators wondered aloud whether 
the television cameras might turn 
the committee considerations into 
a circus, releasing the “ham” in 
many of the honorable Senators, 
and perhaps drawing out the par- 
liamentary consideration of the 
Bill even further. 

It was this worry about further 
delays in passing the bill during 
this session that was reportedly 
behind Health Minister Lalonde’s 
warning that the Senate commit- 
tee not duplicate the LeDain Com- 
mission’s work. 

The Senate Committee seems to 
have decided to take its responsi- 
bilities seriously. A large number 
of witnesses were scheduled for 
the first month of the hearings, 
which began with the RCMP 
and the Canadian Medical Asso- 
ciation (and a week of considering 
the television question). 

The CMA stirred up a cloud of 
controversy on both sides of the 
spectrum in calling for decrimin- 
alizing the crime of cannabis sim- 
ple possession, while not actually 
legalizing the drug. A group of 
doctors from Nova Scotia. Prince 
Edward Island, Toronto, and Brit- 
ish Columbia almost immediately 
criticized the CMA stance as 
being too lenient in light of 
evidence that cannabis is physi- 
cally harmful. 

And. in a submission to the 
committee. Prince Edward Island 
called for a delay in the imple- 
mentation of the proposed less- 
stringent cannabis possession pen- 
alties until a major educational 
program could be launched across 
Canada to publicize the harmful 
effects of cannabis. 

P.E.I.’s proposals, made by 
Education Minister Bennett 
Campbell in a written submission, 
also suggested that persons con- 
victed for cannabis possession and 
other related offences should be 
placed on a special form of educa- 
tional probation, in addition to 
other punishment. During the pro- 
bation. they would be required to 
read about the harmful effects of 
cannabis and prove to a parole 
officer’s satisfaction that they 
were familiar with the problems 
of cannabis use. 

Meanwhile, the RCMP argued 
before the Senate committee that 
they needed possession of canna- 



RALEIGH, N.C. — How many 
alcoholics are there in Amer- 
ica? There is no question that 
the official estimate of nine 
million has no real basis, says 
a leading researcher on alco- 

“Asking how many alcohol- 
ics there are in this country is 
like asking how many hyper- 
tensives there are or how many 
diabetics there are. Nobody 
knows. Certainly there are a 
lot,” said Dr. Donald Goodwin, 
head of the Washington Univer- 
sity Addiction Research Cen- 
ter, St. Louis. 

He added: “It is sort of 
amusing to me that when the 
Federal Government started 
spending money on alcoholism 
about five or six years ago, the 
figure was five or six million 
alcoholics. During that five 
years it has gone up to nine 

“I don’t know where we are 
going to stop. Somebody even 
dropped a figure recently of 25 

Krever Report 

ARF’s strengths, weaknesses pinpointed 


Toronto - The Addiction 
Research Foundation of Ontario 
Is “an essential Institution with a 
reservoir of strength”, which 
must now dedicate Itself to “erad- 
icating the weaknesses which so 
Impair Its competence”. 

So concludes the report of a 
two-year Inquiry Into the organi- 
zation and operation of the 
25-year-old agency of the Province 
of Ontario. 

The Inquiry, conducted by Hor- 
ace Krever, a University of 
Toronto law professor, was com- 
missioned by the Members of the 
Foundation (the ARF’s board of 
directors) following public criti- 
cism of the organization’s admin- 
istrative practices. 

The 40-page report, compiled 
largely on the basis of 200 Inter- 
views with past and present ARF 
staff, heaps considerable praise 
on the Foundation’s “commenda- 
ble work.” It places much worth 
on the research effort which has 
earned the organization a revered 
International reputation. 

At the same time, Krever sur- 
prised at least some critics who 
had anticipated a “whitewash,” 
with an often harsh critique of the 
foundation. Its executive director 
and several senior personnel. 

Despite several acknowledged 
handicaps— essentially based on 
the confidential nature of the 
report which Inevitably resulted In 
an “Impressionistic” report— 
Krever managed to make six 

major recommendations, which. 
If Implemented, would dramati- 
cally change the foundation’s 
overall look and operation. 

The most Important recommen- 
dation, according to Krever, calls 
for outside consultants to study 
and (potentially) suggest changes 
In the foundation’s management 
methods, structure, organization 
and personnel. 

Krever, also a labor arbitrator, 
urged the foundation board to ask 
the province to make changes In 
legislation which would permit 
ARF employees to gain bargain- 
ing rights. 

“It Is too late In the day for an 
essentially paternalistic employee 
grievance mechanism. 

“Employee dissatisfaction and 

distrust Is so widespread It Is 
unlikely the situation can be 
(see— ARF— page 2) 

bis to continue being a criminal 
offence so that police could con- 
trol use of the drug. The RCMP 
have made a similar argument In 
the past about needing a posses^ 
slon penalty for other hallucino- 
genic drugs, specifically amphe- 
tamines (“speed”). 

DEA studies 
U.S. pot laws 

THE POSSIBILITY of relaxing 
controls on cannabis In the U.S. Is 
being studied by the Drug 
Enforcement Administration 

The hearings are In response to 
a 1972 petition of the National 
Association for the Reform of 
Marijuana Laws (NORML) and 
the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation ( APHA). 

Cannabis Is, at present, among 
the most strictly regulated of con- 
trolled substances listed In Sched- 
ule I, the group not available by 

No therapeutic uses are recog- 
nized in the U.S.7 cilthough r?r. 
Joel Forte testified that cannabis 
may be useful in treatment of 
glaucoma and asthma. 

NORML’s attorney, Peter Mey- 
ers, says the goal of his group is to 
make cannabis available by pre- 
scription. NORML also seeks 
Schedule 5 listing for cannabis 
leaves, which contain less THC 
than some other parts of the plant, 
or even removal of the leaves 
from control. This would allow the 
product to be sold without restric- 

The petition requests removal 
of all controls on cannabis by 
eliminating it from the list of con- 
trolled substances or alternatively 
putting it in Schedule 5, according 
to DEA’s deputy chief counsel, 
Robert J. Rosthal. 

Several issues involved in the 
case were presented at hearings 
in late January before Judge Louis 
Parker, who will make recom- 
mendations to DEA Administrator 
John Bartels. Bartels’ final deci- 
sion is expected about May. 

One question at the hearings is 
whether the U.S. may, in fact, 
shift cannabis to a lower schedule 
of control under international 
treaty regulating the substance 
signed by 104 nations. 

The U.S. signed the Single Con- 
vention on Narcotic Drugs without 
reservations unlike other coun- 
tries, Rosthal says. India, for 
example, signed with reservations 
because the plant is used medici- 
iially there. 


Alcoholism inherited Page 3 
CFADD — new horizons 

Page 7 

North Carolina and San 
Francisco coverage 

Pages 8 & 9 
Elderly addicts Page 1 1 

Near-alcoholism syndrome 

Page 13 

Hare Krishna cures^page 5 

Page2— THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1974 

Krever Report 

ARF strengths, weaknesses pinpointed 

(continued from page 1) 

improved by the unilateral action 
of the foundation) board of sen- 
ior management,” Krever wrote. 

Concluding that the ARF had 
lacked direction and purpose in its 
evolution, Krever recommended 
that the foundation board deter- 
mine a clear statement of goals, 
policies and priorities. 

Krever suggested that the foun- 
dation had not taken full advan- 
tage of its independence and its 
executive director, H. David 
Archibald has tended to be too 
sensitive to what is anticipated 
“the government" may be think- 

Krever left no question as to 
where he considered the founda- 
tion’s strength and major priority 

He suggested it was unfortunate 
the ARF had diverted from pursu- 
ing its prime course as a research 
institution by providing treatment 
on a mass scale. 

. . . “Relative to other purposes 
of the foundation, too small a per- 
centage of the budget has been 
allocated to research.” 

Of the foundation’s three main 
function areas— research, educa- 
tion and treatment— research is 
the only area which could not be 
conducted as ably elsewhere. 

“The other functions should be 
transferred to other agencies, 
except to the extent that they are 
directly related or incidental to 
the research function.” 

Of the foundation’s education 
work, Krever spoke of the strong 
sense of difficulty in evaluating 
the success of activities. 

He was unconvinced of any spe- 
cial competance in the founda- 
tion’s educational work “that is 
net exceedcU elsewhere in 


To engage in treatment beyond 
that incidental to applied research 
or pilot projects is to create 
expectations which cannot be met 
and, as a result, hostility, Krever 

With specific reference to the 
foundation’s regional programs, 
(there are 40 A.R.F. offices scat- 
tered throughout Ontario), Krever 
suggested that much of the treat- 
ment work should more appropri- 
ately be delivered through provin- 
cial district health councils. 

Subsequently, he recommended 
that the Foundation board and the 
Minister of Health re-examine the 
foundation ‘Act’ to clarify which 
responsibilities should fall within 
the jurisdiction of the health care 
or community and social develop- 
ment system of district health 
councils or regional governments. 

Krever observed that the found- 
dation’s clinical institute, a 
100-bed teaching hospital, is really 
a seperate institution from the 

The clinical institute is 
financed seperately through the 
Ontario Hospital Services Com- 

There is unnecessary and costly 
duplication, Krever charged. 

Krever pointed to two practical 
consequences of this “seperate- 
ness” of institutions. 

First, as a public hospital, the 
clinical institute cannot be inde- 
pendent of supervision and poli- 
cies of the Ontario Ministry of 
Health. Second, the financing for- 
mula of the clinical institute as a 
public hospital has the effect of 
encouraging the filling of the hos- 
pital for treatment purposes. 

Krever suggested that beds for 
research projects are unavailable 
and urged a total integration 
between the clinical institute and 
the foundation research program. 

Specifically, he recommended 
an end to the clinical institute’s 
status as an independent public 
hospital and urged the transfer of 
clinical research facilities and 
demonstration models to the 

Foundation’s research division. 

Krever had strong words for the 
Members of the Foundation 
whom he portrayed as a group of 
individuals who, rather than play- 
ing any discernible role in deci- 
sion making or policy formulation, 
simply endorsed policies as pre- 
sented by the foundation’s execu- 
tive director, David Archibald. 

While the “Members” are 
appointed by the Lieutenant Gov- 

ernor in Council, Krever said 
recent appointments resulted 
from lists of names suggested by 

In his criticism of the board, 
Krever spoke of “their apparent 
incredulity when an avalanche of 
criticism and condemnation 
descended on the foundation.” 

He said board members were 
unaware of the weaknesses in the 
foundation but they demonstrated 

good faith by readily agreeing at 
the beginning of his inquiry to 
release the report publicly. 

Krever recommended that in 
future, board members be 
appointed not from names sug- 
gested by the foundation but from 
an examination of sources “that 
would produce persons who will 
devote the time and concern nec- 
essary to discharge the duty of 
making policy for the founda- 

Report initiall y satisfyin g 

‘Not a whitewash’ 


HORACE KREVER, author of a 
report which pinpoints weak- 
nesses at the Addiction Research 
Foundation of Ontario, may be 
surprised, to learn that, contrary 
to his stated expectations, his cri- 
tique has gained at least some ini- 
tial satisfaction. 

Following the report’s release. 
The Journal interviewed the foun- 
dation’s two leading critics— Paul 
Biringer, a University of Toronto 
engineering professor, and 
Andrew Malcolm, a psychiatrist 
fired by the ARF in 1972. 

Paul Biringer, described in the 
Krever report as a “sensitive 
man” who has “devoted countless 
hours to the role of informal 
ombudsman to employees of the 
foundation”, said there are cer- 
tain signs of improvement at 

“There has been a gradual 
building of staff confidence and 
morale as a consequence of ARF’s 
new ‘no-firing’ policy which has 
allowed people to open up,” he 

Biringer became involved in the 
foundation’s affairs after his wife, 
a psychologist, was one of several 
persons fired from one of the 
ARF’s Toronto branch offices. 

The report explains that: “To 
this day, he (Biringer) has 
informants in the foundation who 
advise him of developments, 
occurrences and decisions about 
which even senior supervisory 
personnel are not yet informed.” 

Krever went on to say he was 
completely satisfied that Biringer 
means no harm to the foundation 
and, on the contrary, believes a 
strong foundation is necessary. 

Krever also suggested an invita- 
tion to Biringer to become a mem- 
ber of the board should be consid- 

Biringer told The Journal it is 
premature to discuss this topic. 

As for the report itself. Biringer 
agreed it was certainly not the 
“whitewash” which had been 
feared. He suggested some, but 
not all, of his concerns had been 

“I would have preferred to see 
more factual information included 
in the report,” said Biringer, “but 
I realize the handicaps faced by 
Krever with respect to confiden- 
tiality of information.” 

Biringer said he would like to 
see the implementation of some, 
if not all, of the report’s formal 

With reference to Krever’s re- 
commendation that collective bar- 
gaining be introduced in the ARF, 
Biringer agreed that evolvement 
of employee groups is a step to 
potentially drastically improve 
employer-employee relations. 

“If this recommendation was 
implemented, people would not 
need to go outside ARF with their 
complaints,” he remarked. 

Bifinger agreed with Krever’s 
assessment that his most impor-, 
tant recommendation involved the 
appointment of management con- 
sultants to review foundation 
operational methods and person- 
nel. _ 

Dependent on how this is acted 
upon, “this is potentially the most 

important recommendation in the 
report,” said Biringer. 

He also agreed that the founda- 
tion’s procedure in nominating 
new members to the board needed 

Andrew Malcolm, dismissed by 
the foundation in 1972 under cir- 
cumstances described by Krever 
as “characterizing the use of bad 
(managerial) judgment”, told The 
Journal he felt “completely vindi- 
cated . . . now that all our criti- 
cisms have been acknowledged”. 

In expressing interim satisfac- 
tion, Malcolm said of the Krever 
report: “As a beginning, it’s 

“It was a completely necessary 
and important report written by 
an undoubtedly honest, perceptive 

“The general malaise portrayed 
by Krever is extremely important 
as is his discovery of administra- 
tive weakness.” 

While he strongly agreed with 
several of Krever’s recommenda- 
tions, Malcolm did not agree that 
the ARF should divest itself of 
either its treatment or educa- 
tional role. 

A strong Addiction Research 
Foundation with strong research, 
treatment, and education compo- 
nents is essential, said Malcolm. 

Malcolm said he looked forward 

: critics 

to the retention of an outside con- 
sulting firm to step in and recom- 
mend further organizational 

Of the Foundation’s board of 
directors, Malcolm said the 
“Ontario government should not 
allow the board to continue in its 
characteristically weak fashion.” 

Malcolm felt the foundation’s 
executive director “richly 
deserved” the criticism he 
received in the Krever report . . . 
“his competence was exceeded by 
a growing organization”. 

Malcolm further stated that the 
foundation’s clinical institute has 
been “a disaster area since day 
one” and that the organization’s 
regional program and staff have 
been “maltreated for some time”. 

Malcolm also had harsh words 
for the foundation’s board of 

“Board members should feel a 
certain degree of anguish and 
want to make amends for their 

He suggested that four recent 
appointments to the board be 

re-examined in light of the recom- 
mendations in the Krever report. 

Malcolm was particularly 
pleased Krever had acknowledged 
“our recommendation ” respect- 
ing the introduction of collective 

A major opportunity 
ARF board chairman 

THE “KREVER Report” provides the Addiction Research Found- 
dation with an opportunity to continue focussing on several prob- 
lem areas, according to Lawrence C. Bonnycastle, chairman of 
the Members of the Foundation (the ARF’s board of directors). 

“I am delighted to have the report in that it gives us an opportu- 
nity to vigorously pursue our course,” Bonnycastle told The Jour- 

He said the value of the report is in the way it has “spotlighted 
problems which the ARF is facing and regarding which the foun- 
dation has spent a great deal of time in determining its goals and 
(priority) policies”. 

Bonnycastle said the report was somewhat unsatisfactory 
because of its “impressionistic” nature, a point Professor Horace 
Krever acknowledged in his report. 

“Some comments,” said Bonnycastle, “were too harsh and 
unfortunate”. He regretted remarks made about the foundation’s 
executive director, H. David Archibald, and made it clear he did 
not support the views expressed by Krever in this regard. 

Bonnycastle promised tlte board would move quickly to con- 
sider the many suggestions made in the report. . . “many of 
which have been under discussion for some time”. 

And he stressed the ARF had not been “sitting on the fence” 
throughout the 22 months of the Krever inquiry. 

The question of staff morale, said Bonnycastle, has been under 
review and steps have been taken to improve communication and 
employee morale. 

Similarly, he said the ARF has and is in the process of estab- 
lishing priorities bbth internally and in cooperation with the 
Ontario Ministry of Health. 

With respect to Krever’s recommendation that the foundation’s 
clinical institute be merged with the organization’s research divi- 
sion, Bonnycastle said closer integration between the two areas is 
being pursued and there have already been substantial gains. 

The chairman said research continues to be a top priority 
within the foundation but because of the breadth of its responsibil- 
ities and the necessity of extending the results of its research, 
many other ARF activities are essential. 

Bonnycastle rejected Krever’s conclusion that the foundation’s 
board had been ineffective. Similarly, he rejected Krever’s notion 
that the board was somewhat of a rubber-stamping operation for 
the foundation's executive director. 

“The board has participated in a broad way in foundation 
affairs,” Bonnycastle stressed. 



In providing an historical sketch 
of the foundation, Krever said the 
most telling feature of the organi- 
zation’s problems is linked to its 
rate of growth, in terms of staff 
and budget. 

In 1953, there were 36 people 
employed in Toronto. By 1969, 550 
employees were located through- 
out the province in eight regional 
headquarters and 30 offices. By 
1973, more than 800 employees 
were employed in 42 provincial 

The ARF’s first budget was less 
than 150,000. The 1973-74 budget 
was $4.4 million for the Clinical 
Institute and approximately $9 
million for the foundation. 

“From a very small undertak- 
ing in which Mr. Archibald 
became a beloved leader of, and a 
sort of father-figure for, the few 
but loyal employees, the founda- 
tion rapidly became a huge and 
sprawling enterprise whose organ- 
ization was not ideally suited to its 
size and rate of growth. 

“Particularly with respect to 
its relation with employees, it 
remained paternalistic in concept, 
resulting, unfortunately, in whole- 
sale dissatisfaction among 
employees, especially in 
Toronto,” wrote Krever. 

Krever dealt at length with the 
way in which the foundation’s 
executive director was presented 
to his staff. 

“ . . . Substituting for the natu- 
ral goodwill that arises out of a 
daily and visible relationship 
between executives and staff, 
there was devised, presumably by 
Archibald’s assistants, an almost 
artificial or manufactured cult- 
type image of the leader.” 

While acknowledging that “a 
great debt is owed by the people of 
. Ontario to H. David Archibald,” 
for his “great contribution”, 
Krever suggested that a change in 
the style and leadership necessary 
to take the foundation to the next 
step of its evolution may be in 

Krever then focussed his atten- 
tion on the ARF’s “senior man- 
agement team,” a group of six 
individuals “with high skills in 
their particular disciplines.” 

However, he felt the use of the 
“team concept” to make deci- 
sions proved unsatisfying and 

Krever said the foundation’s 
administrative division is large 
and probably the source of most of 
the Foundation’s recent problems. 

The administrative area, he 
said, appears too often to have 
been the master rather than the 
servant of the organization’s oper- 

Krever suggested this may be 
due to the “superior competance” 
of the ARF’s director of adminis- 
tration, Henry Schankula. 

In any event, Krever questioned 
the wisdom of placing the 
foundation’s educational depart- 
ments within the administrative 

Krever said the rate of growth 
and tbe rate of staff turnover had 
the result of bringing about pro- 
motion of many young and inexpe- 
rienced persons to supervisory 

Another phenomenon referred 
to revolved around what Krever 
called an apparent practice of 
downgrading professionals by 

Krever said some foundation 
research scientists held a justifi- 
able belief that there is lack of 
respect, if not distrust, in the 
foundation for professionals and 
an enhanced status for the ama- 

“All that I have seen and heard 
convinces me that, over the year,, 
personnel practices by supervi- 
sory persons have been conducted 
in an amateur fashion.” 

THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1975— Page 3 

Animal experimentation indicates 

Marijuana produces brain damage 


the mental processes of experi- 
mental animals subjected to pro- 
longed marijuana use has been 
reported in a series of studies at 
the Addiction Research Founda- 
tion of Ontario. 

At a meeting of the Ontario 
Psychiatric Association, Dr. Har- 
old Kalant professor of pharma- 
cology, University of Toronto, and 
associate research director, 
ARF, said the observed impair- 
ment— to beaming function and 
motor skills— resulted from a 
direct toxic effect of the drug on 
the brain cells and could not be 
attributed to residual intoxication. 

The dose, sufficient to produce 
marked intoxication for several 
hours a day over a six-month 
period, would have to be consid- 
ered heavy exposure, and though 
one must be careful in transport- 
ing animal evidence too literally 
to the human environment, this 
series of studies did seem to pro- 
vide “a reasonable model for 
heavy drug use in humans,” said 
Dr. Kalant. 

Slowing and interruption of 
mental processes, difficulty with 
abstract thought, loss of memory, 
and impairment of learning have 
long been recognized as clinical 
manifestations of alcoholism. But 
there has been much debate as to 
whether this was due primarily to 
the direct toxic effect of alcohol 
or to the malnutrition, head 
injury, hypoxia, and other drug 
use which often accompanies the 
alcoholic life style. 

An analogous debate has raged 
about the various clinical descrip- 

tions reported among marijuana 


Said Dr. Kalant; “Cannabis 
users . . . are often multiple drug 
users, and despite their middle or 
upper class origins, they often 
choose a life style in which malnu- 
trition, infection and other factors 
confound the interpretation of 
drug effects.” 

Consequently, it is important to 
determine whether the drug alone 
is capable of producing permanent 
damage. And that is what the pre- 
sent series of experiments appears 
to have shown, asserts Kalant. 

The experiments sought to 
determine and quantify degrees of 
functional impairment among ani- 
mals during acute administration 
of marijuana and alcohol, sub- 
acute intoxication, and at various 
times after the periods of intoxi- 

In the acute series, animals 
were trained to perform certain 
tasks in a maze. One group was 

Behind bars 

RALEIGH, N.C.— Every police 
officer and jailer in America 
should be trained in basic safety 
measures for alcoholics who are 
put in cells, says Dr. David Pitt- 
man, PhD, of Washington Univer- 
sity, St. Louis. 

“It is a well documented, estab- 
lished fact of the connection 
between attempted and successful 
suicide and chronic alcoholism 
and 257o of all suicides are alco- 
holics. For these reasons every 
conceivable precaution should be 
taken when an alcoholic is 
arrested,” he said. 

Dr. Pittman, a leader in the 
fight for decriminalization of the 
public drunkenness offence, said 
many sophisticated metropolitan 
areas do offer training to police 
officials. But in most other areas, 
alcoholics still manage to commit 
suicide while in jail “and this is 
just inexcusable in 1975”. 

treated with cannabis extract (10 
mg/kg) administered by stomach 
tube one hour prior to testing. The 
other group was treated with an 
equal volume of a placebo— olive 
oil. Within two hours the rats were 
tested. They were then retested 
three days later. 

The rats given marijuana com- 
mitted significantly more errors 
than the control group, reported 
Dr. Kalant. 

In another series, groups of rats 
were given the marijuana extract 
for 14 days— undergoing training 
and testing at certain intervals. 

After six days, the marijuana- 
treated animals became very 
irritable, they showed little inter- 
est in the maze problems, moved 
very slowly, became aggressive, 
and their test scores showed many 
more errors and deviations than 
the control groups. 

One interesting aspect of the 
findings among these groups was 
that tolerance did not seem to 
develop to the impairing effects of 
marijuana, it did develop— after 
only seven days of treatment— to 
the anorexic effects of the drug. 

This confirms suspicions that 
tolerance to any particular drug 
develops not wholesale, but only 
to certain characteristics of that 
drug, said Kalant. 

In the chronic series of tests, 
animals received one standard 
dose of cannabis extract daily for 
30 days, another group for 60 days, 
and another for 90 days. 

The animals were then with- 
drawn from cannabis use for two 
weeks after which they underwent 
training in the maze and then 
were tested. 

Although there appeared to be 

more errors as the rats grew 
older, there was no real variance 
between the control groups and 
the treated animals, said Dr. 

However, when groups of ani- 
mals were subjected to six months 
at doses of 20 mg THC/kg of body 
weight, distinct differences in 
testing performance were noted. 
At this point, animals treated with 
alcohol were also entered into the 

The alcohol-treated animals 
were given 2 g/kg at first, increas- 
ing to 6 g/kg over two weeks. 

During the six months, said Dr. 
Kalant, the alcohol-treated ani- 
mals grew more poorly than 
either the marijuana group or the 
controls. The latter two groups 
grew well despite the fact the 
marijuana group was kept in an 
almost constant state of intoxica- 

After six months all treatment 
was stopped, the animals were 
allowed to recover for one month, 
and they subsequently underwent 
training and testing. 

Errors among the marijuana 
and the alcohol groups were sig- 
nificantly higher than the drug- 
free controls, said Dr. Kalant. 
Similar results were concluded 
when some animals underwent the 
learning of a motor skill— maneu- 
vering on a moving belt appara- 

The animals were then left for 
two months without any training 
and were retested, with the mari- 
juana and alcohol groups still 
showing significantly higher 
impairment levels than the con- 
trols. Though the marijuana is 
likely to stay in fat deposits for 

some time, the residual level by 
the end of the month-long resting 
periods would be so low that intox- 
ication could be ruled out as an 
explanation for the learning 
impairment, said Kalant. 

“We have speculated that the 
observed impairment is a direct 
toxic effect which would increase 
the natural attrition rate of brain 
cells, i.e. an acceleration of the 
natural aging process.” 

This suggests the impairment to 
both cognitive learning and motor 
skills caused by long exposure to 
cannabis, and alcohol, is perma- 

A key question in this type of 
work, said Dr. Kalant, is the 
connection between learning defi- 
cit and organic brain damage. 

“It is well known that many 
organic brain damage syndromes 
are recognizable first as behav- 
ioural impairment before organic 
damage becomes apparent. At 
this stage, the damage is often 
still reversible." 

The emphasis in these series, 
said Dr. Kalant, has been to 
define brain damage in terms of 
functional impairment instead of 
in terms of cellular damage. 

The necessity of treating ani- 
mals for six months before getting 
to this stage of impairment is not 
surprising, he said, since 
alcoholics do not exhibit symp- 
toms of organic damage until 
after five or ten years of heavy 
drug use. 

This is exactly what would be 
expected if the mechanism of 
damage really is a slight increase 
in the rate of attrition of brain 
cells with age, as the present 
experiments indicate. 

alcoholism in the biological fami- 
lies, and adoption records here by 
and large don’t have information 
about the drinking habits of bio- 
logical parents.” 

However, Dr Goodwin has been 
able to make other approaches to 
the subject and “while they are 
not quite as clean, they can be 

His most recent involved the 
study of alcoholics who have both 
full siblings and half-siblings. 

“If it is going to follow heredi- 
tary lines you will predict that 
there will be more alcoholism 
among the full siblings than 
among the half-siblings. Our pre- 
liminary data indicates this may 
be so, but it is too early to tell 
yet," he said. 

Another study carried out sev- 
eral years ago, and which may be 
revived, involved interviews with 
family members, mostly from 
broken homes, who had had a bio- 
logical father who was an alco- 

“We found that having a biologi- 
cal father who was an alcoholic 
increased the chances of being an 
alcoholic sixfold over later having 
a father of upbringing who was an 
alcoholic,” said Dr Goodwin. 

While he thinks that alcoholism 
can be inherited, Dr Goodwin has 
no idea what the inherited factor 
can be. It may just be a capacity 
to drink an awful lot of alcohol. It 
may be that however alcohol 
works to make people “feel 
good”, it works even better 
among others because of a biologi- 
cal factor. 

“It could be a deficiency, or 
lack of a deficiency. It may be 
that the people who have the defi- 
ciency are those who can't drink 
alcohol or respond to it so rapidly 
in their behavior that they decide 
to deliberately keep down the 
amount they drink. " 

Jellitiek award winner concludes: 

Alcoholism ‘runs in the family’ 

“THERE IS sufficient reason now 
to believe that in very severe alco- 
holics there is a predisposition 
which is biological and inherited,” 
according to Dr Donald Goodwin, 
of Washington University, St 

Dr Goodwin was one of two win- 
ners in 1974 of the E.M. Jellinek 
Memorial Award for outstanding 
contribution to the study of alco- 
hol problems. 

His research into this aspect of 
alcoholism includes a collabora- 
tive study with Danish psychia- 
trists on alcoholism among 
adopted men and women in Den- 
mark, and a St Louis survey of 
alcoholism in siblings and half- 
siblings and from which he is now 
extrapolating preliminary data. 

Dr Goodwin, director of the 
Washington University Addiction 
Research Center and a professor 
of psychiatry in the medical 
school, said the evidence shows 
alcoholism “runs so strongly in 
families that I find it hard to 
believe that in all cases of 
alcoholism just the family expo- 
sure would be sufficient to explain 

“It just does not make sense to 
me. If I had no other evidence 
than that I would strongly suspect 
it, because alcoholism runs more 
strongly in families than almost 
anything else.” 

The collaborative Danish study, 
now in the fourth of a planned six 
years, and probably to be 
extended beyond that, takes Dr 
Goodwin to Copenhagen three 
times a year. 

Information is collected by the 
Danes and translated into English 
before being sent to St Louis for 
data analysis. 

The backbone of the study has 
been centralized records, which 
have been kept for the past 50 

Donald Goodwin 

years, of every admission to psy- 
chiatric hospitals in Denmark. 

In the beginning, the research- 
ers recorded names of 5,000 men 
and women who had been adopted, 
and who were 30 years old at the 
time. From the central govern- 
ment adoption agency, they 
obtained the names of the 10,000 
biological parents. 

Both sets of names were put 
into a computer which also con- 
tained the records of the psychiat- 
ric hospital admissions. It has 
thus been possible to find out if the 
adopted adults had parents who 
had been admitted to psychiatric 
hospitals for alcoholism. 

Dr Goodwin said the evidence is 
that the children whose parent or 
parents were alcoholic, and who 
themselves were brought up by 
adoptive pare'nts who were not 
alcoholics, have had a much 
higher rate of alcoholism in adult 
life than those who were adopted 
and who did not have biological 
parents who were alcoholics. 

Dr Goodwin pointed out that 
such a study is not possible in 
North America. “The one thing 
you need to know is if there is any 

pot debate 


familiar drama has opened a 
repeat engagement in the halls 
of the California State Legisla- 
ture, but this time there may 
be some changes in the script. 

A bill that would signifi- 
cantly reduce penalties for 
simple possession of marijuana 
has passed its first test and has 
“very good prospects of 
becoming law,” according to 
State Senator George R. Mos- 
cone of San Francisco, author 
of the measure. 

The bill won approval of the 
Senate Judiciary Committee, 
considered a formidable test, 
by a vote of seven to three, one 
more than required. It goes 
next to the Senate Finance 
Committee, and is expected to 
clear that group readily. 

“The outlook for passage of 
this bill is excellent,” Senator 
Moscone told The Journal. “I 
am confident we will have at 
last in California a sane and 
reasonable law on marijuana 

For the past several years. 
State Assemblyman Alan Sier- 
oty of Los Angeles, and other 
legislators, have authored sim- 
ilar measures to reduce mari- 
juana penalties. A number of 
these bills have passed both 
houses of the legislature, only 
to be vetoed by former Gover- 
nor Ronald Regan (The Jour- 
nal, February and April, 1973). 

Strong efforts also have been 
mounted to pass a marijuana 
initiative measure, but without 
success. In 1972, such an initia- 
tive was rejected by the elec- 
torate by a two-to-one margin, 
and in 1974 the initiative failed 

to secure enough signatures to 
be placed on the ballot (The 
Journal, April, 1974). 

Should the Moscone bill win 
approval of the legislature, it 
will very likely become law, as 
Governor Edmund G. Brown, 
Jr., has stated he will support 
marijuana legislation in the 
pattern of a recent Oregon stat- 

Like the Oregon law, the Cal- 
ifornia marijuana measure 
now being considered, makes 
possession of one ounce or less 
a misdemeanor, subject to 
citation rather than arrest, and 
liable to a maximum penalty of 
$100 fine. 

Transportation of one ounce 
or less, or giving (not selling) 
that amount to another person, 
would also be a misdemeanor, 
subject to a maximum $100 
fine. Possession of more than 
one ounce would be punishable 
by a maximum of six months in 
jail or $500 fine or both. 

Arrest and conviction 
records in personal use cases 
would be automatically purged 
after two years, and this provi- 
sion would be retroactive. 

By contrast, present Califor- 
nia law on simple possession, 
among the harshest in the 
nation, allows it to be treated 
as a felony, with possible sen- 
tences of one to 10 years. 

Prisoners^ rights 

to conduct drug testing in prisons 
while safeguarding the rights of 
prisoners, have been published by 
the National Council on Crime and 
Delinquency in the United States. 

They were drafted at a confer- 
ence of representatives from med- 
icine, law, corrections, civil rights 
and prisoners’ groups. 

Copies of the summary report 
are available from the Public 
Education Department of the 
National Council on Crime and 
Delinquency, Continental Plaza, 
411 Hackensack Avenue, Hacken- 
sack, New Jersey 07601. 

Page 4 — THE JOURNAL, March 1. 1974 

— ^ f 

Accused of misrepresentin g members 

CMA defends cannabis stance 

A GROUP of 12 physicians has 
charged the Canadian Medical 
Association executive committee 
with misrepresenting the views of 
the membership in recommending 
decriminalization of simple mari- 
juana use to the Senate. 

In a telegram to the CMA Board 
of Directors, the group says the 
committee acted “in opposition to 
both the spirit and wording of the 
resolutions of the last three CMA 
General Council meetings”. 

In reaction to the telegram. Dr. 
John Bennett, secretary of the 
CMA’s Council on Community 
Health, dismissed the charges as 
unsubstantiated and said the peo- 
ple now disputing the CMA brief 
had every opportunity to chal- 
lenge it on the floor of General 
Council last summer. 

Except for the 12 people signing 
the telegram— several of whom 
have repeatedly criticized CMA 
drug use policies — “we have not 
had one letter of criticism from 
members of the CMA, not one,” 
emphasized Dr. Bennett. 

The telegram, which urged 
“immediate public correction” of 
the CMA’s viewpoint, listed psy- 
chiatrists Dr. Andrew Malcolm, 
formerly of the Addiction 
Research Foundation of Ontario; 
Dr. Conrad Schwartz, of the Uni- 
versity of British Columbia; and 
Dr. Frank Lundell of McGill; as 
contacts for the group. 


OTTAWA — The federal govern- 

ment is considering making it a 
criminal offence to disclose that 
an individual has a criminal 
record once that person has been 

The move, according to Solici- 
tor-General Warren Allmand, 
would be designed to close one of 
a number of gaping holes in the 
Criminal Records Act. The Act 
now forbids federal agencies from 
revealing criminal records after a 
pardon. But it does not prevent 
provincial or municipal agencies 
(including courts) from keeping 
records of convictions covered by 
pardons or newspapers and credit 
agencies from reviving criminal 
records after pardons. 

Curiously enough, as a survey 
last year by The Journal revealed 
(June 1974), the existing Criminal 
Records Act is not even tough 

Bette Stephenson 

In its appearance before the 
Senate committee on legal and 
constitutional affairs, which is 
now considering law changes that 
would transfer cannabis from the 
Narcotics Control Act to the 
less-stringent Food and Drugs Act 
and make cannabis penalties less 
severe, the CMA said use of drugs 
per se should not be a criminal 

It urged the federal government 
to change the drug laws so people 
found guilty of simple possession 
of cannabis (marijuana and hash- 

enough to prevent federal agen- 
cies from retaining criminal 

records after pardons have been 

The bureau of dangerous drugs 
in the federal health department, 
which keeps extensive files on 
known and suspected drug users, 
admitted it had not been deleting 
records of pardoned persons 
because it had not been receiving 
the pardon notifications in the 
first place. 

That situation, federal officials 
say, is now being corrected. 

Federal government sources 
also revealed the government 
intends to take legislative steps to 
lessen the amount of time it takes 
to finish the special investigations 
needed for determining whether a 
pardon should be granted or not. 

The Journal also revealed last 
year that investigations carried 
out by the RCMP often take a year 

ish) for personal use do not 
receive criminal records. 

Failing that, the national asso- 
ciation representing some 26,000 
doctors in Canada called for auto- 
matic erasure of the criminal 
record for those found guilty of 
cannabis possession for personal 
use after a two or three-year 
“charge-free probationary 

Dr. Bette Stephenson, president 
of the CMA, also called for less 
harsh methods of dealing with 
cannabis possession charges, cit- 
ing a concern about the future 
mental and emotional health of 
those convicted of simple posses- 

The CMA maintained in its brief 
to the committee that “in those 
cases where use” of cannabis “is 
associated with or leads to activi- 
ties which contravene existing 
civil or criminal law, the appro- 
priate existing laws should 
apply.” Cannabis possession by 
itself should not be against the 

The association stressed, how- 
ever, it is not calling for legaliza- 
tion of cannabis. At the same time, 
agreed Dr. Lionel Solursh, a 
Toronto psychiatrist and member 
of the CMA delegation to the Sen- 
ate hearing, the CMA’s position, if 
accepted, might encourage some 
“fence-sitters” to start using can- 
nabis. This might thus increase 

or more. And the fact that such 
investigations into the family, sex, 
and job life of a person applying 
for pardon (to wipe the criminal 
record clean) are needed makes 
rather a farce of the special ear- 
ly-pardon-eligibility features of 
the conditional and absolute dis- 
charges granted some people 
found guilty (but technically not 
convicted) of cannabis crimes 
such as simple possession. 

Mr. Allmand indicated the gov- 
ernment intends to try and elimi- 
nate many of the deficiencies 
relating to these investigations 
and to judgements the Parole 
Board might make as a result of 
such investigations. In a Commons 
debate, the Solicitor-General said 
the existing Criminal Records Act 
requires the parole board to deter- 
mine that an applicant has been 
“of good behavior” before grant- 
ing a pardon. 

Lionel Solursh 

the number of users somewhat 
“but we would hope not signifi- 

Dr. Stephenson noted that other 
aspects of cannabis— trafficking, 
importing and cultivation— would 
still be illegal and therefore the 
drug would be controlled feder- 
ally, thus many people would con- 
tinue not to use cannabis. 

The CMA argued it “must 
strongly disagree with the reten- 
tion of the criminalization which 
may result from simple posses- 
sion and reiterates its opinion— 
that criminalization frequently 
produces far more serious deleter- 
ious effects on the user than the 
original use of cannabis” . 

At the same time, the CMA 
urged that the public be made 
more aware of the potential haz- 
ards involved in the use of canna- 

The crux of the dispute, raised 

by the dissident group, is whether 
or not General Council at any time 
approved the recommendations of 
the CMA subcommittee on Non- 
Medical Use of Drugs urging elim- 
ination of criminal penalties for 
simple possession of marijuana. 

The group argues that such 
approval was never given, that 
General Council intended to con- 
fine any CMA policy statements to 
discussions of the medical hazards 
of marijuana, and not to “compli- 
cated legal issues”. 

The telegram states that the 
legal issues were to be discussed 
by a special CMA-CBA (Canadian 
Bar Association) committee and 
were to be reported back with rec- 
ommendations for Council to 

The group further says this liai- 
son committee never reported 

back, but historical record of 
council meetings shows it did, and 
that its recommendations were 

Dr. Bennett notes that at the 
CMA’s annual meeting in Vancou- 
ver in 1973, General Council 
referred the following two resolu- 
tions to the Board of Directors 
and the CMA-CBA joint commit- 
tee for action; (1) That the simple 
possession of cannabis products 
for personal use be no longer a 
criminal offence, (2) that the 
CMA does not favor legalization at 
this time. « 

The CMA-CBA liaison commit- 
tee did report back, and its recom- 
mendations favoring decriminali- 
zation were integrated into the 
Board of Directors report which 
was endorsed by General Council 
at the 1974 annual meeting in 
To ronto . 

Dr. Solursh said the CMA had 
shied away from advocating legal- 
ization of cannabis in large part 
because this might lead to wide- 
spread acceptance of the drug, 
and also in part because it would 
lead to the creation of an industry 
with a vested interest in producing 
and distributing cannabis prod- 

for NCAE? 

WASHINGTON— Advertised as a 
multi-million dollar “centre for 
excellence” when it was set up 
two years ago, the National 
Centre for Alcohol Education may 
now be facing an early and less 
than illustrious end. 

For the moment, it is in the last 
weeks of a commuted sentence 
and prospects for its existence 
beyond the end of this month are, 
at best, uncertain. 

The centre was set up by the 
National Institute on Alcohol 
Abuse and Alcoholism for develop- 
ment of curricula and training 
systems, information dissemina- 
tion through seminars and other 
means, and general consciousness 

NIAAA awarded the first oper- 
ating contract to University 
Research Corporation and has 
invested more than $3 million- 
one estimate says $5 million— in 
the centre. 

The jolt came last summer 
when NIAAA advertised for bids 
from companies to take over the 
operation of the centre from URC, 
thus implying dissatisfaction with 
the way the centre had been han- 
dled, despite previous acknowl- 
edgements to the contrary. 

The next jolt came when all 
three of the bidders— URC, Gen- 
eral Electric, and Abt Associates 
—were turned down with no 

URC’s contract expired at the 
end of 1974 and late in the year, it 
seemed the centre would expire 
with it. NIAAA, however, decided 
against cancelling. It settled for a 
scaled-down operation rather than 
a complete shutdown and granted 
URC a three-month extension. 

That ends on March 31st and the 
$ 21/4 million contract comes up 
once again for bid. 

Except for an early incident 
involving a possible conflict of 
interest issue, a long and success- 
ful future for the centre seemed 

That issue arose with the 
appointment of Dr. Irving Wolf, a 
former psychology professor, to 
the directorship of the centre. 

Dr. Wolf had helped to develop 
the concept of the centre when he 
was on staff at NIAAA. He also 
headed the NIAAA committee 
which awarded the operating con- 
tract to University Research Cor- 
poration. Then, he was hired by 
URC to head the centre. 

Black market cocaine threatens 

AN AMERICAN authority on 
drugs has warned there will be 
serious consequences if the 
black market becomes flooded 
with cocaine, the drug said to 
give “the highest high of all”. 

Large amounts of cocaine 
are already being smuggled 
into the United States, accord- 
ing to Dr. Sidney Cohen, for- 
mer director of the division of 
narcotic addiction and drug 
abuse. National Institute of 
Mental Health. 

For the moment, the distri- 
bution pattern appears to be 
concentrated in larger cities. 
And the principal consumers 
are multiple drug users with 
only small numbers exclusively 
using cocaine, he said. 

However, if the black mar- 
ket is flooded with the drug, “it 
can be predicted that many 
more people will become 
involved, more ‘cokeheads’ 
will appear, and more social 
problems such as impulsive. 

violent activities will become 

Dr. Cohen, a clinical profes- 
sor of psychiatry at the Neu- 
ropsychiatric Institute, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, 
was writing in The Journal of the 
American Medical Association 
(Jan. 6, 1975). 

‘It should be recalled that 
the stereotype of the crazed, 
homicidal ‘dope fiend’ was the 
cocaine user, not the heroin 
addict,” Dr. Cohen wrote. 

He added, however, that 
“even for the cocainist, the 
‘dope fiend’ stereotype ordinar- 
ily does not apply”. 

Cocaine abuse, said Dr. 
Cohen, falls generally into four 
categories: , 

The pure ‘cokehead’: — A 
small number of people exist 
who try to maintain the “high” 
throughout waking hours. It is 
an expensive procedure with 
high quality cocaine selling for 
about $1,000 an ounce. Street 

cocaine is generally adulter- 
ated with lactose, procaine, 
amphetamine or strychnine. 
Cocaine content, if there is 
any, may be as low as 5%. 
Intravenous injections, as often 
as every 10 minutes, are neces- 
sary to maintain the upper 
reaches of the cocaine state. 
This means dozens or hundreds 
of injections a day, said Dr. 

Polydrug users and cocaine: 

—A common pattern is to try 
cocaine when it is available but 
to use other agents for every- 
day use. 

In combination with heroin: 

—Cocaine produces too much 
jitteriness and excitement for 
some people and they prefer to 
combine it with a narcotic or 
some other depressant. 

In methadone maintenance: 
—Although methadone can pre- 
vent the heroin “high”, it will 
not prevent cocaine, amphe- 
tamine or sedative “highs” and 

Sidney Cohen 

some patients in methadone 
maintenance programs have 
been found to be using cocaine, 
said Dr. Cohen. 

Government closing 'pardons' gap 

THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1975— Page 5 

Attitudes evenly divided 
on cannabis laws: U.S, survey 

AMERICANS are evenly divided 
in their attitudes toward changing 
existing marijuana laws. 

According to results of a 
national survey commissioned by 
the Drug Abuse Council, 40% of 
those surveyed want the cannabis 
laws made tougher for possession 
of small amounts, 39% favor the 
elimination of criminal penalties 
for the sale and/or possession of 
small amounts of the drug, and 
only 13% are content to have the 
laws remain unchanged. 

As was clearly suggested by a 
survey in Oregon, those in favor of 
tougher restrictions are primarily 
the older age groups and those 
who have never tried the drug. 

In the national survey of those 
who have used marijuana (and 
18% of the surveyed group indi- 
cated they had) 82% favored a 
reduction in criminal penalties. Of 
those who have never used mari- 
juana only 30% favored the reduc- 
tion and opted for the status quo. 

As was indicated in the Oregon 
study and confirmed in the 
national survey, the greatest sup- 
port for easing the marijuana 
laws rested with the younger 

As the sample grew older the 
support for lenience dwindled. In 

WINNIPEG— A startling increase 
in alcohol consumption by chil- 
dren has child care officials in 
Winnipeg worried. 

And the mounting statistical toll 
may be only the tip of a drinking 
iceberg among Winnipeg’s 10- to 

One who is particularly 


prominent predisposing factor 
identified among “burn-prone” 
people in a study of 155 adults 
treated for burns at a Boston 

Senility, psychiatric disor- 
ders and diseases of the nerv-^ 
ous system followed alcohol- 
ism as most common predis- 
posing factors, according to the 
authors of the study, Drs John 
D MacArthur and Francis D 

The study was reported in 
The Journal of the American 
Medical Association (Jan. 20, 

The hurn-prone patient is 
“somewhat more likely to be a 
woman, with alcoholism or 
drug use in the background and 
ignition occurring initially in 
the patient’s own clothing or 
hair,” the doctors reported. 

“Alcohol is a terrible 
hazard,” Dr. Moore said, add- 
ing that burns are just another 
way in which “alcohol takes its 

In an editorial accompanying 
the report, Dr. Moore said 
despite improvements in burn 
therapy, “there has been little 
improvement” in the death 
rate from burns over the last 25 

The surgeons estimated at 
$50,000 the bill for the 50 pro- 
fessionals needed to treat and 
rehabilitate a 50-year-old man 
who suffered burns over half 
his body. 

the national survey, only 19% of 
the 18-to 25-year-olds surveyed 
preferred tougher penalties. Of 
those beyond age 50, 54% wanted 
the marijuana laws stiffened. 

The national sample, which 
included 2,133 adults and 505 teen- 
agers, indicated 18% have at one 
time used marijuana and 8% cur- 
rently use the drug. Of those in 
the 18-to 25 age group, 49% 
reported having used the drug and 
25% are currently using it. 

In the over 50 year age group- 
ings, only 1% report currently 
using the drug. 

Among younger age groups— 
5% of those in the 12- to 13-year 
level have used marijuana, 14% of 
14-to 15-year-olds have tried, and 
23% of the 16-to 17-year-olds have 

Among adults, the highest users 
are professional people— 28% 
have tried marijuana and 14% cur- 
rently use the drug. It was also 
revealed that 40% of union mem- 
bers surveyed have tried mari- 
juana. There were also interesting 
geographical trends revealed in 
that marijuana use seems to be 
more concentrated in the West 
(277o of westerners surveyed had 
used the drug) and the Northeast 
( 22 %). 

In north-central and southern 
states, use remained below the 
national norm— 13% and 14% 

The survey also showed a trend 
in marijuana use as related to pol- 
itical affiliation. Of Republicans, 
10% reported having tried mari- 
juana and 3% were currently 
using. Of Democrats, 15% have 
tried and 7% are currently using 
marijuana, and of Independents, 
24% have tried and 19% are cur- 
rently using. 

Of those currently using the 
drug, 50% do so no more than two 
or three times a month and 18% at 
least once a day. 

A comparison of the Oregon and 
national surveys indicated one 
important difference in attitudes 
to the law. Oregonians, after liv- 
ing one year with decriminalized 
marijuana use, were much more 
strongly in favor of civil, non- 
criminal penalties than were 
those in the national sample who 
had not experienced the decrimin- 
alization process. 

In the national sample, only 
10% of all respondents supported 
the use of civil fines to penalize 
marijuana users. In the Oregon 
sample, 32% supported the reten- 
tion of civil fines. 

In Oregon, 33% of those who had 
never used marijuana opted in 
favor of civil fines as the most 
appropriate mechanism of pen- 
alty. Of the national sample, only 
11% of those who had never used 
marijuana supported the concept 
of civil fines as penalties for 

Children ‘smashed 
and even eomatose’ 

alarmed with soaring alcohol con- 
sumption by children is Dr. 
Charles Ferguson, medical direc- 
tor of ambulatory care at the Chil- 
dren’ s Centre of Winnipeg’s 
Health Sciences Centre. 

In recent months. Dr. Ferguson 
said his department has seen an 
average of one severely inebriated 
child per day, something that was 
unlikely to occur even a year ago. 
And the incidence of alcohol mis- 
use by children seems on the 

Dr. Ferguson told a public 
meeting on child placements that 
during one recent week his depart- 
ment treated four youngsters; 
three of them were so drunk they 
had to be admitted to hospital. 

“They come in falling down, 
smashed-drunk and even coma- 
tose,” Dr. Ferguson said. 

Most of the youthful problem 
drinkers admit they are in their 
teenage years, and a few are as 
young as 10, the physician added. 

“This has been a trend that’s 
been going on for about a year,” 
Dr. Ferguson told The Journal in 
an interview. 

“It has also been reported by 
Dr. Martin Walfish of Toronto, 
who says they are also seeing 
more acute inebriation in children 
now than ever before.” 

Dr. Ferguson added: “One won- 
ders whether the difference 
between now and before may be in 
their being apprehended. I suppose 
in times past the kid went upstairs 
and the father booted him one and 
stuck his head in the bathtub and 
made him sober up overnight. 
Now they seem to get into some 
sort of contact with peace officers 
and other people who naturally 
feel that they need some medical 
care, so they are brought to the 

Most of those severely intoxi- 
cated are brought into the Chil- 
dren's Centre at night and on 
weekends. Dr. Ferguson said. 
About half the young patients are 
males and half are females, he 

Dr. Ferguson denied earlier 
reports he had called for the crea- 
tion of a detoxification depart- 
ment for children in the Health 
Sciences Centre. 


The current surveys are part of 
a series commissioned by the 
Drug Abuse Council. Forthcoming 
in this series is a survey of mari- 
juana usage and attitudes in the 
state of California. 

The National Commission on 
Marijuana and Drug Abuse esti- 
mated in 1971 that 24 million 
Americans had tried marijuana 
and 8 million were using regu- 
larly. The Drug Abuse Council 
surveys now indicate use to have 
risen to the point where 29 million 
have tried marijuana and more 
than 12 million are regular users. 



CONCERN ABOUT health dan- 
gers is a greater deterrent to mar- 
ijuana use than is fear of legal 
prosecution, according to a recent 
survey in Oregon, the first state to 
abolish criminal penalties for sim- 
ple possession of the drug. 

The survey, sponsored by the 
Drug Abuse Council, reveals that 
of the current non-users in the 
sample, only 4% said they were 
kept away from the drug by the 
fear of the law, while 53% said 
they simply had no interest in the 
drug, and 237o feared damage to 
their health. 

In October 1973, Oregon abol- 
ished criminal penalties for pos- 
session of one ounce of marijuana 
or less and replaced them with a 
maximum civil fine of $100. 

Of the 802 people interviewed in 
this survey only four who cur- 
rently use the drug were intro- 
duced to it after the change in the 
law was made— that is one half of 
one per cent of the total popula- 
tion sample. 

Of the 9% of Oregon adults who 
claim they currently use the drug, 
40% have reduced their usage 
since the de-criminalization 
action, 52% report no change, and 
only 5% report using more mari- 
juana than before the change in 
the law. 

Hare Krishna 

An answer for some 


Krishna succeed with drug 
abuse problems where psy- 
chotherapy has failed? 

Chanted once daily for two 
hours, yes it can, an orange- 
robed disciple of the Krishna 

Consciousness movement told 
a recent meeting at the Cleve- 
land Psychiatric Institute. 

John Agostin, a former pa- 
tient at the institute, told his 
audience of psychiatrists and 
other workers in the addic- 
tions field, that he was not 
able to quit taking drugs until 
he joined the movement sever- 
al months ago. 

“I felt frustrated at the hos- 
pital. I tried the program here 
and rt didn’t work,” Agostin 
told the audience. 

“The entire movement 
hinges on the chanting of Hare 
Krishna (Hare Krishna, Hare 
Krishna, Hare, Hare, Hare 
Rama, Hare Rama, Rama 
Rama Hare Hare) at least two 
hours continuously every day. 

“Doing this is what has 
helped me, and relieved my 
distress”, added Agostin, who, 
like others in the movement, 
has his head shaved except for 
a small pigtail in back, and 
who customarily spends hours 
chanting “Hare Krishna” on 
downtown street corners. 

Agostin explained that 
“Hare ” (Har-ay) means ener- 
gy, and Krishna and Rama are 
the names of God. 

“So we're addressing the 
energy of God. We’re calling 
upon the energy of God for 

“The kind of psychotherapy 
I received previously was all 
directed to finding out who I 
was, but this is more practi- 
cal, I think. The first day I en- 
tered the movement and seri- 
ously took up the chanting of 
Hare Krishna. I found myself, 
relieved of my distresses and 
the need to take drugs.” 

Agostin said he now spends 
his time, in addition to chant- 
ing, as a student of Eastern 
scriptures. He lives in a ‘tem- 
ple’” with other devotees of 
the movement, including Mi- 
chael Stockwell, who also 
spoke and chanted to the CPI 

“We haven't taken a strict 
census, but we understand the 
majority of those in the Krish- 
na Consciousness movement 
have taken drugs or experi- 
mented with them”, said 
Stockwell, a vice president of 
the Cleveland temple. 

“Drugs are not in the self- 
interest of the person who’s 
taking them, so since drugs 
have been determined to be 
harmful, they’ve been out- 
lawed” he added, by the more 
than 50 Hare Krishna Con- 
sciousness centres, most of 
J,hem in the U.S. and Canada. 

‘What we’d like to demon- 
strate to the adult population 
is that this movement is not 
just an escapism, or a trans- 
ferring of one type of habitua- 
tion or escapism of reality for 
another. Rather this is a pro- 
cess by which one can have 
positive authorized direction 
in life, and can keep making 
progress in life. 

“It also eliminates self- 
created unnecessary problems 
like dependence on drugs, 
which are condemned basical- 
ly for the reason that they are 
destructive and do not provide 
any good result.” 

The two Krishna disciples 
were invited to speak at the 
CPI by Dr. Irving Rosen, 
training director for this psy- 
chiatric facility on the grounds 
of Cleveland Metropolitan Gen- 
eral Hospital. 

In this movement, he said, 
“things are clearer, even 
though some of the explana- 
tions they have for what is 
going on may be pseudo- 

“In the movement, the pa- 
tient feels acceptable, even 
though he has been a drug ad- 
dict or a mental patient. And 
he is not only accepted, but 
it's perfectly clear to him 
what he has to do to continue 
to be accepted. Life outside 
the movement is more compli- 

Dr. Rosen told The Journal 
he believes other movements 
which have helped drug 
addicts, may have some of the 
same advantages as the 
Krishna Consciousness move- 

For the child. 10 years of indoctrination ahead. 

Page 6— THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1974 


Gary Seidler 

Anne MacLennan 


Milan Korcok 


Lachlan MacQuarrie {Hong Kong) 
Walt Nagel (Calgary) 

Tom Hill (Rorida) 

Saul Abel (Los Angeles) 

Mary Hager (San Francisco) 
Dorothy Trainor (Montreal) 

Jean McCann (Cleveland) 

Betty Lou Lee (Hamilton) 

Bryne Carruthers (Ottawa) 

Otha Linton (Washington) 
David Zimmerman (New York) 
Alan Massam (London) 

Tom Land (London) 

David Ehrlich (Geneva) 

Peter Thompson (Vancouver) 
Manfred Jager (Winnipeg) 

The Journal 


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Cannabis: We’re 
missing the point 

THE MOUNTING evidence that cannabis is not a benign weed has 
become a compelling argument against its regular, prolonged use. 

But manipulation of this evidence to obstruct much-needed 
changes in our existing cannabis laws benefits no one. The law as it 
stands today is itself subject to great abuse. All too often, it leaves 
scars that are way out of proportion to the severity of the “crime”. 

If the intent of the law is to deter someone from inflicting harm on 
himself, how can one justify the immense personal damage that is 
often the spin-off of a criminal record? 

The fact is existing cannabis laws and the growing medical 
evidence that cannabis is potentially dangerous to health, are two 
separate issues. There is no justification for retaining the laws as 
they stand today— certainly not those against personal use. 

The rationale for advocating legal deterrents to drug use goes 
something like this: The more easily accessible a drug becomes, the 
more freely people will use it, and the more often they will run into 

If a legal deterrent could suppress this use, then the rationale 
would remain intact and supportable. But in the case of cannabis, 
this deterrent effect has never materialized. 

To use one recent example: Only one half of one percent of all the 
people surveyed in Oregon, during 'that state’s move to decriminali- 
zation, avoided marijuana use because of any fear of the law. 

At the same time, 23% rejected using marijuana because they were 
concerned for their health : They moved from marijuana because of 
what they heard, what they saw, and what they read— not because of 
fear of the law. 

Surely this says a great deal for the potential of public education in 
tempering people’s attitudes toward drug use. 

Many of today’s “hold the line” advocates argue that decriminali- 
zation, to whatever degree, will be seen by the public as endorsement 
of cannabis. 

There is that risk. But it can be minimized if the act of decriminal- 
ization is counterbalanced by programs that will give the public 
intelligent interpretation of the physical, psychological, and social 
risks involved in regular, prolonged cannabis use. 

In its recent brief to the Senate cannabis hearings, the Canadian 
Medical Association had no difficulty reconciling a plea for decri- 
minalizing personal use of cannabis with its concerns about specific 
health hazards associated with use of the drug— irreversible brain 
damage, personality changes, damage to the lungs and breathing 
system, interference with hormone production, genetic chromosome 
damage, and disruption of normal body cell functions. 

The identification of such risks in a rational, honest context, might 
make a considerable difference in how people come to regard this 
drug. But, how can we ejtpect the millions of potential cannabis users 
in our society to put any faith in the growing accumulation of scien- 
tific evidence, when that evidence is used primarily as a means of 
propping up our existing, hypocritical laws? 

When stills run dry 

IT’S THE SAME all over. 

Inflation is terrorizing every segment of society. 

The latest to feel the sting are the hill people of the southern 
U.S. to whom sugar— necessary for the output of the stills— has 
become a rarity. Used to be people in the hill country would turn 
out a bit of sugar on their doorsteps at night just before turning in, 
just the way some regularly turn out the cat (See page 9). 

The trade-off would come later, when the sugar, stirred into the 
mash, would yield a jug of grandad’s old lightning. 

Well, with the price of sugar these days, nobody turns it out on 
the doorstep anymore and it seems “old grandad” is in short sup- 
ply. The stills are simmering away a mere drip at a time. 

There is a suggestion. The Hare Krishna enthusiasts (see page 
5) seem confident that chanting two or three hours a day offers a 
positive alternative to drug use. 

If some of the Hare Krishna converts were to venture into the 
backwoods and spread the validity of chant, it would give the hill 
people something to do, give them an alternative to commiserat- 
ing with each other about the slowed down dripping of the stills. 

Come to think of it, the traditional music of the hill people 
might just pick up an exotic lilt from the rhythms of the Hare 
Krishna group. 

One problem: Before the Hare Krishnas go into the hills they 
should perhaps spread out some kind of advance men, some kind of 
promotion. There’s just no way the Hare Krishnas look like 
“revenooers” but when the shotguns are loaded, the stills are dry, 
and there are strange looking beings in orange robes trucking on 
up the road ... the trigger finger can get mighty itchy. 

Best idea, maybe the Hare Krishnas ought to strap on some 
heavy vests. After all, it does get kind of cool in them thar hills at 
night, especially when there’s not much steam coming off the old 

Letters to the Editor 12 

Poignant problem for loversi 

Of? how science is wrecking it 
for modern nymphs and shepherds 


Hard on the heels of news from Miami that 
chronic marijuana use can result in gynecomastia 
(enlargement of the male breast) and a lowering 
of the blood levels of testosterone (the male sex 
hormone), comes news from San Francisco that 

marijuana is “unparalleled” in its ability to act as 
an aphrodesiac and enhance sexual pleasure. This 
creates a poignant dilemma for young lovers which 
is most appropriately explored— with the assist- 
ance of Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter 
Raleigh— in verse: 

The (Modern) Passionate Shepherd to His Love 

Come Jive with me and be my lo ve. 

And we will all the pleasures prove; 

Dagga, Kif and home grown Grass 
Will make our love forever last. 

The vinous draughts we shall eschew. 

For 'though they make desire brew, 
Shakespeare said we pay a price — 

'Tis performance we must .sacrifice. 

Since experts say it’s Outasight 
The fires of love with Grass we'll light. 

In valleys, groves, hills, and fields. 

Woods, and steepy mountain shields. 

By .shallow rivers to whose falls 
Melodious birds sing madrigals. 

In places such as this we'll come 
For bn the Grass it's twice the fun. 

And I my.self shall dance and sing 
For thy delight each May morning: 

If these delight s thy mind may move. 

Then live with me and he mv love. 

The (Modern) Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd 

If all the world and love were young. 

And truth in every shepherd's tongue, pretty plea.sures might me move 
To live with thee and be thy love. 

But flowers do fade, and wanton fields 
To wayward winter reckoning yield: 

If to thy blandi.shment.s I succumb. 

What of months and years to come') 

A honey tongue, a heart of gall. 

Is fancy’s spring, hut sorrow's fall; 

Might to the winds our love be blown 
When pot depletes Testosterone? 

I'd live with 'thee at thy request. 

But what of stirrings in thy breast? 

Might not love lose its verdancy 
If thou get Gynecomasty? 

But could youth last and love still breed. 
Had pot no flaws nor age no need. 

Then these delights my mind might move 
To live with thee and be thv love. 

(Wayne Howell is an Ottawa physician and freelance writer) 

THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1975— Page 7 

CFADD moving in new direction 

OTTAWA— CFADD? To blame 
anyone for not immediately recog- 
nizing those letters as standing for 
the Canadian Foundation on Alco- 
hol and Drug Dependencies would 
be, at best, unfair. 

In its 20-odd years, the CFADD 
has not, as they say in The Field, 
kept a high profile. 

Indeed, it has amounted to little 
more than two meetings (of the 
heads of Canada’s provincial alco- 
hol and drug commissions), and 
two sets of minutes, a year. 

But, that is about to change. If 
it doesn’t, and dramatically, there 
may be no CFADD come mid- 

The plan, allowed for by a 
change in constitution in 1974, is to 
make CFADD the “voice of the 


kind of social advocate 
for Canadians^ 

Dennis Taylor 

people in the field” rather than 
the “exclusive club ” it has been, 
says Dennis Taylor who became 
executive director and the first 
paid staff member last April. 

“We want to get to the people 

. . . all the interested and con- 
cerned people in the field . . . not 
just through agency or foundation 
memberships but through individ- 
ual memberships. 

“That means the conservative 
and the radical, the distress 
centre worker and the commis- 
sion executive, the counsellor and 
the little old lady who helps . . . 
the whole gamut. 

“If we end up being essentially 
the conservative elite, I think we 
will have failed. If we end up as 
the spokesman for only the radi- 
cals or the distress centres or the 
street clinics, I will feel we have 

“The ideal to me would be to 
have all of the tensions that exist 
in this field in Canada reflected 
around the board room table of 

That is the aim. The problem, is 

For the moment, Taylor and his 
staff of six— a project director, 
information officer, administra- 
tive assistant, and three secretar- 
ial assistants— are “working hand 
to mouth”. 

The budget for 1975-76 is 
$147,000 and “we could use 
another $90,000”, says Taylor. 

Of the $147,000, $125,000 is from 
the Non-Medical Use of Drugs 
Directorate; $15,000 is from the 
health protection branch of 
national health and welfare; and 
$7,000 is from the provinces. 

The $125,000, however, is part of 
a three-year innovative services 
grant and it terminates at the end 
of the fiscal year, 1976-77. 

Between now and then, CFADD 
is going to have to prove its worth 
—if it is going to receive what will 
then have to be sustaining rather 
than innovative assistance from 
the government. And the only way 
it will be able to prove it is needed 
will be to have an active member- 

“At the end of two years, we 
have either an established organi- 
zation with credibility and mem- 
bership and action at the national 
level, and a financial structure of 
our own, or we will be finished.” 

It looks a mammoth task. Tay- 

lor believes a membership that 
could cover about 20% of the 
budget (by 1977) would reflect suf- 
ficient member-interest in the 
organization to warrant continued 
government assistance. 

At $20 each for individual mem- 
bers and $50 for agency members, 
that means CFADD needs about 
2,000 individual and 200 agency 
members. At present, member- 
ship has only just passed the 100 
mark —although as Taylor and his 
staff point out— “We’ve just 

Given the members, CFADD 
will do two things, according to 
Taylor. “Represent and serve.” 

“Represent in terms of present- 
ing its opinions to national asso- 
ciations which operate in related 
fields, to government committees 
at the provincial or federal levels, 
to funding sources, and so forth. 
And present it as a community of 
concern before the media and pub- 
lic at large. 

“Serve it in terms of saying you 
have needs that you identify to us 
and we try to respond to them. 
Those needs may relate just to our 
having co-ordinated information 

“If we are successful in attract- 
ing people, we can provide an 
input to organizations like the 
Addiction Research Foundation of 
Ontario— big as it is, wealthy as it 
is and well-respected as it is— in 
terms of changes in policy. We 
can say: ‘Keep this or that in 
mind . . . ’. More important, peo- 
ple in Ontario will have another 
vehicle to get through to ARF and 
express concerns. 

“It all hinges on members. If 
people sigh ‘Oh, another organiza- 
tion’, then I think that speaks on 
behalf of the need. We are not set- 
ting up another national organiza- 
tion for the sake of having another 
national organization. There was a 
feeling there was a need and I too 
now believe that there is one.” 

Roger Richard is treatment 
director of Quebec’s OPT AT (I’Off- 
ice de la prevention de I’alcool- 
isme et des autres toxicomanies), 
and general secretary for five 
years of CFADD. 

Says Richard; “If CFADD is 
sensitive to the needs of the indi- 

Roger Richard 

vidual members, it will become 
really strong, particularly if it 
gives feedback to individual mem- 
bers. These people need more 
than the provincial agencies. 

“The big agencies exchange 
information all the time. If we 
need services, we organize them. 
If we don’t need them, we close 

He sees a successful CFADD as 
“a kind of social advocate for the 
Canadian population, a strong 
body able to face the federal gov- 
ernment and represent the Cana- 
dian people, the Canadian thought. 

“There are so many people 
working with alcoholics and drug 
addicts not integrated into any 
special organization. 

‘If they have a place where 
they can go to get resources, to 
get new ideas, support, informa- 
tion, I think the foundation can 
become really very dynamic.” 

Richard believes with Taylor 
that the new CFADD owes a con- 
siderable debt to the provincial 
officials who made up the former 
CFADD— for recognizing the need 
for change and for making the 
change consitutionally possible. 

“I think they have done some- 
thing important. They worked to 
keep the CFADD together but 
then I think recognized the time 
was good to pass to another line of 
action and to assume a greater 

That the role of CFADD must 
change became increasingly 
apparent through the 1960s. 

The foundation began in the 
early ’50s as the Canadian Council 
on Alcoholism essentially because 
there were institutions in several 
provinces which saw a need to 
meet once or twice a year to 
exchange information and experi- 
ences. They also saw the possibil- 
ity of encouraging development of 
similar organizations in other 
provinces and the opportunity to 
provide guidance. 

With the growth of the provin- 
cial network, however, and 
exchange of information at other 
levels and in other meetings, 
twice-yearly meetings ceased to 
be a valid raison d’etre for the 

About the same time, explains 
Taylor, there was a growing feel- 
ing that there was a need for a pri- 
vate national association in the 

“Some of the smaller provinces 
or less wealthy ones had begun to 
believe that Ontario, Quebec and 
Alberta were dominating, by 
sheer weight, the nature of discus- 
sions on the national level and 
nature of the influence on federal 
government” he says. 

Too, some were beginning to 
point to the large gap in represen- 
tation at the national level — 
“there was no spokesman for John 
Q Citizen at the federal level in 
the drug and alcohol field”. 

While these feelings were 
“stumbling into prominence” in 
CFADD, says Taylor, NMUD was 
becoming operational and begin- 
ning to recognize a need for an 
agency other than provincial com- 
missions with which to interact in 
terms of finding out what was 
going on, why, and where. 

“There are private agencies 
which will give out no informa- 
tion, even to provincial govern- 
ments, and a lot of people con- 
cerned about governments being 
too involved,” he says. 

“Jealousy is also a real funda- 
mental force here. There are 
provinces that will not write, say 
to ARF, for their publications but 
will write to us and ask what ARF 
is doing.” 

In the 1970s, “all of these things 
came together”, says Taylor. The 
constitution was changed to per- 
mit individual memberships so 
that CFADD could “embrace all 
interested and concerned agencies 
and individuals. 

“It’s there. It’s going to be a 
tremendous task because if we 
don’t get members, what do we 
do? And unless we get members, 
how do we serve them? 

“But, we are not just interested 
in pulling together 1,000 members 
or 2,000 and having their names on 
a list. 

“The whole idea of CFADD is 
involvement, not telling people 
what they should believe but giv- 

ing them as much of the informa- 
tion as is available, putting them 
in touch with each other, reflect- 
ing their feelings . . . even if that 
only means reflecting confusion.” 

The ultimate goal? “To work 

towards a system that would stim- 
ulate and encourage a society 
where people are conscious of the 
right that they have, through per- 
sonal decision, to influence the 
activities and forces of their lives 
... a self-conscious society. 

“To bring together a group of 
people who are involved and con- 
cerned in this field— to produce a 
whole, a cohesive whole. To create 
a community and do something 
with it.” 

QUEBEC CITY— The president of the Canadian Foundation on 
Alcohol and Drug Dependencies occasionally wonders aloud 
whether the organization shouldn’t have a “prestige” president, 
according to executive director Dennis Taylor. 

To some considerable extent, it already has one whether or not 
•the president herself recognizes it. 

Mary Lamontagne, who has undergraduate degrees in philoso- 
phy and chemistry, is a member of the Medical Research Council 
of Canada and the Vanier Institute of the Family, served on the 
board of governors of Laval University for five years, was the 
first (in 1971-72) woman to be president of Laval Alumni Associa- 
tion, and is a founding member of the Quebec section of the 
United Nations Association. 

She is also, however, the wife of a politician, a mother, a stu- 
dent doing postgraduate work in philosophy, and a founding mem- 
ber and worker for an agency in Quebec City which advises and 
assists pregnant women. 

The strange and unusual juxtaposition of roles— student with 
university governor, politician’s wife with woman concerned 
about government involvement, comfortable matron with friend 
of often-troubled and deprived pregnant women, professional with 
foe of professionals who lack the human touch— has not left Mad- 
ame Lamontagne without conflict. 

However, it has strengthened her own conviction that is it is 
becoming painfully and increasingly necessary for people to make 
themselves heard above the din of advancing technology. 

It is as one of “the people” that Madame Lamontagne has taken 
on the role of CFADD president. 

“We have simply gotten too far away from the real human 
values. Technical development should relate back to the real peo 

Mary Lamontagne 

pie. But somehow we are moving further and further away. 

The role of the foundation, she maintains is to work with and for 

“We want to group together people as people. CFADD should 
put the people ... the little people and the big if you like ... in the 
field in contact with each other. 

“I don’t think we can afford in this country to have people com- 
peting with each other.” 

If bringing people in the field together is one of her aims for the 
foundation, a close second is raising public awareness about 

A pragmatist and individualist, she believes solutions to the 
problem of addictions— whether to alcohol, illicit or illicit drugs— 
are ultimately in the hands of each individual. 

“Nobody can solve anyone else’s problems. The solving of prob- 
lems must lie with the individual. However, the only way a person 
can solve a problem is to know exactly what it is. 

“We should and must work together to raise public conscious- 
ness in this whole area. I think people are not really aware at all 
of just how much it affects them. 

“I have seen many people, for example, gradually becoming 
addicted to medically prescribed drugs.-' And they just do not real- 
ize they are one of the addicted.” 

As for government involvement “even if my husband is a politi- 
cian (the mayor of Quebec City) I worry about government”. 

“It is rather childish saying we want government to pay for 
everything and at the same time not want them to make the deci- 
sions. Everybody wants somebody else to make decisions for 

“It’s easy for example, as a wife, to want your husband to make 
all the decisions. But it shouldn’t be that way. We all have our 
opinions. They are valid, if they are informed, and should be 

“If the government is giving us the money, fine. The important 
thing is giving people all the information, finding out what they 
I want and need, and getting them to tell the government.” 

It means making a commitment but one gets the impression 
: Madame Lamontagne is one to make commitments. 

“There is a certain amount of security in your own little world 
I and it’s easy to stay there. But, it is too easy to pass the buck . . . 

I people are doing it all the time. 

; “When will people realize how much liberty they have? They 
: have to realize it and stand up and make use of it.” 

Page 8 — TH E JO U RNAL, March 1, 1974 

Union advocated 

Must preserve role of ex-addict 

THE FORMER director of a 
methadone program is establish- 
ing a union of ex-addict parapro- 

His reason? To try to preserve 
the role of the ex-addict in the 
treatment of drug addiction and to 
keep alive the self-help concept 
which, he claims, has produced 
the best results in the treatment 
of addiction. 

Without the involvement of 
ex-addicts, the medical model 
"will be running people back into 
padded cells and it will all be for 
naught,” according to Edmund H. 

Mr. Menken, who recently 
resigned as executive director of 
Marin Open House in San Rafael, 

CONTRARY TO a considerable 
body of opinion, old people 
addicted to drugs or alcohol are 
decidedly treatable, according to 
two recent studies, one in Minne- 
sota and one in Texas. 

The studies also suggest the 
number of addicted old people 
may be much greater than hith- 
erto suspected. 

Margaret Subby, director, Hen- 
nepin County Alcohol* and Drug 
Information and Referral, Minne- 
apolis, said a special project 
designed to help aged addicts 
there has shown “encouraging 

In its first 20 months, the pro- 
ject has assisted 324 chemically 
dependent old people. It counters 
“the underlying attitude in our 
society that the chemically 
dependent aged are untreatable”. 
she said. 

Dr. Michael A. Click, a psychol- 
ogist with Dallas County Mental 
Health and Mental Retardation 
Centre’s Methadone Unit, 
described an existentially- 
oriented group approach which 
has proved a useful adjunct for 
geriatric addicts on methadone. 

Ms. Subby said the Hennepin 
project was designed to fill a gap 
in services for the aged addict. 
Housing authorities, apartment 
managers, social workers, fami- 
lies, and others who had to deal 
with geriatric addicts had 
nowhere to turn for help, she said. 

The project provides interven- 
tion, referral, treatment, and fol- 
low-up and utilizes a team 
approach with volunteers assist- 
ing the professionals, she 

The chemically dependent aged 

a suburban community north of 
San F'rancisco, said he believes 
ex-addicts are essential to the suc- 
cessful treatment of addiction. 

Ex-addicts have “come 
through '■ on their own and are 
determined to pass on to other 
addicts the message that they do 
have an alternative, he said. 

The self-help approach was 
built on faith, not on drugs and 
chemicals, he said. Those who had 
a habit, “kicked it on the living 
room couch, with a helping hand 
and consolation from others and 
nothing more than eggnog for the 
pain,” he said. 

Menken, whose 11 year experi- 
ence in the drug field includes 
involvement in both a methadone 

may be alcoholics or drug addicts. 
In either case, identification is 
important, she said. 

Geriatric alcoholics fall into 
two groups— those who have been 
drinking all their lives and have 
managed to survive, and those 
who began heavy drinking late in 
life, probably in response to loneli- 
ness, depression, and the stresses 
of aging, she said. 

Those who started heavy drink- 
ing late in life respond without the 
use of antidepressant drugs, possi- 
bly because of the “caring inter- 
est” shown by the counsellors or 
because the project offers early 
intervention, which is as success- 
ful with those beyond 60 years as 
with younger groups, she said. 

The elderly alcoholic is easier 
to identify than the person taking 
other drugs, Ms. Subby said. Abu- 
sers of prescription drugs, such as 
Darvon, are particularly hard to 
identify unless one is aware of 
such telltale signs as dry mouth, 
vague conversation, and difficulty 
in articulating thoughts, she said. 

And, although opiate abuse is 
probably more extensive than sus- 
pected, it is difficult to identify 
because the elderly addict has 
“cunning 'ways” of hiding his 

Chemical dependency is a large 
problem among the low income 
housing projects in Minneapolis 
and in other large urban areas 
because skid row areas have liter- 
ally been transplanted into the 
new high rises, said Ms. Subby. 

The aging addict does function, 
but at a very low level and he 
“may continue to exist, but will 
not enjoy his remaining years or 
die with dignity,” she said. 

program at Marin Open House and 
a self-help program at New York 
City’s Daytop Village, reminded 
participants at the recent North 
American Congress on Alcohol 
and Drug Problems that metha- 
done is “simply a chemical that 
produces a different kind of drug 
addiction and not a cure”. 

“Methadone mania has striken 
the country,” he charged, claim- 
ing methadone is a “vehicle of the 
government” and that the govern- 
ment determines who will be 
treated, how they will be treated 
and by whom. 

“Everyone has been seduced 
into thinking methadone is the 
right vehicle, that the medical 
approach is that right way and 

In addition to evaluation, diag- 
nosis, and treatment, with appro- 
priate follow-up, for the geriatric 
addicts, the project prepared sem- 
inars for other residents and staff 
of housing projects, and worked 
with groups providing services for 
the aged, she said. 

Mary Hager reports from 
the North American 
Congress on Alcohol and 
Drug Problems, San 
Francisco (Dec. 13-18). 
Coverage will continue in 
our next issue. ■ 

The success of the project is 
judged by the improved “social 
functioning” of many of those 
involved, the fact a number have 
received one-year recognition 
from Alcoholics Anonymous, and 
the active participation of 197 of 
the 324 who have been involved in 
the project, in follow-up groups, 
she said. 

Dr. Click said the 12 individuals 
in his methadone group represent 
a group “supposedly non-existent 
among most addict populations”. 

They average 60 years of age 
and more than 40 years of heroin 
addiction, he explained, a group 
most believe to be “either dead or 
in prison”. 

As a group, the geriatrics on 
methadone “have mastered the 
intricacies of survival and devel- 
oped adaptive skills far beyond 
the normal individual in today’s 
complex society,” he said. 

that it is all right to provide an 
individual with addictive chemi- 
cals, as long as it is legal and 
maybe the addict will get a job 
and lower the crime rate,” Men- 
ken continued. 

Consequently, the model of the 
old self-help therapeutic commun- 
ity has been lost, he said. 

This model, he said, prqduced 
“the best results” because it pro- 
duced “live, sensitive, helping 
people who were professional 

These people understood that 
the addict “could only recover 
through a spiritual experience, 
that he didn’t have to give up but 
he could fight and he could earn 

They have gone “through a met- 
amorphosis from violent crimes 
toward more subtle methods” of 
getting drugs in their old age, he 

Consequently, their needs and 
their “complex lifestyles” are 
quite different from those of 
younger individuals on metha- 

Because this group of long-term 
addicts was small and necessarily 
close, the transfer to a treatment 
group focused on existential treat- 
ment, he said. 

The individuals in the geriatrics 
group are unusual, having “suc- 
cessfully existed in a society that 
has never condoned heroin addic- 
tion” and having “successfully 
established their uniqueness and 
demonstrated a will to live that 
exceeds most peoples’ inner moti- 
vation and striving,” he 

He noted some characteristics 
common to the group : 

• A low threshold or tolerance 
for any physical pain since, for 
most of their lives they have 
avoided pain through the use of 
drugs. Therapy, he noted, is 
aimed at physical and emotional 
adjustment to everyday pains. 

• No real concept or sense of 
the future, since each was con- 
cerned with the present. Therapy 
involves development of long- 
term goals and more than half of 
the group hold jobs, despite their 
age, he said. 

• Highly undisciplined life- 
styles and disordered existences. 
Therapy has tried to help with 
special health problems, transpor- 
tation and social welfare prob- 

peace by putting some effort into 
it,” he said. 

This technique, with ex-addicts 
helping addicts to help them- 
selves, has been cast aside as too 
expensive, he said. 

Despite the energy and 
resources that have been put into 
methadone programs, “we are no 
further than we were 10 years ago, 
and maybe we are even worse,” 
he observed. 

And, in the face of licensing and 
certification, the paraprofessional 
ex-addict is “on the way out”. Ser- 
vice will be provided by “experts” 
and the ex-addict will never have 
a chance to be heard, to have an 
impact with those who need his 
help and support, he continued. 

Synanon, AA 
behind success 

of new approach 

approaches used by Synanon and 
Alcoholics Anonymous has led to 
development of a third type of 
treatment which can be especially 
effective with both narcotics and 
alcohol abusers. 

Samuel W. Anglin of the 'Veter- 
ans Administration Hospital in 
Washington, DC, noted that the 
combined treatment is of special 
value for recovering narcotics 
addicts who develop a dependency 
on alcohol, and for poly-drug abu- 

The combined approach has 
been used at the VA Hospital for 
more than a year “with a rela- 
tively high degree of success”, he 

Among specific benefits he 
cited were: 

• The former addict’s problems 
of overcoming loneliness and gain- 
ing social growth are eased by par- 
ticipation in the recovery network 
of Alcoholics Anonymous and Nar- 
cotics Anonymous; 

• Synanon’s intense behavior 
modification techniques speed up 
the alcoholic’s realization he is an 
alcoholic and not just a “heavy 

• With the combined treatment, 
costs are dramatically reduced, 
since only one facility, one staff, 
one training program, are 
required. Self-help aspect also 
leads to cost reduction; 

• In the single setting, individu- 
als receive preventive education 
on a variety of drugs they may not 
be familiar with and are also more 
likely to encounter individuals, 
from other generations and other 

Synanon and AA have similar 
goals and similar techniques for 
achieving these goals, Anglin 

Self-help is one of the common 
principles, he observed, noting 
that, in both, the individual must 
take the responsibility for his own 

Also, he said, in both, the 
“cure” requires “commitment to 
some larger framework of mean- 
ing, some perception of value that 
places the dependent person in a 
social body to which he is commit- 
ted and upon which he is depend- 
ent for his growth.” A sense of 
group purpose is essential to both, 
he said. 

Both also depend upon the fact 
that older members work with 
new members and members in 

The differences between the 
two are, in many instances, “sim- 
ply variations in recovery subcul- 
ture language,” he said. 

Lab studies of alcohol effects misleading 

the effects of alcohol may be 
totally misleading, a study at 
University of California, Los 
Angeles has shown. 

Marcelline Burns reported 
that laboratory studies gener- 
ally fail to take into account 
the rate of drinking. And this, 
she said, can significantly 
affect the findings. 

She described a study in 
which 40 men were given a 
series of tasks to perform after 
consuming enough alcohol to 
produce a blood alcohol level of 
. 10 %. 

However, the alcohol was 
consumed at different rates, 
with one group drinking rapidly 
to reach the desired blood alco- 

hol level in 15 minutes, one in 
30 minutes, one in one hour, 
and one in four hours. A fifth 
placebo group served as a con- 
trol, she said. 

Tests of hand steadiness, 
body sway, visual identifica- 
tion, and visual information 
processing, indicated that blood 
alcohol content “alone may be 
an insufficient measure and 
that rate of drinking is an 
important variable which must 
figure in interpretations of lab- 
oratory findings,” she said. 

The results demonstrated 
that fast-drinking subjects 
were more impaired than the 
slower drinking subjects, she 

Typically, in a social setting. 

alcohol is consumed over a 
long period of time and blood 
alcohol concentrations are 
reached gradually, while sub- 
jects in most laboratory 
studies are required to con- 
sume alcohol rapidly, she 

As alcohol is consumed more 
gradually, an acute alcohol tol- 
erance seems to offset some of 
the impairing effects of alco- 
hol, she suggested. 

If a laboratory study does 
not allow sufficient time for 
this tolerance to develop, then 
the impaired performance 
exhibited is not typical of that 
which would occur with the 
normal use of alcohol, she said. 

If generalizations are to be 
made from laboratory findings 

about the hazards involved 
with social drinking, she 
stressed, then the difference in 
rate must be taken into 

Her test results showed that 
men who drank their alcohol 
within 15 minutes performed 
more poorly than those who 
drank at a slower rate, while 
those who reached the desired 
blood alcohol concentration 
over a period of four hours, 
performed consistently better 
than the other drinking groups, 
she said. 

“Extrapolations from data 
for subjects who are required 
to drink rapidly probably over- 
estimate impairment in the 
case of leisurely social drink- 
ing,” she concluded. 

“Encouragin g results’^ reported 

Elderly addicts are treatable 

THE JOURNAL. March 1, 1975— Page 9 


Problem drinkers can be predicted 

problems can be predicted 20 
years in advance, a study by Ms 
Kaye Middleton F’illmore, Rut- 
gers Center of Alcohol Studies, 

She bases her suggestion on a 
study of 206 men and women first 
questioned about their drinking 
habits while college students 
between 1949-52. Their ages at the 
time ranged from 16 to 25 years. 

Ms Fillmore said that a major 
finding in follow-up is that if an 
individual exhibits an alcohol- 
related problem in youth, it can be 
predicted beyond the operation of 
chance that he will be exhibiting 
alcohol-related problems later in 

The study has found that, for 
men, the problems which tend to 

occur early in the drinking career 
are binge drinking; symptomatic 
drinking, which includes blackouts 
and drinking before, or instead of, 
breakfast; and financial prob- 

Later in their drinking careers, 
these men exhibit frequent intoxi- 
cation and psychological depend- 
ence on alcohol. They also have 
problems with accidents and the 
law, as well as with their wives 
and relatives. 

About half of the male drinkers 
at both points of measurement, 
and who were problem drinkers in 
their later 30s and early 40s, 
showed signs of problem drinking 
early in life. The other half devel- 
oped drinking problems in the 
intervening period. 

Ms F'illmore said it was found 

the men tended to establish their 
drinking patterns early in life and 
in the context of all-male drinking 
groups. Most women tended to 
establish their drinking patterns 
later in life, usually after they 
were married. 

The study shows that . for 
women, frequent intoxication and 
psychological dependence on alco- 
hol preceded symptomatic drink- 
ing and problems with friends and 
neighbors, husbands and relatives. 

Belligerence associated with 
drinking, and health problems, 
occurred later in their drinking 

Alcohol problems exhibited in 
youth which were most predictive 
of alcohol problems in middle age 
were early frequent intoxication 
and psychological dependence. 

Ms F'illmore said; ‘Tn other 
words, if a young female drinker 
shows these two problems 
together, the probability is moder- 
ately high that she will be a prob- 
lem drinker in middle age.” 

As for the men, “it is readily 
apparent from the data that early 
symptomatic drinking and either 
early binge drinking or frequent 
intoxication are most consistently 
and significantly predictive of 
later alcohol problems”. 

Ms F’illmore emphasized that 
because the sample is small the 
results must be considered 
extremely tentative. However, the 
findings suggest that if a large 
sample were studied, a great deal 
more would be learned of the car- 
eer process of drinking and of 
problem drinking, she said. 

Kaye Fillmore 


RALEIGH, N.C.— Soaring sugar prices have dealt a massive blow to a 
renowned rural family business in the American South— production of 
“moonshine” or “white lightning.” 

Production costs are now so high it is probably cheaper to buy the raw 
corn liquor in state-run retail outlets, North Carolina officials believe. 
Certainly revenue from the stores rose last year. 

It has never been possible to estimate how many gallons of moonshine 
have been distilled a year, particularly in the mountain areas. 

Sugar prices have also denied many families a small source of 
income. Because massive sugar purchases were too obvious, many 
moonshiners depended on people, at nighttime, putting a bag of sugar on 
their back steps. The next morning the sugar would be gone. 

Ashley McConnell reports from . . . 

an Alcoholism Awareness Week symposium sponsored by 
the North Carolina Alcoholism Research Authority 

Overdrinking: problem 

of clear understanding 

FINDING THE answer as to why 
people overdrink may lie with the 
biochemist and pharmacologist, 
believes Dr Ronald Thurman, 
who is carrying out fundamental 
metabolism research at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

Dr Thurman, assistant profes- 
sor of physical biochemistry at 
the university’s Johnson Re- 
search Foundation, suggested 
that “why people overconsume 
may be a socio-psychiatric prob- 

“On the other hand, there is a 
large body of literature which 
would indicate there is a genetic 
factor. Now to me genetics 
means Watson and Crick (of Dou- 
ble-Helix, DNA fame), Watson 
and Crick means proteins, prote- 
ins means enzymes and enzymes 
means metabolism. 

“The question is; If it is genet- 
ic, how is this translated into 
terms a biochemist can under- 

Ronald Thurman 

Dr Thurman said the present 
knowledge of biochemical defi- 
ciency diseases is founded on 
studies of intermediary metabo- 
lism laid down in the 1920’s and 
1930’ s. 

“What we need to do now is 
gather the underlying fundamen- 
tal knowledge in basic alcohol 
metabolism, aldahyde metabo- 
lism and neuromine metabolism 
in regard to addiction.” 

Dr Thurman and his colleagues 
are currently performing a num- 
ber of biophysical experiments to 
try and elucidate some of this 
iundamental knowledge. 

He said; “If the problem is one 
of genetics I can build a hypothe- 
sis that will at least give me 
groups of individuals who would 
be liable, or non-liable. The non- 
liable, such as most Orientals, 
because of their biochemical 
makeup would never become 
alcoholic because they cannot 
drink enough to make themselves 

“On the other hand, the Cauca- 
sian is liable. Then given the so- 
cio-psychiatric pressures they 
can wind up as one of the four in 
a hundred who are alcoholics.” 

Dr Thurman said the bioche- 
mist and pharmacologist could 
produce a substance that “could 
metabolize alcohol rapidly and it 
would be cirrhosis-free, if you 
want to be highly speculative.” 

There also exists the possibility 
of a “sobriety pill” that would 
produce rapid detoxification after 
a cocktail party “but I don’t see 
it ever being related to the prob- 
lem of alcoholism”. 

One practical piece of advice 
for all drinkers, in Dr Thurman’s 
opinion, is the European idea of 
the yearly “cure”, or abstinence 
for about three weeks a year. 

“The fat that accumulates in 
the liver goes away. It is not 
clear if all the pathological 
changes that occur are reversi- 
ble, but many of them are.” 

Eugene LeBlanc 


must be first 

THERE CAN be no significant 
action in prevention of alcohol- 
ism as long as the present cli- 
mate continues of incorporat- 
ing drinking in the life style 
and making liquor readily 

br Eugene LeBlanc, of the 
Addiction Research Founda- 
tion of Ontario, told a press 
conference that while there 
are regional variations “the 
general world tendency has 
been an increasing availabil- 
ity on a whole variety of 

There can be no meaningful 
talk of prevention while, at the 
same time, the burden on 
society is allowed to increase. 
The two acts are incompat- 
ible. Increasing consumption 
means, inevitably, there will 
be more problems, said Dr 

“At some point we are either 
gohig to level off because we 
have reached the maximum 
level of damage that can occur 
or society is going to decide 
that the price is too high.” 

Alcohol drinking is fun for 
many people and those who are 
actually alcohol casualties are 
in the minority. However, 
there are speed limits on the 
roads because of the need for 
some sort of basic standard. 

“The majority has an 
enlightened self-interest in 
allowing some compromise 
with respect to their freedom 
of action with the payoff being 
in real dollars and in terms of 
the quality of life. These are 
not scientific decisions but pub- 
lic and political decisions. ” 

Criminal stigma 
faces alcoholic 

receive early help until the crimi- 
nal stigma is removed from drun- 

And so far, most members of 
the public, and most politicians 
and professionals, exhibit studied 
indifference, charges Dr David 
Pittman, a pioneer in establishing 
North America’s first detoxifica- 
tion center for police-case alcohol- 

While mental illness was taken 
out of the criminal province gen- 
erations ago, in many states the 
alcoholic is still marked as a 
criminal, added Dr Pittman, pro- 
fessor of sociology and director of 
the Social Science Institute at 
Washington University, St. Louis. 

“We still have the public drun- 
kenness case within the criminal 
justice system and being incarcer- 
ated— serving, in many cases, life 
imprisonment on the instalment 
plan,” he said. 

Despite efforts to bring about 
the decriminalization of the public 
drunkenness offence, in 1974 
approximately two million Ameri- 
cans were arrested on exactly this 

Most victims are sent to jail 
cells “to languish, sometimes 
without medical attention, for the 
simple offence of being publicly 
drunk; and without jailers, in 
some areas, taking the most ele- 
mentary precaution of removing 
belts from those arrested,” Dr 
Pittman continued. 

Because of the associations, “is 
there any wonder individuals still 
find it a very stigmatized condi- 
tion and are unwilling to recognize 
it as a problem in its early stages 
because of its intimate connection 
with the criminal justice system 

Those with an alcohol problem 
develop a protective response of 
denying their illness, and this 
becomes part of the illness itself. 
F’or many people in public life, 
great steps are taken to conceal 
their problem. 

Dr Pittman said a uniform act 
is pending in many states that 
would remove public intoxication 
from the criminal code. It pro- 
vides for victims to be taken into 
protective custody and given 
emergency detoxification or other 
necessary medical treatment. 

Some states have already 
enacted the law, but in turn the 
attitude has been “we are all in 
favor of doing away with this 
onerous and heinous law but we 
are unwilling to appropriate any 
funds for the implementation of 
the law,’” he added. Honorable 
exceptions have been F’lorida, 
Minnesota and Massachusetts and 
such cities as St Louis, Kansas 
City and Greensboro, North Caro- 

Dr Pittman said even those who 

do research in alcoholism and 
work in terms of early prevention 
and intervention are handicapped 
by an attitude of benign tolerance 
instead of full acceptance. 

One of his great goals is “to 
take the research findings out of 
the laboratory or from the sociolo- 
gist and to try and apply them to 
the community in terms of social 
reform and social change”. 

The way can be difficult. When 
he set up the first American detox- 
ification center in St Louis, resist- 
ance from professional groups was 
“astronomical”. Even among 
social workers and doctors, the 
general attitude was that it 
allowed “a night of debauchery 
followed by breakfast iki bed. 

“There was no comprehension 
at all of the problem.” 

Many doctors are still lax about 
dealing with the problem as part 
of a patient’s history and most 
medical schools do not even make 
methods of identifying an alco- 
holic in the earliest stages, part of 
the regular curriculum. 

Many facilities for alcoholics 
are not available under mental 
health programs because many 
psychiatrists and other medical 
personnel have more esoteric con- 
cerns such as schizophrenia and 
manic depressive diseases. Social 
workers have even been removed 
from alcoholic units because they 
are needed for “sicker patients”. 

The whole thrust of the decri- 
minalization movement “is to try 
once and for all to remove the* 
criminal label from alcoholism,” 
said Pittman. 

“Unless it is removed from the 
denizens of skid row and the lower 
income white or the ghetto 
dweller in the black community, 
we cannot expect it to be admitted 
in the upper income groups.” 

David Pittman 

Page 10 — THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1974 

West Germany launches 
anti-alcohol campaign 

The young like what’s 
new, they like Canadian 
Club with its 
unmistakable, mild taste. 
Canadian Club — on the 
rocks or in long drinks 
with soda, cola, ginger 


Franz Plueschinger (51) 

“It’s terrible about young 
people today — the way 
they live in communes, 
have mattresses on the 
floor, no friendly 
wallpaper on the wall — 
just pictures of Mao — 
and on top of that, they 
drink Canadian Club . . . 
if you can call that taste! 

’’’Furchtbaristda s heiitzut^, 

die jungen Leute 1< ben in Kommunen 
Mafratzen auf der i Boden,keine 
freundlichenTape ;en an der Wand, 
nur Mao-bilder un d dann noch 
Canadian Club... 
schmack nennen?’ 

Iram PluHhiiigcr(n) 

’’Lieber Franz, ruhe sanft bis 
zum nilchsten Biedermeier.?*®- 


Der Geschmack eines jungm Landes. 

Klaus Wahl (24) 

“Dear Franz, rest 
peacefully until the next 
Biedermeier era. ’’ 

Canadian Club — The 
Taste of a Young 


BONN — Mounting consunnption 
and growing abuse have persuad- 
ed the West German government 
to launch an extensive anti- 
alcohol campaign. 

It calls for widespread dissemi- 
nation of educational materials, 
possible restrictions on alcohol 
advertising, and government- 
sponsored anti-alcohol advertis- 

The move follows a recent con- 
ference of experts from state and 
federal ministries of health and 
social welfare which disclosed an 
alarming level of alcoholism and 
alcohol abuse. 

According to federal govern- 
ment officials, there are 600,000 
alcoholics in the Federal Repub- 
lic— approximately 1% of the to- 
tal population— plus an additional 
600,000 “problem drinkers”. 

Only 3% of the country’s adult 
population is totally abstentious, 
according to the conference re- 

“Misuse of alcohol and resul- 
tant disease,” the report said, 
“have in recent years reached a 
level that is causing concern. Fa- 
cilities for treating the mentally 
ill tend increasingly to be abused 
because they have to deal with a 
growing number of alcoholics.” 

The anti-alcohol drive will be 
headed by Manfred Franke, a 
senior official in the federal min- 
istry of health, who is in charge 
of the ministry’s narcotics and 
alcohol abuse department. 

Franke contends the principal 
difference between alcohol and 
proscribed narcotics is that alco- 
hol offers a legitimate form of in- 
toxication with a strong element 

of social appeal and grace when 
consumed in moderation. 

He plans to call on advertisers 
to moderate their claims, if not 
to stop advertising alcoholic bev- 
erages entirely. 

Although the influence of ad- 
vertising should not be overrated, 
he said, it does influence the un- 
decided and when alcohol is 
made to appear attractive in ad- 
vertisements it induces many to 
drink who otherwise might not. 

Opinion researchers, working 
on government contract, have de- 
termined, for example, that the 
type of advertisements with 
which brewers, distillers, and 
wine merchants push their prod- 
ucts have an especially detrimen- 
tal effect on impressionable 

In West German advertise- 
ments, drinkers are depicted as 
musclemen and shapely women, 
as worldly, urbane, and cosmo- 
politan. The locations in which 
they are seen are not lonely 
rooms but romantic holiday re- 
sorts, sunswept beaches^ and 
plush hotels. 

Alcohol advertising stimulates 
the yearning for exotic far-away 
places, for adventure, for glam- 

Ads for whisky — scotch, bour- 
bon and Canadian rye— are laced 
with anglicisms that appeal to 
the desire for urbanity. Germans 
are encouraged “zu trinken on the 
rocks ”. The connoisseur asks 
“fuer einen long drink ”. Whiskys 
are invariably “mild” “soft” or 
“rare” . 

Canadian Club, in particular, 
has been running a full-color 
campaign in West German maga- 
zines stressing that it is the drink 
of the new, young, forward look- 
ing generation. 

Cognacs are invariably sun- 

ripened, beers are always cool 
and foamy, and wines sparkle in 
the glass. 

One approach being considered 
by the ministry of health is a 
counter-campaign in which the 
other side of alcohol is to be de- 
picted— the lonely person drown- 
ing his sorrows in a sleazy bar or a 
dreary rented room. 

The emphasis will be on the 
negative aspects of drinking and 
how alcohol whittles away at the 
very social standing it promises. 

Material will be prepared for 
distribution to schools so as to 
warn students of the dangers of 
excessive drinking and, if it is 
not possible to persuade them to 
abstain, at least to make them 
moderate, reasonable, social 

One suggestion under consider- 
ation,. is to offer tax relief to res- 
taurants, taverns and disco- 
theques that do not serve alcoholic 
drinks, especially those that cater 
to young people. 

The campaign will call for 
tighter enforcement of laws 
which prohibit the sale of alco- 
holic beverages to minors under 
18 years. Though present regula- 
tions call for fines against inn- 
keepers who serve to minors, 
there are no provisions for with- 
drawal of licences. 

Another problem is how to pre- 
vent minors from obtaining alco- 
holic beverages from vending 
machines which dispense not only 
wine and beer but spirits as well. 

Drinking-driving behavior 

More research needed: BMA 

Around the world 

LONDON— A distinguished Brit- 
ish Medical Association panel has 
advised the government’s com- 
mittee of inquiry into drinking and 
driving that there must be more 
research into adverse factors 
affecting driver behavior before 
more effective means of interven- 
tion can be devised. 

The panel, under Professor Sir 
Edward Wayne, (former Regius 
Professor of the Practice of Medi- 
cine at Glasgow University), 
notes in its report that road acci- 

HONG KONG-The United States 
and Hong Kong are to collaborate 
on a major new study of the use of 
acupuncture in the treatment of 
drug addiction. 

The study will be performed in 
Hong Kong by the Hong Kong 
Society for the Aid and Rehabilita- 
tion of Drug Addicts (SARD A) in 
cooperation with the National 
Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), 

The preliminary announcement 
was made at the recent annual 
meeting here of SARDA by chair- 
man Brook Bernacchi. QC. Final 
arrangements are expected to be 
announced within the next few 

“The potential value of Hong 
Kong in contributing to interna- 
tional research on narcotic addic- 
tion is gaining prominence 
because the great majority of our 
drug dependents are addicted to a 
single drug, be it heroin or opium, 
and unlike their counterparts in 
America and Europe, few are 
poly-drug abusers,” said Mr. Ber- 

dents are now second only to 
malignant and cardio-vascular 
disease in terms of loss of expec- 
tation of life, and are of outstand- 
ing importance in terms of their 
contribution to the pool of perma- 
nent incapacity in the community. 

It recommends roadside sur- 
veys should be performed to 
obtain information on the drinking 
and driving habits of the driver 
population and that the role of leg- 
islation in providing countermea- 
sures should be reviewed with 


This fact, he said, “helps to iso- 
late variables in clinical observa- 

The study will be aimed at fur- 
ther documenting the value of 
acupuncture with electric stimula- 
tion in alleviating withdrawal 
symptoms, reducing the craving 
for narcotic drugs, and preventing 
relapse. It will be under the direc- 
tion of Dr. H. L. Wen, head of neu- 
rology, Tung Wah Hospitals of 
Hong Kong. 

It was Dr. Wen’s original study 
of 40 cases of drug addiction suc- 
cessfully treated by acupuncture 
(The Journal. June, 1973) that 
aroused world wide interest in the 
possibility of treating withdrawal 
symptoms, and possibly even the 
craving for drugs, by electro- 

Since that study. Dr. Wen has 
become chairman of SARDA’s 
research program and has contin- 
ued limited experimental work in 
the use of acupuncture in treating 
drug dependents. 

three groups of drivers in mind. 
These are ; 

1. Moderate experienced 
“social drinkers”— i.e. those who 
have moderate control over their 
drinking and are receptive to 
appropriate publicity about the 
dangers of drinking and driving. 
(The panel considers that in spite 
of the marked increase in alcohol 
consumption in Britain in the past 
decade, this group did not often 
exceed a blood alcohol concentra- 
tion in excess of 0.08% when driv- 

2. Young drinking drivers— i.e. 
those inexperienced at driving 
under the influence of drink, a 
group the panel regards as of 
great importance. (Between 1966 
and 1973, there was a Z0% 
increase in convictions for drun- 
kenness unrelated to driving, 
under the age of 18. The propor- 
tion of drivers in this age group 
with a blood alcohol concentration 
exceeding 0.08% killed in road 
accidents has more than doubled 
since 1968); 

3. Problem drinkers and alco- 
holics— i.e. those no longer in 
adequate control of their drinking 
and not receptive to publicity 
which might be appropriate to 
social drinkers. 

The panel says there is reason 
to believe the publicity campaign 
which accompanied the 1967 Road 
Traffic Act was successful in per- 
suading most drivers it would be 
dangerous to drive after excessive 
drinking and that there was a high 
chance of being caught if they did. 

• British Medical Association 
Evidence to the Government Com- 
mittee of Inquiry into Drinking 
and Driving; British Medical 
Association, Tavistock Square, 
London WCIH 9JP. 


Drunken louts, foul-mouthed 
boors, greasy scalpers and even 
female groupies are penetrating 
Moscow spectator sports in dis- 
turbing numbers says Komsomol- 
skaya Pravda, the Communist 
Youth League paper. While rnost 
of the fans are serious spectators, 
the increasing numbers of 
“Bolelshchiks” (derived from “to 
be sick”) is vexing Soviet authori- 
ties. One beer drinker gave this 
reason for attending a hockey 
game: “Suppose I tell my wife I 
am going to a beer bar. She won’t 
let me. But, if I show her a ticket 
to a game, that’s something else. 
It’s like a pass.” 


All Spanish cities with popula- 
tions beyond 100,000 will give 
breathalyzer tests to suspected 
drunk drivers. The driver has 
the right to refuse the test. How- 
ever, such refusals will be con- 
sidered as pointing toward guilt 
by judges who consider these cas- 
es. The fines will be $80. 


Tranquillizers can turn parents 
aggressive and make them batter 
their children, according to doc- 
tors at a hospital in Oxford, Eng- 
land. They say the way the drugs 
are used has “major implica- 
tions” in prevention and treat- 
ment of child abuse. In a recent 
issue of the British Medical Jour- 
nal, the Park Hospital for Chil- 
dren team says a high proportion 
of parents in families referred for 
actual or threatened child abuse 

are taking drugs, most commonly 
Librium and Valium, as well as 
various anti-depressants. 


An estimated 100,000 young West 
Germans, often as young as 
10-years-old, are becoming 
addicted to alcohol. “A generation 
of alcoholics is growing up which 
will present the nation with seri- 
ous problems,” one scientist said. 
According to the head of one 
working group trying to combat 
misuse of drugs and alcohol: 
“More than half of the 12- to 
14-year-olds have already tasted 
alcohol and a quarter of them 
drink regularly”. There have been 
cases of attempted rape by 
U-year-olds under the influence of 
drink, said an one official. 


A meeting of Colombian State 
Ministers of Housing has urged 
the federal senate to adopt a law 
banning liquor advertising. In ad- 
dition, the ministers recommend- 
ed advertising be banned in all 
foreign magazines circulated in 
the country. No new brands of liq- 
uor should be allowed to appear 
on the market without govern- 
ment approval, and all liquor 
should be strictly labelled to 
guard against adulterations. 


Stiffen drunk-driving laws in West 
Germany have resulted in a pro- 
nounced reduction of road acci- 
dents caused by alcohol, according 
to the German Automobile Club 

Hong Kong study 

THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1975— Page 11 

Nursing home patients 
in “ehemical strait jaekets” 

MANY ELDERLY patients in United States nursing homes “may 
often actually suffer setbacks in physical well-being because of poor 
management or worse, of prescription drugs given to them”. 

This is a main conclusion of a report by a Senate subcommittee on 
use of drugs in tbe country’s 23,000 nursing homes. 

The report is second in a series of nine planned by the Subcommit- 
tee on Long-Term Care of the Senate Special Committee on Aging. 
The subcommittee’s introductory report, issued last November, said 
half of the existing U.S. nursing homes offered substandard care. 

Tbe paper on drugs cites these among its “major points”: 

• Tbe average yearly drug bill of a nursing-home patient is $300 
compared to an average of $87 for other elderly people. The average 
nursing home patient takes four to seven different drugs daily. 

• “Most disturbing” is what the report calls “ample evidence that 
patients are given tranquillizers to keep them quiet and to make 
them easier to take care of”— often those patients with the best 
chance for rehabilitation. 

• Systems for distributing or administering drugs to patients are 
generally “inefficient and ineffective” with the result that 20% to 
40% are “administered in error” and there is a “high incidence” of 
adverse reactions. 

• “Kickbacks”, averaging 25% of the charge, are “widespread” 
as are similar abuses such as supplying out-dated drugs and billing 
for non-existent prescriptions. 

Tbe report claims management of drugs is often the responsibility 
of untrained personnel and cites tbe danger of drug-dependence or 
addiction among patients receiving drugs over a long period of time. 
It also notes nursing home patients were used for experimental drug 
research, raising the question of whether patients were capable of 
giving “informed consent”. 

It cites as “perhaps the most common and most devastating conse- 
quence” the over-use of tranquillizers as “chemical strait jackets” 
to make patients less trouble to care for. _ 

The report recommends “strong and immediate measures” to 
improve the distribution of medication. It also calls for enforcement 
of existing regulations, a “concerted effort” to correct abuses by 
nursing-bome administrators, and greater vigilance by federal agen- 

A liberal outlook 

Tough N Y.drug laws challenged 


NEW YORK— Dents have begun 
to appear in New York State’s 
tough legal front against drug use. 

Some of the inroads reflect the . 
more liberal outlook of the new, 
Democratic governor, Hugh 
Carey. Others result from court 
scrutiny of the stringent new state 
law that went into effect 18 
months ago. 

Governor Carey said recently in 
Albany he is considering an end to 
criminal penalties for possession 
of small amounts of marijuana. 
This “does not mean legaliza- 
tion,” the governor said. 

Rather, Mr. Carey favors fines, 
or mandatory referral of persons 
arrested for possession of mari- 
juana to drug treatment clinics. 

Reforms are needed, he said, 
because refusal of police and 
judges to enforce anti-marijuana 
legislation had made mockery of 
the law. 

Judges, he noted, are dismiss- 
ing marijuana cases because of 
the severity of the penalties, while 
the police, particularly in New 
York City, simply are not arrest- 
ing people with small amounts of 
marijuana in their possession. 

Liberalization of marijuana 
laws would require new legisla- 
tion. The State Assembly, con- 
trolled by Democrats, is expected 
to welcome it, but the Republi- 
can-dominated Senate might 
oppose it. 

In court, in New York City, a 

Drugs, increased violence linked 


WINNIPEG-Illegal drugs and 
their traffic contribute to other 
kinds of crime as well, according 
to Inspector Ken Johnston of the 
Winnipeg Police vice squad. 

“The hold-ups, muggings and 
robberies we are now suffering 
from in this community are 
largely due to the increased use of 
drugs,” Insp. Johnston told a 
chemical abuse seminar here 
sponsored by the Canadian Coun- 
cil of Christians and Jews. 

His remarks are reminiscent of 
those made recently by Superin- 
tendent C. A. J. J. Philion, the 
officer commanding the Moncton, 
New Brunswick, detachment of 
the RCMP. 

Supt. Philion blamed increasing 
violence in that east coast city on 
illicit drugs. 

Insp. Johnston said addicts 
shoplift thousands of dollars worth 
of goods daily, forcing stores to 
raise prices to recoup the losses. 

“Stores don’t absorb the loss, 
they put the prices up. They can’t 
absorb the loss and neither can the 
insurance companies. 

“A great deal of the economic 
downturn is due to drug use.” 

Insp. Johnston said he opposes 
the legalization of marijuana. 

“With the permissive society 
we’re in today— the legalization of 
homosexuality, the acceptance of 
pornography, the talk of legalizing 
gambling and bookmaking— with 
the talk of legalizing drugs you’re 
going too far. 

“The Winnipeg drug scene is a 
ripoff, keep it that way.” If drugs 
were legalized, far more would be 
used than are being used now, he 

Insp. Johnston criticized the 
LeDain Commission Report for 
urging the reduction of penalties 
for possession of small amounts of 

“Surely we’re not supposed to 
take this seriously,” he said. He 
said he attended hearings of the 
LeDain Commission in Winnipeg 
and saw three “known drug traf- 
fickers” speak. “These people 
spoke on your behalf.” 

Drug use in Winnipeg is on the 
increase, Insp. Johnston told the 

^Key to better life’ 
advertising banned in P.Q. 


MONTREAL— Tough new regula- 
tions in the Province of Quebec 
covering advertising of alcoholic 
beverages prohibit the promotion 
of drinking as a key to a better 

Announced by Justice Minister 
Jerome Choquette, the 13-point 
regulations forbid the portrayal by 
brewers or distillers of alcohol 
consumption as “directly or indi- 
rectly’ associated with either 
social or athletic success. 

The regulations cover all publi- 
city media, including billboards, 
and refer to beer, wine, cider and 
spirits. Present advertising cam- 
paigns are permitted to continue 
until contracts expire or until Jan- 
uary 1, 1976. No new advertise- 
ments may be introduced in the 

Some of the important new 
restrictions are; 

• Alcoholic beverages must not 
be used directly or indirectly to 
promote individual or group popu- 

• They must not be used to pro- 
mote social prestige, business suc- 
cess or as an aid to athletic per- 

• They cannot be used to illus- 
trate the need for a persons’s par- 
ticipation in activities. • 

• They cannot be used as an 
example of a possible solution to 
personal difficulty. 

• Public figures, especially in 
sports and the arts, many not 
endorse alcoholic beverages. 

• No advertisement may be 
used to promote drinking alcoholic 
beverages in general, and espe- 
cially by minors. 

• No manufacturer of alcoholic 
beverages may display its name 
on sports equipment except for 
teams of its own employees. 

He said in an 18-month period 
spanning 1971 to 1973, police 
arrested 320 persons for cannabis 
possession. In the first 10 weeks 
after Winnipeg police forces were 
amalgamated last year, 340 
arrests for the same offence were 

The police inspector called for 
Manitoba legislation to make 
glue-sniffing illegal. 

“Last Monday night we 
arrested 24 juveniles in the Inner 
City. Twenty were arrested for 
glue sniffing. But there’s no law 
against glue sniffing, so we charge 
them with sexual immorality or a 
similar vice.” 

Unseen dangers 

WINNIPEG— There are unrecog- 
nized dangers in the use of pre- 
scription or over-the-counter 
drugs, a Winnipeg pharmacist told 
a chemical abuse seminar here 
sponsored by the Canadian Coun- 
cil of Christians and Jews. 

“You hear about intentional 
abuse of drugs, or buying a dime 
bag of grass, or spiking horse, or 
sniffing coke,” said Laurie John- 

“But, you don’t hear about the 
square johns who pop a couple of 
goofballs with a drink and get 
stoned out of their heads.” 

He noted five potential sources 
for the misuse of legally available 

• The physician who may be too 
busy to realize the number of the 
drugs he has prescribed to one 
patient, or to explain carefully 
why a drug is being prescribed. 

• The patient who may be too 
casual in using the drugs because 
he assumes they are not harmful 
because the doctor prescribed 

• The pharmacist who may be 
too casual in distributing drugs 
without checking past prescrip- 

• The failure of the patient to 
recognize that alcohol can cause 
serious side effects if mixed with 
prescription drugs. 

• The lack of awareness that 
different drugs used at the same 
time may cause negative reac- 
tions, altered perception, or 

State Supreme Court justice, Leon 
Polsky, last month declared 
unconstitutional the life term for 
sale of or possession of methadone 
that is mandated by the tough 
Rockefeller drug law. 

He said he could “conceive of 
no rational basis” for the law’s 
treatment of one legally obtained 
dose of methadone as severely as 
possession or sales of large 
amounts of heroin or other illicit 

If Judge Polsky’s decision is 
upheld, penalties for' methadone 
possession and sale would become 
misdemeanors, punishable by no 
more than one year in jail. 

“Almost all of the pending 
methadone sale cases involve for- 
mer heroin addicts who have sold 
a portion of their take-home sup- 
ply and ‘stretched’ the balance to 
cover their own needs,” the judge 

“The seller of his own clinic- 
supplied methadone (thus) is lim- 
ited, at the maximum, to two or 

three $10 sales a week.” 

The city’s special narcotics 
prosecutor has not said whether 
he will appeal Judge Polsky’s 

The Rockefeller Law’s harsh 
penalty for heroin use and posses- 
sion disturbs at least one judge, 
Andrew Celli of Rochester, N.Y. 
He called the law, with its provi- 
sion for a mandatory life sentence 
for possession of an ounce or more 
of heroin, “a statute without 
mercy,” which “offends the con- 
science of the court and . . . the 
principles inherent in our Constitu- 

Judge Celli made the statement 
last year in announcing he would 
sentence a man convicted for pos- 
session of heroin under the State’s 
former narcotics statute, which 
specifies a maximum penalty of 15 
years, and sets no minimum, 
rather than under the Rockefeller 
Law, which mandates a one year 
to life sentence, and lifetime 
parole following release. 


Says it is 

Time to 
cut the 

The strings of 
society’s values and 
expectations that 
subtly control the 
of alcohol and 
other drugs. 

Help Canadians cut these ties and realize they can 
improve the quality of their lives as they make wiser 
choices based on knowledge of the personal and 
social consequences of drug use. 

Join CFADD now to have more 
opportunities to 

— pool your experience and information 
with other concerned individuals and 

— focus national attention on the problems 
of drug use 

— influence the formulation and application 
of public policy 


The Canadian Foundation on 
Aicohoi and Drug Dependencies 
451 Daiy Avenue 

Ottawa, Ontario ^ 

KIN 6H6 \ 

□ 1 am interested in joining CFADD as a concerned 

□ Our agency is interested in joining CFADD 

□ Our organization is not directly involved in the 
field but is interested in having more information 
about associate membership 








Check enclosed for 

□ $20.00 (individual) □ $50.00 (Agency) 

Page 12— THE JOURNAL, March 1. 1974 

Letters to the Editor 




I read with interest what would 
be best called The Frustration 
Issue of The Journal (October 
1974) and agree with the following 
negative conclusions: 

1. Jail time does not deter the 
drinking driver. 

2. The suspension of the driv- 
er's licence of the drinking 
driver keeps the problem 
drinker off the road with the 
same regularity as sending a 
nasty note home to his or 
her mother. 

3. The breathalyzer is a waste 
of time in better than 95% of 
the cases and constitutes an 
additional penalty not con- 
templated by normal drunk 
driving laws. 

In my 18 years of the practice of 
law. I have more or less special- 

ized in driving offences and have 
defended probably close to 25,000 
individuals charged either directly 
or indirectly with over- 
consumption of alcohol. 

Although I normally don’t 
believe that an alcoholic such as 
myself has more insight in the 
dynamics of the drunk, my conclu- 
sions hereafter set forth were 
arrived at prior to my alcoholism 
recovery and confirmed by hard 
data thereafter. 

The suspension of the driver’s 
licence as a deterrent is nonsense, 
experientially. and creates a dif- 
ferent type of criminal, e.g. driv- 
ing while licence suspended, with 
the attendant lack of insurance. 

My office very often would 
appear to be a Twelve Step table 
with all sorts of literature on alco- 
holism and attendant mental 
health problems. More often than 
not I find that the suspension, par- 
ticularly of the alcoholic’s driv- 
er’s licence, stands in the way of 
his recovery and produces a nega- 

tive effect. Many of the laws 
requiring the drinking driver to 
take a breathalyzer test have as a 
penalty a six month automatic 
suspension for failure to comply. 
In well over 90% of the cases in 
my experience, the arresting 
authority doesn’t need it but oft 
times the individual is so drunk he 
can’t clearly understand the con- 
sequences of his failure to take it 
and the penalty for failure to com- 
ply is greater than the penalty for 
drunk driving itself, towit: Six 
month suspension, failure to take 
breathalyzer, and thirty days sus- 
pension. first conviction of drunk 
driving, and in the state of Wash- 
ington there is no occupational 
driver’s licence for the breathaly- 
zer suspension. 

Thus, a person can plead guilty 
in the majority of states to drunk 
driving because he is guilty and 
has no defence, and nevertheless 
be prohibited from driving for six 

The financial burden attendant 

to the lack of mobility is normally 
so great that the drinking driver 
will drive and not have insurance. 
It has been impossible for me, 
even by court order, to get per- 
mission for alcoholics to drive to 
and from information schools, 
therapy, or Alcoholics Anonymous 
meetings. The result, except in a 
very few cases, is predictable, 
particularly for those who are 
trying to overcome a drinking 

They become more hostile 
towards the state, more disres- 
pectful of authority and unless 
extremely dedicated to sobriety, 
say to hell with it, and go back and 

I would thus add another criti- 
cism to those who advocate 
stronger, more stringent penal- 
ties, that being that the penalties 
are in fact, in most cases, 
counter-productive and in many 
cases prohibit, practically, recov- 
ery of the individual alcoholic. 

Alva C. Long 
Attorney at Law 
Auburn, Washington 98002 




As Coordinator of a drug abuse 
treatment program, I am writing 
to alert your readers that Madi- 
son, Wisconsin does not at this 
time have the capability to provide 
methadone to anyone unless they 
are hospitalized. 

We have had numerous visits 
from vacationing or visiting meth- 
adone clients who presumed that 
methadone would be available. 
Each of these visitors experienced 
varying degrees of frustration and 
discomfort when they learned no 
methadone was available in Madi- 

We would greatly appreciate 
the cooperation of your readership 
in alerting methadone programs 
and clients that plans must be 
made for a take-home supply if 
travelling to Madison. 

David E. Joranson, Coordinator 
Dane County Comprehensive 
Drug Abuse Treatment Program 
Madison, Wisconsin 53703 

In British Columbia 

Re-organization takes its toll 

’76 budget indicates 
enforcement emphasis 


VANCOUVER— The executive 
directors' of the Alcoholism Foun- 
dation of British Columbia and the 
Narcotic Addiction Foundation of 
B.C. have been fired. 

The contracts of E. D. “Ted” 
McRae of the AF and Douglas 
Denholm of the NAF have been 
bought out by the provincial gov- 

The moves are part of the 
absorption of responsibility by the 
new Alcohol and Drug Commis- 
sion for drug programs in the 

Both Mr. McRae and Mr. Den- 
holm say their contracts were 
bought out on generous terms. 

Ted McRae is considered a 
founding member of the Canadian 
fraternity on alcholism. As head 
of the AF, he spent two decades 
enduring the disinterest in social 
rehabilitation of the former Social 
Credit government of W.A.C. Ben- 

The cash register government 
of the Social Credit Party was 
defeated more than two years ago 
by the New Democratic Party, 
elected on a platform pledge to 
pour money into the social 
malaise of the province. 

And a few months ago, Mr. 
McCrae was asked to resign by 
the Alcohol and Drug Commission 
created by the NDP government 
to take over drug problems. 

By a curious irony of fate, Mr. 
McCrae survived a regime that 
opposed him at almost every turn, 
only to fall victim to the govern- 
ment whose election he saw as his 
only salvation. 

Mr. McCrae became executive 
director of AF in 1954, the year 
after it was formed, and was 
given a budget of $25,000, inher- 
ited by the Socreds from the 
budget of the previous govern- 
ment. Increases to his budget over 
the next two decades came 
painfully, he said. 

“The government was reluctant 
to provide us with funds. The pro- 
vincial budget under the Socreds 
went from $2 million to more than 
$1 billion while our budget went 
from $25,000 to the horrendous 
sum of $400,000 in 1973. 

"Provincial revenue from alco- 
holic beverages skyrocketed from 
$5 million to $50 million and $60 
million a year. Some years,” Mr. 
McCrae said, “the increase we got 
was only enough to keep up with 
increasing costs.” 

The provincial government fed 
the AF enough to keep it alive, he 
said, but not enough to keep it 

’"When I look back I have to 

admit— though I hate it because it 
isn’t very flattering— they were 
practising tokenism. We,” Mr. 
McCrae said, “were the token pro- 

The AF was run as a private 
society under the Societies Act of 
B.C., a favorite device of the 
Socreds for such agencies. Though 
a private organization, the AF 
was charged with providing a ser- 
vice to the entire province. 

‘Tf we did well, the government 
could take credit for it, ” he said. 
“And if we failed, they could 
absolve themselves because we 
were a private agency.” 

In spite of handicaps, Mr. 
McCrae said the AF did succeed 
in making British Columbians 
more aware of alcoholism. 

He said he was elated when 
Bennett was defeated by Dave 
Barrett and the NDP. Mr. McCrae 
was out of the country at the time 
and didn’t vote. 

“I think now,” he says, “it was 

RALEIGH, N.C.-A continual 
feast or famine in the allocation of 
money is the prime barrier for 
researchers in alcoholism. 

"What you need if you are 
really going to get at this prob- 
lem, which is complicated and 
involves so many different kinds 
of specialized backgrounds, is the 
recruitment and training of people 
who will make a career almost, 
out of trying to understand it,” 
said Dr. Donald Goodwin, a Wash- 
ington University researcher. 

“And you cannot do this unless 

Ted McRae 

a good thing.” 

Mr. Denholm became executive 
director of the NAF in 1970 after 
serving on its board of directors 
for about eight years. 

Mr. Denholm partially attrib- 
utes the increase in heroin use in 
B.C. today to the neglect of nar- 
cotic addiction by the provincial 
government while he was head of 
NAF. The emphasis then was on 
the so-called soft drugs. 

‘‘The community was almost 
completely polarized on the issue 
of drugs then. 

“Almost any meeting I went to 
in the early "ZOs concerned with 
drugs was immediately polarized 
with all the hawks on one side and 
the doves on the other,” he said. 

“In the middle, the only place 
you can do any work, were damn 
few people. 

“Today, it’s still a bit like that 
but not nearly as much so. People 
are beginning to come into the 

you have some prospect at least of 
an economic base that is better 
than just year by year. As it is 
now in this area of research you 
have a feast and famine situa- 

Dr. Goodwin pointed out that at 
his own Addiction Research Cen- 
ter at the St. Louis university “18 
months ago we were letting people 
go who were in alcohol studies 
because we just didn’t have any 
money. Then suddenly we have 
money given to us and good for 
three years. 


WASHINGTON-The U.S. federal 
budget for alcohol and drug abuse 
prevention, control and enforce- 
ment programs will rise for law 
enforcement and decline for pre- 
vention, treatment, education and 
research during fiscal 1975, which 
begins in July. 

Spending proposed by President 
Gerald R. Ford in his February 
budget message would total $810.2 
million for social action programs 
and $305.1 million for law enforce- 
ment if the Congress accepts his 

The figures represent a 
decrease of $63 million from $873.2 
million for social action and an 
increase of $24.1 million from $281 
million for law enforcement in the 
current fiscal year. 

While the Congress can raise or 
lower the President’s figures 
before authorizing and appropriat- 
ing expenditures, indications are 
the drug abuse program will share 
the kinds of budget cuts proposed 
for most federal agencies. 

This results from the combined 
impact of inflation and recession 
plus a feeling that addiction prob- 
lems are coming under control. 
For example, the budget report 
asserts that federally-supported 
programs now have adequate 
capacity to provide treatment for 
every heroin addict who applies to 

The entire $305.1 million indi- 
cated for substance abuse law 
enforcement is shown as directed 
against drugs. 

The largest share, some $203.3 
million, will be spent by agencies 
of the Department of Justice, not- 
ably the Drug Enforcement 
Agency, the Law Enforcement 
Assistance Administration and the 
Bureau of Prisons. Justice will 
spend an additional $38.8 million 
on other addiction related activi- 

“But when the three years are 
up there is no guarantee that it 
will b'e renewed, even if we do 

Dr. David Pittman, director of 
the Social Science Institute at 
Washington University, said the 
$10 million Congress has allocated 
for alcoholism research “is not 
even the cost of a Boeing 747 air- 

“That is a pitifully small 
amount of money to be dedicated 
in terms of basic research to one 
of the most serious health prob- 
lems in this particular country. 


The consolidated budget figures 
cover all activities by all federal 
agencies. Within the law enforce- 
ment category, totalling $305.1 
million, the Treasury Department 
will spend $62.1 million, mostly 
through the Customs and Immi- 
gration Services to try to block 
illegal drug traffic. The State 
Department will contribute $37.8 
million to the same effort. The 
Department of Defence and the 
Department of Agriculture round 
out the total with $1.9 million 
between them for enforcement. 

The largest agency budget will 
be $553.8 million for programs 
within the Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare. 

Of this total, $363.8 million will 
go to the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and 
Mental Health Administration. 
The Social and Rehabilitation Ser- 
vice will get $144 million, the 
Office for Human Development 
will get $40.2 million, the Office of 
Education $1.9 million and other 
HEW agencies $3.9 million. 

The totals will cover major fed- 
eral programs in treatment and 
rehabilitation at $425.7 million, 
programs in prevention and edu- 
cation at $63.5 million and in 
research, planning and coordina- 
tion at $64.6 million. 

The Department of Defence will 
spend a total of $85.1 million in 
social action areas. The ’Veterans 
Administration will spend $91.3 
million, the Department of Trans- 
portation $17.9 million on 
alcohol-related accidents on the 
highways, and other federal agen- 
cies $23.7 million in fiscal 1976. 

Total spending in the addiction 
and abuse areas rose in the cur- 
rent fiscal year to an estimated 
$1154.2 million from an actual 
expenditure by all federal agen- 
cies pf $891.9 million in fiscal 1974 
which ended last June. 

and also one of the most expensive 
health problems.” 

Dr. Ronald Thurman, of the 
Johnson Research Foundation, 
University of Pennsylvania, said 
most research dollars go into the 
study of the consequences of 
chronic over-intake of alcohol 
instead of going into the basic 
study of what leads people to 

“It is logical to conclude we 
wouldn’t have the final stage if we 
understood the first stage and 
could arrest the process there,” 
he said. 

Feast or famine for alcohol researchers 

THE JOURNAL, March 1, 1975— Page 13 

‘Near- alcoholism’ plays havoc 
with lives of 36 million in U.S. 

fessionals, the institutions of 
industry and government, national 
television networks, and presti- 
gious newspapers, manifest florid 

near-alcoholism, responding to 
problem drinkers with as blatant a 
psychopathology as any alcoholic 


York alcohol expert has identified 
a new alcohol problem which he 
claims affects some 36 million 
people in the United States alone. 

He calls it “near-alcoholism” 
and defines it as ’’an ailment 
which can afflict anyone living 
near {psychologically if not physi- 
cally) an excessive drinker, or the 
memory of one’’. 

“This so far anonymous alcohol 
problem may be even more cun- 
ning, baffling and powerful than 
alcoholism,” said Dr Barry 
Leach, a research psychologist, 
formerly with the departments of 
psychiatry and medicine. The 
Roosevelt Hospital, New York. He 
was speaking here at the North 
American congress on Alcohol and 
Drug Problems. 

Near-alcoholism afflicts the 
families, friends and work col- 
leagues of alcoholics as well as 
professionals who work with alco- 
holics, he said. 

He suggested near-alcoholics 
need help and attention and that, 
their well-being should not be 
dependent upon the drinking 
behavior of someone else. 

He described a survey of 2,347 
non-alcoholic members of Al-Anon 
groups in six different states, 
aimed at defining the problems of 
the near-alcoholic. 

The development of a pathol- 
ogic response to alcoholism can be 
a rapid process, taking as little as 
two years, or a slow process 
developing over a period of as long 
as 28 years, he said. 

The survey produced a list of 
symptoms characterizing a mal- 
adaptive response to alcoholism. 

The earliest symptom, reported 
by “an amazing 89% of subjects,” 
is embarrassment at the drink- 
ing-related behavior of the 

This nearly-universal symptom 
is followed by an ambivalence or 
confusion about the drinker, the 
drinker’s drinking-related behav- 
ior, and the non-alcoholic’s rela- 
tionship with the drinker, and a 
denial that the drinking is a dis- 
turbance, often to the point of 
overlooking or rationalizing it, he 

Next on the symptom list are 
fear, anxiety or apprehension both 
about the drinker and “what will 
happen to me as a result of drink- 
ing-related behavior”, tension in 
relation to the drinker, false hopes 
that the drinking behavior will 
improve, and disappointment that 
the drinking-related behavior 
exists and is disturbing, he said. 

Guilt, a feeling that the non- 
drinker is somehow responsible 

U,K, tobacco ban 

LONDON— The British anti- 
smoking ginger group Action on 
Smoking and Health is pressing 
the government to impose further 
restrictions on the advertising of 
tobacco products. 

At the moment, cigarette adver- 
tisements are not allowed on Brit- 
ish television and all cigarette 
packets must carry a government 
health warning. 

But ASH, inspired by the Nor- 
wegian government’s stringent 
new measures which will prohibit 
all tobacco advertising from July 
1975, wants to see a more thor- 
ough clampdown. 



Medical Inquiries Solicited 

Abstinence and 
Maintenance Programs 


8917 W. Cermak Road 
North Riverside, III. 60546 USA 
Telephone 312-447-3322 

for the drinking behavior, aliena- 
tion from the drinker, and anger, 
disgust and revulsion towards the 
drinker, are also symptoms. So 
are feelings of protectiveness 
toward or pity for the drinker. 

As near-alcoholism progresses, 
an obsession with the drinker’s 
drinking behavior may develop, 
coincidental with feelings of rage 
and panic and worry about the 
welfare of the non-alcoholic mem- 
bers of the family. 

This, he said, may be coupled 
with concern about the alcoholic’s 
illness, a hostile reaction towards 
all alcoholic beverages, a deep 
sense of frustration, lethargy 
and hopelessness, self-pity or 

Some may be vindictive or 
vengeful towards the alcoholic 
and totally distrust the drinker 
and other people as well, he said. 

Outwardly, the near-alcoholic 
will show a decrease in independ- 
ent activity, will take over some 
of the stereotype male roles 
within a family and may then 
withdraw, getting into frequent 
nagging quarrels with the drinker, 
Leach observed. 

P'or about 557o of the respon- 
dents, sexual problems— usually 

frigidity rather than promiscuity 
—developed, he said. Lying, 
threats of walking out, hiding, or 
pouring out liquor to control 
intake, also occur, along with 
increased drinking by some of the 
non-alcoholic spouses, or frantic 
involvement in a job or a hobby. 

Such symptoms have therapeu- 
tic benefit for the near-alcoholic 
who gains an understanding of his 
own state of health and can iden- 
tify with thousands of other peo- 
ple, Leach said. 

He suggested Al-Anon, which is 
“still misunderstood, underrated 
and under-utilized,” provides the 
most effective treatment method 
for near-alcoholism. 

Many of the near-alcoholism 
symptoms are also found among 
alcohologists, industrial and gov- 
ernment officials, and in the com- 
munications media. 

Embarrassment, for instance, 
is frequent among counsellors and 
therapists who explain failures by 
saying clients are not motivated. 
Entertainers also often use humor 
to overcome embarrassment at 
drinking behavior, he said. 

The English-speaking, North 
American continent, he observed, 
is a “culture in which health pro- 


and Related 
Drugs: Clinical 

Toxicity and Dependence 

Compiled by ORIANA JOSSEAU KALANT, Ph.D., and 

A comprehensive bibliography of the 
literature (all languages) with complete 
citations of 802 papers and annotations 
of 304 papers. Fully indexed. 

CAT. No. P-211, 210 pp. 


. Write to Marketing Services 

Addiction Research Foundation 
33 Russell St., Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 




The biggest thing you’re 
up against in business isn’t 
your nearest competitor. It’s 
the future. And your future 
in business depends on many 
things. Not the least impor- 
tant of which is people. 

People planning is your job. 
And a very important one. 

It’s also a job that any one of 
over 400 Canada Manpower 
Centres can help you do. 

The people on our Canada 
Manpower planning staff pos- 
sess a variety of skills and 
abilities and have been care- 
fully selected and trained 
to help you cushion your 

By helping you plan for it 
now. They’ll provide you with 
information on labour market 
conditions. The demand and 
supply of specific types of 
labour. Regional and national 
industrial trends. In short, 
everything you’ll need to 
know to help keep your busi- 
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Then they’ll work with you. 
Forecasting future needs, 
establishing on-going pro- 
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“People Planning”. A 
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Let^ work together. 

Page 14— THE JOURNAL. March 1, 1974 

Speed users prone to premature death 

SPEED KILLS! Or does it? 

Advocates for both sides of the 
argument have been both plentiful 
and vocal. But mostly, their con- 
victions have rested on intuition 
rather than scientifically support- 
able fact. 

Until 1966, only nine cases of 
death attributed to amphetamine 
toxicity had been reported in the 
world medical literature— hardly 
enough to support or deny the con- 
tentions of the sloganeers. 

But a recent update of the world 
literature, and a compilation of 
coroners’ statistics on amphetam- 
ine deaths in Ontario in 1972 and 
’73 promises to add some sub- 
stance to the dialogue. 

The report, prepared by Drs. 
Harold and Oriana Kalant of the 

Addiction Research Foundation of 
Ontario substantiates that the reg- 
ular heavy amphetamine user is 
far more likely to die prematurely 
than is the medically-controlled or 
the non-user. 

It indicates that the intravenous 
amphetamine user's chances of 
premature death are four times 
greater than are those of the 
non-user, which makes his 
chances of an untimely end com- 
parable to those of the alcoholic or 
the heroin addict. 

Published in the Canadian Medi- 
cal Association Journal (Feb. 8, 
1975), the Kalant survey focusses 
on 26 deaths among amphetamine 
users in Ontario, and comments on 
42 reports of amphetamine-related 
deaths drawn from the world liter- 


I M li n M l 

for Professionals in 
Alcohol Abuse 


A-12 Morris E. Chafetz, M.D. Director of N.l. A. A. A. —Alcohol Educa- 
tion and Prevention 

A-13 Marty Mann— The Disease Concept of Alcoholism 
A-14 Selden Bacon, Ph.D. — Is Alcoholism a Disease? 

A-15 Robert O’Briant, M.D. — Social Setting Detoxification 
A-16 Robert D. Russell, Ph.D. — How Should We Be Educating About 

A-17 Douglas K. Chalmers, Ph.D.— A Critique of the Sobells' Con- 
trolled Drinking Study 

A- 1 8 Peter Shoiler, M. D. — Psycho-Social Approach to Su bsta nee Abuse 
A-l 9 Edward Scott, M.D. — Reworking the Definition of Alcoholism 
A-20 Donald Paris, Ph D, - The Ethics and Politics of Alcohol Control. 
A-21 Gerald Wilde, Ph D - The Effectiveness of Mass Communication 
and Legal Measures on Alcohol and Traffic Safety 
A-22 Vernelle Fox, M.D. — Detoxification Setting Dilemma 






^ Practical discussions of alcoholism recorded by 
(§) experts in the field. Helpful for program adminis- 
(g) trators, alcoholism workers, trainers, & students. 
































Claude Steiner, Ph.D.— The Alcoholic Script 
Don Cahalan, Ph.D. — Drinking Practices and Drinking Problems 
Stephen Pittel, Ph.D. — Diagnosis and Referral 
E. Mansell Pattison, M.D. —The Differential Selection of Alco- 
holics for Differential Treatment 

Mark and Linda Sobell, Ph.D.’s- A Realistic Consideration of 
Alternatives to Abstinence 

Vernelle Fox, M.D.— The Physician's Role in the Treatment of 

Donald Kubitz, M.D., Ph.D.— The Treatment of Alcoholism by 

Richard Santoni, Ph.D.— Training in Alcoholism 
Lee Slimmon — Issues in Drug and Alcohol Education 
A-10 George Staub and Leona Kent — The Mon-degreed Professional 
in the Treatment of Alcoholism 

A-l 1 Doyle E. Shields, Psych. D. — Agape Therapy: Love’s Healing 

Please Circle your choices and send this ad or order by 
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Of the 26 Ontario deaths two- 
thirds were of a violent nature: 
Seven were due to accidental vio- 
lence, seven to suicide, and three 
to homicide. This includes erratic 
behaviour, paranoid ideas, overt 
aggression, feelings of omnipo- 
tence. and in some cases, confu- 

One case; A 22-year-old man, 
high on speed, shot and killed a 
police officer. Traced by police to 
a house, he refused to surrender, 
and shot himself in the head. At 
autopsy, the coroner found scle- 
rosed veins in the forearms, for- 
eign body granulatoma in the 
lungs, and chronic inflammatory 
cells in the portal areas of the 

Toxicological examination 
showed the presence of amphe- 
tamine, methamphetamine, and 

Of the 26 reported Ontario 
deaths there were two cases of 
cardiac death resulting from drug 

toxicity, two from viral hepatitis 
or post hepatic cirrhosis (compli- 
cations of intravenous administra- 
tion). five cases were classed as 
drug overdoses— three resulting 
from asphyxia and two fro-m 
unknown mechanisms. 

In 18 of the 26 cases, the Kalants 
reported the presence of other 
drugs in addition to the amphe- 
tamines. In fact, in nine cases, 
other drugs or toxic materials 
were present in such large 
amounts they were probably pri- 
marily responsible for death. 
These included carbon monoxide, 
MDA, alcohol, methaqualone, bar- 
biturates, and minor tranquilliz- 

Toxicological examinations, as 
reported in both the Ontario coro- 
ners’ series and the literature sur- 
vey, showed that for those cases 
where blood levels were defined, 
all but four exceeded the value_ of 
.01 mg per 100 ml. considered the 
therapeutic dose of amphetamine. 

The Kalants also noted there is 
clearly a greater risk of death 
among regular intravenous than 









Each of these issues and dozens more are the regular sub- 
jects of the News Service of the National Association of State 
Drug Abuse Program Coordinators. 

The News Service consists of: LEGISLATIVE ALERTS, which 
are published with each important development in Federal 
legislation and regulations relating to drug abuse; and the 
MONTHLY REPORT, which is an analysis of critical issues in 
drug abuse and related health areas. 

Upcoming issues will include new legislation replacing P.L. 
92-255 (The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act); the future 
of SAODAP; the HEW incidence/prevalence study; continuing 
developments in Congress regarding the FY 76 budget; third 
party payments; rural service delivery; women and drugs; op- 
portunities for interface with the criminal justice system; 
training; licensing and credentialling; analysis of manpower 
needs and opportunities; and State plan review. 

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Four incisive discussions by Father Joseph C. Martin, internationally known 
for his lectures on alcoholism and for his film, “Chalk Talk.” 

Practical solutions for the alcoholic, his family and friends. 





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oral users. Of the 26 cases in the 
Ontario series, 16 of the deaths 
were known to be regular I.V. 
users, compared to only three who 
were oral users. 

Despite the extremely broad 
rnedical use of amphetamines dur- 
ing the past few years, there 
are remarkably few fatalities 
reported among patients taking 
the drug under medical supervi- 
sion, says the Kalant report. 
There are are only five such cases 
reported in the world literature, 
and three of these involved the 
simultaneous administration of 
MAO (Monoamine oxidase inhibi- 

Simultaneous administration 
of amphetamine and MAO inhibi- 
tors such as tranylcypromine and 
phenelzine is coming to be recog- 
nized as being particularly haz- 

Of the 43 cases reported in the 
world literature, the Kalants indi- 
cate that there were seven 
clear-cut cases of death due to 
intracranial hemorrhage (four of 
these linked MAO and amphetam- 
ine), six cases of acute cardiac 
failure, three cases of hyperpyr- 
exia with temperatures of the 
■ order of 109 degrees, seven cases 
of medical complications of intra- 
venous injection, eight poisonings 
in which the mechanism of death 
was uncertain, and the rest were 
of uncertain cause. 

$2 billion loss 
in productivity 

WINNIPEG— Canada loses $1.5 
to $2 billion in productivity 
annually because of absenteeism 
or reduced effectiveness of 
employees as a result of alcohol 
misuse, according to Stewart Gra- 
ham, executive director of the 
Alcoholism Foundation of Mani- 

Another $1.5 billion to $2 billion 
is used up in increased health 
costs, he told a chemical abuse 
seminar here sponsored by the 
Canadian Council of Christians 
and Jews. 

Alcohol is involved in 60% of 
homicides in Canada, 30% of sui- 
cides, 40% of hospital admissions, 
40% of family court cases, 25% of 
hospital admissions and 50% of 
fatal traffic accidents, he said. 

Provincially, there are 30,000 
problem drinkers who daily con- 
sume nine ounces of whisky or 
more or its equivalent. There are 
about 16,000 confirmed alcoholics 
in Manitoba. 

“These figures increase 
annually,” Mr. Graham said. 
“Alcohol abuse is more serious 
than all other drugs combined.” 

Mr. Graham said he opposed 
banning alcohol, or imposing 
restrictions on everyone just to 
reach the 5% of Canadians who 
are problem drinkers. 

There are other options, he 
said, including controlling the 
number and variety of liquor out- 
lets and the advertising of liquor, 
public education to develop 
decreased tolerance for public 
drunkenness, and avoiding the 
image of the “funny drunk”. Dif- 
ferential taxation based on the 
strength of different liquors could 
also be employed, Mr. Graham 

“We must teach people to drink 
in a responsible way. We can suc- 
ceed where others before us have 
failed. We have more tools,” he 

“People are better educated. 
We can impart knowledge without 
boredom. They know their society 
better. The young are more 

He called for the imaginative 
use of modern communications 
techniques to create a climate 
where legislators can bring in con- 
trols to guide drinking habits and 
reduce alcohol consumption and 

THE JOURNAL, March 1. 1975— Page 15 

Coming Events 

In order to provide our 
readers with adequate 
notice of forthcoming meet- 
ings please send announce- 
ments as early as possible 
to The Journal, 33 Russell 
Street, Toronto, Ontario 
M5S 2S1. 

Recent Advances in the Man- 
agement of Alcoholism and 
Drug Addiction— March 1. 
Toronto, Ont. Information: 
The Director, Division of 
Post-graduate Medical Educa- 
tion, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. MSS 1A8. 
American Orthopsychiatric 
Association— Fourth Annual 
Institute and 52nd Annual 
Meeting— March 21-25, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Information: 
American Orthopsychiatric 
Association, 1775 Broadway, 
N.Y. 10019. 

Postgraduate Day on Clinical 
Pharmacology— Antimicrobial 
Drugs— April 5, Toronto, Ont. 
Information: The Director, 
Division of Postgraduate Med- 
ical Education, F'aculty ’of 

Medicine, Medical Sciences 
Building, University of 
Toronto, Toronto, Ont. MSS 

National Drug Abuse Confer- 
ence— April 4-7, New Orleans. 
Information: Mr. V. Shorty 
Director, Desire Narcotic 
Rehabilitation Center, 3307 
Desire Parkway, New Orle- 
ans, Louisiana 70126. 

59th Annual Meeting of the 
Federation of American Socie- 
ties for Experimental Biology 
— April 13-18, Atlantic City, 
New Jersey. Information: 
Mrs. T.C. Heatwole, Director, 
Public Information, 5110 W. 
F'ranklin St., Richmond, Vir- 
ginia 23226. 

First International Congress 
on Patient Counselling— April 
21-23, 1976, Amsterdam. Infor- 
mation: Congress Secretariat, 
First International Congress 
on Patient Counselling, c/o 
Excerpta Medica Foundation, 
P.O. Box 1126, Amsterdam, 
The Netherlands. 

National Alcoholism Forum— 
Annual Conference of the 

National Council on Alcohol- 
ism— April 27-May 2, Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin. Information: 
George C. Dimas, Executive 
Director, ' National Council on 
Alcoholism, 2 Park Avenue, 
N.Y. 10016. 

Sixth Annual Medical Scien- 
tific Conference of the 
National Council on Alcohol- 
ism— April 28-29, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin. information: 
George C. Dimas, Executive 
Director, National Council on 
Alcoholism, 2 Park Avenue, 
N.Y. 10016. 

37th Annual Scientific Meet- 
ing, The Committee on Prob- 
lems of Drug Dependence- 

May 19-21, Washington D.C. 
Information: Executive Secre- 
tary, Committee on Problems 
of Drug Dependence, 
NAS-NRC, 2101 Constitution 
Ave., N.W., Washington D.C. 

Institute on Crime, Justice and 
Heroin— May 19-June 3, Lon- 
don, England. Information: 
Dr. A.S. Trebach, Centre for 
the Administration of Justice, 
The American University, 
Washington, D.C. 20016. 

10th Annual Conference of the 
Association of Halfway House 
Alcoholism Programs of North 
America, Incorporated— June 
8-11, Hot Springs, Arkansas. 
Information: Jack Shea, Con- 
ference Coordinator, Associa- 
tion Office, 786 E. Seventh St., 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55106. 

New England School of Alco- 
hol Studies— June 8-13, Univer- 
sity of Vermont, Burlington, 
VT. Information: Jan S. Dur- 
and, Coordinator, P.O. Box 
11009, Newington, CT 06111. 
Annual Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Psychiatric Association- 
May 5-9, Anaheim, Calif. Infor- 
mation: Dr. W.E. Barton, 
Medical Director, 1700 18th 
Street, N.W., Washington, 
D.C. 20009. 

First International Conference 
on Substance Abuse in Indus- 
try-May 6-9, Detroit, Michi- 
gan. Information: Special Pro- 
grams Department, Society of 
Manufacturing Engineers, 
20501 F’ord Road, Dearborn, 
Michigan 48128. 

21st International Institute on 
the Prevention and Treatment 
of Alcoholism— June 9-15, Hel- 
sinki, FTnland. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

Rutgers Summer School of 
Alcohol Studies— June 22-July 
11, New Brunswick, N.J. Appli- 
cation deadline May 1. Infor- 
mation: Miss L. Allen, Secre- 
tary, Summer School of Alco- 
hol Studies, Rutgers Univer- 
sity, New Brunswick, N.J. 

First Annual Deep South 
School of Alcohol Studies— 

July 6-11, Shreveport, Louis- 
iana. Information: Sam D. 
Thomas. Director, Deep South 
School of Alcohol Studies, Cen- 
tenary College, P.O. Box 4188, 
Shreveport, Louisiana 71104. 
Triennial Refresher Course for 
Alumni of Rutgers Summer 
School of Alcohol Studies— 
July 13-17, New Brunswick, 
N.J. Information: Miss L. 
Allen, Secretary, Summer 
School of Alcohol Studies, Rut- 
gers University, New Bruns- 
wick, N.J. 08903. 

Sixth International Congress of 
Pharmacology— July 20-25, 
Helsinki, F'inland. Informa- 
tion: Secretariat, Sixth Inter- 
national Congress of Pharma- 
cology, Siltavuorenpenger 10, 
SF-00170 Helsinki 17, F’inland. 
Institute on Addiction Studies 
— August 17-22, McMaster Uni- 
versity, Hamilton, Ont. Spon- 
sored by Alcohol and Drug 
Concerns, Inc. Information: 
David Reeve, 15 Gervais 
Drive, Don Mills, Ont. 


Vol. 2 of the 
Proceedings of the 
International Symposia 
on Alcohol and 
Drug Problems, 
Toronto, 1973 

Social Aspects 

of the Medical Use 
of Psychotropic Drugs 

Ruth Cooperstock, Editor 

This symposium provides an examination of the rapid increase in the 
acceptance and use of psychotropic drugs, through analyses of the 
pharmaceutical industry as a producer and advertiser, the physician 
as dispenser, the patient as consumer, and government as regulator of 
use, and an exploration of the interaction of the above factors. 

The drugs considered include amphetamines and anorexiants, barb- 
iturates and other non-barbiturate sedatives and hypnotics, antide- 
pressants, and tranquillizers. The focus is on prescription rather than 
illicit drugs 

The following papers appear in this volume: 

- International Drug Control and the Pharmaceutical Industry 
K Bruun 

- Prescribing and the Relationship between Patients and Doctors 
A. Cartwright 

- Some Factors Involved in the Increased Prescribing of Psychotropic 

R. Cooperstock 

- The Role of the Consumer— Compliance or Cooperation? 

J. Jones 

- Perspectives on the New Psychoactiye Drug Technology 
H L Leonard and A Bernstein 

- Regulatory Control of the Canadian Government over the 
Manufacturing, Distribution and Prescribing of Psychotropic Drugs 
A.B. Morrison 

- Economic Aspects of Medical Use of Psychotropic Drugs 
C. Muller 

- The Family Doctor's Role in Psychotropic Drug Use 
P A Parish 

- Increased Alcohol Intake as a Coping Mechanism for Psychic Distress 
H J Parry, I.H. Cis in, MB Balter, C D. Mel linger, andD.IManheimer 

- Family Patterns in Prescriptions of Psychotherapeutic Drugs 

K . Pernanen 

- Drug Utilization and the Quality of Primary Health Care: 

A Methodology for Appraisal 

J.C. Sibley 

- The Social Responsibility of the Physician in Prescribing 
Mind-Affecting Drugs 

S. Wolfe 

- Reflecting on Directions in Psychotropic Drug Research 
I , K . Zola 

P-226 Soft Cover $6.50 P-227 Hard Cover $1 0.00 

Order by Catalogue No. from 

Addiction Research Foundation 

Attn: Marketing Services 
33 Russell Street 
Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 

Third International Conference 
on Drug Abuse— Sept. 1-5, Lon- 
don, England. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140, 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

Joint Meeting of the Alcohol 
and Drug Problems Associa- 
tion of North America and the 
Canadian Foundation on Alco- 
hol and Drug Dependencies— 
Sept. 14-19, Quebec City. Infor- 
mation: OPT AT, 969 Route de 
I’Eglise, Quebec lOe, P.Q. GIV 

First National Conference on 

Occupational Alcoholism and 
Drug Abuse— Nov. 17-20, 
Ottawa, Ont. Jointly sponsored 
by Humber College and Addic- 
tion Research F’oundation. 
Information: Jim Simon, 

A.R.F’., West Toronto Branch, 
4143 Dundas St. W., Toronto, 
Ontario M8X 1X2. 
International Conference on 
Alcoholism and Drug Depend- 
ence— Oct. 26-Nov. 1, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. Information: 
Archer Tongue, Executive 
Director, ICAA, Case Postale 
140. 1001 Lausanne, Switzer- 

Positions Available 


Large multi-modality community drug agency in Midwest has new openings 
for following positions; Counselor/Therapist, Residential Program Direc- 
tor, Training/Prevention Specialists, and Public Relations Specialist. 
Education and/or experience required in one or more of thdse areas. 
Include salary requirements in resume to: 

ADAPT, Inc. 

51 2 9th Street 
Des Moines, Iowa 50309 




$15,571 - $18,753 per annum 
With the Ministry of Community and Social Services, you will provide 
leadership and supervise a unit of counsellors who provide assessment 
counselling and training services to the physically and emotionally 
handicapped; maintain co-operative relationships with community agencies 
providing services to the handicapped. Excellent potential for professional 
development available through psychological and psychiatric consultation; 
extensive service through individual and group methods. 

Locations: Cornwall (File SS620) and Kirkland Lake (File SS621 ). 


An M.S.W. degree from a university of recognized standing 
supplemented by several years experience; rehabilitation back- 
ground and supervisory experience preferred. 


Please send resumes quoting appropriate file number to: 

Personnel Services Branch 

Ministry of Community and Sociai Services 

5th Floor, Hepburn Block 

Parliament Buildings 

Toronto, Ontario 

M7A 1Z5 



The Metropolitan Regional Board on Drug Dependency has 
an opening for the following position effective on or about 
Feb. 1, 1975. 



Under the direction of the Metropolitan Regional Board and in co-opera- 
tion with the Executive Director of the Nova Scotia Commission on Drug 
Dependency, the Regional Project Co-ordinator is responsible for the 
overall planning, organization, supervision, co-ordination, recruitment, and 
budgeting as they relate to a regional program of education, prevention, 
treatment and rehabilitation as regards ch'emical dependency problems 
and provides professional leadership to those programs which are 


Masters Degree in Social Work, Clinical Psychology or related fields sucn 
as Community Development, Community Planning, or Community Organiza- 
tion with at least six. (6) years experience in community clinical work 
preferably in the field of alcoholism and drug dependency. 


Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Full 
benefits similar to Civil Service. 

Apply with resume and three (3) references to: 

The Metropolitan Regional Board 
c/o Ms. Judith Giffin 
Chairperson, Personnel Committee 
5970 University Avenue 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Page 16— THE JOURNAL. March 1, 1974 


1^* International Conference 

on Substance Abuse in Industry 

The First International Conference on Substance Abuse in Industry will take place 
May 6-9, 1975 at Cobo Hall in Detroit, Michigan. This most important and timely program 
will discuss the problem of alcoholism and drug abuse in the work setting. The subject 
will be considered as a cost to industry, and will cover practical approaches relating to 

the reduction of costs and the return of valuable employees to productivity. ' 


• Personnel Directors 

• Corporate Medical Personnel 

• Labor Representatives 

• Industrial Relations Consultants 

• Directors of Employee and Industrial 

Occupational Program Consultants 
Managers of Manpower Development 
and Training 

Private and Public— Substance Abuse 
Agency Personnel 


The Cpst To Industry: 

• What costs are incurred as a result of the alcohol 
impaired and drug dependent employee? 

• Can costs be reduced? 

• Can costs be accurately measured? 

• To what extent does the troubled employee effect 
corporate profitability? 

Nature of the Problem: 

• Who is the alcohol or drug dependent employee? 

• What physiological, psychological and sociological 
factors result in an employee becoming alcohol or 
drug dependent? 

• Should industry play a role in the identification 
and rehabilitation of the troubled employee? 

Development of a Control System: 

• What is the cost to implement a troubled em- 
ployee program? 

• How does such a mechanism function? 

• Who implements this program? 

• What role does the labor union play in the conduct 
of an occupational program? 

• Can the system be evaluated? 

• What options are there in selecting an in-plant 
control system? 

• What is the net gain from such a program? 

Important Considerations: 

• How and what community resources are available 
for treatment of the troubled employee? 

• What type of medical insurance will be required 
for such a program? 

• Is special training of supervisory personnel 

• What resources are available to the company who 
wishes to develop a program? 

• How is a medical-behavioral control system sold to 
top management? 


Assistant Medical Director 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 

Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Progran 
General Motors Corporation 


Alcoholism Program Director 
District 1 41 

International Association of Machinists 
and Aerospace Workers 

Director of Center for Counseling 
and Guidance 
Kelsey-Hayes Company 


Manager. Special Projects 
National Clearinghouse for 
Alcohol Information 


Vice President 
United Auto Workers 


Counselor, Co-Therapist 
Lafayette Clinic 


Assistant Manager 

Business Research Department 

Blue Cross of Michigan 

Executive Director 
Insight, Incorporated 

Industrial Services Director 
I nsight, I nternational 

Associate Medical Director 
Ford Motor Company 

Consultant on Behavioral 
Problem Services 


Detroit-Wayne County Community 
Mental Health Services Board 

Executive Director 
Association of Labor-Management 
Administrators and Consultants 
on Alcoholisrn, Incorporated 

Chief Medical Consultant 
Brighton Hospital 


Department of Organizational Behavior 
New York State School of Industrial 
and Labor Relations 
Cornell University 

Occupational Program Consultant 
Wayne County Office of Substance 
Abuse Services 

Corporate Drug and Alcohol Abuse 
Program Coordinator 
Ford Motor Company 

General Vice President 
International Association of 

Machinists and Aerospace Workers 

A Comment from 

The President 


■r^Ouary 7 , 

^ ^ i975 

It is ^ 

and n ah 


Mr to 

tha o Such n ^ say a 

r,... P^Ocry.^^ 

^'-opeth n "" -- 

*>ring ot w P^°S^ 

With . °'"'Punify ‘^Miber , 

Mr. r>. . 



and comments 
from registrants 
who attended last 
year's SME sponsored 
"Alcoholism in Industry" 
Seminar, , , 

"well organized and 
presented . . 

"Informed and 
knowledgeable speakers. 
Impressive examples of 
existing effective 
industrial programs . . 

"I have attended many 
programs on the subject 
through the eight years,, 
I've been in the field. I 
can truthfully say I have 
never been to a better 
program . . ." 

"I came to this meeting 
under "Constructive 
Coercion" and picked up 
valuable information 
beyond my expectations" 

Please check which Free brochure you would like: 

□ What to Do About the Employee With a Drinking 
Problem (Kemper Insurance Co.)' 

Send for a Free Brochure deal- 
ing with Substance Abuse in 
Industry, Prepared as an aid to 
show business and industry 
how excessive costs can be re- 
duced and valued employees 
retained through updated poli- 
cies and procedures which 
utilize current knowledge 
about alcoholism and drug 
abuse in the work setting. 

I I What About Drugs and Employees? (K. I . C.) 

□ Management Guide on Alcoholism and 
Other Behavioral Problems (K. I. C.) 

REGISTER NOW 1st International Conference on Substance Abuse 
May 6-9, 1975 • Cobo Hall • Detroit, Michigan 

MAIL TO; Special Programs Department 

Society of Manufacturing Engineers 
20501 Ford Road 
Dearborn, Michigan 48128 
313/271-1500, Ext. 54 

YES! Please register the following for the 
"First International Conference on Substance 
Abuse in Industry. Enclosed is a check or 
company purchase order, as indicated: 

Organization Name and Address (include zip): 

Confirming Notice and 
Housing Information 
will • be sent to you 
upon receipt of this re- 
gistration form. 

Registrant Ndme and Titles: 






City /State/Zip - 

I I YES! I would also like addi- 
tional details about the up- 
coming First International 
Conference on Substance 
Abuse in Industry. 


$125.00 Registration Fee 

□ Bill Me □ Bill My Company □ Purchase Order No. 

Make Checks Payable to SME • 

REGISTRATION FEE INCLUDES: Banquet, Daily Lunches, Coffee and Coke 
Breaks and Notebook of Materials. 

Av r 10? 


VOL 4 NO. 4 


Technique may prevent cirrhosis 

TORONTO— Scientists at the 
Addiction Research Founda- 
tion of Ontario, and the depart- 
ment of pharmacology. Univer- 
sity of Toronto, are hopeful 
they may have discovered a 
new medical technique to pre- 
vent alcoholic liver cirrhosis. 

The technique, now undergo- 

ing clinical trials, involves 
using the anti-thyroid drug pro- 
pylthiouracil (PTU) to reduce 
the speeded-up metabolism of 
liver exposed to heavy amounts 
of alcohol. 

This increased oxygen 
demand cannot always be met 
by the liver’s blood supply. The 
result of such oxygen defi- 
ciency is cellular damage lead- 
ing to alcoholic hepatitis, 
which in a high proportion of 
cases develops into cirrhosis. 

Professor Yedy Israel, prin- 
cipal investigator, indicated 
that if the clinical trials at the 
ARF Clinical Institute are as 
successful as the animal trials. 


it should be possible to halt the 
cellular damage associated 
with alcoholic hepatitis in 

This should facilitate quicker 
and easier treatment of this 
disease, and sharply reduce the 
number of hepatitis and cir- 
rhosis deaths, he said. 

Dr. Israel is an ARF scientist 
and professor of pharmacology 
at U of T. Dr Harold Kalant, 
chief co-investigator, is asso- 
ciate research director at the 
ARF and professor of pharma- 
cology at U of T. 

The implications of the work 
are significant. In 1973, more 
than 2,500 Canadians died of 
liver cirrhosis. In Ontario in 
1972, there were 921 deaths 
from the disease and scientists 
estimate that 60% of liver cir- 
rhosis deaths in the province 
are attributable to heavy alco- 
hol consumption. 

In countries where the rate 
of alcoholism is even higher, 
the number of deaths from the 
disease is that much greater. 
In France and Chile, for exam- 
ple, both of which have high 
alcohol consumption, almost 
90% of liver cirrhosis deaths 

are attributable to alcohol con- 

The current studies can be 
traced back 13 years when Drs. 
Kalant and Israel, began inves- 
tigating mechanisms by which 
alcohol affected certain chemi- 
cal reactions in the brain. 

(See— Liver— page 11 ) 

‘Profound treatment implications’ 

Yedv Israel 

TORONTO — A technique de- 
veloped by Addiction Research 
Foundation of Ontario and Uni- 
versity of Toronto scientists 
has been described as “poten- 
tially the most exciting devel- 
opment in the field of alcohol- 
ism in the past 25 years”. 

“Xllfs worK nas prorouno 

implications for the future 
treatment of liver disease 
throughout the world,” H 
David Archibald, executive 
director of the ARF, told The 

Moreover, said Mr Archi- 

bald, if the clinical trials bear 
out the findings of the animal 
research, the work will have 
immense implications in terms 
of health costs. . 

“In many countries, liver 
disease is an enormous contri- 
biUor_ to overall heaUh costs 

“The potential net savings in 
terms of health delivery costs 
will be enormous compared 
with the amount invested in 
this research,” he said. 

Mr. Archibald said the work 
provides “a clear example of 

the importance of supporting 
well-formulated basic re- 

“I fully recognize that from 
the perspective of the scientist, 
more investigation is needed. 
The specific instrument to 
tC^^I.-.i>leo,holjc. jpir.c.ho.sls 

“Nevertheless, in ray view, 
the work to date has very sig- 
nificant implications for the 
future treatment of that dis- 
ease and possibly other liver 
disorders and should be viewed 
in that light.” 

Harold Kalant 

Cannabis witnesses agree 

Decriminalization must not 

imply endorsement 

OTTAWA— Though testimony 
before the Senate committee 
studying cannabis laws remains 
divergent, most witnesses seem to 
agree on one critical point; that 
decriminalization of marijuana 
must not be interpreted as an 
endorsement of the drug. 

Effectively discouraging use of 
marijuana, while removing its 
simple possession from criminal 
sanction is likely to be a difficult 
task, but as the senators have 
been repeatedly told, it is impera- 


WASHINGTON— In something of 
an about-face, U.S. medical and 
government officials have joined 
forces in downplaying the “criti- 
cal shortage” of codeine. 

At the same time, the govern- 
ment has unofficially but explic- 
itly curbed its opposition to poppy 
cultivation in Turkey. 

At a symposium here on The 
Supply of Opium for Medical Use, 
convened by the American Medi- 
cal Association, experts agreed 
there is no immediate danger of 
running out of codeine. 

“If shortage is defined as the 
denial of a patient’s requirement, 
then there has not been a short- 
age,” declared Ambassador Shel- 
don B. Vance. 

Dr. Thomas E. Bryant, presi- 
dent of the Washington-based 
Drug Abuse Council and promi- 
nent advocate of legal reform in 
respect to marijuana, agrees that 
“when used heavily (such a drug) 
can injure the user psychologi- 
cally, if not physically”. 

“Marijuana can be harmful to 
the individual, especially taken in 
high dosages over an extended 
period of time. This is true of 
almost any psychoactive sub- 
stance we put into our body. 

“(But) I believe firmly that 

Ambassador Vance, the state 
department’s senior adviser and 
coordinator for international nar- 
cotics matters, was quick to point 
out, however, that stockpiles are 
critically low. 

From 1977 on, codeine supply 
should easily match demand, pre- 
dicted Dr. William Barclay, sym- 
posium chairman. ((Todeine 
accounts for more than 95% of the 
opium derivatives in the U.S. ) 

For the remainder of 1975 and 
1976, the prospects remain some- 
what uncertain, but there is little 
likelihood codeine prescriptions 
will go unfilled, Dr. Barclay said. 
Dr. Barclay is deputy executive 
vice president of the AMA. 

The shift in attitude reflects, in 
part, the government’s reluctance 

current public policies toward 
marijuana are counterproductive, 
causing needless, deep disruption 
in society,” said Dr. Bryant. 

Dr. Andrew Malcolm. Toronto 
psychiatrist and author of several 
books on drugs and states of intox- 
ication, has been openly critical of 
many bodies for their advocacy of 

Yet as different as his views are 
from those of Dr. Bryant, Dr. 
Malcolm agreed that the mari- 
juana law as it stands under the 
Narcotic Control Act is “clearly 

to “oversolve” the problem. 

Dr. Robert DuPont, director of 
the Special Action Office for Drug 
Abuse Prevention, explained that 
emphasizing a “shortage” encour- 
ages countries to volunteer to cul- 
tivate opium poppies for export. 
Because these countries offer no 
assurance of controls, the crops 
could too easily be diverted to the 
illicit market. 

As for the government’s soft- 
ened view of Turkish poppy culti- 
vation. it has been influenced by 
several factors. One is the obvious 
need for materials with which to 
replenish ebbing stocks. 

A second is the Turks’ willing- 
ness to use only the poppy straw 
method of harvesting. Rather than 
(See— Codeine— page 4) 

disharmonious with the age we 
live in.” 

“We must act accordingly, and 
diminish the weight of the law 
without for a moment giving the 
impression that this is being done 
because we have come to look less 
seriously upon the consequences 
of using the drug. 

“We must not be lulled into the 
briefly comfortable understanding 
that it is the law that is the cause 
of all our trouble.” 

He noted that the cannabis bill, 
which is designed only to ease the 
legal pressures associated with 
the use of cannabis, will fail griev- 
ously “if its passage is not accom- 
panied by an immense educational 

In substantiating a need for pub- 
lic education about marijuana, 
witnesses Bryant and Malcolm 
ran a somewhat parallel course. 
But when discussing the specific 

effects of the drug, they clearly 
saw things differently. 

Citing evidence of amotiva- 
tional syndrome, the possibility of 
organic and irreversible brain 
damage, suppression of testoster- 
one, chromosome breakage, and 
personality disturbance. Dr. Mal- 
colm said that such potentially 
harmful effects will undoubtedly 
take time to resolve. 

He noted that there has really 
only been a decade or two of true 
clinical and scientific study of the 
effects of cannabis on humans. 

“In the meantime, there is no 
reason whatever for us to be com- 
placent,” said Dr. Malcolm. 

Many proponents have tried to 
make the case that the drug is 
“soft” and relatively benign said 
Dr. Malcolm. Yet, medical 
evidence suggests that cannabis 
should be of increasing concern as 
(See— Cannabis— page 3) 

The codeine story- page 16 


Alcoholics chemically 
different — Page 2 

Cannabis pardons still 
misunderstood — Page 5 

Street drugs rip-off 
editorial — Page 6 

Profile of a 

pioneer — Page 7 

Codeine shortage downplayed 
in U.S. government turnabout 

Page 2 — THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975 

BC Pnlicp Commission chairman 

Prohibiting drugs; 'Sometimes a cop-out' 

A policy board which i 

:OUVER— Society is paying Bv PETER THOMPSON "That’s a public mandate given | the deputy attorney genera 

it is adnnting ^ to the police and I m not criticiz- nrovince selects targe 

VANCOUVER— Society is paying 
a price for the policy it is adopting 
for drug abuse, says Dr. John 
Hogarth, chairman of the British 
Columbia Police Commission. 

“Law enforcement is no answer 
to drugs,” Dr. Hogarth said. 
"That’s the official position of the 
commission and of people like 
assistant RCMP commissioner 
Gordon Cunningham. 

Dr. Hogarth said both he and 
Cunningham are willing to state 
publicly that people who use drugs 
should not be subject to the crimi- 
nal process. 

But, in the absence of alterna- 
tive enforcement strategies, the 
police are obliged to carry out 
their duty and will do it, he said. 

"The social policy of the coun- 
try has been to prohibit certain 
drug use by law. That sometimes 
is a cop-out because society as a 
whole then doesn’t have to deal 
with drugs. They think they can 

deal with the problem by prohibit- 
ing it,” he said. 

Dr. Hogarth said drug depend- 
ency depends up on two factors— 
knowledge and availability. 

“By knowledge I don't mean 
knowledge of the pharmacological 
effects of a drug but all the cul- 
tural values associated with being 
a drug user. Availability is impin- 
gent on access and price. 

“Law enforcement can do very 
little about knowledge and some- 
thing about availability,” Dr. 
Hogarth said. 

Some of the methods used to 
limit availability have incurred 
high social costs, he said. One of 
the costs of limiting availability of 
cocaine and heroin is brutalization 
of the police force. The very 
nature of such police activity 
requires violence to property and 

Compulsory treatment 
behind Iron Curtain 


MUNICH— Hungary, which faces 
one of the fastest rising alcohol- 
ism rates in Eastern Europe, 
has enacted a law prescribing 
compulsory treatment of alcohol- 

The law, which took effect at 
the beginning of this year, stipu- 
lates that chronic alcoholics who 
inreat to the upbringing of their 
children and to their environment, 
or who disturb public order and 
disrupt production” can be com- 
pelled to undergo therapeutic 
treatment in institutions. 

They must be committed by 
county, municipal or district 
courts on the initiative of the pub- 
lic prosecutor or at the demand of 
the local public health authorities. 

In practice, virtually anyone can 
start proceedings against any 
alcoholic by turning to the prose- 
cutor’s office and requesting it. 

Although the period of compul- 
sory treatment is limited to two 
years, it can be repeated several 
times if the alcoholic shows no 
improvement. To terminate it 
earlier than 24 months, a court 
decision based on medical reports 
will be required. 

According to the law, an alco- 
holic ordered to undergo treat- 
ment is obliged to submit himself 
to medical care and to perform 
whatever work is assigned him. 

According to official Hungarian 
press reports, the number of 
known alcoholics in the country 
has increased by more than 20% 
during the past five years and now 
stands at 123,000 out of a total pop- 
ulation of 10 million. 

The treatment to be provided by 
the therapeutic institutions, 
according to Jeno Basco, a depart- 
ment head in the ministry of jus- 
tice, will be administered under 
medical supervision and will vary 
according to the character, per- 
sonality and condition of the 

The work to be performed by 
patients will be remunerated 
according to a special wage scale. 

If the patient complies with the 
regulations of the institution, no 
restrictions will be imposed on the 
use of leisure time, correspond- 
ence with family and friends or 
visiting privileges. 

If the patient adopts a hostile 
attitude or one that ‘‘endangers 
the outcome of treatment or that 
of others in the institution,” these 
rights and privileges can be cur- 

Because of budgetary and fiscal 
difficulties, the establishment of 
institutions especially for the cure 
of alcoholics will take some time, 
Hungarian authorities admitted. 
At present there is only one such 
institution in operation. 

Located near Szeged, it can 
accommodate 1,000 patients, 
althojig^h Jt^ capacitj^ is expected 

Its patients work in agriculture 
as part of their therapy and, in 
addition to the medical, pedagogi- 
cal and nursing personnel, special 
guards look after them. 

The new compulsory treatment 
law is part of a pattern of stricter 
and more severe measures for 
dealing with alcoholism which 
have been enacted in recent years. 

Under amendments to the Hun- 
garian penal code, for example, 
intoxication is no longer regarded 
as a mitigating factor in criminal 

Until 1972, a delinquent could be 
forced to undergo “detoxication” 
only if there was some connection 
between his criminal act and his 
alcohol consumption. A health law 
passed in that year empowered 
local health departments to order 
alcoholics to hospital treatment, 
but only for periods of up to six 

‘That’s a public mandate given 
to the police and I’m not criticiz- 
ing the police for using it,” Dr. 
Hogarth said. 

"The public is asking the police, 
by the very legislation, to bust 
down doors, choke people and hit 
them in the stomach to get them 
to cough up drugs they have swal- 
lowed to avoid detection.” 

He said that in undercover oper- 
ations, society is asking a young 
constable to play criminal for six 
or eight months. 

"There’s a real difficulty in 
socializing that person back to an 
ordinary role and we’ve lost a high 
number of our undercover people 
because they could not sustain a 
career in policing. They are lost to 
the force for reasons which should 
raise the question as to whether 
they will ever overcome that kind 
of experience. 

"These are very high prices 
we’re paying.” 

Although there has been an 
increase in the number of people 
dependent exclusively upon heroin 
in B.C., he said, the rate of 
increase hasn’t been as dramatic 
as the increase in the number of 
drug dependents who use a variety 
of drugs. 

"The problem that creates for 
us in law enforcement is that it is 
no longer possible to isolate a par- 
ticular population and develop a 
strategy for it around the exclu- 
sive use of heroin. 

"Part of the reason for this is 
that we (society) have dealt with 
cannabis the same way we deal 
with heroin. It’s dealt with in the 
same Act and we have roughly the 
same enforcement procedures for 

"What that has done,” Dr. 

ixvgcirLn. £»ciiu. *‘is integrate tne 

market. Both the suppliers, from 
the importers down, and the users 
are drug integrated. We have both 
an integrated distribution system 
of hard and soft drugs and an inte- 
grated user population.” 

The crime rate in B.C. is pro- 
jected to double within eight 
years, he said. Much of that crime 
will be related to drugs. (B.C. has 
more than half of all heroin 
addicts in Canada. ) 

The commission’s role is to try 
to make lies of the projections, he 
said, and the commission is trying 
to develop approaches which 
would de-emphasize law enforce- 
ment and concentrate on crime 

"We’re working on the theory 
that it is better to build fences at 
the top of the cliff than to send 
ambulances to the bottom, but 
that isn't traditional thinking in 
law enforcement which has been 

Dr. Hogarth 

reactive, waiting for a crime to 
occur and then reacting to it. he 

The trend to de-emphasize 
street enforcement of mari- 
juana is well-established in B.C., 
and the spectacular success of 
CLEU, the Co-ordinated Law 
Enforcement Unit "will allow us 
now to rethink the whole strategy 
of law enforcement in terms of 
the advisability of street enforce- 
ment of heroin,” he said. 

CLEU is a combined forces unit 
based in Vancouver and aimed at 
organized crime, including drug 
trafficking. Dr. Hogarth said a 
nucleus of CLEU had existed 
before in the province but was 
expanded and given the ‘-“proper” 
resources only last year. 

A few months after its forma- 
tion. it carried out a series of dra- 
matic arrests, seizing more heroin 
in four months than had been 
picked up in the last 10 years. 

Care for addicteiJ mothers 

NEW YORK— A comprehen- 
sive health care program for 
pregnant addicts and addicted 
mothers has been set up at 
New York Medical College. 

It is the first of its kind in 
this city and federal funding 
authorities expect it to serve as 
a model for similar programs 

Called PAAM (Pregnant 
Addicts— Addicted Mothers), 
the program will provide a full 
range of medical, psychiatric, 
and counselling services. 

"The target population of 
PAAM combines problems that 
usually exist apart from each 
other— drug addiction; preg- 
nancy and parenthood; and a 
very young ‘at risk' population, 
the infants,” according to Dr 
Richard E Brotman, executive 
officer of the centre. 

"Individually, each of these 
problems is serious. When you 

put them all together, the situ- 
ation is 'exceedingly grave and 
demands a range of highly spe- 
cialized services not available 

“The infants must be detoxi- 
fied; they must face the risks 
of being born into the addict 
world; and the mothers must 
be trained to care for them,” 
he said. 

In little more than 10 years, 
the number of pregnant addicts 
and addicted mothers has 
increased six-fold in the area 
served by the college and affili- 
ated Metropolitan Hospital 
(one of every 29 births at Met- 
ropolitan now is to an addicted 

The program will operate 
under a $500,000 federal grant 
administered by the city’s 
Addiction Services Agency, 
plus about $262,000 from other 

"Besides providing immedi- 
ate medical care, the thrust of 
PAAM will be prevention,” 
said Dr Brotman. 

"The program will attempt 
to provide counselling and role 
models for the mothers so the 
deadly circle of addiction, com- 
plications of pregnancy, and 
inadequate parental care lead- 
ing to a new generation of 
addicted mothers and babies, 
can be broken.” 

The first step, he said, will 
be to “treat the mothers as 
mothers, not addicts. Thus, 
they will not be artificially sep- 
arated from other new mothers 
in the centre. 

"Also, the professional staff 
will work in ‘care delivery 
teams’ composed of an intern- 
ist, a pediatrician, an obstetri- 
cian, a gynecologist, a psychol- 
ogist, and a nurse mid-wife.” 

A policy board which includes 
the deputy attorney general of the 
province selects targets for 
CLEU, a research and analysis 
division provides information, and 
the investigation section simply 
zeroes in on the targets, without 
any other duties or distractions, 
until they are arrested. 

Most of the heroin seized was 
destined for the U.S., Dr. Hogarth 
said. The arrests had little effect 
on the local heroin market but 
have destroyed Vancouver’s repu- 
■tation as a soft port of entry for 
heroin for North America. 

"What’s impressive about 
CLEU,” Dr. Hogarth said, “is 
that it didn’t have to buy an ounce 
of drugs with taxpayers money. 
We didn’t have to bust down a 
door, choke anybody or enter into ' 
deals with informants. 

"The CLEU operations are 
proving you can have as big an 
impact without undercover buys 
with public money. You can spend 
enormous sums— $200,000 isn’t 
unusual now on what an under- 
cover agent would spend in buying 
drugs which later get burnt.” 

He said undercover activities 
only result in picking up street 
traffickers, "which makes no dent 
on the market and gives the public 
a false sense of assurance that 
something is being done”. 

CLEU operations were success- 
ful “without brutalizing anyone, 
including the police (undercover) 
constable who runs the risk of 
being brutalized and corrupted 

CLEU, he said, will now con- 
centrate on cutting off supplies to 
the local market of heroin and 
cocaine. This will have an effect 
on the local price, and make it 
more difficult for someone to 
become a heroin addict. 

"But it won’t do much for the 
person who is already an addict. 

V They’ll only steal more. There’s a 
price to be paid for driving up her- 
oin prices locally. An increase in 
crime, prostitution, shoplifting 
and so on.” 

Dr. Hogarth readily admits that 
restricting availability isn’t the 
answer in the long run. The best 
law enforcement can hope for is to 
"keep the lid on", not even to stop 
the problem from growing, but to 
-stop it from growing as fast as it 
would without law enforcement, 
he said. 

Perhaps the safest thing to say 
is that all that can be successfully 
achieved is to cut down the availa- 
bility of drugs, while realizing that 
taw enforcement has its limita- 
tions; provide more sophisticated 
drug education programs, given 
that drug education programs 
until now have advertised drugs 
rather than deterred people from 
using them ; and expand treatment 
programs, which have also had 
limited success, he said. 

"Our best social strategy is to 
limit availability and increase the 
number of treatment programs. 
We are going to have to try five or 
six modalities of treatment, per- 
haps including heroin mainte- 
nance for a small group in an 
experimental format.” Dr. 
Hogarth said. 

“Though we (know of) primary 
methadone addiction, one of the 
reasons we have methadone main- 
tenance is that it doesn’t have the 
same stigma that heroin has. 

"And maybe because addicts 
don’t like methadone as much as 
heroin, we feel within us a little 
vestige of punitive response. We 
don’t want them to like the treat- 
ment they’re getting. 

"Medical people don’t like their 
patients to enjoy their illness. So 
it’s a hang-up most of us have in 
opposing heroin maintenance in 
favor of methadone.” 

Whether methadone or heroin 
maintenance should be used “is 
essentially a mythological as 
opposed to a biochemical or physi- 
ological issue”, he said. 

THE JOURNAL, April 1, 1975— Page 3 

Chemical difference discovered in alcoholics 

A MAJOR chemical difference 
between alcoholics and other 
people has been discovered 
that may explain how chronic 
drinking damages body organs 
and perhaps why some people 
become addicted to alcohol. 

The discovery was made by 
a team of physicians at New 
York’s Bronx Veterans Admin- 
istration Hospital, working 
under the guidance of Dr 
Charles Lieber, chief of the 
section on liver disease and 

They found that the power- 
ful chemical, acetaldehyde, 

reaches higher levels in alco- 
holics than in other people even 
when both groups have the 
same blood alcohol level. 

Acetaldehyde, a breakdown 
product of alcohol, is known to 
be toxic to heart muscle and 
liver cells. It has also been 
shown to interact with nervous 
system hormones to produce 
drugs called alkaloids which 
interfere with nerve functions. 

Alcoholics often develop cir- 
rhosis of the liver, diseases of 
the heart muscle, and brain 

Thus, the finding indicates 

alcohol itself may not be the 
culprit in alcoholism but rather 
that acetaldehyde may be 
responsible for alcohol’s 

If further studies bear this 
out, they may lead to ways of 
preventing alcohol-induced 
damage and perhaps of identi- 
fying alcoholism-prone individ- 
uals and preventing the disease 

The results were published in 
The New England Journal of 
Medicine (Feb. 20). 

The work is expected to 
stimulate considerable re- 

search. For instance, it is not 
yet known whether the higher 
levels of acetaldehyde in alco- 
holics precede the addiction or 
are a result of it. 

In the Bronx studies, alcohol 
was given intravenously, allow- 
ing precise control over the 
amount of alcohol in the blood. 
Simultaneously, measurements 
were made of alcohol and ace- 
taldehyde levels for eight to 10 
hours thereafter. 

They showed that the acetal- 
dehyde levels in the blood of 
the alcoholics reached a pla- 
teau that was 62% higher than 

the plateau of the non- 

Acetaldehyde is the sub- 
stance responsible for the 
effectiveness of Antabuse in 
treating alcoholism. 

Antabuse blocks the break- 
down of acetaldehyde and, 
when a person taking the drug 
drinks alcohol, there is a sud- 
den, dramatic increase in ace- 
taldehyde in his blood, far 
beyond the normal plateau this 
chemical reaches. 

This causes an extreme reac- 
tion including nausea, a drop in 
blood pressure, sweating, and 

Cannabis use not encouraged by Senate witnesses 

(Continued from Page 1) 
a hazardous substance.” 

Dr. Bryant, for his part, agreed 
that there are many recently 
reported findings that deserve fur- 
ther study, but he saw “no new 
startling findings about marijuana 
which dictate immediate changes 
in policy (of decriminalization).” 

“We have sought to avoid our 
responsibility to suggest reasona- 
ble and rational approaches to the 
use of marijuana, waiting for posi- 
tive proof of health hazard to bols- 
ter society’s preconceived 
notions. I believe this is unwise.” 

“We possess biomedical proof 
that alcohol— the misuse and 
abuse of it— can injure the human 
liver, the brain, the kidney, the 
body’s resistance to disease. But 
we do not jail those who simply 
use alcohol. We do not confuse 
potential health hazard with crim- 
inality. We attempt to educate 
people as to potential risks. 

“I am quite dubious and skepti- 
cal about several of the more sen- 
sationalized reports of harm— the 
chromosome-genetic damage, the 
brain damage, the male hormone 
malfunctions, etc. Many of them 
are classic examples of strong 
opinions attempting to evoke cer- 

tainty where none exists.” 

In urging “more rational poli- 
cies and laws” Dr. Bryant noted 
that since release of the U.S. 
National Marijuana Commission 
reports, all 50 states and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia have already 
reduced first offense marijuana 
possession from a felony to a mis- 
demeanor, and the state of Oregon 
has abolished criminal penalties 
for possession of one ounce of 
marijuana or less, instituting a 
system of civil fines. 

A survey of the Oregon experi- 
ence, commissioned by the Drug 
Abuse Council has shown that 
since criminal penalties have been 
abolished for simple possession of 
cannabis, only one half of one peh 
cent of those currently using the 
drug, were induced to do so since 

change in the law. , 

On the other hand, 53% of those 
who have used marijuana but are 
no longer using, cited lack of 
interest, and 23% possible health 
dangers as their motivations for 
stopping. Only 4% cited fear of the 
law as their justification for mov- 
ing away from marijuana. 

A similar study in California, a 
state with some of the harshest 
penalties in the nation for both 

Cigarette tax increase 
urged by U.K. doctors 

LONDON— Five eminent British 
doctors, four of them Presidents 
of Royal Colleges of Medicine, 
have called for a substantial 
increase in the tax on cigarettes in 
order to raise revenue to aid the 
ailing National Health Service 

Their statement coincides with 
a new national campaign warning 
women of the dangers of smoking 
during pregnancy, launched by the 
Government-backed Health Edu- 
cation Council. 

“Past experience has shown,” 
the doctors argue, “that a 10% 
increase in taxation results in a 
6% decrease in tobacco consump- 
tion. It is worth noting that, in 
terms of purchasing power, ciga- 
rettes are at present cheaper than 
10 years ago. Moreover, it is 
surely absurd that expenditure on 
this dangerous and damaging 
habit is included in the cost of liv- 
ing index.” 

Smoking and Health Now 
the latest report on smoking pre- 
pared by the Royal College of 
Physicians in London, notes that 
early death and crippling sickness 
caused by cigarette smoking have 
reached epidemic proportions, 
presenting the most challenging of 
all opportunities for preventative 
medicine in this country. 

The statment by the five doc- 
tors has been made in the context 
of a heated national debate over 
the inadequate financing of the 
free NHS medicare system. 

They stress: “No government 
can convince us. as doctors with 
responsibility Tor the health of the 
nation, that they cannot afford 
adequate resources for the Health 
Service when they have failed to 
take an action which will not only 
help to provide those resources 
but also help to save many thou- 
sands of people from misery and 
death. Furthermore, the cost in 
foreign exchange of importing 
tobacco was £ 153.8 million (about 
$354,000) in 1973 and is estimated 
to be £ 166.5 million ($383,000) in 
1974 .... 

“There is. to us. an unanswera- 
ble case for tax which can not only 
help to provide resources for the 
Health Service but save greatly 
needed foreign exchange and sub- 
stantially benefit the health of the 
nation. ” 

Smoking caused at least 24.000 
deaths in Britain from lung cancer 
during 1972. 14,000 deaths from 
chronic bronchitis, and 16,000 
deaths from coronary artery 
diseases in people under 75 years 
of age. It also contributes, the 
doctors explain, to cancer of the 
mouth, gullet, larynx, bladder and 
pancreas, in smaller numbers, and 
is an important factor in illnesses 
due to peptic ulcer and tuberculo- 
sis. It gives rise to an immense 
amount of invalidism and misery 
from chronic bronchitis, the big- 
gest single medical cause of loss 
of work in Britain, resulting in the 
loss of more than 30 million work- 
days annually. 

conviction on charge of simple 
possession (one ounce or less), the 
sentence include a fine coupled 
with a compulsory drug education 
course “not a course which soft 
peddles the dangers of cannabis 
but one which tells the whole 

For subsequent possession off- 
ences, Dr. McGeer recommends 
registration of the individual’s 
name and compulsory treatment 
by medical and social authorities, 
and the option of imprisonment 
with parole available through 
community service programs. 

Dr. McGeer also recommends 
that possession of more than one 
ounce of marijuana, and offences 
for cultivation, importation, and 
trafficking be assigned mandatory 
jail sentences. 

Mr. Anthony, of Alherta, urges 
a much tougher line— legal provi- 
sions to provide programs in 

which individuals accused of off- 
ences would be allowed to partici- 
pate in return for absolute dis- 

These pre-trial programs would 
be aimed specifically at first and 
second offenders. 

Anthony also suggested that 
cannabis remain under the 
criminal code, not the civil code 
which he said appears so difficult 
to enforce. 

“The new legislation is tending 
to treat the first offenders for pos- 
session of marijuana or hashish in 
the same manner as if the person 
committed a minor traffic viola- 
tion or as found guilty of allowing 
his dog at large without a leash.” 

The Senate should not consider 
decriminalization for possession, 
said Mr. Anthony, until the exist- 
effecffvely" guarantee tne’ preven- 
tion of repeated use among young 

sale and possession of marijuana, 
showed that only 8% of those sur- 
veyed have refused marijuana for 
fear of legal consequences, 
whereas 38% cite possible health 
dangers as their reasons for not 
now using the drug. 

“Fears that marijuana usage 
would dramatically increase if 
criminal penalties were removed 
are not borne out by our survey,” 
emphasizes Dr. Bryant. 

“(This seems) to indicate that 
the use of punitive criminal sanc- 
tions to control marijuana usage 
is in fact not effective,” he said. 

In other testimony. Dr. Patrick 
L. McGeer, member of parlia- 
ment from British Columbia, and 
Richard M. Anthony, Chairman of 
the Alberta Alcoholism and Drug 

Abuse Commission ronommonHoH 

mandatory educational programs 
for cannabis law offenders. 

Dr. McGeer urged that for first 

Toronto lawyers favor , , , 

'^No minimum penalties^ 

OTTAWA— A group of Toronto 
defense lawyers told the Senate 
Committee on Legal and Constitu- 
tional Affairs that they would 
have preferred to see the proposed 
cannabis legislation eliminate 
minimum penalties altogether. 

“With the exception of non- 
capital or capital murder, and 
with second or subsequent off- 
ences for impaired driving, there 
are no minimum penalties pro- 
vided in the Criminal Code of Can- 
ada,” the lawyers brief said. 

“We do not think they are war- 
ranted in the narcotic or drug- 
related statutes.” 

The lawyers argued that “the 

court ought not be hampered by 
minimum statutory requirements 
provided it has sufficient discre- 
tion and lattitude to impose what- 
ever sentence it deems proper.” 

They also recommended that 
where an accused under the can- 
nabis bill could go to jail for up to 
18 months— such as under sum- 
mary conviction for possession for 
purposes of trafficking — he ought 
to have the right to a trial by 
judge and jury and all the safe- 
guards that such a trial provides. 

“We make this submission par- 
ticularly because of the peculiar 
procedure provided for in the stat- 
ute for charges, involving posses-. 

sion for the purpose of trafficking, 
wherein the onus is on the accused 
to ‘establish’ that he was not in 
possession for the purpose of traf- 

“The precise nature of the 
accused’s onus could be debated, 
but the fact that such an onus 
exists is clear. In such cases, it is 
almost always, necessary for an 
accused to testify, thereby forfeit- 
ing his ‘right’ to remain silent. 

The lawyers argued that the 
accused should have the benefit of 
a preliminary hearing, full disclo- 
sure by the Crown of the nature of 
allegations against him, and trial 
by jury. 

Page 4— THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975 

Stopping smoking? Anything goes 


GENEVA — Is it easier to quit 
smoking abruptly or to use tricks 
simply to reduce the habit and 
hence the danger? 

A leading fighter favors all 
sorts of psychic devices. 

“Puff, don't inhale,” says Dr. 
Daniel Horn, medical psychologist 
and biostatistician, and director of 
the United States National Clear- 
ing House on Smoking and Health. 

“I know a fellow who takes 
quick puffs and alternates with 
deep breaths of air!” 

Dr. Horn was here at the World 
Health Organization for an inter- 
national conference to exchange 
medical evidence, control meth- 
ods and their effectiveness. “How 
to quit” was a main question. 

A principal contributor to the 
historic Surgeon General’s Report 

BERLIN— Alcoholism has been 
rising among German women for 
the past 15 years, according to Dr. 
Lothar Schmidt of the Judisches 
Krankenhaus here. 

In 1960, only one woman in 25 
treated by this city’s sociopsychia- 
tric service was alcoholic. Today 
the rate is one in seven. 

An estimated 15% of such 
patients in the Federal Republic 
are women. Of these, 45% are 
housewives, 35% are in high 

French get tough 
on smoking habits 

PARIS— With the aid of public 
funds recently authorized by sev- 
eral government agencies, the 
French National Anti-Tobacco 
Committee is planning a greatly 
expanded program in 1975, Mr. de 
Givry, its director, said in an 
interview here. 

Among actions planned are a 
public information program using 
the media, a special information 
program aimed at young persons, 
and an attempt to reduce the facil- 
ity with which young persons, par- 
ticularly those in military service, 
obtain their tobacco. 

In addition, the committee will 
attempt to limit publicity in favor 
of tobacco, require cigarette man- 
ufacturers to put a health warning 
on every packet of cigarettes, aid 
smokers wishing to quit smoking, 
and find ways for non-smokers to 
avoid smoke in public places. 

According to the committee, 
the French consume three billion 
packets of cigarettes each year, 
with young people smoking more 
and at lower and lower ages (half 
of all lycee students smoke at age 
15), and an increase in women 

Although the French govern- 
ment has an interest in cigarette 
smoking, since it receives 5 billion 
francs each year from the sale of 
cigarettes, Mr. de Givry, a former 
director of the National anti- 
alcoholism committee, did not 
feel that the anti-tobacco forces 
would encounter resistance of the 
order encountered by anti- 
alcoholism forces. 

“The number of people making 
their living by the production and 
sale of tobacco in France is much 
less than the number living off 
the sales of wine,” he said. 

Comite National Contre le Taba- 
gisme, 12 rue Jacob, 75006 Paris. 

which lined smoking and lung 
cancer and changed smoking his- 
tory, Dr. Horn continues research 
today, exploring every conceiva- 
ble method of “cutting down”. 

When a skeptic snorted at the 
story of “quick puffs” and breath- 
ing, Horn said: “Don’t knock it. 
Tricks are welcome if they affect 
deep-seated habits. Any change 
that decreases dependence is 
good. It is then easier to quit. A 
series of unconscious actions goes 
on. We don’t yet understand it. 

“Medical remedies or pills are 
no solution to this dependence.” 
says the psychologist. “People use 
cigarettes for different purposes, 
as with most drugs. But it’s espe- 
cially true of cigarettes because 
they have very modest physiologi- 
cal effects. 

“Women have a much more dif- 

income brackets, 2% are univer- 
sity graduates and 1% are pension- 
ers, researchers suggest. 

Affluence contributes impor- 
tantly, Dr. Schmidt believes, for 
women can now “keep house bars 
well stocked”. But he suspects 
women also drink to “escape” 
when confronted with problems 
that seem beyond their abilities. 

Psychologists have discovered 
90% of such patients in sanatoria 
have marked infantile attitudes 
and lack self-confidence. Two 
thirds cannot easily establish con- 
tacts and about 807o have had 

marital or earlier family trauma. 

The war, it has been suggested, 
was particularly traumatic for 
women now between 35 and 45 
years old. Many faced starvation 
and had to look after themselves. 
Today, many apparently cannot 
cope with the demands of the 
vastly changed society. 


(Continued from page 1) 

lancing poppy capsules to obtain 
opium in gum form, poppies are 
harvested intact, somewhat like 
wheat. Because the straw is diffi- 
cult to process, and bulky to con- 
ceal, chances of its being diverted 
to illegal use would seem greatly 
diminished. Dr. DuPont said. 

Yet another factor to influence 
the government’s stance, accord- 
ing to Ambassador Vance, is the 
decline in U.S. heroin traffic from 
its all-time peak in 1971. 

“When the Turkish decision to 
ban the opium poppy production 
was announced, we predicted that 
the European heroin traffic would 
be diminished,” the ambassador 

“The decline in the number of 
heroin dependent persons that fol- 
lowed gives us some reason to 
think that our policy was cor- 

In any event, the Turkish ban in 
late 1972 was not the cause of the 
current codeine “shortfall”. 
Ambassador Vance declared. Tur- 
key has never supplied more than 
10% to 15% of the world’s legiti- 
mate market, he said. Rather, 
diminished opium supplies are the 
result of a combination of situa- 
tions in different parts of the 

For one thing, drought sharply 
reduced India’s production of 
opium: In the three years 1973, 
1974 and 1975. India fell short of 
expectations by 600 tons. 

In that same period, the USSR 
was switching from being an 
exporter to an importer of cod- 
eine. Although Russia never 

ficult time quitting, we find, 
because more of them use ciga- 
rettes as a tranquillizer, to reduce 
negative affect and tension. Men 
use them mostly for positive rea- 
sons, for pleasure. 

“It is easy to give them up when 
things go well, if you’ve been 
using them to relieve tension. But 
even minor crises in daily life 
strongly tempt you to resume 
smoking. That’s the problem of 
most women smokers. . . . 

“There’s no overall solution. 
It’s a matter of figuring out your- 
self how smoking fits into your 
life-style and trying to find other 
gratifying, less noxious habits.” 

The international group, evalu- 
ating other control methods, found 
high taxes and price beneficial, 
simultaneously decreasing con- 
sumption of many smokers and 
raising increasing revenues for 
social services. Some would like 
to threaten high insurance prem- 
iums for smokers. 

Despite State tobacco monopo- 
lies in some European countries, 
several, especially in Scandinavia, 
are passing stricter laws to pro- 
hibit promotion and are waging 
intensive educational campaigns, 
using sports and other celebrities 
to convince the young. 

The group also recommended 
more restricted public places, 
“upholding the rights of non- 
smokers to breathe non-polluted 
air”, as Dr. Raoul Senault of 
Paris, president of the new and 
active International Union of 
Health Education, said. 

“A few years ago, non-smokers 
were a timid lot,” he observed. 
“They wouldn’t risk offending the 
swashbuckling majority of smok- 
ers. Today they are bold and 
smokers are at last on the defen- 
sive. In an institute’s or laborato- 
ry’s dining room or cafeteria, you 
see almost everyone enjoying a 
meal without pollution. The non- 
smoking section of airplanes is 
now usually over-subscribed.” 

(Airplanes have the best air 
conditioning, studies show, with 16 

explained why, its production of 
opium dropped from 227 tons in 
1970 to 93 tons in 1973. 

Simultaneously, the demand for 
codeine was rising dramatically in 
the U.S. Between 1967 and 1973 
bulk codeine sales shot up 73%. 

In the industry’s view, rising 
demands corresponded with a 50% 

THE POPPY straw method of 
harvesting, supported by q gov- 
ernment decree, will prevent any 
opium leakage from Turkish fields 
to the illicit market, predicts Sir 
Harry Greenfield. 

The formal decree, announced 
in January, forbids the lancing of 
any poppies grown in Turkey. 

Sir Harry, retired director of 
the International Narcotics Con- 
trol Board, assured the AMA sym- 
posium that the Turkish govern- 
ment is planning strict measures 
to enforce the ruling. 

All relevant departments are 
cooperating, and the government 
is seeking United Nations advice. 

“The Turkish police and gen- 
darmerie are quite respectable, in 
the best sense of the term,” Sir 
Harry said. Moreover, the Turks 
are “very forthright in enforcing 
.the law”. 

Twenty thousand hectares have 
been planted with Papaver somni- 

complete exchanges of air per 
hour. The average office building 
has only 6 and the home % of 1 
exchange per hour. ) 

About 25% of all victims of fatal 
heart attacks are smokers and up 
to 75% of those, men under 50, car- 
diologists of the UN health agency 
estimated. Cigarettes are also 
associated with chronic bronchitis 
and emphysema, they added. But 
the lung cancer risk for those who . 
have quit for 5 years falls toward 
that of non-smokers. 

In Britain, the risk rate for doc- 
tors has dropped in the past 10 
years, despite the increase in 
their age, because so many have 
quit, according to Sir George God- 
ber, recently retired Chief Medi- 
cal Officer of England and Wales 
and chairman of the WHO confer- 

“Many smokers argue that 
nothing happens to some smok- 
ers,” Dr. Horn says. But smoking 
does hurt. Whatever is wrong with 
you, smoking will make it worse, 
it increases the disability of chest 
diseases, demonstrably slows 
healing time of stomach ulcers 

increase in the number of patients 
covered by private health insur- 
ance which pays for prescribed 

Authorities estimate the U.S. 
will need between 37,000 and 
41.000 kg of codeine in 1975. 

There is enough material avail- 
able— in manufacturers’ pipe- 

ferum, and every field is carefully 
charted on a map. Sir Harry 
reported. Each cultivator is 
licensed. The area he is allowed to 
cultivate is strictly limited and 
described in detail on the licence. 

At harvest time, police will 
increase their efforts, taking on 
special staff to handle the extra 
surveillance. They may even use 
helicopters to patrol the fields. 

The poppy straw method of har- 
vesting will also make diversion 
difficult. The lancing of poppies 
yields an opium gum: The gum is 
compact and a ready source of 
heroin. Poppy straw, on the other 
hand, is both bulky and difficult to 

“With only unincised poppy cap- 
sules available, there should be no 
opium at all in Turkey, except 
what might have been hidden 
under the bed from the ’72 crop,” 
Sir Harry declared. “There might 
be some seepage, but no leakage.” 

and reduces athletic performance. 

“The question isn’t only 
whether smoking causes certain 
conditions. It exacerbates any 
predisposition to disease, such as 
diabetes, obesity, hypertension, 
high cholesterol levels— and most 
people have some such predisposi- 

Smoking produces much more 
dangerous amounts of carbon 
monoxide in a room that automo- 
biles do in a city, Horn says. He 
carries a measuring instrument 
and when it registers 25 ppm he 
leaves the conference room. 

Smokers on the Los Angeles 
freeways were tested. They 
arrived at work with CO indices of 
6 to 8, compared with non-smoking 
drivers’ 1.5 to 2, and natural levels 
of .8 to 1. 

“The amount of carbon monox- 
ide ingested by smoking— the 
more personal pollution— is much 
greater than that from air pollu- 
tion,” Horn says. When corrected 
for smoking, the statistics on lung 
cancer show little difference 
between town and country, he 

lines, from the stockpile release, 
from confiscated illicit supplies, 
and from the Indian market— to 
cover these needs, Donald Miller 
told the symposium. 

“There’s no need to push the 
panic button.” said Mr. Miller, 
chief counsel to the Drug Enforce- 
ment Administration. 

Exhausting all these resources, 
however, would both drain manu- 
facturers dry. and leave no mar- 
gin of safety. 

Consequently, U.S. manufactur- 
ers are expected to bid on the open 
market for enough straw concen- 
trate to produce an additional 
6,(X)0 to 7,000 kg of codeine. 

Iran and Poland, as well as Tur- 
key, are potential sources of 
poppy straw, Mr. Miller reported. 

The Turkish crop this spring 
will be larger (16,000 tons) and 
higher in morphine content 
(because the capsules have not 
been lanced) than ever before. 

Whether the U.S. should grow 
its own poppy supply (Papaver 
bracteatum) is being debated by 
the Opium Task Force, its chair- 
man, Dr. Edward Johnson, 
declared. The Task Force is 
trying to achieve consensus by 
July, so a crop could be planted in 
the fall, if the plan gets the 

Government and industry labo- 
ratories, as well as the UN, are 
trying to determine the abusabil- 
ity of the bracteatum’s thebaine. 

Thebaine derivatives, experts 
told the symposium, are many 
times more potent than heroin. 
There is no history of their having 
been abused, but no consensus as 
to why not. 

German women keep 
well-stocked bars 


DESPITE A tradition of rela- 
tive isolation, not only from 
society at large but from each 
other, therapeutic communi- 
ties may in future present a 
more united front. 

At a recent meeting in Win- 
nebago, Wisconsin, representa- 
tives of TCs across the conti- 
nent formed the North Ameri- 
can Association of Therapeutic 

The organization is designed 
to further the purposes of the 
movement by establishing lines 
of communication among exist- 
ing therapeutic communities. 

According to Michael Sack, 

director of the Tellurian Com- 
munity of Winnebago, and 
chairperson of the association: 
“The NAATC sees itself as a 
forum from which the com- 
munities may address the pub- 
lic at large, and an arena 
within which* the communities 
may address each other and 
exchange information vital to 
the growth of the movement.” 

While there are no figures 
available as to the exact num- 
ber of such communities in 
North America, the NAATC 
has identified more than 350 
with a total population esti- 
mated at between 8,000 and 
12,000 people. 

‘No need to push panic button’ 

Poppy straw method 
will preclude problems 

Private hospital for middlerJass alcoholirs 

Gillain Manor: a dream nears reality 

Despite financial difficulties. Gillain Manor is expected to operi this summer 


VANCOUVER— A private hos- 
pital on Vancouver Island for 
middleclass alcoholics is rene- 
gotiating financing and hopes to 
continue construction so it can 
open this summer. . 

Gillain Manor, located 15 
miles north of Victoria in the 
pastoral Saanich Peninsula, 
was three-quarters completed 
when monetary policies in 
North America made mortgage 
money scarce and brought 
financial problems to the pro- 
ject, according to J. George 

Mr. Strachan. president of 
the development company 
which is building the hospital, 
and a well-known figure in Can- 
ada’s alcoholism fraternity, 
said financing for the project 
had been arranged but disap- 
peared when interest rates 

The development company 
has been petitioned into bank- 
ruptcy by contractors. But Mr. 
Strachan is confident that now 
that interest rates are decreas- 
ing, mortgage money will 
become available. He said he is 
negotiating new financing and 
construction of the hospital will 
resume in time for an opening 
early this summer. 

Once construction is com- 
plete, the development com- 
pany will either lease or sell 
the hospital and its 100-acre 
site to Gillain Foundation, a 
non-profit organization incor- 
porated under the Societies Act 
of B.C. 

So far, about $1 million has 
been spent on the hospital, and 
slightly more than $2 million is 
being sought in mortgage nego- 
tiations. he said. 

It will be able to treat 50 

patients when it opens and 
plans call for an immediate 
expansion to between 80- and 
100-bed capacity, Mr. Strachan 

“It represents a dream I've 
had for seven years now. I’ve 
looked all over the west for the 
right site,” he said. 

The hospital is on a wooded 
bluff overlooking the islands 
and mountains of the B.C. 
coast. It aims at providing a 
service to middleclass alcohol- 
ics in western Canada and the 

A document on Gillain 
Manor" says experience shows 
that 95% of alcoholics are in an 
above average sector of 
society. While they admit they 
have a drinking problem, they 
resist the implications still 
reflected in the term “alco- 
holic”. They are reticent to go 
to Alcoholics Anonymous or 
use public services. 

“Anomalous though it may 
seem, in terms of treatment, 
these are the underprivileged,” 
the material says. 

Gillain should not be con- 
fused with “rest homes”, 
which wealthy alcoholics use 
as a hideaway to recuperate 
from binges. 

“Known as ‘drying out' and 
‘jitter’ joints, they serve a tem- 
porary use at a price, but offer 
little towards permanent sobri- 

“Many such facilities.” the 
document says, “serve a regu- 
lar clientele who are in and out 
as often as less fortunate ine- 
briates are in and out of jail.” 

Less than 5% of alcoholics. 
Mr. Strachan said, are on skid 
row. Yet it is at this highly visi- 
ble minority of the alcoholic 
population that most public 
programs are directed. 

“Alcohol dependency ranks 
highest among the profession- 
als in the fields of medicine, 
psychiatry, law, religion, edu- 
cation and the arts and sci- 
ences — and their spouses. 

“This supports the belief.” 
the document says, ’'that most 

alcoholics are above average in 

Mr. Strachan was born in 
Montreal and educated in Can- 
ada and the U.S. He graduated 
from the Yale (now Rutgers) 
School of Alcohol Studies in 
1950 and helped establish simi- 
lar facilities at the University 

Of Wisconsin e&no 

University Labor College. 

From 1953 to 1965 he was 

director of the Alcoholism 
Foundation of Alberta. He was 
a leader in establishing the 
Canadian Council on Alcohol- 
ism, the forerunner of the 
Canadian Foundation on Alco- 


member and honorary life 
member of the foundation. 

Pot discharge provisions still misunderstood 


OTTAWA— The federal govern- 
ment is growing increasingly con- 
cerned about the general lack of 
knowledge among persons 
accused of simple cannabis pos- 
session with respect to the availa- 
bility of special discharges, in 
place of convictions. 

And the National Parole Board 
is also investigating why those 
persons given absolute or condi- 
tional discharges, instead of for- 
mal convictions, must apply to the 
board to get a pardon. 

Under the special discharge 
provisions, a person is considered 
guilty by the court but is not for- 
mally convicted. Instead, the per- 
son is given a discharge, either 
absolute (without any conditions) 
or conditional (with some sort of 
probation attached). 

But despite the fact that there is 
no conviction, under the present 
law the persons given the dis- 
charges for simple cannabis pos- 
session offences are still given 
criminal records. 

And even though eligibility for 
applying for a pardon, to have the 
criminal record erased, is shorter 
with a discharge than with a for- 
mal conviction, there is still the 
hassle of applying and then being 
investigated to see whether a par- 
don is appropriate. 

There have been some sugges- 
tions that the pardons should be 
given automatically, though the 
government has so far refused to 
grant such requests. 

The National Parole Board is 
itself studying the legal reasons 
why there is a criminal record in 
the first place associated with the 

If it turns out that there really 
is no legal need for a criminal 
record, then the question and the 
hassle associated with getting a 
pardon could be automatically 

While that would be good news 
to some, there still is the broader 
issue of why so few discharges are 
being granted in the first place. 

The parole board seems to think 
it may just be a problem of the 

NEW YORK — The attempt is 
being made, in a novel project in 
the Bronx, to bring professional 
mental health skills to ex-addicts 
and other drug treatment program 
counsellors. The aim is to upgrade 
clinical care in drug-free pro- 

The consultation and training 
project, based at the Montefiore 
Hospital Department of Social 
Medicine, is led by psychologist 
Dr. Robert Cutler, and includes 
three other psychologists and a 
social worker who spend most of 
their professional time each week 
visiting the dozen treatment pro- 
grams whose staff members they 
are counselling on therapeutic 

“The focus is on maintaining 
ethical and appropriate treatment 
services,” Dr. Cutler said in an 
interview. “Confrontation and TC 
approaches sometimes don’t suf- 
fice, especially when many of the 
clients are appearing with severe 

lack of knowledge of the availabil- 
ity of the provisions. 

But investigations by The Jour- 
nal have suggested that most law- 
yers involved in drug cases just 
don’t ask for the discharges, 
despite the fact they are aware of 
them. Often, they think the judge 
won’t grant them anyway. 

Finally, for those persons 
already convicted or given dis- 
charges for drug crimes, there is 

psychiatric problems.” 

The dozen programs to which 
the consultation service is offered, 
including Argus Community, 
Logos II, Inward, and Resurrec- 
tion, serve more than a thousand 
clients in the Bronx. Some of the 
programs provide day care. Oth- 
ers are aimed at prevention, and 
still others are traditional residen- 
tial TC’s. 

Dr. Cutler said he and his pro- 
fessional colleagues worked dur- 
ing their project’s first year to 
assess, with program staffs, the 
particular client populations and 
staff training needs of each pro- 
gram. They listened in on thera- 
peutic activities in the programs, 
but did not actively participate in 
therapy or assume supervisory 
responsibility. Then, in staff 
meetings and counselling sessions 
they worked to build staff mem- 
bers’ levels of basic therapeutic 
skills, including diagnosis and 
appropriate treatment referral. 

some other promising news relat- 
ing to pardons. 

As part of an as yet not fully 
detailed broader reform of par- 
dons and paroles being contem- 
plated by Ottawa, the government 
is considering simplifying the par- 
don application and granting pro- 

In certain instances, the board 
might be able to grant pardons 
without requiring the lengthy and 
complicated police investigations 

In the project’s second year, 
now underway. Dr. Cutler said 
emphasis is being placed on en- 
hancing drug workers’ skills in 
special types of therapy, such as 
group and the treatment of adoles- 
cent clients. 

“What we’re doing is applying a 
clinical training model to parapro- 
fessional counsellors, including 
ex-addicts,” he said. 

The training project is funded 
with a $26,000 federal grant from 
SAODAP. Dr. Cutler hopes to find 
other grant funds when the fed- 
eral money runs out later this 

He said the project at first met 
“rather a great degree of suspi- 
cion,” in part due to the historical 
conflict between professionals and 
paraprofessionals that it was 
intended to abate. In addition, 
there were “the endemic kind of 
fears the programs have toward 
professionals,” and “toward their 
concern” that “we may be spies 

now required. Generally, the 
board hopes to be able to reduce 
the investigation time where it is 
still needed. 

And the government is also con- 
sidering relating the waiting 
period before pardon eligibility to 
the length and kind of sentence. 

Thus, the eligibility time would 
generally be shorter than the 
existing periods: two years for 
summary convictions and five 
years for indictable offences. 

for funding sources.” 

In fact. Dr. Cutler says, the 
New York City Addiction Services 
Administration asked that he and 
his staff evaluate the programs to 
which they provided consultation. 
He refused, he said, emphatically. 

Having spent more than a year 
in assisting paraprofessional 
treatment personnel. Dr. Cutler 
said that he finds their major 
weaknesses to be record keeping, 
the capacity to make differential 
diagnoses, and the ability to struc- 
ture programs to meet their par- 
ticular client’s needs. 

Their major strength, he said, 
is that “they came from the same 
kinds of community as the clients 
they work with, and so have a 
great deal of empathy— an intui- 
tive awareness— of some of the 
problems and difficulties with 
which their clients must con- 

“That,” he added, “is what 
we’re building on.” 

Clinical model a p plied 

Drug workers’ skills enhanced 

Page 6 

THE JOURNAL. April 1. 1975 


Gary Seidler 

associate editor 

Anne MacLennan 

Milan Korcok 


Lachlan MacQuanie (Hong Kong) 
Walt Nagel (Calgary) 

Tom Hill (Rorida) 

Saul Abel (Los Angeles) 

Mary Hager (San Francisco) 
Dorothy Trainor (Montreal) 

Jean McCann (Cleveland) 

Betty Lou Lee (Hamilton) 

Bryne Carruthers (Ottawa) 

Otha Unton (Washington) 
David Zimmerman (New York) 
Alan Massam (London) 

Tom Lar>d (London) 

David Ehrlich (Geneva) 

Peter Thompson (Vancouver) 
Manfred Jager (Winnipeg) 

The Journal 


Dr. Harding Le Riche, Prof., School of Public Health and Hygiene. University of Toronto 
Dr. Albert Rose. Dean. Faculty of Social Work. University of Toronto 
Dr. Thomas Bryant. President. Drug Abuse Council. Washington. D C. 

Dr. Lionel Solursh. Associate Head. Dept, of Psychiatry. Toronto Western Hospital 
Dr. Wtif Boothroyd, Senior Medical Consultant. ARF 
Henry Schankula, Director of Administration. ARF 
Dr. Eugene LeBlanc, Assistant Head, Research Division. ARF 
Dr David Smith. Medical Director. Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic. San Francisco 
Or. Thomas Ungerleider, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, UCLA Medical Centre 

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ISSN 0044-6203 Printed in Canada 

Health care system 
sadly deficient 

COMPARED TO the heroin addict, the non-opiate abuser is in a sadly 
deprived state when it comes to adequate treatment. 

Some authorities involved in the scene claim that technology in the 
non-narcotic area is at the stage heroin treatment was 10 years 
ago— before methadone and before the therapeutic community. 

This is so despite the fact that there are many more non-opiate 
(non-alcohol) abusers than there ever were heroin abusers. The 
National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates there are at least two mil- 
lion such “walking wounded” in the United States, only a fraction of 
whom ever see treatment. 

The growth of non-narcotic drug abuse presents the health care sys- 
tem with an immense challenge. 

First there are the many young users, supplied by street sources, who 
really have very little idea about the drugs they are taking. 

A recent Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario study showed 
that less than half the street drugs consumed by these unwitting buyers 
are what the dealers say they are. 

The great street rip-off is nothing new. Analysts have been emphasiz- 
ing the street drug fraud for years, but it apparently hasn’t deterred the 
users from shelling out a lot of money for what they think may be 
mescaline, or cocaine, or whatever. 

Another complicating factor is that most drug users don’t confine 
themselves to one drug, or even to one class of drugs. 

A recent study by Drs Harold and Oriana Kalant (See The Journal, 
March 1975) showed that among 26 amphetamine-related deaths in 
Ontario, 18 involved the presence of other drugs: MDA, alcohol, metha- 
qualone, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers. 

Last year, of 1,200 people admitted to a series of polydrug pilot 
research programs in the United States, 97% reported abusing more 
than one class of drugs simultaneously. 

Certainly, this mixing and matching does nothing to help the attend- 
ing physician, already forced into some kind of clinical roulette, in 
determining how to treat the drug victim. 

But the low status of the art is not attributable solely to the fact that 

wanL to piciy i>y someone else's rules. The fact iS that 

the health system itself has been sadly deficient not only in dealing with 
those drug abusers who have volunteered for treatment, but by perpetu- 
ating a situation whereby drugs are used inappropriately. 

Anti-depressants and minor tranquilizers, for example, are primarily 
described for mental disorders. Yet psychiatrists and neurologists 
account for only one third of the prescriptions for these drugs. 

The great majority of psychotherapeutic drugs are prescribed by gen- 
eral physicians and internists. One recent study showed that 85% of 
respondents who used prescription psychotherapeutic drugs had never 
seen a psychiatrist professionally in their lives. 

In addition, there is increasing evidence that those non-opiate, poly- 
drug users who are turning up for treatment are sick individuals indeed 
and in many cases have already gone through the conventional health 
system with psychopathology untreated. 

It is disturbing to learn that almost half of the patients admitted to 
existing polydrug programs have previously undergone multiple psychi- 
atric visits and/or involvement in other drug programs, yet they still 
have problems with drugs and their psychopathology continues. 

The North American health-industrial complex is massive. In size and 
expenditure it is one of the top half dozen industries on this continent. 

Various agencies are now concentrating on developing and licencing 
specialists in drug treatment. This is fine and it should be encouraged. 

But it is also time that some clear, precise guidelines were estab- 
lished to show how the existing health care system can become relevant 
to these millions of “sick” people. 

''How about offering green stamps to cover funeral expenses... 

Letters to the Editor 


I was interested in the article 
by Bryne Carruthers in The Jour- 
nal (Feb. 1, 1975) on the new Fed- 
eral Drug Bill. 

However I am somewhat con- 
cerned about the statements 
respecting possession and traf- 

ficking which he advises are pro- 
posed in the new Act. His article 
does not inform people that under 
the present Narcotic Control Act 
the procedure already exists. I 
quote Section 8: — 

Sect 8: 

“Any prosecution for a violation 

of subsection 4 (2) (no person shall 
have in his possession any narcotic 
for the purpose of trafficking) if 
the accused does not plead guilty 
the trial shall proceed as if it were 
a prosecution for an offence under 
section 3 (no person shall have a 

(See— Letters— Page 11) 

the goose that lai(d the golden egg 

By Wayne Howell 
To: The Executive Director 
‘New Improved’ CFADD 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Whereas we have received a request that the Royal 
College of Arms should devise, ordain, and assign to the 
‘new improved’ Canadian Foundation of Alcohol and 
Drug Dependencies, arms and ensigns armorial symbolic 
of the new improved CFADD’ s heritage and stated goals, 
we do hereby appoint and declare that the Arms or 
Ensigns Armorial of the new improved CFADD shall be 
blazoned as hereinafter described : 

For Supporters, on the dexter, an oie Or rampant— the 
golden goose being the symbolic representation of the 
Non-Medical Use of Drugs Directorate from which 
issued the Golden Egg of a $125,000 ‘innovative services 

On the sinister, a dindon Purpure rampant— the purple 
turkey being the symbolic representation of the old 
CFADD which managed to meet at Her Majesty’s 
expense for 20 years without ever once doing or saying 
anything that would justify its existence. 

The Shield of the new improved CFADD shall be 
Tierced in fesse: In the Third Division, upon a field 
Argent, an oeuf Or proper— the Golden Egg laid by the 
federal goose. 

The First and Second Division shall contain the quar- 
tefly coat following, namely : 

First Quarter: Upon a field Argent, a hand sinister, ij 
couped, apaume— the open hand symbolizing new •:• 
improved CFADD’s willingness to accept federal monies 
now and forever after. •:• 

Second Quarter: Upon a field Vert, an amorphous blob •:• 
proper— symbolizing the fuzziness and vagueness of such S 
CFADD objectives as ‘working towards a system that •:• 
would stimulate and encourage a society where people 
are conscious of the right that they have, through per- ij: 
sonal decision, to influence the activities and forces of 
their lives’ . S 

Third Quarter: Upon a field Azure, a scymetar engrailed 
Argent— the fearsome weapon with which the CFADD :•: 
plans to ‘cut the strings of society’s values and expecta- j:* 
tions that subtly control the consumption of alcohol and :•: 
other drugs’. 

Fourth Quarter: Upon a field Argent, a dexter cubit arm jj: 
vambraced— the clenched mailed fist symbolizing new 
improved CFADD’s determination to recruit enough •:• 
members with the money it was given to convince the 
government goose to lay another golden egg three years j:: 
hence. ji:. 

Our Will and Pleasure further is that the Arms or :v 
Ensigns Armorial of the New Improved CFADD ought to ji- 
be used. 

The Royal College of Arms jj: 

London ;:j 

THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975— Page 7 


Messiah figure for 
tens of thousands^ 

MARTY MANN’S life is an amal- 
gam of pages from F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald, Virginia Woolf and a bad 
Hollywood script. 

A gay and rich young girl in the 
roaring Chicago of the 1920s and 
an artistic Bohemian moving 

"There is something about this sub- 
ject that keeps you re-enthused." 

among the London litterati of the 

A crush into the private hell of 
acute alcoholism and nearly two 
years in a psychiatric hospital, 
Inspired, while working on 
morale-boosting radio programs 
during World War II, into a cru- 
sade. Then, resurrection as 
almost a messiah figure for tens 
of thousands. 

Today, though slow of gait, she 
belies her years in almost every 
other way. Since founding the 
National Council on Alcoholism 
she has never stopped. 

Two days a week helping alco- 
holic patients are mixed with con- 
stant public speaking engage- 
ments and 60,000 miles of travel a 
year. Her strong, unwavering, 
precise diction keeps audiences 
hushed. With facts, not histrion- 
ics, she paint an uncompromising 
picture of alcoholism and what 
can be done about it. 

When she is finished, well wish- 
ers crowd round; more often than 
not they include former alcoholics 
she has helped raise from the 
ashes. There is always a smile and 
a spark of enthusiasm and encour- 

It is a world removed from her 
youth in Chicago where her father 
was a wealthy man connected 
with the Marshall Fields depart- 
ment store empire. Life was dates 
and parties and drinking. 

“I was fortunate: I had a father 
who had laid in a big supply when 
prohibition came so there was 
plenty of liquor at home,” she 
points out. And it flowed. 

Every dinner engagement 

meant a few drinks before leaving 
home in case the host had a short 
supply. A new date always 
required a couple of drinks so the 
ice was broken even before he had 
time to pull out his hip flask. 

Mrs Mann could drink anyone 
else under the table. ‘T had an 
endless capacity. I never showed 
any signs of it. I never got drunk 
or had slurred speech or wobbly 
legs. I took everyone else home 
and I was proud of it.” 

The Wall Street Crash of 1929 
brought a sudden end to the rich 
life but not to the drinking. It did 
mean she had to look for a job for 
the first time. Eventually, with a 
small inheritance from an aunt, 
Mrs Mann pulled up stake and 
sailed from New York in 1930. 

“At that time everyone thought 
the good life was in Paris. But I 
decided to try London instead and 
I stayed there seven years,” she 

Because of her department 
store background, Mrs Mann knew 
the ins and outs of glamor photog- 
raphy and advertising and she 
decided to show the behind- 
the-times British how to do it. She 
was so successful that she soon 
went into partnership with a 
woman photographer and opened 
a studio in King’s Road, Chelsea. 

She moved freely among the 
writers and artists of the then 
fashionable Bloomsbury Set. “It 
wasn’t hard to get into and it was 
easy to meet people,” she 

Eventually Mrs Mann left her 
partner and went into business 
with a young German refugee who 
had started out as a helper in the 
studio. But by 1937, the realities of 
the life she led caught up with her 
and she returned to New York. 

‘'‘When I got back I didn’t know 
what I was going to do. I had no 
job and I had no money but I did 
have a sister living there so I went 
to stay with her. 

. . . ‘facts not histrionics’ 

“I had a very bad first year in 
trying to find a job. I was unable 
to stay sober. I was not a periodic 
drinker, I was a constant drinker. 
My world had fallen apart. 

“I kept trying to find a doctor 
who would tell me what was 
wrong with me. I realize now that 
a lot of the denial we talk about 
comes from the internal fear the 
alcoholic has that he is really 

“He is so afraid he is going to 
be locked up he will do anything to 
deny it even to himself. And I 
went through that.” 

Seven psychiatrists consecu- 
tively refused to help her. The 
eighth. Dr Foster Kennedy, a 

"Father laid in a big supply when 
prohibition came. " 

transplanted Irishman who was 
head of the departments of both 
neurology and psychiatry at Cor- 
nell University, took a chance. 

He told Mrs Mann, she recalls: 
‘You know, in my experience peo- 
ple like you ( “that is what I was 
always called”) have one chance 
in a hundred but you want to get 
well so badly I am going to take a 
chance on your being that one.’ 

The long, and often painful, 
journey down the road to recovery 
had begun. It would take nearly 
two years in hospital and sporadic 
binges before help from a group of 
former alcoholics succeeded. 

“After that I had three relapses 
in the first 18 months but never 
since then. That will be 35 years in 

She got a job as fashion publi- 
city director of R. H. Macy in 
New York and when the United 
States entered the war she went to 
work for an organization that pre- 
pared 10-minute radio scripts for 
the Office of War Information. 
They were sent out once a week to 
800 radio stations. 

Mrs Mann wrote all of the 

"The idea was to change public ideas on alcoholism, lam still talking 35 
years later." 

scripts, generally about little 
known incidents in American his- 
tory. One of the people she ran 
across in her research was 
Dorothea Dix, a young woman 
who in the early part of the 19th 
century spent her vacations from 
teaching, visiting the jails, and 
sketching the “crazy” inmates. 

’ Miss Dix was so dietermine<i to 

get something done she went to 
the Massachusetts legislature and 
spoke for three hours. Finally, she 
succeeded in seeing America’s 
first mental hospital opened in 

Mrs. Mann is proud that psychi- 
atrists now often introduce her as 
“the Dorothea Dix of alcohol- 

Her own crusade began. “I 
thought that if she could do that 
for the mentally sick, why 
couldn’t I do that for alcoholics?” 

“I sketched out a plan for a 
national education campaign with 
the object of getting beds in outpa- 
tient clinics. I knew I had to have 
scientific backing, especially as I 
was a layman, and a woman, and 
an ex-alcoholic.” 

A doctor friend helped her con- 
tact officials at Yale, the only 
place, at the time, where anything 
was being done about alcoholism. 

The Yale scientists were 
keen so she gathered together a 
board of directors, got financial 
backing, and “for five years in 
what was then called the Yale 
Plan on Alcoholism I travelled 
around the country lecturing and 
trying to organize local groups 
wherever I could. 

“The idea was to change public 
ideas on alcoholism. I am still 
talking 35 years later.” 

Mrs Mann has an apartment in 
New York and a home in Connecti- 
cutt. Two days a week she works 
with patients at a private psychi- 
atric clinic. 

Travel and talk never tire her. 
“There is something about this 
subject that keeps you re- 

enthused. One of the things is to 
see people recover. ... to see 
them come in a mess and eight 
weeks later go out looking won- 

“You see them a year later in 
some other part of the country and 
they are still wonderful. It makes 
you feel good.” 

Mrs, the Mann is her maiden 
name. Her marriage in 1927, and 
divorced in 1928, is perhaps the 
greatest irony. 

"One of the things is to see people 
recover. " 

“I married a drunk. I had no 
patience with him. I had no under- 
standing. I thought this guy was a 
weak sister, a liar and cheat. . . . 
all the attitudes I am trying to 
change. That's why I know them 
so well." 

Text by Ashley McConnell 
Photographs by Ralph Robinson 

Page 8— THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975 

Retention rates ^^fairly high’^ 

Alcohol treatment methods compared 


ARE SOME TYPES of treat- 
ment for alcoholism more 
effective than others? 

Do some alcoholics respond 
better to one type of treatment 
than another’ 

In an attempt to answer sUch 
questions, a University of Ken- 
tucky research project known 
as SHARP (Self-Help Alcohol- 
ism Research Project) 
assigned patients to four differ- 
ent types of treatment on a 
random basis and followed 
them through treatment with 
plans for a one-year follow-up 

Jeffrey M. Brandstpa 
reported that 206 patients were 
randomly assigned to rational 
behavior therapy conducted by 
professionals, rational behav- 
ior therapy conducted by a lay 
person, professional insight 
therapy, or Alcoholics Anony- 

mous, with a fifth group of 36 
used as a control. 

He noted that 20% of those 
assigned to treatment never 
reported for therapy. 

Only 80% of those who did 
show up for the first session in 
the AA group returned a second 
time, compared with 89% for 
the insight group, 95% for the 
non-professional ration beha- 
vior therapy group and 93% for 
the professional group. 

By the tenth session, attend- 
ance in the AA group had 
dropped to 38%, compart with 
62% in insight therapy, 51% in 
the non-professional rational 
behavior therapy and 62% in 
professional rational behavior 
therapy, he noted, adding that 
53% of the total number of 
patients who had attended the 
first session had remained in 

This overall retention rate is 

“fairly high” he observed, con- 
sidering that patients were 
required to attend a total of 10 
therapy sessions and showed 
that both rational behavior 
therapy and insight therapy did 
have fairly good holding power. 

The retention rate of 38% for 
AA also is good compared to 
national averages for psychoth- 
erapeutic treatment, he contin- 

But, he said, the majority of 
patients in all groups were 
court referred and had fol- 
low-up if they did not attend. 

Also, he said, “AA has 
claimed a high success rate but 
while there are numerous indi- 
vidual examples of AA suc- 
cesses, lack of recording of 
members who drop out lays 
AA’s numerical effectiveness 
open to question.” 

He further suggested that 
AA’s reluctance to study fail- 

ures may “detract from A A in 
the sense that study of failures 
could lead to even greater 
effectiveness for AA.” 

The different treatments in 
the study were based on differ- 
ent assumptions about human 
nature, he explained, with 
rational behavior therapy, 
emphasizing training in 
rational thinking and the 
assumption of responsibility 
for an individual’s own destiny, 
insight therapy concentrating 
on an alteration in emotional 
life through the recognition and 
elimination of ‘hang ups’, and 
AA relying on “fellowship, sur- 
render. and recourse to a 
higher power.” 

Follow up studies should pro- 
vide additional information 
about the effectiveness of 
treatment, not just the holding 
power of a particular therapeu- 
tic group, he stated. 

Study pinpoints sex differences 

Female alcoholics harbor guilt 

MANY WOMEN drink because it 
gives them energy and makes 
them “full of pep” and “lively”. 

But at the same time, they may 
feel guilty and depressed about 
their drinking, and worthless and 

In these areas, female alcohol- 
ics differ from male alcoholics 
and the identification of such dif- 
ferences may have important 
bearing on the type of treatment 

best suited to the female alco- 

noHc, according to Dr. John S. 
Tamerin, director of research, Sil- 
ver Hill Foundation of New 
Canaan, Conn. 

Since women view themselves 
as troubled and symptomatic, 
they should be more receptive to 
psychotherapy than alcoholic men 
who do not see a relationship 
between their drinking and psy- 
chological factors, said Dr. Tam- 

He reported that slightly more 
women than men had been admit- 
ted for treatment to Silver Hill, a 
private psychiatric hospital, since 
1972. This, he said, emphasizes the 

importance of identifying charac- 
teristics which might be peculiar 
to the female alcoholic. 

A study of 40 patients— 20 men, 
20 women— showed that, when 
sober, both groups characterized 
themselves as dependable, kind, 
friendly, and able to work. 

However, he said, more of the 
women were self-deprecating, 
troubled by their conscience, and 
ashamed of their drinking. 

While many of the women 

patients considered themselves 
gay and lively and even grandiose 
while intoxicated, they also 
tended, on the whole, to consider 
themselves worthless and useless 
to a greater degree than did the 
men, he said. 

The spouses of the alcoholics 
were also surveyed and tended to 
agree with the alcoholics’ self- 
descriptions while sober, but not 
while intoxicated, he reported. 

For instance, wives thought 
their alcoholic husbands were 
more moody, depressed, angry, 
and confused than the husbands 
did while the husbands of the 

Drinking problems emerge 
among addicts: Eagleville 

A STUDY of the use of alcohol by 
drug addicts has shovra that more 
than half of the ^oup studied had 
actual or potential drinking prob- 

Harriet L. Barr of the Eagle- 
ville Hospital and Rehabilitation 
Center in Eagleville, Penna., 
reported that 61% or 100 addicts 
were considered to have actual or 
potential drinking problems and 
that half of them, those who were 
heavy or problem drinkers at the 
time of admission into the nar- 
cotic addiction program, were 
considered to have both an alcohol 
and a drug problem. 

Her preliminary findings from a 
long-range study of drinking by 
addicts identified five different 
patterns of alcohol use. 

About one-third of the addicts at 
some time had patterns of 
“intake, motivation and sympato- 
malogy indistinguishable from 
those of alcoholic patients, while a 
second group drank as much and 
as often as alcoholic patients but 
without the psychological depend- 
ence or the symptoms, and a third 
^oup drank heavily but not con- 
tinuously and showed the begin- 
nings of alcoholic symptoms, she 

At the other extreme were 
one-fourth of the group who had no 
history of regular drinking, and a 
smaller group of moderate drink- 
ers, she noted. 

She observed that the propor- 
tion of drug addicts who drank 
heavily prior to their admission to 
treatment was no greater than a 
sample from the general popula- 
tion but, she said, over half of the 
addicts had been heavy drinkers 
at some time in their lives with a 
daily average intake comparable 
with that of an alcoholic. 

female alcoholics characterized 
them as unhappy, irritable, con- 
trary, weary, and confused rather 
than relaxed, friendly and gay as 
the wives described themselves, 
he said. 

The prime difference between 
the male and female alcoholics 
appears to be that women are 
more likely to feel guilt and 
depression about their drinking 
than men, but during intoxication 

women appeared to get energy 

from drinking. 

“Although pharmacologically 
alcohol is a CNS depressant, these 
data suggest that behaviorally, for 
the female alcoholic, it is per- 
ceived as a stimulant, a psychic 
energizer and a disinhibiting 
agent” he said. “In effect, the 
female patient treats depression 
and its accompanying feeling of 
guilt with alcohol.” 

Since women do see themselves 
as troubled, they should be able to 
accept psychotherapy and explore 
the relationship between their 
troubles and their use of alcohol, 
he said. 

Also, the fact women see them- 
selves as resentful while intoxi- 
cated and their husbands report 
they become irritable and rude 
suggests that many feelings, sup- 
pressed while they are sober, 
become apparent when they are 
intoxicated, he said. Psychother- 
apy, therefore, could help these 
women find other ways of 
expressing their hostility and neg- 
ative feelings without becoming 
drunk, he said. 

Such an approach is not apt to 
he successful with men wbo do not 

Mary Hager reports 
from the 
North American 
Congress on Alcohol 
and Drug Problems 

in San Francisco 
December 13-18 


WHEN AN adolescent becomes 
addicted to drugs or to alcohol, his 
particular role within the family, 
framework may be critical to his 
addiction, and to his treatment. 

Consequently, the entire family, 
and not just the addicted individ- 
ual, should be treated for, as 
David J. fiuberty, coordinator of 
detoxification and halfway house 
services for the Central Minnesota 
Mental Health Center in St. Cloud, 
explained, “the drug abuse 
evolves into an integral part of the 
delicate balance of the family.” 

At the point that a family 
adjusts to drug abuse by one of the 
members “the family lias a major 
psychological investment in main- 
taining that person as a drug abu- 
ser so as to not upset the family 
pattern,” he continued. 

“Psychologically,” he said, 
“the most effortless way for most 
families to respond to the behav- 
ior that they now have an invest- 
ment in is to scapegoat and chas- 
tise the adolescent for his drug 
abuse, conveniently failing to see 
that they play supportive roles in 
the drama.” 

He cautioned that failure to 
involve an entire family in treat- 
ment will result in every mem- 

see themselves as psychiatric 
patients, Dr. Tamerin observed. 

The finding that some men see 
themselves as “too conscientious” 
when sober offers a possible ther- 
apeutic approach if the male could 
be helped to see the relationship 
between his conscientiousness 
when sober and his irresponsible 
behavior when intoxicated, he sug- 

ber “in some way sabotaging the 
efforts of the treatment staff.” 

Huberty noted that the drug 
abuser is a symptom of a problem 
family and that he will typically 
revert after treatment if he 
returns to his same role in the 
same family environment. 

He identified seven areas in 
which he feels the adolescent abu- 
ser and the family often share 
"separate but similar problems.” 
Once one of the problems is identi- 
fied in the adolescent, it is “safe 
to assume” a similar problem 
exists in the family for they “fit 
t(^ether like a puzzle,” he added. 

These seven problem areas 

Ignorance of chemical dependency 

The family is ignorant of the 
effects of certain drugs as is the 


HOW WOULD an addict describe 
Ws childhood? 

If he were white and from the 
middle socio-economic class^, he 
would say his natural parents 
were married and living together, 
but that they weren’t compatible 
and failed to provide the love, 
trust, affection, attention and rec- 
ognition he needed. 

He would also say he didn’t like 
his father, who showed him little 
affection, that he didn’t get along 
well with his childhood peers, and 

Family suffering can be ate 

In fact, she added, “the amount 
of drinking reported by 52% of the 
drug addicts as their maximum is 
comparable to the quantities 
reported by alcoholics.” Also, she 
continued, 52% of the addicts 
reported some degree of psycho- 
logical dependence on alcohol and 
half of them had at least one 
symptom of alcohol addiction. 

The study showed, she contin- 
ued, that “if a drug addict drinks 
heavily, he is likely to drink very 
heavily.” While 61% had been 
heavy drinkers at some period in 
their life, only 9% had been heavy 
drinkers below the alcoholic level, 
she added. 

NEW YORK’S Nassau County has 
an unusual approach to alcoholism 
treatment which seeks to help the 
family first. 

Joseph C. Kern of the Nassau 
County Department of Drug and 
Alcohol Addiction observed that 
families are usually overlooked 
but that the family needs help 
because it is “debilitated, trauma- 
tized and trapped. The family is 
on the edge of a precipice feeling 
helpless and hopeless.” 

He contended that the ‘family 
suffers in equal measure to the 
alcoholic” and consequently needs 
equal treatment but “too often we 
wait for the alcoholic to seek 
treatment and then perhaps 
involve the family as an adjunct. ’’ 

He described a program in Nas- 

sau County in which the family is 
involved, whether or not the alco- 
holic member seeks help. 

“Regardless of the outcome, as 
far as the alcoholic is concerned, 
we have at least had an opportu- 
nity to stabilize the lives of the 
family members,” he said. 

The family program offers 
three steps and is designed prima- 
rily for the wife of an alcoholic, he 
continued. First is an eight week 
session on alcohol and alcoholism, 
followed by a second eight week 
session on “Life is Worth Living” 
in which spouses experience and 
learn necessary skills for coping 
and enjoying, and a third, more 
extensive group therapy program, 
for those who need more intense 

He reported on 149 spouses who 
had been involved in the family 
program since its inception in 
June. 1973. Of these, 93% were 
women and 7% men, he added, 
with a range from 21 to 73 years of 
age. A quarter of the group were 
under 32 years of age. 

He described the “typical” 
spouse as about 40, marri^ for 17 
years, married in late teens or 
early twenties, Roman Catholic 
and white. 

They were, he observed, usually 
ignorant of alcohol and had a 
“fantasy” they could rescue their 
husband. They typically denied 
feelings, were submissive, had 
low self-esteem, had limited life 
experience, were dependent had a 
role conflict regarding their femi-' 


THE JOURNAL. April 1. 1975— Page 9 

*ug abuse a family affair 

adolescent whose knowledge is 
limited to subjective experience. 
Some families blame drugs for all 
of an adolescent’s problems while 
others fail to realize that the 
abuse of drugs could contribute to 
problems, he said. 

Since the family is invariably 
bewildered, he continued, and the 
adolescent has limited, often 
faulty, information, factual infor- 
mation about the effects of drugs, 
chemical dependency and the pro- 
cess of rehabilitation can be bene- 

Denial of chemical dependency 

The adolescent may deny that a 
problem exists or does not believe 
that the problem exists for all 
drugs, an attitude often shared by 
parents who do not believe pre- 
scription drugs and alcohol are 

•Both parties have great diffi- 
culty in understanding that the 
drug abuser gets hooked on a high, 
a way of feeling good about him- 
self that is an alternate state of 
consciousness which also provides 
a guaranteed mechanism of avoid- 
ing problems and pain," Huber ty 

Parents often encourage an ado- 
lescent to change drugs, but once 
the abuser understands about 
chemical dependency, he will see 
alcohol as a problem more readily 
than his parents do, he added. 
Failure to accept responsibility 

Abusers tend to blame parents 
rather than accept blame for their 
own behavior, just as parents and 
other family members cover up or 
try to cushion the consequences. 
Frequently both sides look for an 
external factor that will leave 
them guilt-free, he noted. 

Anger and hostility, love and 

By the time an abuse problem is 
identified, the abuser has success- 
fully repressed anger, hostility 
and the ability to express emo- 
tions. Both sides avoid strong 
emotions, either love or anger, 
and ‘‘getting high provides the 
adolescent a mechanism by which 

he can experience a release or 
explosion of intense feelings 
w'hether they be anger and hostil- 
ity or love and affection.” Hub- 
erty explained. 

Drug abuse and bad behavior 
often provide "a spark of life” in a 
dead emotional relationship, and 
as such provide a crisis that is 
"welcomed psychologically” in an 
emotionally starved family. 

Both sides possess conflicting 
feelings, with the abuser often 
expressing hate for his parents, 
but also feeling love, and the par- 
ents feeling disgusted by the abu- 

ser but denying that they feel any- 
thing but love. 

The adolescent may be ambiva- 
lent about his use of drugs, at 
times wanting to stop and at times 
wanting to continue, while the 
family, too, may be ambivalent 
about keeping the abuser in his 
dependent role or letting him go, 
Huberty said. 

Lack of honesty 

The adolescent has been used 
to distorting the truth and 
rationalizing his behavior, while 
the family has adjusted to his dis- 
honesty and responded with dis- 
honesty by covering up for him. 

Role model for drug abuse 

The parents frequently provide 
the model for taking drugs, he 
noted, reporting his observations 
that 50% of adolescent drug abu- 
sers come from families with a 
history of alcoholism or some 
other form of substance abuse. 

He suggested that therapy 
should aim at helping family and 
abuser understand the interlock- 
ing problems so that they can all 
accept each other as individuals 
who "happen to have some mutual 
problems.” The "mutuality”, he 
emphasized, is the “heart of the 
treatment effort.” 

The consequency of therapy 
should be the "emancipation” of 
the adolescent and the develop- 
ment of an "adult-to-adult” rela- 
tionship in place of the former 
"parent-to-child” relationship. 

Failure to involve the family 
can lead to considerable pressure 
from the family to reverse any 
change in an adolescent’s behav- 
ior, he warned, noting "it is pre- 
cisely this resistance to change 
that counsellors are constantly up 
against in treating the adolescent 
drug abuser and this is why his 
treatment must truly be a family 

NIDA stud y 

Adolescent drug users drink more 

also drink more, smoke more, use 
more over-the-countef medica- 
tions and have more psychoso- 
matic symptoms than their non- 
drug-using contemporaries. 

These apparently related traits 
emerged from a comparison of 
the characteristics of drug users 
and non-drug users in 79 different 
high schools in 10 cities. The study 
was conducted by the Institute for 
Research and Evaluation in 
Hempstead, NY, for the National 
Institute on Drug Abuse. 

’^J. R. Block, who headed the 
study, reported that drug users 
tended to be less religious, showed 
a greater sense of alienation from 
their parents, and were not doing 
as well in school as their drug-free 
contemporaries, he said. 

More of the drug group was 
male and white and the median 
family incomes for the group were 
approximately $1,500 higher than 
in the non-drug group, he added. 
The non-drug users also tended to 
be non-drinkers, he continued. 

The survey showed that 47% of 
the non-drug group had never had 
a glass of beer compared with 

only 7% of the drug group. 

For wine, the figures were 46% 
and 7% and for hard liquor 72% 
and 19%, he said. 

An analysis of the students in 
both groups who said they drank, 
showed the drug users drank more 
frequently than the non-drug 
group, regardless of the particular 
type of alcoholic beverage. Also, 
62% of the drug group said they 
had been “high” on alcohol within 
the past month in contrast to only 
13% of the drinking non-drug 
users, he said. 

Patterns of cigarette use were 
similar to those for alcohol, with 
64% of the non-drug group saying 
they had never had a cigarette 
compared with 18% of the drug 

Only 26% of the non-drug group 
said they smoked at least one cig- 
arette a day, while 64% of the 
drug group smoked at least that 
much. He noted that “consistent 
with their drinking behavior, drug 
users are more likely to smoke 
and among those who do smoke, 
they seem to smoke more”. He 
noted that the smokers in both 
groups started at an average of 

ood portrait of on addict 

usually disagreed with his parents 
and teachers. 

His parents, he would say, set 
few limits on his behaviour, but 
when they did punish, it was apt to 
be inappropriate and harsh. 

And he would say he was dissat- 
isfied with himself as a child, did 
not think he could live up to* the 
expectations of others, was not 
close to his family, found his home 
life unpleasant and wanted to 
leave home at an early age. 

This description emerges from 




ninity and underestimated the 
impact of alcoholism on their chil- 

Those particular problems 
became the focus of the family 
services programs. 

Kern noted a change in the 
spouses who went through the pro- 

Once treatment was completed, 
he said, “worry has been replaced 
by hope: despair has been less- 
ened with a -new ability to enjoy 
the bright moments in life; self- 
esteem has been elevated with 
skills at hand to make decisions; 
options- have been opened with an 
awareness that she has power and 
control to direct at least some 
aspects of her life. ” 

a study of the self-concepts of 70 
white, middle-class addicts re- 
ported here by Dr. Richard A. 
Lindblad, director of program 
development for the National 
Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). 

The addicts, who came from 
two different parts of the country, 
were subjected to several self- 
attitude tests and were matched 
with controls given the same 

Self-attitudes, Lindblad ex- 
plained, are an individual’s 
evaluations of himself which are 
probably fixed in early adoles- 
cence and change little during the 

Tests showed the addicts in the 
study were nearly eight times 
more likely to have negative 
self-attitudes than the non- 
addicts although, Lindblad 
emphasized, "merely having neg- 
ative self-attitudes does not imply 
that addiction will follow". 

The study identified a number 
of factors in childhood and adoles- 
cence which seemed to discrimi- 
nate addicts from non-addicts and 
which “support the contention 
that addicts possess negative 
self-attitude prior to addiction, ” 
he continued. 

For instance, he said, controls 
more frequently reported having 
compatible parents while addicts 
more frequently reported living 
with someone other than their nat- 
ural parents during childhood and 

wanting to leave home at a signifi- 
cantly earlier age. 

Controls also more frequently 
perceived loving parents who 
knew their friends, were inter- 
ested in their school performance, 
and attended school events, he 
said. The controls tended to like 
their mothers and fathers, 
recalled childhood mealtimes as 
pleasant and communicative, 
were close to their siblings, and 
generally agreed with their par- 
ents, teachers and classmates. 

Controls tended to have more 
above average grades in high 
school than addicts and had a sig- 
nificantly greater number of close 
friends during the high school 

They also reported more fre- 
quently that their parents set 
weekend curfews and that they 
thought their parents trusted them 
during childhood, Lindblad said. 

He suggested the "unique back- 
ground traits” of the white mid- 
dle-class addict which emerged 
from the study might provide a 
key to future preventive mea- 

•This small study does suggest 
that negative self-attitudes might 
be a necessary condition in the 
etiology of addiction and thus 
imply that drug addiction preven- 
tion might well be focused at the 
antecedent variables leading to 
positive self-concepts," he con- 

12 years, 6 months. 

Students were asked about their 
use of 17 common over-the- 
counter medications, including 
stimulants, tranquillizers, hypnot- 
ics, pain killers, cough syrups, and 
stomach calmers, in the past year, 
he sajd. 

Of all the drugs, four pain- 
relieving medications, all forms 
of ASA, were the most frequently 
mentioned. Block said. 

When use between the two 
groups was compared, the drug 
users were found to use the over- 
the-counter medications more fre- 
quently than the non-drug group. 

Related to this self-medication 
was the fact the drug group 
reported that such symptoms and 
conditions as headaches, pains, 
coughs and colds, and upset stom- 
achs, occurred with relative* -fre- 
quency, he continued, and the dif- 
ference between the drug group 
and the non-drug group was “quite 

The drug users also reported 
more frequent use of pills and 
medicines to combat the symp- 
toms than the non-drug group did. 
This suggests “users of illicit 
drugs either have more of the 
symptoms and conditions asked 
about or are more likely to take 
medication (or take it more fre- 
quently) than students who are not 
involved in the use of illicit 
drugs,” said Block. 

He reported a “striking consist- 
ency” in the findings from the dif- 
ferent types of schools. 

One conclusion that could be 
drawn is that drug abuse is a 
“poorly understood behavioral 
phenomenon” and the differences 
demonstrated between non-drug 
users and drug users in personal- 
ity, attitudes, and life style could 
play a significant role in treat- 
ment, education, prevention, and 
intervention programs, he said. 

•‘It is indeed clear and obvious 
that the drug group was at one 
point a non-drug group and there 
may well be a critical point of 
intervention that could serve to 
keep the groups drug-free,” he 

Last year’s survey also found 
some interesting facts on the 
effect of drug education pro- 

program was associated with a 
slightly higher incidence of drug 
use and a somewhat poorer knowl- 
edge about drugs,” the report 

•‘It was also found that students 
who felt that their own experience 
was their best source of informa- 
tion about drugs were proportion- 
ally more knowledgeable and 
more likely to use drugs than stu- 
dents who stated that their best 
source of information came from 
the media, schools or their 
friends' experiences. 

“It was also found that the 
more knowledgeable a student 
was, the more likely he was to use 

Alcohol on campus 

CONTRARY TO expectations five 
years ago, alcohol has become 
firmly entrenched as the favorite 
“drug” of United States college 

A study of 834 men, surveyed 
first as freshmen in the autumn of 
1970 and again in the spring of 
1973, showed a significant 
increase in heavy (three times a 
week or more) use of alcohol but 
no change in heavy use of mari- 

Five years ago, people were 
frighten^ about the use of mari- 
juana and heroin, said Glenn D. 
Mellinger of the Institute of 
Research in Social Behavior, 
Berkeley, California. 

Alcohol was then thought to be 
• irrelevant ", he said. 

Study showed that nine of 10 of 
those surveyed used alcohol or 
marijuana or both but that only 
26% could be classified as heavy 
users of either substances. 

At the time of the first survey, 
56% had used marijuana in the 
past year (63% in 1973) and 85%' 
had used alcohol (89% in 1973). 

Two thirds of the marijuana 
users had used only marijuana 
and three fourths of the alcohol 
users had used only alcohol and 
that was almost entirely in the 
form of beer or wine. 

A different picture, however, 
emerged in terms of frequency of 

As freshmen, 13% of the mari- 
juana users used the drug three or 
more times a week while only 6%> 
of those who drank used alcohol 
that frequently. 

No change was noted in the 
number who used marijuana fre- 
quently in the second survey but 
the incidence of frequent use of 
alcohol had jumped to 17%, He 
said. This, he added, did not nec- 
essarily mean the substance use 
caused problem behavior. 

A high incidence of use of both 
substances was also noted. 

In the first study. 84% of the 
marijuana users said they also 
used alcohol. By 1973, the figure 
had risen to 95%, he said. In both 
surveys, 60% of those who drank 
alcohol said they had also tried or 
used marijuana, he added. 

Page 10— THE JOURNAL. April 1. 1975 

UK physicians: 

Cigarette makers should pay 'Victims'' 

LONDON— The notion is slowly 
catching on in Britain that com- 
mercial interests making profit 
from the sale and distribution of 
“harmful” products should carry 
greater responsibility for the con- 

Dr David Owen, Minister of 
State, Department of Health and 
Social Security, is known to view 
sympathetically a proposal that 
cigarette manufacturers should be 
liable for compensation in respect 
of damage caused by smoking. 

The initiative has been taken by 
the Royal College of Physicians’ 
pressure group Action on Smoking 
and Health (ASH)* 

It has submitted to the Royal 
Commission on Civil Liability and 
Compensation for Personal Injury 
a plan for setting up a compulsory 
insurance scheme for smokers, 
financed by a levy on the price of 

A levy of 3 pence (about 7 
cents) per cigarette pack, ASH 
calculates, would raise in Britain 
at least £ 210,000,000 (about $525,- 
000,000) per year, while a 5 pence 
levy would raise £ 350,000,000 
($875,000,000) annually. 

“Such sums, bearing in mind 
the Department of Health and 
Social Security estimate of 52,000 
cigarette-associated deaths 
, annually in those aged 74 and 
under, would not be excessive,” 
says ASH. 

Executive director of ASH, 
Mike Daube, commented: “It’s 
time to start placing the responsi- 
bility for the damage to life and 
health caused by cigarettes firmly 
with the manufacturers. 

“If they encourage people of all 
ages to smoke, they must face the 
consequences. It is also time to 
think about the smokers’ prob- 
lems: it may well be that a levy 
on cigarette packs will provide 
much needed compensation, and 
we hope the commission will take 
up this recommendation.” 

ASH claims there is evidence to 
indicate that many smokers 
become addicted before they 
reach an age when they might 
make a rational judgment about 
the dangers of smoking. 

It stresses that once a smoker is 
addicted his smoking may no 
longer be “voluntary” activity. 
(M.A.H. Russell, British Medical 
Journal 1971, 2,330, says: “A teen- 
ager need smoke only twice to 
have a 70% chance of smoking for 
the next 40 years if he lives so 

It appears that even belatedly 
increased health education and 
warnings are insufficient to pre- 
vent children from starting to 
smoke before they can compre- 
hend or make reasoned decisions 
about the hazards involved. Many 
of those who attempt to give up 
smoking at a later age are unable 
to do so. 

Turning to the marketing of 
tobacco products, the ASH sub- 
mission pulls no puiiches. It says: 
“The cigarette manufacturers 
have marketed and promoted cig- 
arettes for many years with little 
evidence of concern for the public 
health. . . . The manner and mag- 
nitude of their promotions have 
been of such a level as to be liable 
to influence both smokers and 

“Some of the characteristics 
most frequently named by chil- 
dren as being ‘positive’ reasons 
for smoking are consistently used 
in cigarette advertising and pro- 

The ASH submission argues 
that although the manufacturers 
have been aware of the harmful 
consequences of smoking for 
many years “it appears that their 
concern has, unless otherwise 
forced by external pressures, all 
too often been to prevent the con- 
sumer from being disturbed by 
thoughts of ill health.” 

“Such restrictions as exist on 
the marketing and promotion of 
cigarettes and such provision of 
information and warnings as exist 
on cigarette packs and advertise- 
ments result from ministerial and 
public pressures, and might have 
been stronger with more 
co-operation from the industry. 

“The industry has found means 
of circumventing both legislation 
(e.g television advertising of ciga- 
rettes) and voluntary codes of 
practice. The manufacturers 
have, in our view, wilfully ignored 
the protective spirit of both legis- 
lation and voluntary codes of prac- 

ASH concludes: “'There has at no 
time been a genuine attempt by the 
manufacturers of their own volition to 
warn consumers of the dangers of 
smoking, to di.scourage smokers from 
.smoking more, or to warn prospective 
smokers of the risks involved.” 

ASH then acknowledges that 
British law does not accept the 
possibility of strict liability (lia- 
bility where no specific fault can 
be proved) when a potential 

defendant voluntarily introduces 
an inherently dangerous product, 
but again stresses that smokers 
incur a risk which is not always 
voluntarily accepted because at 
the time when they became 
addicted to cigarettes they may 
not have been capable of appre- 
ciating the risks involved. 

It is possible that the law of 
negligence would permit an action 
by the deprived widow of a 
smoker, “but no such test has ari- 
sen ... It is our view that there is 
a need for clarification of the 

Finally, ASH submits: “Manu- 
facturers who have attempted to 
ensure heavy sales of an inher- 
ently dangerous product should 
bear responsibility for damage 
caused by their products if those 
products are used in such a way as 
the manufacturers might reasona- 
bly have anticipated. 

“It should be for the manufac- 
turer to prove that any injury suf- 
fered as a result of the use of his 
product could not have been 
expected when the product was 
supplied, and/or that he has made 
every reasonable effort to ensure 
protection of the consumer. Thus 
tobacco manufacturers should be 
liable in principle for compensa- 
tion payable in respect of death or 
damage to health caused by ciga- 
rette smoking. It is our view that 
the State should make it plain 
where responsibility in this mat- 
ter lies.” 

*Action on Smoking and Health 79, 
York Rd., London SEl. 

Anti- drug campaign for Bavaria 

MUNICH— The Bavarian state 
government has launched a cam- 
paign in the seventh to ninth 
grades of all public schools to 
warn and educate pupils about the 
dangers of drugs. 

The aim is to reduce the num- 
ber of children who experiment 
with drugs because they want to 
see what it is like to use them. 

The drive, sponsored jointly by 



LONDON — A five-year re- 
search study has been set up 
at the University of Oxford 
with the objective of identify- 
ing personality characteristics 
predisposing to addiction. 

The man given this formida- 
ble task is pipe-smoking Dr. 
Gordon Mangan of the universi- 
ty’s department of experimen- 
tal psychology. 

Dr. Mangan, a New Zea- 
lander, has received a £ 33,000 
(about $82,000) grant from the 
Social Science Research Coun- 
cil and will concentrate his 
attention on the development of 
the smoking habit. He wants to 
know why children start smok- 
ing and why they continue once 
the dangers have been pointed 

Currently, Dr. Mangan’s 
study will concentrate on estab- 
lishing the personality traits of 
between 700 and 800 Oxford 

Two years later he will inter- 
view them again (age 15 is 
regarded as the peak age for 
starting to smoke) to see if any 
particular traits are common 
to the smokers. 

Dr. Mangan said one valua- 
ble outcome of the study would 
be to establish ways of identify- 
ing young people “at risk” 
from smoking before the habit 
actually begins. 

the ministries of education, inte- 
rior, justice, and social welfare, 
calls for a statewide quiz on the 
problems of drug usage. Classes 
scoring best in the quiz will be 
asked to produce skits and art 
work dealing with the drug prob- 
lem for subsequent showing on 
educational television. 

The plays and art will be judged 
by all school children in the 12- to 
14-year age group and prizes will 
be awarded to the classes with the 
best ideas and most original per- 


Soviet policemen are to receive 
increased assistance from civilian 
auxiliaries who until now have 
dealt mainly with the drunk and 
disorderly. Under a new decree by 
government and party leadership, 
the auxiliaries— druzhiniki in Rus- 
sian— will have an expanded role 
in combating crime in general. 
The druzhiniki, identified by red 
armbands, are not salaried but 
receive such rewards as preferen- 
tial treatment in obtaining hous- 
ing and discounts at health and 
vacation resorts in recognition of 
their efforts. New duties include 
exposing people who are home 
brewing liquor. 


Hope of synthetics replacing 
opiates is an “illusion”, according 
to a Greek scientist. Prof. 
Georges Lagaras of the University 
of Thessalonica told the United 
Nations Narcotics Commission he 
was glad to hear American col- 
leagues changing their outlook. 

“We must draw lessons from 
history,” he said. “Many strong 
analgesics have been introduced 
in the past with the assurance that 

The Inter-ministerial Study 
Group for the Fight Against Drug 
and Narcotics Abuse, which has 
organized the campaign, sees the 
program as a potentially very 
effective tool to reduce the num- 
ber of youths who will experiment 
with drugs "just for kicks”, and 
then be drawn into the hard core 
of regular users. 

A 1973 survey revealed that 
some 220,000 young people in this 
state of 11 million population had 
tried drugs and that about 80,000 
used narcotics of one form or 

they would not lead to depend- 


The International Narcotics Con- 
trol Board has warned that the 
abuse of drugs “still continues to 
grow at a disturbing rate”. There 
has been a “noticeable increase” 
in the use of drugs in multiple 
combinations while the use of 
more concentrated and potent 
drugs has become “alarming”, 
the board said in its annual report 
from Geneva. Particular concern 
was expressed over the “substan- 
tial quantities” of liquid cannabis 
now appearing. 


Smoking among West German 
pre-teenagers has assumed such 
alarming proportions that the 
Federal Health Education Insti- 
tute has commissioned a team of 
researchers to study the problem. 
According to the institute’s pre- 
liminary report, 36% of all Ger- 
man schoolchildren smoke— 
either furtively at home or flaunt- 
ingly at school on the playground 
or quadrangle. For one in three of 
them it is a “mark of adulthood” 
and a boost to self confidence. 

another regularly. Most of them 
had been exposed between the 
ages of 12 and 14. 

In the past two years, according 
to the study group, there has been 
a pronounced reduction in the pop- 
ularity and status appeal of drug 
usage among teenagers. More- 
over, the total number of addicts 
has not increased and there is 
even evidence to suggest a 

What worries the group, how- 
ever, is that the pattern of those 
who experimented with drugs in 
earlier years, only to become 
dependent or addicted, has not 
changed markedly. 

As part of the drive, the Bavar- 
ian authorities will give wide- 
spread distribution to parents of a 
pamphlet recently prepared by 
the West German federal ministry 
of health. 

It explains why youths, in par- 
ticular, turn to drugs and offers 
advice on what can be done 
against it. 

The pamphlet contends one of 
the main reasons for youthful drug 
consumption is the flippancy with 
which the subject is treated, often 
by parents. It places considerable 
blame on the pharmaceutical 
industry for attempting to con- 
vince customers that prescrip- 
tion-free pain-killers, pep-pills and 
sleeping tablets are harmless. 

Parents who “pop pills” and 
grab for the medicine bottle at the 
slightest sign of discomfort, the 
pamphlet stresses, are in effect 
inducing their children to emulate 
them and engage in experiments 
that could lead to serious depend- 
ency and addiction. 

Alcohol consumption among 
West German youth is especially 
alarming. According to one re- 
cently published survey by the 
Bavarian ministry of interior, 
53% of all youths between the 
ages of 12 and 24 consume alco- 
holic beverages daily. 

Of 12- to 14-year-olds, 8% drink 
spirits regularly. 

Around the world 

not the 
only rogue 

on the road 


COLOGNE— Alcohol may still be 
the major villain on the highways, 
but according to a West German 
psychologist, it is by no means the 
only one. 

Experts on road safety, says 
Dr. Liselotte Moser of the 
National Institute of Traffic 
Affairs here, are only gradually 
starting to realize the perils of 
tea, coffee, nicotine, medicines 
and “soft” drugs. 

Dr. Moser, who has recently 
completed a study of the dangers 
of drugs and stimulants to motor- 
ists, reported on one accident 
where a driver lost consciousness 
and control of his car after imbib- 
ing eight bottles of Coca Cola at 
rest stops on a long journey. 

Although her research included 
all stimulants, it focused prima- 
rily on “soft” drugs and medica- 

It revealed that 71% of regular 
hashish smokers had driver’s 
licences and of that group 77% had 
driven frequently after smoking 
pot. Some 67% of the hashish or 
marijuana users who drive admit- 
ted that they are more easily dis- 
tracted and tend to lose concen- 
tration at the wheel after smok- 

They said their reactions were 
slower, that they found steering 
more difficult, their powers of 
observation and reasoning dimin- 
ished and admitted to making 
“twice as many mistakes” at the 

“Hashish and marijuana,” says 
Dr. Moser, “appear to be approxi- 
mately as dangerous on the roads 
as alcohol. As with alcohol, the 
amount consumed is important. 
The normal dose of about one 
gram of hashish produces about 
the same effects as 0.8 parts per 
thousand alcohol in the blood (the 
legal driving maximum in West 

In Muenster a pharmacological 
research team is currently work- 
ing on the development of a rapid 
on-the-spot test for hashish intoxi- 
cation to be used by police. It con- 
sists of a chemically coated piece 
of paper which changes color 
when exposed to saliva. 

Dr. Moser suspects, however, 
that by far the greatest drug dan- 
ger on the roads is caused by med- 
ically prescribed drugs. 

“I estimate,” she says, “that 
about 10% of all accidents occur 
under the influence of medica- 

The West German Automobile 
Club (ADAC) goes even further 
than that. It believes that pre- 
scription medicines account for as 
many as 15% to 20% of traffic 

Although the West German 
state governments have the 
authority to require pharmaceuti- 
cal manufacturers to print warn- 
ings on their drug packages if they 
are potentially dangerous to driv- 
ing, none of the states has made 
use of this authority as yet. 

Meanwhile the pharmaceutical 
industry itself has published a list 
of 257 potentially hazardous tran- 
quillizers, sleeping pills, pep tab- 
lets, psycho-medicines, reducing 
pills, anti-allergents and blood 
pressure medicines. 

The list points out various side 
effects such as tiredness, aggres- 
siveness, apathy or impaired per- 

THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975 — Pagfe 1 1 


treated as a treatable disease 
rather than a punishable offence 
in Michigan. 

The new approach is the result 
of House Bill 40028 signed into law 
by Michigan’s governor, William 
Milliken, late last year. 

Under the new law, people will 
be considered incapacitated if 
they have become intoxicated, 
unconscious, or substantially 
impaired either physically or 
mentally, through the use of alco- 

Incapacitated people picked up 
by police or emergency service 
units, will be taken home, to an 
agency approved by the Office of 
Substance Abuse Services, or to 
an emergency medical service. 
Intoxication itself will no longer 
constitute grounds for arrest or a 
police record. 

Treatment under the new law 
will include diagnostic evaluation, 
and medical, social, psychologi- 
cal, psychiatric and social care. 

Incapacitated people arrested 
for committing a 'crime such as 
reckless driving or any other mis- 
demeanor or felony, will be 
treated in the same way although 
they will still be held responsible 
for their criminal or civil off- 

People directed to such treat- 
ment programs will not be 
detained for more lhan 72 hours or 
after they are sober. 

The law will not become effec- 
tive immediately. A voluntary 
two-year phasing-in period will 
last until January 1, 1977. From 
that time, no local laws may be 
passed or enforced in Michigan 
that make public intoxication a 

House Bill 4008, which was sub- 
mitted in January, 1973 was 
redrawn from an earlier bill that 
failed in the state’s House of Rep- 
resentatives. The first bill was 
submitted in early 1972. 

Liver research work 

(from Page 1) 

affected certain chemical reac- 
tions in the brain. 

The research showed that 
experimental animals regu- 
larly given heavy doses of alco- 
hol developed marked 
increases in the activity of a 
specific enzyme (ATPase) not 
only in the brain but also in the 

This enzyme acts on a cell 
component, ATP. and breaks it 
down to a substance called 
ADP which acts as a sort of 
“thermostat” or “rate setter” 
for the liver's oxygen demands. 
The greater the rate of ATP 
breakdown, the faster the liver 
works to metabolize the alco- 
hol, and the more oxygen the 
liver needs. 

This increased oxygen 
demand is particularly impor- 
tant, say the scientists, as alco- 
holics often also have subnor- 
mal oxygen blood levels. 

They tend, for example, to 
have moderate degrees of ane- 
mia; they sometimes have 
inadequate formation of blood 
cells in the bone marrow; and 
they often have respiratory 
problems, especially if they 
are heavy smokers. 

If they have been drinking 
heavily and losing blood from 
gastritis and other gastrointes- 
tinal lesions, they may have 
additional cause for impaired 
oxygen-carrying capacity. 

Another phenomenon which 
makes the liver vulnerable to 
reduced oxygen conditions is 
the anatomy of its blood sup- 

The liver receives blood 
from two sources, the hepatic 
artery and the portal vein. 
After passing through the gas- 

trointestinal system on its way 
to the portal vein, the blood 
loses much of its oxygen sup- 

Consequently, the liver must 
also be dependent for oxygen 
on the blood supply from the 
hepatic artery. 

This is more important in 
some species than in others. In 
the human being, the hepatic 
arterial supply is relatively 
small compared to the portal 
venous blood. In effect, the 
human has a low “margin of 
safety” making him vulnerable 
when increased oxygen 
demands are placed on the 
liver— as when alcohol stimu- 
lates an increased metabolism. 

Each branch of the hepatic 
artery supplies a small portion 
of the liver known as the liver 
acinus. Within each acinus, 
cells are arranged in short par- 
allel cords with the blood pass- 
ing down their entire length. 
By the time the blood passes 
down the cord, much of the 
oxygen has been absorbed and 
the cells at the far end do not 
receive enough. 

These factors, added to the 
delicate “margin of safety” 
put the heavy drinker at risk. 

One major problem that has 
to date hampered studies of 
alcohol’s effect on the liver has 
been that the rat, unlike the 
human, is well supplied with 
oxygen through the hepatic 
artery. Thus, it has a much 
higher “margin of safety” than 
has man. 

Regardless of the amount of 
alcohol given to experimental 
animals, the supply of oxygen 
via blood flow in the liver has 
always remained adequate to 
service the cells. Consequently. 

the researchers sought means 
to develop an experimental 
technique in which animals 
could be studied in conditions 
of diminished oxygen supply. 

In one series, animals were 
exposed to low oxygen environ- 
ments. In other work by the 
team, some rat blood was 
drained and replaced with 
plasma but not the oxygen- 
carrying red cells; and in 
another series of experiments, 
the hepatic artery was tied so 
as to cut oxygen flow from that 

In all of these experiments 
the intent was to reproduce a 
state of lowered oxygen supply, 
thus reducing the “margin of 
safety” and producing a situa- 
tion more comparable to that 
in man. 

Groups of these animals 
were given diets controlled for 
calories, proteins, fats, and 
sugars. One group received 
alcohol, the other did not. 

The animals which received 
the alcohol and were then 
placed in an oxygen-reduced 
atmosphere, developed lesions 
in the liver remarkably similar 
to the lesions found in humans 
with alcoholic hepatitis. 

On the other hand, no signifi- 
cant cellular change was found 
either in the alcohol-treated 
animals exposed to normal 
amounts of oxygen, or in the 
control animals, even in the 
low-oxygen atmosphere. 

These lesions ranged from 
the mild cellular damage rep- 
resentative of alcoholic hepati- 
tis, through to massive'death of 
cells with bridging between 
central veins (believed to trig- 
ger the cirrhosis scarring). 

The researchers found that 

as the oxygen supplies to the 
experimental animals were 
reduced, the lesions became 
more severe. 

These findings fit clearly 
into a continuum of previous 
research work by the Toronto 
group in which similar changes 
in enzyme activity, increased 
metabolism, and increased 
oxygen-consumption, occurred 
in livers of animals treated 
with thyroid hormones just as 
they did in animals treated 
with alcohol. 

The connection may be quite 
direct because the investiga- 
tors found that alcohol actually 
increases the amount of thy- 
roid hormone entering the liver 
from the blood. 

The researchers found that a 
short pretreatment with PTU 
(which reduces the amount and 
activity of the thyroid hor- 
mone) reduced to normal the 
liver's rate of metabolism, and 
markedly reduced the tissue 
damage in the alcohol-drinking 
animals, caused by the failure 
of oxygen supplies to meet cel- 
lular demands. 

Animals treated for as little 
as three to 10 days with PTU no 
longer showed any evidence of 
abnormally high metabolism or 
cellular damage. 

The researchers indicate 
that if the hypothesis is correct, 
the same action of PTU might 
also have practical value in 
treating liver cell damage 
associated with other condi- 
tions induced by inadequate 
oxygen supplies. 

A scientific report on the 
low-oxygen animal work 
related to these studies is 
scheduled to appear in the 
March issue of the Proceedings 
of the National Academy of 
Sciences (U.S.). 

Dr. Israel’s co-workers in 
this series, in addition to Dr 
Kalant, were Hector Orregd, 
M.D; Jatinder Khanna, PhD; 
Luis Videla, MSc; Jaime Bern- 
stein, PhD; Neva Woo, MSc; 
and James Phillips, MD. 

....More letters 

(from page 6) 

narcotic in his possession), and 
after the close of the case for the 
prosecution and after the accused 
has had opportunity to make full 
answer in defence, the courts will 
make a finding as to whether or 
not the accused was in the posses- 
sion of a narcotic contrary to sec- 
tion 3.” 

“If the courts finds that the 
accused was not in possession of a 
narcotic he shall be acquitted; but 
if the court finds the accused was 
in possession of a narcotic con- 
trary to section 3 he shall be given 
an opportunity of establishing that 
he was not in possession of-a nar- 
cotic for the purposes of traffick- 
ing, and thereafter the prosecutor 
shall be given opportunity of 
adducing evidence to establish 
that the accused was in possession 
of the narcotic for the purposes of 
trafficking . . . and if the accused 
fails to establish that he was not in 
possession of the narcotic for the 
purposes of trafficking he shall be 
convicted of the offence as 

This has been the law for a 
number of years. I suggest that in 
one sense his article is mislead- 
ing, as if this was a new concept. 
Possibly this could be clarified. 
Eric L. Teed 
Saint John 
New Brunswick 



I am somewhat concerned and 
disappointed by Walter Nagel’s 

article on portable breathalyzers 
in The Journal. (Dec. 1, 1974). 

First. I am concerned over the 
use of the name Breathalyzer 
being used to apparently describe 
a number of breath testing 
devices. The name “Breathaly- 
zer” is a trade mark of the Smith 
and Wesson Company and not a 
generic term. New Hampshire’s 
statewide breath testing program 
utilizes the “Breathalyzer Model 
900A”. The article, by incorrectly 
using this term to describe other 
devices and then describing them 
as “proved unreliable”, could 
have an adverse effect on the 
admissibility of evidence obtained 
by the use of the Smith and Wes- 
son instrument. 

Second, I am disappointed 
because Mr. Nagel does not iden- 
tify the unreliable devices. We are 
evaluating several portable 
screening devices in the state and 
the information presented would 
be very useful to us if we knew 
what equipment was involved in 
the Calgary tests. 

John M. Muir, Director 
Alcohol Safety Action Project 
Concord, New Hampshire. 



I am writing in reference to 
your article “To Enhance Sex 
Marijuana is ‘Unparallelled'” 
(The Journal. Feb. 1. 1975). 

I have subscribed to The Jour- 
nal because I consider it to be a 
professional journal. To me this 
article smacks of “newspaper- 
ism” and is out of place in this 

I am aware that a thorough 
reading of the article adequately 
puts it in the category of a non- 
scientific speculation, but this is 
just the type of article the "popu- 
lar press” tends to use as an eye 
catcher. Anyone who has 
researched the area is acquainted 
with the general lack of “aphro- 
disiac effect” in drugs in general. 
At the same time, a sample size of 
95 non-random individuals is not 
going to be considered worthy of 
discussion. What worries me is 
the possibility that individuals 
without this kind of training might 
consider this information as valu- 
able and use it in that way. 

I enjoy the relaxed format of 
The Journal but I feel the editorial 
staff has a great responsibility to 
consider the broad ramifications 
of any article appearing under its 
byline. To the uninformed this 
article would certainly encourage 
experimentation with marijuana, 
when in fact we are a long way 
from being able to classify it 
either as harmful or not harmful. 

I enjoy The Journal and find it 
very valuable in keeping abreast 
of the “going ons” in the field. 
Please consider this letter as a 
constructive criticism not a casti- 

Charles H. Clay, Consultant 
Drug Education 
Fraser Public Schools 
Fraser, Michigan 



As a non-smoker for the last 
year, I have been watching The 
Journal with some interest for 
reports on the involvement and 

success of jurisdictions in North 
America in helping people quit 
smoking. I note that there are now 
a substantial number of private 
enterprise clinics and techniques 
designed to help people quit, and I 
suspect that this is an area of 
lifestyles and addictions which 
can be greatly influenced by a 
relatively modest amount of 
spending by government. Not only 
can they help fund clinics, they 
can also affect lifestyles by 
requirements such as the exten- 
sion of non-smoking areas in pub- 
lic transit, airplanes, elevators, 
and restaurants, etc. 

It is a fruitful field for public 
policy and I suspect that the pub- 
lic is open to these approaches and 
more prepared than in the past to 
take the question of non-smokers’ 
rights seriously. 

As an MPP in the Ontario Leg- 
islature. I would be very inter- 
ested in news of successful anti- 
smoking programmes either by 
government agencies or by pri- 
vate institutions, or for views on 
the most promising techniques for 
legislation in order to help reduce 
the incidence of smoking in the 

Michael Cassidy 
MPP— Ottawa Centre 
Parliament Buildings 
Toronto, Ontario 



Industrial alcoholism, traffic 
deaths, and self-induced health 
problems are all related to alcohol 

Of course, we believe that none 
of these misfortunes can happen 
to us. 

They can. 

William E. Rae 
Scarborough, Ontario 



as reported in The Journal 

Originally prepared as a 
reference document for the 
Senate committee on legal 
and constitutional affairs, 
in its current consideration 
of the bill to modify Canada’s 
cannabis laws, this volume 
contains reprints of 141 
articles on legal, social and 
medical aspects of the 
cannabis question as reported 
by The Journal’s international 
team of science and medical 

A valuable guide for students 
and professionals interested 
in and concerned about 
cannabis use. 

A limited number is available at 
$5 each from Marketing 
Services, Addiction Research 
Foundation, 33 Russell Street, 
Toronto M5S2S1. Please 
send remittance with order. 

Page 12— THE JOURNAL. April 1, 1975 

NMUD treading water pending pot decision 

OTTAWA— In limbo following 
publication of the final LeDain 
Commission report on drug abuse 
in Canada and the government’s 
proposals to change cannabis 
laws, the non-medical use of drugs 
directorate (NMUD) in the fed- 
eral health department has been 
left treading water. 

Health Minister Marc Lalonde 
is still “considering” a NMUD 
report on suggested government 
action in the drug area in response 
to the requirements set out in the 
•final LeDain Commission report. 
Little, if anything, is expected to 
happen until the fate of the canna- 
bis legislation now before the Sen- 
ate is settled. 

And the NMUD unit (now called 
the non-medical use of mood- 
altering substances directorate, to 
encompass alcohol and ciga- 
rettes) is still trying to follow- 
through on some important 
changes in emphasis and direction 
that had been in the works before 

the LeDain Commission’s final 
report; namely, the swing to more 
emphasis on alcohol, as opposed 
to cannabis and illicit drugs; and a 
move to increase the emphasis on 
trying to prevent drug abuse ( such 
as by modifying lifestyles, La- 
londe’ s own campaign which 
attempts to get people to get busy 
doing something else so they 
won’t have the time nor the incli- 
nation to abuse drugs) as opposed 
to the time-honored educational- 
informational campaigns designed 
to try and convince, sometimes 
scare, people not to use drugs. 

The federal government spend- 
ing estimates for 1975-76, made 
public recently, suggest that the 
NMUD unit was being given a 
stand-still budget to go with its 
water-treading activities. 

The spending estimates tabled 
in Parliament showed the budget 
for drug abuse increasing a dismal 
0.78%, from $9. 59-million to 
$9. 665-million next fiscal year 


Volume 3 of the Published 
Proceedings of the International 
Symposia on Alcohol and 

Drug Problems, Toronto, 1973. 

Research on 
Methods and 

Programmes 01 

Drug Educahon 



edited by 

The papers presented cover the broad spectrum of drug 
education in an attempt to advance the progress of drug 
education through an appreciation of the many social and 
psychological dynamics involved in drug use and its 

The following papers appear in this volume: 

— A Conceptual Analysis of the Effectiveness of Alcohol 
Education Programmes: C. Globetti. 

— The "Object" in Drug Education: D. Hawks. 

— Motivation for Drug and Alcohol Use: P. Kohn. 

— Communication - Persuasion Models for Drug 
Education: W. J. McCgire. 

— Sometime Allies: The Mass Media and Drug Abuse 
Education: M. T. O'Keefe. 

— Effectiveness of Drug Education: Conclusions Based 
on Experimental Evaluations: J. D. Swisher. 

— Motivation for Drug and Alcohol Use: A Social 
Perspective: R. A. Steffenhagen. 

— General Health Education Context for Change in Drug 
Behaviour: G. W, Stuart. 

190 PAGES, SOFT COVER $6.25 
Order by Catalogue No. 228 from 

Addiction Research 

33 Russell Street, Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 
Attn: Marketing Services 


(which starts April 1). 

And the money available to sup- 
port research and anti-drug abuse 
activities outside the government 
had actually been reduced by 7%, 
from $6. 56-million this year to 
$6. 1-million next fiscal year. 

But The Journal has learned 
that finances are not quite that 

Due to an $800,000 item hidden 
elsewhere in the federal spending 
estimates, NMUD will actually 
come out $334,000 ahead on its 
grants and contributions next 

The money devited to support- 
ing summer scholarships for stu- 
dents doing drug research and to 
providing community develop- 
ment agencies with extra money 
to hire students for anti-drug 
abuse-related projects will 
increase from a total of $790,000 
this year to $800,000 next year. In 
the spending estimates “Blue 
Book,” the $790,000 item looks like 
it is being dropped altogether next 
year, with no replacement. But 
the $800,000 (half for summer 
scholarships and half for student 
hiring) is listed under the Trea- 
sury Board’s budget, since it was 
late in being approved. 

The $100,000 in this year’s 
budget devoted to information- 
education programs that also 
looks as though it has been 
dropped for next year has in fact 
been absorbed in the $4-million 
grants program in support of inno- 
vative projects. That budget then 
has not increased one penny. 

But the budget for contributions 
to support sociological and 
biomedical studies in the drug 
abuse area has been increased 

$334,000, or more than 20%, to 
$1. 854-million. 

And health officials say that the 
emphasis within this grants pro- 
gram is switching away from 
biomedical studies on the effects 
of drug abuse towards more 
sociological research on the caus- 
ative factors leading to drug 
abuse, and possible ways of pre- 
venting drug abuse. 

These will include more epide- 
miological studies to determine 
the extent of problems associated 
with drug abuse, along with the 
psychological and behavioral 
aspects of treatment as well as 
some of the reasons for using 

These studies are also focussing 
more on alcohol and less on the 
so-called “street drugs” namely 
cannabis. NMUD is now devoting 
about 35% of its total budget on 


VANCOUVER— Comparative sur- 
veys in Vancouver have come up 
with statistical evidence that most 
people realize intuitively: School 
children are drinking more alcohol 
while their use of other drugs has 
generally changed little. 

These conclusions were drawn 
from comparing a 1970 and 1974 
survey of drug use among Vancou- 
ver school children by the Nar- 
cotic Addiction Foundation of B.C. 

The report, by John S. Russell 
and Marcus J. Hollander of the 
NAF says the results can be gen- 

alcohol. And the unit has been get- 
ting the most requests for infor- 
mation on alcohol problems in 
recent months, though the Senate 
committee hearings on the canna- 
bis bill already seemed to have 
sparked a resurgence of interest 
in cannabis information. 

The directorate is also responsi- 
ble for the anti-smoking program 
of the federal health department 
and this is accounts for about 20% 
of the contributions from NMUD 
to outside researchers. 

Despite the 10% increase in 
budget overall, NMUD officials 
agree they are really in a holding 
pattern. It’s just enough to keep 
up with inflation. 

“We really can’t ask for more 
money until the Minister and cabi- 
net decide on new initiatives and 
directions in the drug abuse 
area,” one official said. 

eralized to the entire population of 
Vancouver secondary schools. 

About 71% of the students now 
use alcohol compared with 61% in 
1970, according to the report. And 
64% of the students reported 
smoking tobacco compared with 
42% four years before. 

The report warns, however, 
that slightly different wording of 
questions in the two surveys might 
account for the difference in the 
number of smokers. 

The use of marijuana and hash- 
ish didn’t show much change. 
Thirty-nine per cent used cannabis 
in 1970 ccMnpared with 42% in 1974. 

Students drinking more 
B.C. survey confirms 

How to Prevent Tomorrow’s 
Health Problems 


(Prevention is better than cure) 

Subscribe today to HEALTH, official publication of The Health League of Canada. 

HEALTH is now in its 40th year of publication in Canada. It appears quarterly — Spring, Sum- 
mer, Autumn, Winter — and each issue carries articles on personal and public health — written 
in popular style by physicians, dentists and other specialists in health conservation. 

Here, for example, are just a few of the many timely and authoritative features which appeared 
in HEALTH during the past year: 

. What Stress Means to You 
. Nutrition Quackery 
Licensed Prostitution 
. Dilemma of Cigarettes 
What is Slipped Disk? 

Control of Arthritis 
. Global Look at VD 
. New Myths About Marijuana 
. Whatever Became of Sin? 

. The Case for Sport 

Your Heart is Your Health 

Remember, it helps you to help those who help. 

The Aging Process 
Today’s Undisciplined Generation 
The Employed Alcoholic 
. Teen-Age Meals 

What is Mental Health? 

Can We Live to Be 100? 

Overnutrition and Heart Disease 
Tips on Exercise 
All About Glaucoma 
Control of Obesity 
A Weigh to Keep Fit 

Send in your cheque for $3.00 - more if you 

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THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975— Page 13 

Drug pamphlets 
in pharmacies 

TWO MAJOR retail pharmacy 
chains in Canada are now dis- 
pensing drug and alcohol edu- 
cational materials along with 
the more usual product— pre- 
scription drugs. 

Health Education/Informa- 
tion Centres have been estab- 
lished at many of the Woolco 
Pharmacies and Shoppers’ 
Drug Mart Stores in cities and 
towns across the country. 

The stores offer as a free 
service a wide selection of bro- 
chures, many of them prepared 
by the Addiction Research 
Foundation. They expose con- 
sumers to vital information on 
physical and social conse- 
quences of alcohol and drug 

“These two important retail 
pharmacy chains— and indeed 
the retail drug dispensing 
industry as a whole— have 
shown a commendable sensi- 
tivity to tbe costly implications 
of excessive chemical depend- 
ency,’’ says H. David Archi- 
bald, executive director of 

“Tbe co-operation we have 
received from drug retailers 
should serve as a model to 
other influential industry 

An especially popular item 
with customers is the ARF 
publication. It’s My Life, a 
20-page booklet which takes an 
objective, non-moralizing look 
at drug abuse. 

Materials from related agen- 
cies such as the Council on 
Drug Abuse, and other organi- 
zations in the field of general 
health and fitness are also fea- 
tured in the centres. 

Addiction workers 

^^People without a country 



MONTREAL— Despite the fact 
they have done much to fill a 
treatment vacuum created by the 
professionals’ failure to cope with 
drug addicts, addiction workers 
are “people without a country”. 

This was the message brought 
to the 31st International Congress 
on Alcoholism and Drug Depend- 
ence in Bangkok by John Devlin, 
executive director of Montreal’s 
Portage Program for Drug 

He recommended that the 
addiction worker should have a 
new identity as “addiction thera- 

“His dilemma is that his posi- 
tion did not come about as a result 
of competent therapists requiring 
someone to function at a lower 
level— thus freeing the profes- 
sional for more important endeav- 
ours,” Mr. Devlin explained. 

“Quite the contrary, he started 
as an alternate to the professional 
therapist. Despite this, he is den- 
ied recognition. 

“This is primarily due to highly 
powerful and political pressure 
groups, such as the American 
Medical Association, who jeal- 
ously guard their positions as heal- 
ers of society.” 

Along with co-author, psycholo- 
gist Peter Vamos, Devlin felt the 
time has come for both recogni- 
tion and status for the addiction 

From the Journal of Drug Issues, 
he quoted Alexander Bassin as 
saying that the addiction worker 
either rejects his old colleagues 
with a vehemence that interferes 
with his efficacy as a change 
agent, or simulates the white col- 
lar professional to the extent of 


and Related 
Drugs: Clinical 

Toxicity and Dependence 

Compiled by ORIANA JOSSEAU KALANT, Ph.D., and 

A comprehensive bibliography of the 
literature (all languages) with complete 
citations of 802 papers and annotations 
of 304 papers. Fully indexed. 

CAT. No. P-211, 210 pp. 


Write to: Marketing Services 

Addiction Research Foundation 
33 Russell St., Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 




Four incisrve discussions by Father Joseph C. Martin, internationally known 
for his lectures on alcoholism and for his film, “Chalk Talk." 

Practical solucions for the alcoholic, his family and friends. 

Four cassettes in a handsome binder 

• ATTITUDES only $24.95, postage and handling inc. 

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wearing a suit and tie and acquir- 
ing an attache case. 

In either event, he becomes a 
marginal person, said Mr. Devlin. 

Some favourable change is 
occuring however, he said, in that 
it is realized that a fruitful shar- 
ing can exist between the behav- 
ioural scientist and drug addiction 
worker. Furthermore, the need 
for the addiction worker is recog- 
nized both in the light of his suc- 
cessful effort and of insufficient 
professional manpower. 

“Nevertheless, the majority of 
these para-professionals remain 
outside the bounds of professional 
recognition and sanction.” 

The solution offered by some 
professionals, said Mr. Devlin, is 
to train minimally lay individuals 

possessing the prerequisite per- 
sonality traits. They only recom- 
mend, however, that lay helpers 
be employed as aides and assist- 
ants to release the professional 
from lower echelon duties. 

Yet another group has recog- 
nized the direct therapeutic con- 
tributions lay people make and 
suggests letting results speak for 

“In the case of the drug addic- 
tion worker, results have spoken 
overwhelmingly in favour of the 
non-prof essionally trained.” 

Devlin qualified this by saying 
he is not suggesting a free rein by 
given to all addiction workers, but 
rather that efforts be made to 
define the characteristics and nec- 
essary training required by lay 

individuals in the drug rehabilita- 
tion field. 

His further suggestions were: 

• to explore the limits of 
competence that non-pro- 
fessionally trained therapists have 
attained ; 

• to describe the work environ- 
ment in which such individuals 
function most adequately; 

• to set up governing body that 
will train, examine, and license 
such individuals, at the same time 
recognizing the needs of society 
and protecting it against the 
unqualified therapist. 

The Portage Program (Suite 
1507, 360 St. James St. W., Mon- 
treal) through research hopes to 
give direction and impetus to 
these goals. 


Ascent from 
Skid Row 

The Bon Accord 

Ascent from 
Skid Row 

• Program Report Series 
Number 2 

• Soft cover 11 2 pp. 

• Illustrated 

* 3.50 

by D. F. Collier and Sharon Somfay 

“Ascent from Skid Row” is a 
narrative report of the development 
of the Bon Accord community for 
homeless alcoholics, a project of the 
Addiction Research Foundation of 
Ontario, It includes a description 
of this population, otherwise known 
as skid row alcoholics or chronic 
drunkenness offenders, and a 
history of the efforts to develop 
a program suitable to their needs. 
Detailed attention is given to the 
attempts made to help residents 
modify their behavior in social, 
political, economic and drinking 

Bon Accord emphasizes the 

autonomy of the individual in his 
own rehabilitation and provides 
a community government structure 
in which each member shares 

“Ascent from Skid Row”, written 
by Donald F. Collier, program 
director, and Sharon A. Somfay, 
former program assistant, is a 
popular report which will be of 
interest both to the general public 
and to treatment and rehabilitation 
staff. The principles and program 
methods used at Bon Accord are 
applicable not only to an alcoholic 
population but also to other areas of 
human behavior. 

Order by Catalogue No. P-239 from 

Addiction Research Foundation 

Attn: Marketing Services 
33 Russell Street 
Toronto, Canada M5S 2S1 

Page 14— THE JOURNAL, April 1. 1975 

Judges and addicts trade experiences 


NEW YORK— The City’s Addic- 
tion Services Administration 
(ASA) recently sponsored an unu- 
sual social reception: It brought 
together judges of the criminal 
courts, and addicts whom the 
judges had diverted to treatment 
programs at the behest of ASA’s 

innovative three-year-old Court 
Referral Project (CRP). 

One 32-year-old, admitted 
ex-burglar, ex-dealer and 
ex-addict, gratified the judge who 
gave him his break— as well as 
ASA officials and news reporters 
present— when he said: 

“It saved my life!’’ 

Replied the judge: 

“Thanks for telling me that. It 
makes me feel very good! ’’ 

Under the program, CRP client 
Richard LaManna spent 18 months 
in a therapeutic community, then 
went through re-entry, and is now 
living on his own. He works for an 
executive recruitment company 

The One-Minute 
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4. In a recent study, 80 urine 
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concentrations of drug 
metabolite were analyzed by 
three Emit-equipped 
methadone clinics and three 
leading commercial TLC 
laboratories. The labs made 
39 errors out of 240 analyses, 
... an 84% accuracy rate. 

The clinics made 2 errors out 
of 240 analyses, ... a 99% 
accuracy rate. 

5. On-site urine test results are 
seldom questioned by 
methadone clinic patients. If 
questions are raised a new 
sample can be analyzed 

B. Advantages of Off-Site 
TLC Testing 




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(If you have trouble filling in column B, 
fill in the coupon.) 

Until the introduction of the Emit system, urine testing was a necessary but 
not very useful process at most methadone clinics. Urine specimens were 
collected and submitted to outside laboratories, and test results were re- 
ceived several days later. And, when the results finally did arrive, neither 
the patients nor the staff had a great deal of confidence in the data received. 
These clinics fulfilled the legal requirements for urine testing, but little 
constructive use was made of the information collected. 

Now, at many North American methadone clinics, on-site urine testing by 
Syva’s Emit system provides immediate, valid determinations of a patient’s 
usage of heroin, methadone, barbiturates, amphetamines and cocaine. At 
these clinics, counselors know whether the patient is "clean” or "dirty” with- 
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Palo Alto. California. by purchase or lease, except as specifically provided for in writing. 

and says he is through with drugs 
and crime. 

CRP officials consider 
LaManna an outstanding success. 
By their official— and more mod- 
est-measuring stick, one year 
retention in treatment, some 40% 
of their referrals are successes, 
according to ASA Commissioner 
Jerome Hornblass. 

The CRP staff currently inter- 
views some 6,000 arrested addicts 
each year before trial. Most are 
charged with misdemeanors, 
although about one in four is a 
felony arrest. Excluded from con- 
sideration are individuals charged 
with homicide, serious robbery or 
assault, residential burglary or 
sex crimes. 

CRP interviewers, many of 
them ex-addicts, are instructed to 
rely heavily on their “vibes” in 
deciding whether a prisoner is a 
good candidate for referral. They 
recommend against referral for 
individuals who lie to them or 
seem to lack motivation. Others, 
for whom they make referral rec- 
ommendations, end up not being 
referred because of the legal exi- 
gencies of their particular cases. 

Roughly half of the 6,000 indi- 
viduals interviewed are referred, 
and the one-year retention figure 
is 40% of these 3,000 persons. 

The CRP program, with 
between 50 and 60 employees, 
costs $900,000 per year. Thus, the 
cost per person interviewed is 
roughly $150, the cost per referral 
is roughly $300. The project was 
founded with a Federal grant, but 
is deemed successful by New 
York City, and henceforth will be 
municipally funded. 

The project’s founder and first 
director, lawyer Martin Mayer, 
33, is now director of all ASA 
criminal justice projects. He said 
recently in an interview, “we’ve 
done incredibly well” in establish- 
ing a credible, centralized and 
accountable referral system 
within the court structure. The 
project thus has successfully ful- 
filled one of two initial goals. 

The second goal was to provide 
rational matching between indi- 



Medical Inquiries Solicited 

Abstinence and 
Maintenance Programs 


8917 W. Cermak Road 
North Riverside, III. 60546 USA 
Telephone 312-447-3322 

viduals and treatment programs. 
Mayer said : 

“We were hoping that by mak- 
ing a match, we’d have retention 
rates two or three times higher 
than the retention rate for self 
referrals from the street— and it 
hasn’t been that way.” 

This failure, Mayer said, raises 
the quesion of whether coercive 
referral programs provide better 
results than voluntary ones: Sev- 
eral problems frustrate definitive 

In New York City, he said, there 
is coercion to get into treatment, 
and so to avoid trial and possible 
conviction, but much less coercion 
against splitting, once the referral 
has been made and the case 

The reason, Mayer said, is that 
the bench warrants issued for 
splittees are virtually never 
served because the city’s warrant 
squad of 30 policement faces a 
backlog of more than 100,000 war- 

In New Jersey, Mayer said, 
where a significant number of 
bench warrants is acted on, reten- 
tion rate of court referrals is 
much higher. 

He said CRP’s clout is miti- 
gated by the fact the maximum 
sentence for a misdemeanor is 
one year. Most addict criminals 
do this light time with ease, he 
said. Moreover, if they split and 
are re-arrested for another off- 
ence, the two charges are usually 
combined and the parole violation 
for having split, usually ignored. 
Thus, the penalty for splitting 
after referral is relatively mod- 

Mayer said he personally does 
not favor an effort to improve the 
retention rate by enhancing the 
program’s legal clout. In New 
York City, unlike other jurisdic- 
tions, an individual does not need 
to plead guilty in order to be 
referred for treatment, he said. 

When it was started, CRP was 
one of the first referral projects 
for addict criminals. Now, dozens 
have sprung up, confirming the 
New York experience that the 
concept is a viable one. 

One thing that Mayer has 
learned, he said, is there seems to 
be an advantage in having a law- 
yer, rather than a social worker or 
other rehabilitation professional 
at the head of a court referral pro- 
gram. The reason is that lawyers 
are accepted as members of their 
“clique” by DAs and judges, and 
so are accorded greater credence. 

’The idea of diversion,” Mayer 
said, ”is good, because it’s some- 
thing to try that’s different from 
simply locking a guy up, which we 
know doesn’t work.” 

McMaster University 
School of Adult Education 

Summer Study in S W EDEN 

Degree Credit and Non Credit Subjects 

SOCIAL WORK Independent Study in Social Welfare 

Comparative Social Welfare Policy 
Technology and Social Welfare 

SOCIOLOGY Comparative Social Structures 

22 & 45 day programmes July and August 1975 
Related field trips integrated in programme. 

Full credit for students meeting McMaster 
University admission requirements of having a 
letter of permission from another university. 

For further information: Tom Schatzky, 

School of Adult Education, 

McMaster Univetsity> 

Gilmour Hall, Room 121, 

Hamilton, Ontario. LSS 4L8 
Telephone: (416) 525-9140 Ext. 4321 

THE JOURNAL. April 1, 1975— Page 15 

Coming Events 

Positions Available 

In order to provide our 
readers with adequate 
notice of forthcoming meet- 
ings please send announce- 
ments as early as possible 
to The Journal, 33 Russell 
Street, Toronto, Ontario 
MSS 2S1. 

Postgraduate Day on Clinical 
Pharmacology— Antimicrobial 
Drugs— April 5, Toronto, Ont. 
Information: The Director, 
Division of Postgraduate Med- 
ical Education, Faculty of 
Medicine, Medical Sciences 
Building, University of 
Toronto, Toronto, Ont. MSS 1A8. 
National Drug Abuse Confer- 
ence— April 4-7, New Orleans. 
Information: Mr. V. Shorty 
Director, Desire Narcotic 
Rehabilitation Center, 3307 
Desire Parkway, New Orle- 
ans, Louisiana 70126. 

59th Annual Meeting of the 
Federation of American Socie- 
ties for Experimental Biology 
—April 13-18, Atlantic City, 
New Jersey. Information: 
Mrs. T. C. Heatwole, Director, 
Public Information, 5110 W. 
Franklin St., Richmond, Vir- 
ginia 23226. 

The John Marshall Law School 
and the Drug Abuse Council, 
Incorporated, present a Com- 
parative Law Symposium on 

the Social Control of Drugs— 

April 18-19, Chicago, 111. Regis- 
tration fee $35. Information: 
R. W. Olson, Assistant Dean, 
The John Marshall Law 
School, 315 South Plymouth 
Court, Chicago, 111. 60604. 

First International Congress 
on Patient Counselling— April 
21-23, 1976, Amsterdam. Infor- 
mation: Congress Secretariat, 
First International Congress 
on Patient Counselling, c/o 
Excerpta Medica Foundation, 
P.O. Box 1126, Amsterdam, 
The Netherlands. 

National Alcoholism Forum— 
Annual Conference of the 
National Council on Alcohol- 
ism— April 27-May 2, Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin. Information: 
George C. Dimas, Executive 
Director, National Council on 
Alcoholism, 2 Park Avenue, 
N.Y. 10016. 

Sixth Annual Medical Scien- 
tific Conference of the 
National Council on Alcohol- 
ism— April 28-29, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin. Information: 
George C. Dimas, Executive 
Director, National Council on 
Alcoholism, 2 Park Avenue, 
N.Y. 10016. 

Annual Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Psychiatric Association— 
May 5-9, Anaheim, Calif. Infor- 
mation: Dr. W. E. Barton, 


Drug Education: 
Current Issues, 
Future Directions 

by R.G. Smart and Dianne Fejer 

This book, in an information-processing 
approach, argues that drug education should be 
viewed in the light of basic studies of commun- 
ication and persuasion. The best method to date 
has been to define drug education as an 
influence process in which one has to consider 
which sources of persuasion are most effective 
for what receivers and through which channels 
or media. The book summarizes the relevant 
research on the information processing 
approach and shows how that approach can best 
be used in drug education development. The 
problems and reasons for failure of drug 
education programs are outlined. 

The final chapter discusses, ideal approaches 
to drug education programs and outlines further 
areas of investigation and study. 

Educators and communications and socio- 
psychological researchers as well as profession- 
als working in the field of addictions will find 
this book useful. 


* 3.95 

Order by Catalogue No. P-242 from 

Addiction Research 

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Page 16— THE JOURNAL, April 1, 1975 

An in-depth report 

Codeine crisis: Does one exist? 

WASHINGTON D.C. -There is 
violent tugging and shoving at that 
improbable nexus which ties drug 
abuse control to the legitimate use 
of pain-killing opiate derivatives. 
That nexus is the cultivation of the 
opium poppy (Papaver somni- 
fenini ) . 

Important technical develop- 
ments and policy shifts are in pro- 
gress here. They call to mind the 
warning by Ed Brecher, in his 
book. Licit <& Illicit Drugs, that each 
policy shift in the attempt to con- 
trol drug abuse invariably creates 
a new, and often more difficult 
problem. The zag. Brecher seems 
to say, always is worse than the 
preceding r/g— and this well may 
be what is happening to the opium 

There is wide agreement among 
experts that there is a worldwide 
squeeze on supplies of raw opium 
for medicinal uses. The severity 
of the problem, who caused it, and 
what is to be done to refill licit 
supply lines, without swelling 
illicit ones— are unresolved and 
controversial questions. 

Organized medicine, with con- 
siderable assistance and encour- 
agement from the Washington 
lobbyist for the three U.S. proces- 
sors of crude opium, has orches- 
trated a scare campaign that has 
been accepted by the press, and 
purveyed to the public at face 

•‘No opium for pain— a threat- 
ening medical crisis,” exclaimed 
the usually staid and highly 
respected S'ew England Journal of 
Medicine last December 26, in 
headlining an editorial which 
charged that “this critical short- 
age of codeine, morphine, and 
medicinal opiate drugs . . . could 
easily cause great suffering, with 
the American public being 
deprived of its right to these 
important medicines for relief of 
pain.” Added editorialist Dr. 
Leonard Greentree, an obstetri- 
cian from Columbus. Ohio: 

“As the matter stands today, 
the spectre of no opium for pain in 
the U.S. is well founded.” 

The American Medical Associa- 
tion, in calling a “top-level confer- 
ence” for Washington, D.C. in 
March to “attack the problem of 
an iminent critical shortage of 
medicinal opium,” quoted one of 
its officials. Dr. William Barclay, 
as saying: 

‘Medical practitioners may 
soon be faced with a shortage or 
unavailability of a drug that has 
long been a mainstay in relieving 
pain and controlling coughs.” 

A similar doomsday message 
was carried to Congress by the 
lobbyist for the opium processors, 
Mrs. Jane McGrew, an intense, 
dynamic, persuasive attorney who 
works for the Washington law firm 
of Steptoe & Johnson. 

The “current shortage of licit 
opium.” she said, “threatens the 
adequacy of our domestic supply 
of opium derivatives”. 

Mrs. McGrew represents Mal- 
linckrodt, Inc., of St. Louis; 
Merck & Co.. Inc., of Rahway, 
N.J.; and S. B. Penick & Co., of 
New York, the only three compa- 
nies licensed by the federal gov- 
ernment to import crude opium. 
They process the opium gum into 
morphine 5nd codeine, which they 
sell to four large companies, and 
five dozen smaller ones— called 
“formulators”— that use it to 
make pain-killers (analgesics), 
and cough medication (anti- 

A number of important drugs 
are involved, including morphine, 
codeine and paregoric, which is 
used to control diarrhea, and the 
narcotics antagonists naloxone 
and nalorphine. So shortages, if 
they materialized, would be cause 
for alarm. The industry figures 
also show, however, that codeine 

accounts for 95% of the proces- 
sors’ sales. All other licit opiate 
drugs come from the remaining 
5% of imported opium. 

So, barring a total disruption of 
supplies— which no one foresees— 
the crisis, if it exists, is essen- 
tially a crisis in the supply of cod- 

Codeine is one of the medical 
stand-bys, a familiar, effective, 
widely-used drug. 

A major advantage is that it is 
effective as an analgesic when 
given by mouth. Another is that it 
has a iow, although quite real, 
potential for abuse. A common, 
and troublesome, side effect is 

Codeine is regarded by pharma- 
cologists as a “mild” analgesic. 

and frequently is used to relieve 
mild to moderate pain. A leading 
analgesic investigator. Dr. Wil- 
liam T. Beaver of Georgetown 
University here, has said that a 
standard dose (60 mg.) of codeine 
is the approximate pain-killing 
equivalent of two tablets (600 
mg.) of aspirin. 

But. he adds, since the two anal- 
gesics act in different ways, they 
beneficially may be combined. In 
fact, much codeine is sold in com- 
binations, e.g. Empirin compound 
with codeine. 

Dr. Beaver, chosen by AMA to 
assess codeine’s medicinal value 
at the Washington conference, 
says codeine is an important— and 
in some cases irreplaceable- 
drug. But, he conceded in an inter- 
view, there are other pains 
against which a non-narcotic anal- 
gesic-aspirin or acetametaphin 
to name two— would be as effec- 

“There is no evidence,” he 
added, “that using 65 mg. codeine 
is better than 2 aspirin or 2 tablets 
(600 mg. ) acetametaphin.” 

Dr. Beaver said: 

“There is a legitimate demand 
for codeine. But it’s not like peni- 
cillin. No one is dying for lack of 
codeine— or is going to.” 

Besides aspirin-like analgesics, 
there are several stronger syn- 
thetic analgesics that are used to 
control moderate to severe pain; 
they include Darvon and Talwin. 

Experts differ on whether, and 
in what percentage of cases, these 


drugs are equal substitutes, or 
adequate ones, for codeine. 

Based in part on Dr. Beaver’s 
work, the well-regarded drug- 
rating publication, the Medical 
Letter, in a forthcoming Medical 
Letter Rejerence Handbook, says 
that for moderate pain, “codeine 
is the oral analgesic of choice 
when a non-narcotic analgesic 
such as aspirin is contraindicted 
or ineffective.” 

Given these rather circum- 
scribed indications, the number of 
codeine prescriptions written each 
year, according to industry fig- 
ures, may come as a surprise. In 
1972, more than 30 million pre- 
scriptions for codeine pain-killers 
were filled in U.S. pharmacies. 
The number of people treated with 
codeine in hospitals is unknown, 
but the bulk codeine purchased by 
hospitals is 50% greater than the 
amount sold on prescription 
through pharmacies. 

The other use of codeine, 
besides analgesia, is as an antitus- 
sive. This is a diminishing share 
of the codeine market— Mrs. 
McGrew calculates that 20% of 
codeine is formulated into cough 
preparations— but still accounts 
for 24 million prescriptions for 
codeine cough medications each 
year. In addition, there is codeine 
in uncounted over-the-counter 
(OTC) cough remedies, which 
may be legally sold in many 

The Medical Letter (2/5/71) says 
that “coughs frequently ... are 
self-limited, of brief duration, and 
do not require an arsenal of drugs 
for relief," and suggests that 
much cough medication, particu- 
larly combination remedies— in 
which codeine often is used— are 

It says codeine and other effec- 
tive drugs often are present in 
cough remedies in suboptimal, 
“ineffectual” amounts— which 
means that these drugs are 

The industry figures suggest 
that more than 100,000.000 pre- 
scription or OTC codeine courses 
of treatment are used in the U.S. 
each year. 

Codeine’ use is rapidly rising. 
Ambassador Sheldon Vance, the 
State Department narcotics spe- 
cialist, told the AMA meeting that 
bulk codeine sales rose 73% in the 
U.S. between 1967 and 1973. 

An industry projection, pre- 
pared by Mrs. McGrew on the 
basis of sales, forecasts a doubling 
of codeine sales, from 29,000 kilos 
per year in 1972, to 62,500 kilos per 
year by 1978. 

Ambassador Vance and others 
at the conference cited this rising 
demand as a principal cause of the 
current codeine shortage. While 
U.S. demand has gone up, he said, 
codeine use has declined 25% in 
the USSR in the last five years. It 
has remained constant in Britain. 
Mr. Vance pointed out that the 
U.S. now is the world’s major cod- 
eine consumer, although it is not 
the leader in per capita use. 

The industry equates the 
increasing sales with an older, 
“achier” population receiving 
increasingly better medical care 
through Medicare, Medicaid and 
other health delivery systems. 

Mrs. McGrew conceded that the 
industry projections are “based 
on sales, based on medical 
demand,” not on any direct 
assessment of clinical need. 

An HEW official. Dr. John Jen- 
nings, said his agency “takes the 
position” that the need “overall” 
is “valid”. He said, in an inter- 
view, that “we saw nowhere we 
could see any way of reducing the 
use of codeine.” 

The one possible exception, he 
said, was in OTC anti-tussives. He 

indicated he would prefer to see 
the codeine content raised to opti- 
mal levels in these products, 
rather than eliminate the products 
in those states where they con- 
tinue to be legal. 

No one at the AMA meeting 
offered any evidence to document 
a rising clinical need for codeine. 
The question of whether this 
alleged need was being stimulated 
by pharmaceutical advertising 
was raised from the floor, but 
unanswered, for want of data. 

One who expressed scepticism 
at the need— and concern for the 
consequences— of great public 
concern about codeine supplies 
was Sir Harry Greenfield, direc- 
tor emeritus of the International 
Narcotics Control Board. 

Noting that no other countries 
have “so far evinced any marked 
degree of anxiety” about codeine 
supplies. Sir Harry said the mat- 
ter demanded “careful, scrupu- 
lously objective” investigation, 
“without preconception”. 

While Sir Harry. Ambassador 
Vance, and others, see rising U.S. 
demand as a major cause for tight 
codeine supplies, industry and 
medical representatives whip the 

Thus, Charles Morton, general 
manager of the pharmaceutical 
division of the A. H. Robins Com- 
pany, one of the major formula- 
tors of codeine products, of Rich- 
mond, Va., told The Journal 
recently that the “State Depart- 
ment has been the biggest culprit” 
in causing the shortage. Princi- 
pally. Morton and others refer to 
the State Department’s initially 
successful attempt to halt poppy 
culture in Turkey. 

This is a popular stance, at a 
time when the Nixon Administra- 
tion is a convenient whipping boy. 
But Dr. Robert DuPont, the cur- 
rent SAODAP chief, reiterated 
that “the (now rescinded) ban in 
Turkey seemed to be correlated 
with a very significant decrease in 
illicit heroin in the U.S., espe- 
cially in the East.” 

Dr. DuPont saw a “consensus” 
in which, “beyond any question— 
and this is the government posi- 
tion now — opium drugs have a 
role in legitimate medical prac- 
tice, and government has a 
responsibility to assist in provid- 
ing necessary opium for good 
medical practice. 

“It is also obvious that control 

Wherever it hurts 




codeine phosphate* (64.8 mg) gr 1 

Each tablet also contains; aspirin gr 3i^, phenacetin 
gr caffeine gr y?. 

•Warning— may be habit-forming. 

of these substances is of extreme 

Narcotics control officials at 
the meeting conceded they spoke 
in part on the basis of fact, and in 
part too. to discourage scare talk 
about codeine shortages, that pre- 
dictably would lead to increased 

As conspicuously absent as the 
question of whether some codeine 
uses were more essential than oth- 
ers, was a question of whether, 
and if so how, it might be rationed 
by processors, formulators, 
organized medicine or the govern- 

Opium processors’ lobbyist, 
Mrs. McGrew. backed by officials 
of the three companies she repre- 
sents, heatedly rejected— as ille- 
gal, unwise, unethical and impos- 
sible— any allocations plan. 

While insisting there is a “seri- 

ous crisis,” Mrs. McGrew insisted 
too that “it is the wrong thing for 
our group to do to say we’ll wipe 
out 207c of the uses because 
there’s no use for it. 

“I see no evidence of misuse 
with regard to prescription use of 

•‘We learned a long time ago,” 
Ambassador Vance said, “that the 
result of having excessive quanti- 
ties of opium is that much of it 
ends up as heroin for distribution 
in the U.S.” 

This cachet notwithstanding. 
Ambassador Vance. Dr. DuPont, 
and attorney Donald Miller— chief 
counsel for the Drug Enforcement 
Administration (DEA)— insisted 
there was not— and need not be— 
a codeine shortage in the U.S., 
provided U.S. processers bid 
aggressively for poppy straw in 
Turkey and other countries when 
it comes on the market in the next 
several months. 

“There has not been a short- 
age,” Vance said, and ‘I do not 
foresee a situation where patients 
in the U.S. will be denied medici- 
nal narcotics because of supply 

Given that the AMA meeting 
was convened to deal with an 
alleged critical shortage of cod- 
eine, some participants found it 
curious that speakers from AMA 
and the medical community failed 
to address themselves to the prob- 
lem of what percent of codeine 
uses, if any, could be dispensed 
with, were a shortage to develop. 

Neither was there a report on 
ways that codeine might be allo- 
cated to possibly more essential 
uses, instead of possibly less 
essential ones, if the supply 
squeeze— which is projected to be 
most severe this autumn— should 

Rather, reports by Dr. Beaver, 
and AMA researcher Chris Theo- 
dore on doctor’s prescribing hab- 
its, dealt with whether doctors 
could, or would like to, do without 
codeine and other opiates alto- 
gether— a moot point. 

The research director of Bristol 
Laboratories, Dr. Irwin Pachtor, 
stood to say : 

“The speakers all spoke of an 
all or nothing phenomenon. I’d 
like to hear someone talk about 
what if we had a shortfall— sav of 

Replied AMA statistical expert 
Mr. Theodore; “It would be 
important to find out how physi- 
cians would feel about this ‘grey 
area’.” But. he said, the sam- 
pling methods available to him 
were not sophisticated enough to 
yield such answers. 

As the AMA’s Washington con- 
ference ended. Dr. Barclay con- 
ceded that the crisis he had called 
it to meet might not exist. 

“We’ll probably get through 
1975 without any patient needing 
to return to his doctor to get a new 
prescription because the codeine 
one was not fillable,” he said. 

No steps were taken to prepare 
for rationing or allocation of sup- 
plies, at any level, should a short- 
age in fact develop, or to provide 
doctors with guidelines as to 
which of codeine’s several uses 
might, in a pinch, be replaced by 
synthetics like Demerol, Darvon. or 
Taiwan— OT by aspirin. 

Endorsements were offered, in 
the name of legitimate analgesic 
need, to two actions that control 
experts warned could create new 
problems of illicit diversion: One 
is the increasing cultivation of 
opium poppy abroad. The other is 
a start to Papaver bracteatum cul- 
ture in the U.S. 

Was a forceful new zag in opium 
policy about to give rise to new 
problems, more acute even than 
the zig that brought it about? One 
could not help but wonder. 

VOL. 4 NO, 5 


TORONTO MAY 1, 1975 


‘A causative factor ’ 


NEW ORLEANS Almost half of all the female inpatients of 44 
therapeutic communities in the United States had incestuous rela- 
tionships before they were 15 years old. i 
In 75% of the cases, the assaults took place before the children 
were 12 years old and in 45% of the cases, before they were aged 

Partners included not only fathers but stepfathers, grandfath- 
ers, uncles, and quasi-family members such as the mother’s cur- 
rent sexual partner. 

More than 90% of the women had never before admitted to 
having had such a relationship. . .. 

These are among the chief 
findings of a survey in early 
December, 1974, of il8 female 
residents of Odyssey House, 

Inc. units throughout the US. 

Forty-four per cent reported 
childhood incestuous relation- 

It is the highest figure ever 
reported in any of the albeit 
few studies of incest. And it 
stands in stark contrast to the 
highest previously reported fig- 
ure of 4% revealed in a survey 
of an unselected population of 
650 women psychiatric patients 
in Northern Ireland. 

The American study is titled 
Incest as a Causative Factor in 
Anti-Social Behavior and sub- 
titled The Unspeakable Sin of 

the Father Which Must Rest 
Upon The Child. It was re- 
ported here at the National 
Drug Abuse Conference by Dr. 

Judianne Densen-Gerber, psy- 
chiatrist. lawyer, and head of 
Odyssey House, Inc. 

She termed the findings “devastating” and said the facts in the 
individual cases were “horrendous”. 

“People say well what do you expect in a drug addict, anti- 
social, criminal alcoholic population? 

“My immediate response to them is, were they this population 
when they were three, four, five, six years of age? And I ask 
people to think what happens to a little girl if, in order to be fed, 
she has to perform fellatio on her father when she is four. 

“Does she have a sense of control over her own body? Does she 
have a sense of self? Does she have a sense of self that she can go 
ahead in the world and accomplish things? 

“I think what we’re talking about here is the right of a child to 
have a say over the body, the right of a child not to be in an 
authority set in which that child has no controls. And if you start 
at three, four and five with a child saying she has no way to 
protect her body from sexual exploration, then how is she going to 
grow up and believe that she can cope?” 

The survey was in the form of a questionnaire administered, on 
the same day by senior women staff members of each unit, in 
(See— Incest— page 4) 

Significant changes expect 
as cannabis hearings close 

r»TTAWA_Witl, *1,,, -r ,. . . 

Judianne Densen-Gerber 

OTTAWA— With the novelty of 
televised committee hearings al- 
ready fading like old make-up, the 
Senate committee on legal and 
constitutional affairs is wrapping 
up its consideration of the federal 
government’s long-awaited bill to 
change cannabis laws in Canada. 

For the next few weeks, the 
Senators will be meeting behind 
closed doors to consider the re- 
sults of their mini-LeDain Com- 
mission inquiry into the pros and 
cons of easing penalties for most 
cannabis offences, as the proposed 
legislation would do, and into the 
legal loopholes and other problems 
contained in the bill. 

On the basis of the public hear- 
ings, it seems certain the Commit- 
tee will recommend a number of 
significant amendments to the 

There is even the possibility, 
though not the probability, that it 
might try to change the bill to re- 
place the proposed milder crimi- 
nal sanctions f on cannabis posses- 
sion with civil sanctions, to re- 
move what many witnesses sug- 
gest is the unacceptable stigma of 
a criminal record. 

But since the Bill has yet to go 
through final reading in the Senate 

rind tllGF) SLI*“viv^ Full 

the Commons, it will be months 
before the cannabis legislation is 
finally approved, whatever the 

There have been some interest- 
ing highlights in the final weeks of 
hearings, beyond the flurry of in- 
terest in television cameras. 

Dr. Ian Henderson, a University 
of Ottawa pharmacologist, re- 
marked informally at one session 
that the proposed legislation 
would have to be flexible enough 
to allow the expected use of mari- 
juana as a medicine for treating 
eye problems. 

In an interview Dr. Henderson’s 
said marijuana might become a 
useful drug again, after a 40-year 
retirement— this time in the treat- 
ment of glaucoma. 

He suggested that in a year or 
two, doctors will be using cannabi- 
nol drops to lower the pressure in- 
side the eyes of glaucoma victims, 
thereby preventing blindness. 

He also said that cannabis may 

SAODAP prepares to die 


WASHINGTON— The Special Ac- 
tion Office for Drug Abuse Pre- 
vention (SAODAP) will cease to 
exist on June 30. barring a last un- 
forseen effort by Congress to pro- 
long its existence. 

In its four years of life, SAO- 
DAP has led and coordinated the 
federal effort to control, treat, 
and prevent drug abuse in the U.S. 
While many leaders in the drug re- 
habilitation community feel the 
job is not yet complete— and some 
have asked that SAODAP be con- 
tinued— it was originally con- 
ceived as a temporary activity and 
its termination was forseen from 
the outset. 

The effect of its disappearance 
on drug rehabilitation efforts is 
“kind of hard to assess.” accord- 
ing to Richard Bucher, executive 
assistant to the director of SAO- 

“I fear an unintended message 

might be given to the drug abuse 
prevention community that there 
is considerably less emphasis 
going to be given (to drug abuse) 
at the federal level. I hope the 
message won't be received too 
strongly, and that a careful look 
will show that the federal priori- 
ties on drug abuse prevention still 
remain rather high.” 

As proof, Mr. Bucher pointed to 
the fact that the administration’s 
budget request for fiscal 1976 for 
the National Institute on Drug 
Abuse— which, like SAODAP. is 
directed by Washington, D.C. psy- 
chiatrist Dr. Robert Dupont-ris so 
much higher than the figure appro- 
priated for fiscal year 1975. 

The raise, he said, comes at a 
time when most community ser- 
vice appropriations are being 
drastically cut. 

The SAODAP budget for thd 
current year was $18 million. A 
“fair amount ” of NIDA's raise 
comes from money that this year 

went to SAODAP, Bucher said. 

In terms of administrative effi- 
cacy in cordinating drug abuse 
prevention and treatment activi- 
ties, Mr. Bucher was less san- 
guine. He said there were eight 
federal agencies— as disparate as 
the department of defence; the de- 
partment of- health, education and 
welfare; and the labor depart- 
ment— with major drug abuse 
programs, and a dozen other agen- 
cies with minor problems. 

Coordination of these efforts 
has been a major SAODAP 
achievement, he said, and SAO- 
DAP's disappearance will compli- 
cate interagency agreement and 
executive approval of drug policy 
and program. 

Compared to SAODAP, Bucher 
said. NIDA is in “a much more 
difficult position— four layers into 
the HEW bureaucracy", in terms 
of competing for dollars and basic 

(See— SAODAP— page 3) 

prove useful in combatting the 
nausea resulting from anti-cancer 
radiation therapy, while at the 
same time stimulating the pa- 
tient’s appetite. There is even the 
suggestion it might work in treat- 
ing asthma. 

More on Senate hearings — pg 2 

One problem, however, is that 
patients tend to develop tolerance 
to the drug and larger and larger 
doses must be used. 

Originally, many years ago, 
marijuana was used as a pain- 

Meanwhile, two workers from 
the Durham office of the Addic- 
tion Research Foundation of On- 
tario called for elimination of 
criminal records for people con- 
victed of marijuana possession. 

Wayne Weagle, director of the 
Durham region ARF in Oshawa, 
said he feels some of the greatest 
damage from cannabis is that in- 
flicted by the laws designed to 
control its use. 

The trauma of confrontation 
with police, parents and the courts 
and then receiving a criminal re- 
cord, may be too much for a young 
cannabis offender who may al- 

Another group, including a num- 
ber of ARF scientists, told the 
Senate committee that recent 
ARF studies indicate that many 
more cannabis users are now driv- 

ing while under the influence of 
cannabis than a few years ago. 

Recent studies indicate that 
50% of regular users admitted in 
interviews that they have driven 
while under the influence of can- 

The concern is that traffic acci- 
dents will increase as a result of 
cannabis impairment, as now hap- 
pens with alcohol. 

The same scientists suggested 
the proposed jail sentences for 
first offenders of cannabis posses- 
sion who cannot pay their fines 
seem, on the surface at least, to 
discriminate against the poor, un- 
less fines were made proportional 
to the income of the individual in- 



issue of The Journal. 

New features include;- “Back- 
grounder” to the news, and 
“Guest Book” (page 9) which will 
allow invited readers to share cur- 
rent thoughts. Wayne Howell’s 
column, a regular feature for 
three years, moves to a new spot. 
ports by The Journal’s team of in- 
ternational correspondents. 

And, as you see, we have moved 
out of the “Black and White” era. 

Safe smoking for some ? 

TORONTO— There may be good 
news in the offing for cigarette 
smokers. But first, a medical re- 
search team here needs twins— 
especially identical twins who 

The good news may prove to be 
that as far as emphysema and 
bronchitis are concerned, some 
smokers may be safe. Others may 
inherit the capacity to develop 
such diseases. 

The team, headed by Dr. Colin 
Woolf, a professor of medicine at 
University of Toronto, has been 
studying smokers and their lungs 
for 10 years. 

In one study of about 100 
women, results after five years 
were not surprising. The more 
the women smoked, the greater 
the degree of cough, phlegm, 
shortness of breath, wheezing, and 
whistling noises in the chest. 
Breathing tests in smokers were 
generally poorer, and non-smokers 
inhaled and exhaled air more eas- 
ily than smokers. 

Statistically, test results of 
women who had never smoked and 

those who were ex-smokers were 

In further study, however, re- 
searchers found that many of the 
women, even heavy smokers, had 
no symptoms at all. 

They divided this group without 
symptoms into light smokers 
(fewer than 10 cigarettes a day); 
moderate (10 to 20 a day); and 
heavy (more than 20 a day). 

Their breathing test results 
were indistinguishable from those 
of women who had never smoked. 

There are certain indications 
uiat people who smoke heavily 
may well have a disease in spite of 
feeling well and lacking symp- 
toms. And they may be damaging 
their lungs, cautioned Dr. Woolf 
who is also director of the Trihos- 
pital Respiratory Service (To- 
ronto General, Mount Sinai and 
Women's College Hospitals. 

However, while smokers are at 
risk, symptoms or not, he said, 
people who smoke less than 20 cig- 
arettes a day, if they have no 

(See— Smoking— Page 4) 

Know when to when. 


k OMnkint wKfi ymr WMcMf. 

Ontario campaign page 5 

Alcoholism as a criminal 
defence Page 2 

New Orleans conference 
coverage begins Page 7 

Editorials Page 8 

World's most sophisticated 
driving simulator Page 10 
BC: An experiment in 
idealism Page 16 

Page 2— THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975 

Trial p eriod would facilitate research 

A 5-year cannabis experiment 


OTTAWA— Any changes in Cana- 
da’s cannabis laws should be en- 
acted for a trial five or 10-year pe- 
riod, so the before and after ef- 
fects of such changes could be ad- 
equately measured. 

With the appropriate detailed 
scientific surVeys of the effects of 
cannabis use, and of the impact of 
the application of the law before, 
during, and after such trial 
changes in cannabis laws, Canadi- 
ans could then be in the unusual 
situation of making more defini- 
tive decisions about what to do 
with cannabis apd the law on the 
basis “not merely of a restate- 
ment of the original ideologies, 
fears or conjectures . . . but on the 
basis of a new and larger body of 

The suggestion was made to the 
Senate legal and constitutional af- 
fairs committee, which is com- 
pleting its consideration of the 
Government’s proposed cannabis 
legislation. It was contained in a 
brief prepared by Drs. Harold and 
Oriana Kalant, of the Addiction 
Research Foundation of Ontario, 
at the invitation of the Senate 
Committee. The brief was co- 
signed by a number of scientists 
at ARF and the Department of 

amount of drug use, including al- 
cohol, cannabis and other drugs as 

Elsewhere, the brief argued 
that the retention of civil penalties 
for possession of cannabis (as op- 
posed to criminal penalties and the 
accompanying criminal record) 
and the continued illegality of sale 
or cultivation of cannabis “can 
permit legal controls to exert a 
significant deterrent effect” . 

As an example of the hypothesis 
that it is not necessary to have 
criminal sanctions to produce an 
effective deterrent, the Kalant 
brief pointed to the drinking situa- 
tion before and after the legal 
drinking age in most provinces 
was dropped to 18 years from 21. 

Even though everyone had as- 
sumed alcohol before the change 
was being widely used illegally by 
under-age drinkers. Dr. Kalant 
noted that when the change did 
take place, there was a large, al- 
most immediate jump in alcohol 
consumption by the 18-to 21- 
year-old group. 

“This demonstrates both that 
the legal restrictions had in fact a 
deterrent effect, even though they 
did not involve criminal charges, 
and that outright legislation did 
lead to a large increase in what 

was already widely practiced be- 

In another parallel. Dr. Kalant 
and his associates argued that 
prohibition in the U.S. did in fact 
result in lower alcohol consump- 
tion, in spite of the commonly held 
belief that it failed to accomplish 
its purpose. 

Similarly, the scientists won- 
dered how much more cannabis 
use would increase, in the absence 
of legal penalties which some sug- 
gest have failed to stop the use of 

In another parallel based on 
experience with alcohol use, and 
the even more dramatic increase 
in health related effects, the sci- 
entists predicted that as the total 
level use of alcohol and of canna- 
bis in the population goes up, 
there will be a disproportionately 
large increase in the incidence of 
health and social problems related 
to heavy use in the case of each 
drug, even though there might 
only be a relatively small increase 
in the total number of users of 
each drug. 

The brief took a broad swipe at 
both extremes in the cannabis 
public and scientific debate, sug- 
gesting that both sides too often 
forget, or refuse, to put things into 

proper perspective. 

In the case of those citing the 
evils of cannabis, oftentimes the 
vital “ifs” and parameters of the 
original experiments are forgot- 
ten— for example, the fact that of- 
tentimes a large amount of a drug 
must be used to produce a particu- 
lar harmful effect, thereby indi- 
cating only the possibility of a 
problem in a smaller percentage 
of users at lower doses. 

Another fact often ignored is 
that many, if not most, of the 
harmful effects from high or 
long-term intakes of cannabis. can 
and do also result with the heavy 
or long-term use of other drugs— 
such as alcohol. 

On the other side of the coin, 
Kalant noted that some widely- 
publicized studies purporting to 
show a lack of harmful effects 
from cannabis use are often too 
small in terms of sample size to 
prove anything, or too limited in 
approach to prove much. 

As an example, he noted that re- 
cent reports of studies using popu- 
lations in Jamaica and Greece 
suggested there had been no ev- 
idence uncovered of intellectual or 
mental impairment— a hazard un- 
covered in animal tests that has 
also been noted with long-term 

Pharmacology, University of To- 

Dr. Kalant made it clear he and 
his fellow scientists were express- 
ing personal views and not the of- 
ficial views of their organizations. 

Perhaps as a direct result of 
this non-agency approach, the re- 
sulting brief to the Senate com- 
mittee seemed on first and subse- 
quent glances to be both the most 
informative and the most scientif- 
ically sound brief yet to be dealt 

with by the CommUtee_. 

ble experience in researching the 
effects of alcohol on the human 
condition, drew a parallel 
throughout the presentation be- 
tween alcohol and cannabis as 

“We know of no evidence, 
really, that cannabis is inherently 
more dangerous than alcohol if 
used in the equivalent amounts by 
the same numbers of people for 
the same length of time and under 
the same social circumstances. 

“Neither do we wish to argue 
that there is inherently any 
greater justice in restricting the 
use of cannabis than in restricting 
the use of alcohol. 

“But there is ample evidence 
that combined use of both means 
greater total drug use and greater 
likelihood of heavy damaging use. 

“And this is the problem really 
that legislators have to deal with. 

“In other words, when one leg- 
islates a change in the law on can- 
nabis, one is not only legislating a 
change in the law on cannabis but 
a possible change in the total 


OTTAWA— Oregon, the only state 
in the union to decriminalize the 
crime of possessing marijuana, al- 
beit one ounce or less, seems to be 
finding that citizens are using less 
of the drug, not more as might be 

Patrick Horton, a district attor- 

nev in F^iicene. Oreeon. who ran 

tor Office on a “decriminalize 
marijuana platform.” told the 
Senate legal and constitutional af- 
fairs committee that a number of 
other “refreshing things” have 
been happening since Oregon in 
effect made possession of an 
ounce or less of cannabis a civil 

“We are now able to concen- 
trate on areas which we feel are 
of more social value, of more 
commitment to the people— her- 
oin, amphetamines, barbituates 
and the like.” 

In addition, one-third of the 
state’s criminal trial dockets 
which used to be composed of 
marijuana cases can now be used 
for other, more important cases. 

“The jails are filled with the 
true criminal now, rather than the 
youthful drug offender who, be- 
cause of his status in the commun- 
ity, is either a laborer or a student 
and many times is unable to post 
the necessary security to gain his 
release pre-trial,” Mr. Horton 
told the Senate Committee. 

findings in Oregon 

Under the state’s changed laws, 
people found with small amounts 
of marijuana are issued a citation, 
much like a ticket for a traffic vio- 
lation, that requires appearance in 
court instead of compulsory de- 
tention in jail. 

Mr. Norton claimed his officials 
followed a number of tagged mari- 
juana possession offenders 

through the courts after the tick- 
eting. All of them appeared in 
court, contrary to fears from 
some quarters that some offend- 
ers might try to skip trial. Most 
pleaded guilty. 

Mr. Norton also claims “the 
rapport between the community 
and the police is good and has im- 
proved substantially” since the 
legal changes. 

But the Senators also brought 
out some problems with Oregon’s 

Hashish, a concentrated version 
of marijuana, has been excluded 
from the decriminalization, in 
part because the slate legislators 
decided that an ounce of hashish 
was more potent than an ounce of 
marijuana or 15 to 20 marijuana 
cigarettes. • 

Even though the individual 
found guilty of possession of an 
ounce or less of marijuana does 
not have a criminal record, the 
fact that he has been brought to 
court is recorded on the FBI 
“rap” sheet and might come back 

to haunt the individual. 

In Oregon, the fine can be $100, 
though Mr. Horton claims the av- 
erage fine is more like $25 to $35. 

The change in legal standing of 
marijuana in Oregon has also had 
its effects on the illicit market. 

Mr. Horton said that now typi- 
cal “baggies" of marijuana are 
only an ounce, compared to 1.5 to 
2 ounces before the change, sug- 
gesting that less marijuana is 
being sold at one time. 

He said there has been no public 
flaunting of the law with open 
smoking of pot in the streets, the- 
atres and public places. 

“That is one of the most re- 
freshing things about it. We found 
that the citizenry responded with 
a great deal of good faith.” 

Asked why Oregon was the first 
and remains the only state to de- 
criminalize marijuana, Mr. Hor- 
ton said its population is young, 
relatively small, and from many 
other parts of the country. 

“We just do not have many of 
the traditional things to overcome 
that other states do have,” he 
said, adding that was a personal 

He said a number of other 
states, including California, Colo- 
rado, Hawaii, Tennessee, Texas, 
New York and the federal govern- 
ment, are either considering or 
discussing decriminalization of 

use of other drugs, such as alco- 

The studies involved only 10 to 
40 persons per group, “which is 
far too little to detect a complica- 
tion that may effect only a few 
percent of users. 

“If we use alcohol — and we 
have a much better knowledge of 
alcohol — as a guide, we know that 
only a few percent of heavy users 
will get brain injury, so that we 
can conjecture that perhaps 5% or 
so of chronic heavy users of can- 
nabis might also develop it. 

“If you have a group of 10 users, 
that would mean that perhaps 
one-half of one user might show 
signs of brain damage.” 

Another problem with the 
studies is that the subjects were 
poor, subsistence level workers, 
fishermen, and day laborers, 
whose activities involved minimal 
intellectual demand and whose 
measured intelligence levels were 
significantly below the general 

“If you are looking for subtle 
changes in intellectual perform- 
ance, memory, learning ability, 
and the like, how are you going to 
find it in a group whose whole life 
pattern makes least demand on 
the very things that we are at- 
tempting to measure?” 

Dr. Kalant warned that Parlia- 
ment cannot defer a decision in the 
expectation that all relevant infor- 
mation will be available eventu- 

“There will never be a time 
when all of the relevant informa- 
tion will be available, because the 
gathering of information of a sci- 
entific basis is an endless pro- 

“Therefore, Parliaments, like 
individuals, find themselves from 
time to time in the position of hav- 
ing to make decisions under a 
given set of circumstances in the 
light of existing realities, even 
though they may have less infor- 
mation available than they might 
like to have.” 

The idea of implementing 
changes for a trial five or 10-year 
period, and doing research before, 
during and after the change to see 
the various effects, would seem to 
offer an opportunity for Parlia- 
mentarians to have better facts at 
their finger tips the next time a 
decision must be made. 

‘Alcoholism as a defence’ - effort stalemated 

the National Advisory Council on 
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to 
have the Criminal Code revised to 
consider alcoholism in the same 
light as mental illness as a de- 
fence, appear to be stalemated. 

The council recommended in 
September 1974, that the “Federal 
Criminal Code should explicitly 
provide that alcoholism is a de- 
fence to prosecution under the 
Federal law, to the same exent 
and under the same conditions as 
any other illness considered in the 
Code. Such legislation would sub- 
stitute appropriate treatment and 
rehabilitation under civil law, in- 
stead of punishment under crimi- 
nal law.” 

The Resolution concluded an ap- 
peal to the Secretary of the De- 
partment of Health Education and 

Welfare (HEW), Caspar Weinber- 
ger, to support the measure. 

Dr Morris Chafetz, director of 
the National Institute on Alcohol 
Abuse and Alcoholism, ap- 
proached Secretary Weinberger 
and requested his support. To 
date, however, nothing has hap- 


Meanwhile, hearings before the 
Senate Judiciary Subcommittee 
on Criminal Laws continue, and a 
lobbyist from the American Civil 
Liberties Union said his organiza- 
tion (which supports the decrimin- 
alization of “all victimless 

crimes”) has made no progress. 
He surmised legislation would 
probably come about on a state 
level before it was incorporated 
into the Federal Criminal Code. 

The ACLU is only attempting to 
have marijuana use decriminal- 
ized federally at present. 

As far as alcoholism is con- 
cerned. Jay Miller of the ACLU 
pointed out that taking alcohol 
was not criminal in the USA and 
as far as having alcoholism 
treated as an illness was con- 
cerned, he said “We're not into 
that at all.” 

Drug-carrying donkeys cross borders 

GENEVA— Frontier guards 
from various nations are ap- 
parently reporting that ani- 
mals are being used by drug 

A UN agency here has been 
told that in Argentina, don- 
keys have been trained to 
amble across borders carry- 
ing bags of coca leaves. 

Similarly, Iran has re- 

ported the exploitation of in- 
nocent-looking sheep, with 
opium hidden beneath their 
wool. Again, the animals 
freely cross national fron- 

A spokesman for Pharma 
Information (representing 
the Swiss pharmaceutical 
firms Ciba-Geigy, Roche and 
Sandoz) said other ruses for 

smuggling drugs included dis- 
guising the characteristic 
odours by sprinkling consign- 
ments with garlic or trans- 
porting the illicit material in 
cartons of onions. 

“Petrol may be splashed 
around the cargo. Quite com- 
monly also, traffickers wrap 
the very malodorous brown 
opium in plastic and encase it 

in plaster of paris,” the 
spokesman said. 

Other unusual hiding places 
have included reading mate- 
rial for blind persons, snail 
shells, one egg in a carton of 
eggs, double-bottomed ^ine 
bottles, artificial flowers, and 
a wooden cage containing a 
live animal. 

Nixon’s motives aside 

SAODAP did achieve 


NEW YORK — There has been an 
open season for former aides of 
Richard Nixon to blame him for 
what they, and he, did during his 
administration that they now wish 
were undone. One who is not 
criticizing the ex - president is 
his first commander in the war 
against drugs, psychiatrist Dr. 
Jerome Jaffe. 

He was appointed by Nixon to 
be the first chief of SAODAP— the 
President's Special Action Office 
for Drug Abuse Prevention— and 
served from June, 1971. until 
June, 1973, when he retired. Dr. 
Jaffe. who now lives near New 
York City and teaches at the Co- 
lumbia College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, in Manhattan, shared 
some of his reminisences of SAO- 
DAP with The Journal on the occa- 
sion of the drug agency's immi- 
nent demise. 

Dr. Jaffe. for one, is essentially 
pleased with his own. and with 
SAODAP's achievements. He has 
no quarrel with the motives of the 
president who made them possi- 

Dr. Jaffe confirmed, as essen- 
tially correct, Ergil Krogh’s as- 
sessment of Nixon’s motives as 
being highly political (See story 
elsewhere on this page). People 
resent it, Dr. Jaffe said, because 
the motives of the administration 
were not pure. 

“Well,” he said. “I don't need 
to have pure motives, if I have 
good behavior .... I don't require 
altruism as a motive." 

Speaking of Nixon. Dr. Jaffe re- 

“His perception was that the 
public wants something done 
(about drugs and crime) and if it. 
can’t be done by taw enforcement, 
then we’ll give treatment a 

The American public. Dr. Jaffe 
said, was not interested in the 
health care of “hippies and jun- 
kies". But, “they were willing to 
pay for some of that if it would 
make their own lives a little safer 
and less risky.” 

As the result, addiction treat- 
ment services were granted un- 
precedented administrative prior- 
ities and, in a time when money 

SAODAP’s demise 

(continued from page 1) 

policy decisions. On the law en- 
forcement side, he said, the Drug 
Enforcement Agency is higher in 
the Justice Department than 
NIDA is in HEW. “That certainly 
is going to be in their (DEA's) 
favor in terms of evolving federal 

SAODAP was created because 
of the intense personal and politi- 
cal interest of President Richard 

Nixon in the problem of drug 
abuse and crime. 

The Ford administration, 
Bucher said, is no less interested 
in drug abuse than was the Nixon 
administration. But, he added, the 
“driving factor” in ending SAO- 
DAP’s existence on schedule is 
the new administration’s general 
policy of reducing the number of 
special offices in the office of the 

The president’s feeling, Bucher 
said, is that the responsibility 
ought to be returned to the more 
traditional line agencies. 

Whether there will be any fed- 
eral coordinating body to replace 
SAODAP is unclear, Bucher said. 
There has been some talk that a 
drug prevention policy task force 
may be established for the presi- 
dent’s domestic counsel. But no 
definitive action has been taken. 
In addition, there will continue to 
exist a small drug management 
office in the office of management 

and the budget. This too has a co- 
ordinating role. 

Has SAODAP accomplished 

“I think they did a hell of a lot,” 
said Bucher, who joined SAODAP 
in 1972. Among its most important 
achievements, he lists the in- 
crease in treatment slots from 
fewer than 20,000 to more than 
120,000 at the peak. Today, he 
said, there are 95,000 slots, all 

A significant achievement, he 
said, was the improvement in 
drug therapy, including the ac- 
ceptance of methadone mainte- 
nance and the development of 
minimal standards for methadone 
on treatment. 

Also important, he said, was the 
establishment, through federal 
regulations, of the confidentiality 
of drug abuse treatment. New reg- 
ulations that will further elabo- 
rate the client’s rights of confiden- 
tiality will be announced shortly, 
he said, in conjunction with NIDA. 

The ability to obtain data on 
drug use, abuse, and treatment re- 
sults, through uniform, computer- 
ized information systems, is also a 
significant advance, Bucher said. 
Planners now know a little more 
about the problem, with a little 
more assurance, he said, and this 
is valuable policy and program 

was tight, an unprecedented 
amount of cash to do the job. 

“Once the president says, ‘I'm 
interested in this problem,’ it has 
phenomenal reverberations," Dr. 
Jaffe said. “Without that, I think 
it all would have died. 

“His message to the (budget- 
setting) Office of Management 
and Budget was: ‘Don’t play 
games with my man!’ He gave me 
every nickel. He didn’t cut it down 
the middle.” 

“So," Dr, Jaffe continued, “if 
Nixon was willing to spend the ef- 
fort and resources, it seemed fair 
to me that he get the credit for 
doing whatever we could do. . . . 

“President Nixon’s administra- 
tion wanted to reduce crime. 
From it, we got a system for help- 
ing those people who got into 
drugs get back out.” 

His- own major contribution, he 
suggested, was to create and win 
assent to new methods through 
which this could be accomplished. 

A principal achievement, he 
said, was winning public and ad- 
ministrative commitment to 
treatment for addicts. Most of the 
available money was going to law. 
enforcement, but crime was get- 
ting worse rather than better. The 
public believed on the one hand 
that heroin addiction meant death 
or enslavement, but on the other 
hand the American law enforce- 
ment and judicial systems were 
not ideologically prepared to act 
on this assumption by locking up 
all users and throwing away the 

What is more. Dr. Jaffe added, 
the attitude that heroin addiction 
is hopeless “largely prevented 
people from re-entry into society. 

It made them public pariahs.” 

IVIUCh Of flis job, r>r. Jaffe indi- 

cated, was educational — in the 
sense of creating alternative ways 
for the public to think about drug 
abuse at the same time that these 
alternatives were being created in 

An effort was made, therefore, 
to establish that some heroin 
users did not commit crimes; that 
some who did were criminals be- 
fore they became users; while 
some became criminals only be- 
cause of their addiction, in order 
to buy drugs. 

The problem SAODAP faced. 
Dr. Jaffe said, was; “How do 
we help those who are not tied 
to crime to move back into the 
mainsteam, while at the same 
time countering the spreading 
(counter) view that all users are 
nice people who need only a little 
treatment to become paragons of 

The solution was to create an 

THE JOURNAL May 1, 1976— Page 3 

5/1 OD/1 P's first chief, Jerome Jaffe 

enormous surplus of treatment op- 

“When there is an excess of 
treatment,” Dr. Jaffe explained, 
“then no one can go before a judge 
and say: ‘I commit crimes to get 
heroin.’ The judge says, ‘We have 
300 treatment slots in New York 
City, why don’t you get into 

Dr. Jaffe thus claimed credit 
for the approach to heroin abuses 
that says ; 

“We will make treatment so 
available that no one can say he 
committed crime because he 
couldn’t get treatment.” 

The drug abuser thus was of- 
fered a choice, and the judge— and 
the public— provided a basis for 
determining whether the problem 
in a particular case was one of 

crime, or rather involved a druc 

abuser who would not be before 
the bar if adequate treatment op- 
portunities were available. 

To implement this policy re- 
quired considerable innovation. 
Previously, treatment had meant, 
for the most part, incarceration at 
Lexington, at a cost of $40,000 per 
bed/year. Little wonder then, he 
continued, that when SAODAP 
started there were no more than 

16.000 drug addicts in treatment— 
a tiny fraction of the estimated 

600.000 in the U.S. To treat them 
all at the prevailing high cost per 
treatment bed would have meant 
expenditures of billions of dollars 
—which were not available. 

To meet this need. Dr. Jaffe 
said, he changed the concept of 
what treatment is for heroin ad- 
diction, shifting the unit term 
from “bed”, which is costly, to 
“slot”, which may or may not be. 
The idea of treatment “slots”, he 
said, was a new and innovative 

achievement of SAODAP, one that 
since has become widely ac- 
cepted. A slot can be an expensive 
in-patient bed in a locked facility. 
Or, it can be a place for a patient 
in day care, a place in a therapeu- 
tic community, or— what is much 
less expensive— the resources to 
maintain an individual on metha- 
done maintenance. 

In the drive to create treatment 
“slots”. Dr. Jaffe said, SAODAP 
legitimatized methadone mainte- 
nance. This required enormous ef-' 
fort, since all of the professionals 
and agencies that had dealt with 
drugs and crime by and large op- 
posed it. 

To overcome this opposition. 
Dr. Jaffe recalled, SAODAP had 
to win agreement from the Justice 
Department, the Bureau of Nar- 
rooa ana Brur''^aftil?l'im"att&fi 
and the National Institute of Men- 
tal Health. This was no small 

By mid-1973, when he stepped 
down. Dr. Jaffe said, SAODAP 
had spurred the creation of 100,000 
treatment slots in the U.S. There 
then were 80,000 addicts and drug 
abusers in treatment in them. 

Dr. Jaffe was asked what one 
aim that he had had for SAODAP 
that he most regretted not having 
achieved. He thought a moment 
and said : 

“The one thing I would have 
wanted to do was the creation of a 
reliable data base so that we could 
keep track of the input of the var- 
ious programs and the waxing and 
waning of the drug problem. 

“In a time of simplistic think- 
ing,” he said, “you sometimes 
have an opportunity to make pro- 
gress on a complex problem” 

Early days recalled by White House “plumber” 

NEW YORK-For the last five 
years, the campaign against 
addiction in the United States 
has been largely orchestrated 
—and underwritten— by a fed- 
eral administrative entity with 
the oddly august title of Presi- 
dent’s Special Action Office for 
Drug Abuse Prevention. It is 
abbreviated SAODAP, and is 
subject to a variety of acro- 
nymic pronunciations. 

SAODAP, it is safe to say, 
has influenced the professional 
life of virtually everyone in the 
addiction rehabilitation field. 

It was a creation of the Nixon 
administration, and with its 
downfall, the quite human his- 
tory of SAODAP’s founding and 
early days has tumbled out far 
earlier than revelations of this 
sort normally occur. 

One from whose lips they 
have tumbled is Egil (Bud) 

Krogh, an associate of Nixon 
advisor John Ehrlichman. 
Young Krogh, one of the White 
House “plumbers” who served 
time for having authorized the 
burglary of the office of Daniel 
Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, was in- 
strumental in founding SAO- 
DAP. Now on the lecture cir- 
cuit— for W. Colston Leigh. 
Inc.— he is talking candidly, 
with the help of official memo- 
randa that remain in his pos- 
session. about his government 
work, particularly SAODAP. 

In a talk at Columbia Univer- 
sity late last year, he said the 
genesis of SAODAP was the de- 
cision by Nixon, in 1969, that 
crime in Washington, DC, had 
to be stopped. Krogh recalls 
calling the mayor, Walter 

“(I) asked him to stop crime 
and he paused a few minutes 

and said ‘Okay’. And that was 
about it.” 

Needless to say, crime did 
not stop, and several months 
later the White House took 
over the job. Says Krogh; 

“Basically, the concern for 
crime in the District of Colum- 
bia was the basic energy that 
led to the development of a na- 
tional drug control program.” 

A major link between crime 
and drugs, Krogh said, was a 
study that showed that 68% of 
the inmates in the DC jail were 
heroin addicts or users. An- 
other was surveys showing that 
drugs were perceived by the 
public as one of the nation’s 
most burning social issues. As 
a result, Krogh said, the war 
against drugs became a part of 
Nixon’s moral crusade. 

Drugs thus gained a top 
priority at the White House. 

Krogh described one early 
brain-storming session : 

“This idea came up one eve- 
ning in my office. We said, 
‘You know, we ought to think 
about something that is going 
to be taking action.’ Somebody 
said, ‘Yeah, but it ought to be 
special action— there are a lot 
of action programs. Why don’t 
we call it a special action of- 

And so SAODAP was born. 

“It was a clear crime con- 
trol, crime prevention orienta- 
tion,” Krogh said. 

President Nixon, who met 
with the drug war planners, is- 
sued his declaration of war on 
drugs in June, 1971. The Turk- 
ish opium farms were a major 
preoccupation, Krogh said, and 
an invasion was considered, 
briefly, and then rejected. 

Krogh shed some new light 

on Nixon’s rejection of propos- 
als to legalize marijuana. 
When National Institute of 
Mental Health chief Dr. Ber- 
tram Brown was quoted in the 
press as advocating legislation. 
Krogh said, Nixon “just ex- 
ploded and said. Nobody in my 
administration is going to be 
suggesting that we legalize it in 
this way.” 

Dr. Brown ultimately kept 
his job. When a Federal Com- 
mission on Marijuana and Drug 
Abuse recommended legaliza- 
tion. Krogh said, Nixon simply 
did not read the report. 

Within two years, Krogh 
said, Nixon felt that he had 
made as many political points 
as there were to be made on 
the issue of drugs, and his in- 
terest waned. Krogh said: 

“He did see drugs as politi- 
cal points.” ZIMMERMAN 

Page 4— THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975 

for my friends 

The bounds’ system 



LONDON: A growing chorus of 
concern about rising rates of 
alcoholism among young people 
and women and the appearance of 
“skid row’’ areas in major cities, 
has finally produced a response 
from the Department of Health 
and Social Security. 

Chief worry was the apparent 
delay over the setting up of the de- 
partment’s Advisory Committee 
on Alcoholism, promised last Sep- 

Names of members of the com- 
mittee have now been announced. 
It will be headed by Professor 
Neil Kessel of the University of 
Manchester and will advise the 
department for an experimental 
three-year period. 

The committee’s remit is to 
study services relating to alchol- 
ism and, where appropriate, pro- 
mote their development. 

It will also appoint a special sub 
group to help plan and develop 
better facilities for homeless alco- 

Professor Kessel is a founder 
member of Britain’s Medical 
Council on Alcoholism and a mem- 
ber of its executive committee. 
His publications include the 

ety, hostility— anything which 
leads to stress— could be consid- 
ered the “Achilles’ heel’’ of the 
alcoholic, a Chicago alcoholism 

“'^Slargaret A. Fleming, treat- 
ment coordinator for the Mercy 
Hospital Alcoholism Treatment 
Unit, observed that the alcoholic’s 
inability to cope with tensions 
could be related to certain pat- 
terns of unstable behavior that she 
has identified in both pre-drinking 
and post-treatment years. 

A survey of 64 former patients 



TORONTO— Canada’s Mig- 
raine Foundation which 
among other things is investi- 
gating the potential for drug 
addiction in migraine suffer- 
ers, has received a $10,000 
grant from Toronto’s Hospi- 
tal for Sick Children. 

The money is a one-time 
grant in support of the first 
year of operation of the To- 
ronto-based foundation which 
was formed in July, 1974. 

Migraine sufferers, or mig- 
raineurs as they are fre- 
quently termed, are often re- 
quired to use very potent 
drugs. With the assistance of 
the Addiction Research Foun- 
dation of Ontario, the Mig- 
raine Foundation wants to an- 
swer such questions as: Do 
migraineurs sometimes be- 
come drug addicts? If so, 
when? How can a migraineur 
in mid-attack convince a doc- 
tor he or she ’ . not, for exam- 
ple, a heroin addict? 

Although the $10,000 grant 
is not for a specific purpose, 
it does highlight the need for 
early intervention and treat- 
ment, according to Stuart 
MacKay, president of the 

Treatment in childhood 
could eliminate “decades of 
suffering’’ for migraineurs, 
he said. 

well-known book Alcoholism 
(published jointly Kessel and Wal- 
ton in 1965 and 1966), a revised 
edition of which is expected to ap- 
pear shortly. 

Travers Cousins, a leading 
member of the Avon Council on 
Alcoholism, Bristol, believes one 
way of dealing with the growing 
problem of alcoholism in Britain 
would be to reintroduce the “no 
treating’’ legislation which 
stopped the buying of “rounds” in 
public houses during the First 
World War. 

These regulations made it ille- 
gal for one person to purchase in- 
toxicating alcoholic beverages for 
another on licensed premises. 

Mr Cousins says: “Unless we 
examine this type of control, we 
must accept: 

1 Greater need for government 
money to be spent by the National 
Health Service on alcohol-related 
diseases and rehabilitation of al- 

2 Increased demands on exist- 
ing and projected hospitals and 
medical personnel ; 

3 An increase in the prevalence 
of alcohol-related disease and 

4 An increase in costs to busi- 
ness and industry, the police. 

disclosed such a pattern in their 
pre-drinking education, she said. 
Of the 42 in the group who had 
gone beyond the elementary level, 
only eight actually completed the 

lovol undoT't.alcon. sHc reportod . 

Similarly, post-treatment data 
showed that all 64 members of the 
group were employed at the time 
of the survey, but that 24 had 
returned to drinking and nine 
members of this group reported 
having held from two to five jobs 
since completing treatment, she 
said. None of those who were not 
drinking had changed jobs. 

“It would appear that the absti- 
nent group was demonstrating job 
stability, whereas many of those 
who returned to drinking contin- 
ued to be as unstable as employ- 
ees as they once had been as stud- 
ents, ” she said. 

Another difference between the 
two groups was that more of the 
group that returned to drinking 
had stopped attending AA meet- 
ings than of the non-drinking 
group, she said. 

The findings suggest in-patient 
treatment may only provide a 
temporary interruption in a drink- 
ing pattern and, by itself, is sel- 
dom capable of producing absti- 
nence, she said. Introduction to 
AA while still in treatment may 
be essential to maintaining absti- 
nence, she continued, since active 
involvement may produce a grad- 
ual shift of attitudes and values. 

The results showed that alcohol- 
ics who stopped drinking did not 
develop problems in other areas 
but were more likely to be 
employed steadily at the same 
job, going to AA meetings on a 
regular basis, amd feeling more 
positive about themselves and 
about others than those who 
returned to drinking. 

The results raise such questions 
as whether there is a “pre-alcoh- 
olic personality” or whether there 
are certain personality traits 
which relate to a lack of endur- 
ance or perseverance, she said. 

■’Increasingly,” she said, 
“evidence points to the existence 
of a pre-alcoholic personality 
which, when combined with cer- 
tain physiological and socio- 
cultural factors, may eventually 
produce alcoholism in many 
high-risk youngsters.” 

courts and prisons, and an enor- 
mous cost in disruption of fami- 

The Journal of the Medical 
Council on Alcoholism says in an 
editorial in its Spring issue that 
the extent to which the ‘rounds 
system” figures in the drinking 
habits of the present generation 
must be conjectural although visi- 
ble evidence supports the belief 
that the majority of people who 
drink in public do not do so alone. 

“That group drinking is playing 
a leading part in the increasing 
amounts of alcohol being con- 
sumed . . . seems certain, despite 
a paucity of objective investiga- 
tions,” the journal adds. 

“The studies made by Travers 
Cousins have convinced him that 
treating constitutes the greatest 
pressure on people to drink too 
much, and that it calls for drastic 
preventive action which might in- 
clude the reintroduction of the ‘No 
Treating’ Order of 1916. 

“Despite the remarkable suc- 
cess of this and other measures in- 
troduced durirfg a rave wartime 
emergency, it cannot be antici- 
pated that it will find favor in 
peace time, even in the presence 
of what many would call an emer- 
gency of another kind.” 

(The Irish National Council on 
Alcoholism recently launched a 
vigorous campaign against the 
‘rounds system’ and- it has re- 
ceived considerable support from 
press, radio and television, and 
the church. It says it does not look 
for dramatic results, but co- 
operation from many quarters has 
come to light and the campaign is 
expected to gain momentum and 
bear fruit.) 

The Journal of the Medical 

Council on Alcoholism says inquir- 

ies among moderate and not- 
so-moderate social drinkers con- 
firm that an appreciable number 
dislike drinking in the large 
groups in which they often find 
themselves, against their better 
judgment, because to buy their 
own drinks would be deemed unso- 

“Many a recovered alcoholic, 
recalling his past, has spoken of 
the delusive attraction of the 
drinking sessions at which tongues 
are loosened and the raconteur 
and humorist holds the floor. 

“It is ironical that the lone, ine- 
briated figure seen at the end of 
the bar, might have once been a 
leading light in such a group, until 
the onset of the ‘lonely disease’ 
made his presence unacceptable.” 

IRS agents 
‘programmed ’ 
to drink 

THE INTERNAL Revenue Ser- 
vice in the United States operated 
a secret school in which under- 
cover agents were tested with 
“liquor and women” to see if they 
could resist disclosing their own 
identities, according to The New 
York Times. 

The Times (April 14) said the 
program was referred to as 
“stress seminars” in some IRS 
circles and quotes one official as 
saying the program went on “at 
least until 1969 and probably 

A Federal law enforcement offi- 
cial was quoted by The Times as 
saying: ‘If I’ve got to teach an 
agent how to drink and to program 
him not to talk when he’s drunk, 
he is not undercover material. He 
found the idea of the school ‘laugh- 
able’, according to The Times. 

The revenue service is under in- 
vestigation by three Congressional 
committees looking into the use of 
informants, electronic surveil- 
lance techniques, and preparation 
of political dossiers. 

Personality patterns 
in pre-alcoholics 

I ncest factor 

(Continued from page 1) 

private with each female resident. Dr. Densen-Gerber stressed 
that in all cases there was a trusting relationship between the 
staff member and the resident. 

Of the 118 women interviewed, 52 admitted to having had inces- 
tuous relationships. In contrast, when Odyssey’s female staff 
members answered the questionnaire, 5% said they had had inces- 
tuous relationships. Odyssey House staff consider this to be repre- 
sentative of a national cross section. 

Apologizing for the “primitiveness” of the study. Dr. 
Densen-Gerber said: “It was the first. We did not expect to find 
44 7o. Dealing with that concept is almost . . . well, just almost un- 

She said studies on incest are almost non-existent in psychiatric 
literature. When they do exist, they tend to focus on individual 

“We never look at it as a very important factor that brings 


women to alcoholism, drug abuse, acting out, running away, pros- 
titution, illegitimacy, venereal disease— we never see trends.” 

While precise details of an incestuous event have a considerable 
bearing on how the law will deal with it, psychiatrically the fact 
that it took place at all is what matters, she said. 

“From the point of view of what 'happens to the child, even if 
she consents, she is damaged,” said Dr. Densen-Gerber. 

In the Odyssey study, the “most powerful dynamic in all cases, 
the primary thing they reported again and again and again was 
helplessness. They could not control (the situation).” j^nd the nec- 
essary external controls were not there, she said. 

“Many would not have been fed had they not co-operated. The 
only kind of closeness they learned was sexual. 

“If we don’t consider the female child, when we get to the 
female adult, she is so damaged, so traumatized— and she repeats 
it with her own children— we can’t get out of it.” 

In the study, incest was defined as inappropriate sexual contact 
with a person who would be considered ineligible because of blood 
or social ties, i.e. fathers, stepfathers, grandfathers, uncles, sib- 
lings, cousins, in-laws, and quasi-family members, including pa- 
rental and family friends. 

“Incest taboo applies ... to all these and the partner represents 


someone from whom the female child should rightly expect 
warmth, protection and sexual distance.” 

The women surveyed were from throughout the US. Fifty-three 
per cent were white, 40% black, 4% Hispanic and 3% native In- 
dian. Thirty-six per cent were Roman Catholic and 42% Protes- 

The 44% admitting incestuous relationships reported a total of 

93 different incestuous partners of whom 85 were male. Twenty- 
nine reported only one incestuous partner and 23 had multiple 
partners. The average number of partners was 2.6. 

“Those who had sexual relationships with female partners were 
all in the multiple partners group and the female incestuous part- 
nership began after the woman had been introduced to incestuous 
behavior by a male partner within her family.” 

■Thirty-seven per cent of the cases involved intercourse, the re- 
mainder involved other behavior. 

Incest was divided into two types— cross-generational and 
peer-generational . 

“When the partner is an authority, a trusted parental figure, 
such as the family doctor, the little girl has a different reaction 
than when it is play with her brother. 

“We are not particularly concerned— though it says something 


about the family life— about peer-generational play. We are con- 
cerned when it is incestuous behavior with a male, being an adult 
male, and it being a female child.” 

In the cross-generational group, 12% of the cases were with 
fathers, 9% with stepfathers, 2% with grandfathers, 17% with un- 
cles and 17% with quasi-family members. 

“There is a great need to confront the cases of incest to develop 
tools for detection and prevention and, of course, tools for treat- 
ment,” said Dr. Densen-Gerber. 

“With the current concern of women for women, this extremely 
devastating form of violation, namely statutory rape of a child by 
a parent figure, with the permanent psychology sequellae, must 
be faced and dealt with. 

“Much further work must be undertaken in an area which 
seems taboo even to us in investigation,” she said. 

Among other things, future Odyssey investigations will study 
incest in male children. 

Smoking twins needed 

(Continued from page 1) 

symptoms, may not be doing 
themselves serious harm— at 
least in terms of bronchitis and 
emphysema. (He stressed the 
team is not discussing lung can- 

On the basis of the test results, 
the team suggests there may be 
two groups of people— those who 
react to smoke by developing 
symptoms and poorer lung func- 
tion; and the non-reactors. 

The difference in the two groups 
could be accounted for by habit: 
They may smoke different types 
of cigarettes; may inhale differ- 

ently; may throw half-smoked cig- 
arettes away. 

But, there could also be a ge- 
netic factor. Hence the search for 
identical twins. 

As identical twins share the 
same genes, then if the genetic 
theory is correct, either both 
twins will smoke and react or both 
twins will smoke and not react. 

Working on the twin study are 
Dr Noe Zamel, associate profes- 
sor of medicine and head of the 
tri-hospital pulmonary function 
laboratory; and Dr Paul Man, a 
research fellow in the graduate 
program which trains specialists 
in chest diseases. 

THE JOURNAL, May 1. 1975— Page 5 




USE OF multi-media techniques 
to cut into the growing public con- 
sumption of alcohol is becoming a 
highly visible activity of health 
ministry communicators in Sas- 
katchewan, Ontario, and to a 
lesser extent, Manitoba. 

Within the past six months (be- 
ginning with Saskatchewan in 
mid-1974) slick, well-financed 
campaigns have been mounted to 
get the average drinker to slow 

In Saskatchewan, the public 
health department's AWARE pro- 
gram got underway with a combi- 
nation of television and radio com- 
mercials. newspaper and maga- 
zine ads, transit cards and road- 
side billboards. So far. 30 televi- 
sion and four radio commercials 
have been aired, and ads have ap- 
peared in all publications edited in 
the province. 

Don Leitch. director of AWARE 
told The Journal that $500,000 
(plus more than $100,000 from the 
federal government) was ex- 
pended on the program in fiscal 
1973-'74. The 1975-'76 spending will 
rise to $739,000 (plus whatever 
Leitch can squeeze out of Ottawa, 
if anything). 

The Saskatchewan program 
concentrates its ads and commer- 
cials in five broad zones; drinking 
and driving, teenage drinking, al- 
cohol as a drug, negative drinking 
patterns, and alcohol and indus- 

The key objectives are to raise 

the level of public awareness 
about the effects of alcohol, and 
reinforce social attitudes that 
would lead to a changing of those 

Ontario's program, which is ex- 
pected to cost about $500,000 in its 
first six-month period and up to 
$ 2*2 million by the end of its first 
three years, is described as a 
‘■positive, health oriented ap- 
proach. directed to the average 
consumer — not necessarily the 
problem drinker or alcoholic. " 

Planning for the program origi- 
nated more than two years ago 
with proposals made to the health 

ministry by the Addiction Re- 
search Foundation. In implement- 
ing the program, both the ARF 
and the Ministry of Education 
were involved in its design and 
message content. 

The program, unveiled in a 
day-long series of press confer- 
ence, includes: 

• Pamphlets on the physical ef- 
fects of alcohol. Prepared for the 
general public, these pamphlets 
will be distributed via health in- 
formation centres, mailings and 
other means. 

• Three 12-minute films for gen- 
eral audiences, produced by pro- 
fessional film production compa- 

• A series of 11 radio and five tel- 
evision commercials based on the 
theme “You are your own liquor 
control board." Produced by inde- 
pendent advertising firms, these 
commercials stress the wisdom of 
individual choice in establishing 
drinking practices. 

• Pamphlets and posters on the 
theme “Mix a little thinking with 
your drinking." These are to be 
distributed to business and indus- 
try for use in plants, offices, and 
union halls. They stress the costs 
of alcohol in terms of household 
budget, as well js in terms of so- 
cial health and welfare costs. 

• A series of pamphlets and pos- 
ters produced for young people. 
They are designed to make an im- 
pact on the youth audience at a 
time when .young people are form- 
ing their drinking habits and atti- 

In unveiling the program. On- 
tario Health Minister Frank 
Miller stressed a deliberate at- 
tempt to stay away from scare 
tactics and to promote positive at- 
titudes to healthy drinking styles. 

Underlying tlie development of 
the program is a “cause for grow- 
ing concern ". said the health min- 

“(People) are drinking to an ex- 
tent that is doing all round dam- 
age. not just to themselves, but to 
the productivity of the province, 
to the health care system, to their 
families, to fellow workers, to 

“There's no way, especially in 
times like these, when anyone can 
afford a hangover of a size like 
that,” declared Miller. 

The Ontario program is clearly 
intended to gain a high visibility. 
The five 30-second television com- 
mercials, for example, are slated 
to run for at least 650 exposures. 
They will run in prime time peri- 
ods (paid for at the going rates), 
as well as in public service slots. 

Most of the materials have also 
been prepared in French. 

Spokesman from the ministry 
say the program will be promoted 
across the province to various pro- 
fessional and business organiza- 
tions. Anyone requesting the ma- 
terials from outside Ontario is to 
be charged for them. 

The only major gap in the On- 
tario program is failure to use 
print ads in any publications. 
Director of Communications for 
the health ministry. Jim Bain, said 
that such ads would be included in 
future phases of the program. 

A key ingredient of the Sas- 
katchewan program, one which 
puts it several steps ahead of the 
others, according to Leitch, is the 
evaluation process that has been 
built in. Before the program was 
begun. AWARE commissioned Dr. 
Paul Whitehead, professor of soci- 
ology at the University of Western 
Ontario to run baseline studies de- 
fining the drinking patterns in the 
province. These studies will be 
used to gauge effectiveness of the 
program at variousp'ofnrs in time. 

Some samplings of public reac- 
tion have already been made and, 
according to Leitch, they show 
that the program is making the 
desired impact on Saskatchewan 

Of 551 responses, 80%) claimed 
recognition of some parts of the 
program, and of these, 79% were 
in favor of it and thought it was 


mttt, Ihwtelftt 

Posters and pamphlets 
designed to raise level 
of Ontario public awareness 

good. Only 2%; of respondents 
were against the idea of the pro- 

those 'Who respbrided, "50^ 
felt the program had already had 
some effect on drinking habits, 
and 8%o felt it had changed their 
own practices. Noteworthy in this 
latter group was that many of 
those who claimed it had changed 
their drinking activities were 
males, under the age of 25. 

“We put a lot of effort into mea- 
suring practices and attitudes be- 

fore putting this program into ef- 
fect," said Leitch. “Otherwise, I 

don't know how we could iudee its 

The Manitoba program, modest 
in comparison to both the Sas- 
katchewan and Ontario efforts, 
was arranged in close cooperation 
with AWARE. 

Manitoba negotiated a cost- 
sharing deal for the production of 
some of the Saskatchewan materi- 
als which it then adapted for its 
own purposes. 

Saskatchewan program concentrates 
its ads and commercials 
in five distinct areas 

“Ralph the Round Buyer” 

A dfink witb Ralph turns 'nto Quite a few 

Harry Heavy Hand 

iHis QouDies make vou see double ) 

“Tallulah Topper 

iSbe tops up votir drmk before you re finished 

Wally "What'll it be? 

itraes-: ‘-r'. fVW. : 

New campaigns urge 
public to "Slow Down" 

Page6— THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975 

Mid— Florida Centre for Alcoholics 

... a model treatment program 

ORLANDO, FLA.— When the 
National Institute on Alcohol 
Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) 
made its well known movie, 
“America on the Rocks,” it sent 
its cameramen down to this east 
central Florida city to photograph 
what is widely acknowledged as 
one of the best alcoholism pro- 
grams in the country— the pro- 
gram operated by the Mid-Florida 
Centre for Alcoholics. Inc., a 
non-profit organization set up in 

The MFCA program has served 
as a model in more ways than 
this, executives of the organiza- 
tion told The Journal in a recent 
interview. It also ranks near the 
top of its class as far as effec- 
tiveness and efficiency of opera- 
tion are concerned. 

An evaluation of alcoholism 
treatment centres conducted for 
NIAAA by the Stanford Research 
Institute, an independent research 
organization, attests to the effec- 
tiveness of the centre’s work and 
the efficiency with which it is per- 
formed : 

• Of the programs monitored, 
MFCA had the highest impact in 
its class on employment of 
patients after treatment. Some 
84% of those considered to be in 
the work force were working at 
the end of 90 days and had 
increased their income by 22% 
over that just prior to intake 
(compared to national figures of 
78% employed, with only 2.5% 
increased income ) . 

• MFCA patients, who tended 

to have a higher intake of liquor 

per month before treatment than 

the average for other centres, 

drank very much less than the 

average after treatment^ (0.5 

ounces per day on an average of 
111 vii^ iiionvti, eumpared 

to a national average of 1.3 ounces 
per day for 3.2 days). 

Other figures in the continuing 
study revealed MFCA had the low- 
est average expenditure per per- 
son treated, the highest number of 
persons served per staff member, 
and the largest caseload of all 
alcoholism treatment centres in 
its class, which is based on area 

“We were actually the first pro- 
gram in the country to be funded 
under the 1970 amendments to the 
Regional Mental Health Centers 
Act,” MFCA executive director 
Betty Jo McLeod told The Jour- 

“A group here that included 
representatives of some 16 major 
public and private agencies had 
spent the previous two years sur- 

veying the community’s alcohol- 
ism services and needs and devel- 
oping a program to meet those 
needs. So we were all ready to 
qualify for federal funding as soon 
as it became available.” 

Planning ahead appears to be 
one reason for the organization’s 
consistent successes. Another 
is undoubtedly the realistic 
approach of the professionals who 
run the centre— among other 
things, they manage to keep 
enough options open to allow them 
to deal with, or at least adjust to, 
setbacks that may frustrate their 
ambitious planning. 

And setbacks have occurred. 
Last year they lost the new head- 
quarters building they were about 
to move into. 

Betty Jo McLeod 

“We were left with this whole 
program and no place to go with 
it.” Miss McLeod relates. “We 
had 30 days to get relocated and 
back in service or we’d lose some 
or our grant funding. We put in a 

harried 30 days.” 

No hospital-like facilities were 
available. What was available in 
mid-town Orlando was a con- 
verted old residence that could 
accommodate the administrative 
offices. outpatient services 
(including outpatient group ther- 
apy) and information and referral 
facilities. Space for the inpatient 
service, the day care program and 
some other facilities would have 
to be found elsewhere. 

The solution to the problem was 
a ground floor wing in one of the 
many new motels built during the 
Disney World construction boom. 
Approximately 10 miles of urban 
and suburban Orlando separate 
the two groups of facilities— but 
the program continues without a 


“For the first time we’re oper- 
ating a split program,” says Miss 
McLeod. “But we see it as tempo- 
rary-sort of a holding pattern. 
We’re now looking again at the 
idea of building a building, as 
there’s simply nothing available 
that would be suitable.” 

Another setback occurred at 
much the sarne time. One of the 
centre’s pet projects was a sub- 
acute detoxification unit in St. 
Cloud, a town of some 5,000 people 
in one of three counties (Orange, 
Osceola, and Seminole) served by 
the centre. 

This unit operated “very suc- 
cessfully” for almost a year but 
had to be closed down last fall 
because of a snag in the funding 
arrangements, reflecting differ- 
ences between counties and the 
state government over the ques- 
tion of sharing. The situation is 
still fluid and officials hope the 
differences will soon be resolved. 

But the enforced closure of the 
operation was a disappointment. 
Says MFCA’s community educa- 
tion coordinator, William S. 
Chambers, Jr; “After it had been 
going for six months, we found it 
had served more people in the last 
two months of that period than in 
the first four. And the statistics 
continued to build. in much the 
same way for the whole eleven 

“The policemen also liked it,” 
says Miss McLeod, “because they 
don’t enjoy being tied up for 
hours, as can happen if, for lack of 
proper special facilities, they 
have to go to a hospital emer- 
gency room with the intoxicated 
person who needs treatment. 

“Emergenoy rooms are chroni- 

cally overcrowded these days and, 
of course, the real medical emer- 
gencies have to be handled first. 
So the drunk sits in the corner, and 
the doctor in the emergency room 
doesn’t want the policeman to go 
away and leave him there. So the 
policeman has to wait around until 
the medical emergencies are all 
dealt with and his charge can be 
taken over by the emergency room 

“When you have these alcohol- 
ism units set up properly ... a 
police officer can leave the intoxi- 
cated person and be on his way 
within 10 minutes, by which time 
the intoxicated individual is 
already started on a treatment 

The main programs of the 
Mid-Florida Centre for Alcohol- 

ism have not, however, been 
affected by the setbacks. 

The centre offers a comprehen- 
sive list of services based on the 
general philosophy that detoxifi- 
cation alone is not sufficient treat- 
ment for alcoholism but must be 
followed by long term rehabilita- 

“A lot of alcoholism units aren’t 
set up to do rehabilitation,” says 
Mr. Chambers, “but we attempt 
to get the rehabilitation started 
from the moment the individual 
comes in, while he is undergoing 

“We call this ‘intermediate 
rehabilitation’ because we don’t 
feel by any means that the two 
weeks we have him here really 
assures him of continuing sobri- 


IVilliam Chambers 

“So we encourage him to go into 
some form of after care— our out- 
patient program or perhaps AA 
affiliation and activity or any of a 
variety of sources of support fol- 
lowing the two weeks of treatment 

The individual is the focus of 
really intensive rehabilitation 
efforts during the two weeks he is 
an inpatient. 

“We take the time he would be 
wasting if he were undergoing 
detox in a hospital,” Miss McLeod 
explains, “and we give him 
didactic education in alcoholism. 
Alcoholics are notoriously igno- 
rant of their own problems. Each 
one of them, when he comes in, 
thinks he’s the only guy in the 
world that’s controlled by liquor. 

“So we try to give him the best 
knowledge available, based on 
research throughout the world, 
about alcoholism, its antecedents, 
its physical effects and so forth. 

“Then we move him from that 
into the area of trying to under- 

stand himself as a human being, 
then from there into interaction— 
the way people relate to each 
other— correlating this with some 
understanding of how alcohol is 
used as a coping mechanism in 

“By the time we get through 
with the patient in this two week 
sequence, he’s pretty knowledgea- 
ble and we’ve given him the tools 
he can work with in handling his 
problem even if we never see him 

In most cases, however, the 
centre does see the patient again, 
usually in one or more of the long 
term rehabilitation programs.' 
There are also some repeaters. 
Those back a second time for 
detoxification go through essen- 
tially the same rehabilitation pro- 
gram but, being with a different 
group, also get different experi- 

Rehabilitation groups are lim- 
ited to 10 people. Usually one staff 
member handles such a group, but 
occasionally two will work 

An individual counsellor is also 
assigned to every patient, to work 
specifically with him through the 
two weeks. The ratio of all staff to 
patients is approximately 1 to 6. 

A flexible format is used for the 
group therapy. “It’s a free flowing 
thing,” says Miss McLeod. “The 
therapist responds to the needs of 
the patients as manifested at the 
time. This may be a unique aspect 
of our program.” 

Outpatient clinic services form 
an important part of MFCA’s 
activities. Some 13 outpatient 
groups meet in the evenings at 
headquarters each week. Each 
group comprises a psychotherap- 
ist, a counsellor and up to 10 
patients. There are groups for 
husbands and wives together 
(individual conjoint therapy is 
also available when indicated), 
groups for only the husbands or 
wives of alcoholics and several 
groups of alcoholics themselves. 
Also, although there is no official 
affiliation with Alcoholics Anony- 
mous, the centre works closely 
with various AA members and 

There is also a “diagnostic 
group” for people who enter 
through the DWI (driving while 
intoxicated) program. These are 
people who have never gone 
through a program and usually 
are not convinced they need to. 

Other MFCA activities include 
community outreach— dispensing 
information and providing limited 
services to outlying areas. 

Listing of drug prices prelude to public advertising 

OTTAWA— The federal govern- 
ment is finally changing its drug 
regulations to allow the posting of 
comparative prices in drug stores 
of most prescription drugs. 

The move, a first step towards 
public advertising of prescription 
drugs, was in effect forced on Ot- 

OTTAWA— When heroin is scarce, 
addicts have discovered they can 
“con” doctors into prescribing an 
opium derivative called Dilaudid 
to tide them over. 

The Ontario College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons has again 
warned its member doctors about 
being “conned” and added it is 
against the law for a physician to 
prescribe a narcotic except to a 
patient under his or her profes- 
sional treatment. 

“Dilaudid should not be pre- 
scribed in the treatment of drug 
addiction, ” because Dilaudid is 
not a recognized drug in the treat- 
ment of addiction. 

Contrary to previous warnings 

tawa when a number of drug 
stores in Montreal and Toronto 
started doing it, despite existing 
federal and provincial prohibi- 

But the federal government’s 
regulatory changes, which should 
be made public soon, will continue 

about the drug, “a member of doc- 
tors have been supplying prescrip- 
tions which are getting into the il- 
licit market,” the College says. 

Dilaudid is the trade name for 
the opium derivative hydromor- 
phine and is considered a highly 
acceptable substitute for heroin 
for addicts. 

The drug is normally used in 
medicine as a painkiller and as a 
method of controlling coughs. 

The College says that “addicts 
are ‘conning’ physicians info writ- 
ing prescriptions by admitting to 
heroin addiction and requesting 
Dilaudid to help them break the 

to prohibit the posting of prices of 
certain drugs and even certain 
over-the-counter medicines that 
are either hazardous or potential 
drugs of abuse. 

Narcotics, amphetamines, and 
barbiturates, and other related 
controlled or restricted drugs, will 
remain verboten, to ensure that 
price posting does not encourage 
abuse of these addictive drugs, ac- 
cording to federal health officials. 

Certain over-the-counter prod- 
ucts, supposed to be used only on 
the advice of a doctor, will also be 
kept off the price lists. Curiously 
enough, these products will con- 
tinue to be displayed where anyone 
can choose different brands and 
compare prices. 

The idea of allowing compara- 
tive price posting in pharmacies 
has been advocated by the federal 
health department for several 

But since Ottawa has the power 
only to allow, not to force, com- 
parative pricing, it was left to the 
provinces, in particular the pro- 
vincial colleges of pharmacists, to 
take the first step to allowing the 

practice. . 

Until recently, the main argu- 
ment against such a move from 
some pharmacists was that it 
would promote abuse of some 
drugs, particularly addictive 

While the federal government 

OTTAWA— With preparation and 
training of amateur athletes al- 
ready underway for the 1976 
Olympics, the Ontario College of 
Physicians and Surgeons has 
warned doctors not to prescribe 
amphetamines or amphetamine- 
like drugs to improve the perform- 
ance of athletes 

In its report to physicians, the 
College notes that such use of am- 
phetamines is forbidden under the 
Food and Drugs Act. 

Amphetamines were limited by 
he federal government to a very 
restricted number of uses after it 
was decided the drug was addic- 
tive and overprescribed in Can- 

does not believe comparative 
posting would encourage abuse of 
drugs, since a doctor’s prescrip- 
tion must still be obtained, it re- 
moved what it thought was the 
heart of the controversy by keep- 
ing narcotics and the controlled 
drugs under a prohibition. 

The Ontario College also notes 
that related drugs such as Ritalin, 
Tenuate and other stimulants, “al- 
though available on prescription, 
should not be used for this purpose 
(improving the performance of 
athletes) and in fact are prohib- 
ited by the ‘doping rules’ of ath- 
letic associations.” 

The college says that “since 
these drugs may be widely used by 
trainers in other countries, upon 
coming to Canada they may ex- 
pect our doctors out of courtesy to 
provide prescriptions for mem- 
bers of visiting teams. 

“A firm refusal softened by a 
tactful explanation will be re- 

Addicts "conning” doctors 

Pre— Olympic warning 

THE JOURNAL May 1. 1975 — Page 7 

backs out 

Lib threat 

sioner of New York City’s Addici- 
tion Services Agency, and 
would-be moderator of a Work- 
shop on Women’s Concerns at the 
conference, cancelled the session 
when a group of women threat- 
ened to picket it. 

The workshop scheduled for the 
third day of the four-day confer- 
ence, was cancelled by Hornblass 
when he learned a group of women 
“were concerned” that he and not 
a woman was to be moderator. 

One woman delegate said about 
40 women had planned to picket 
the session and that two women 
who were to participate in the 
panel discussion had decided 
against it. 

She said opposition to the com- 
missioner’s appearance began 
soon after copies of the program 
were distributed on the first day. 

Alberta L. Henderson, special 
assistant for women’s concerns in 
the office of the director of the 
National Institute on Drug Abuse, 
and co-chairperson of the confer- 
ence, said she was relieved that a 
confrontation that was potentially 
“disruptive” had been avoided. 

Mr. Hornblass moderated an- 
other program on Treatment in 
New York City— an indication of 
National Trends. 

About 3,000 people, most of 
th^m from the United States, at- 
tended the conference which fo- 
cused on drug abuse prevention 
methods, treatment and rehabili- 
tation, and on major issues in the 

Apparent as a new and growing 
force at least year’s Chicago con- 
ference, women commanded per- 
haps even more attention this 
year— as speakers, delegates. 

Jerome Hornblass 

workers in the field, and as ad- 
dicts and addict-mothers. 

That fact was not critically af- 
fected by the cancellation of the 
Workshop on Women’s Concerns. 
Other workshops focused on such 
subjects as Women in Treatment; 
Women and Drugs; Women and 
Addiction; Women— Special Prob- 
lems; and The Female Client: 
Treated or Mistreated? 

Next year’s conference chair- 
person is Dr Joyce Lowinson, 
director of the Drug Abuse Ser- 
vice, Albert Einstein College of 
Medicine, Bronx State Hospital, 
New York. 

Cocaine studied 

duces significant psychological 
and physiological effects in hu- 
mans at dosages of 10 mg and 25 
mg, according to a New York Med- 
ical College study. 

The researchers claim their 
study is the first to investigate the 
effects of cocaine in humans in a 
controlled situation. 

“Although the basic systemic 
action of cocaine is known to be 
sympathomimetic, the magnitude 
and duration of its effects at dif- 
ferent doses has not been system- 
atically studied,” Dr. Richard B. 
Resnick told said here. 

“There have been no controlled 
studies of physiological or behav- 
ioral effects of cocaine in individ- 
uals who are free of serious or- 
ganic disease or psychopathol- 

Dr Resnick and collaborators, 
from the division of drug abuse re- 
search and treatment, department 

A CHICAGO team has warned 
against too glibly “lumping alco- 
holics and narcotics together clini- 

For one thing, “from our ob- 
servations in our own setting the 
serious interaction between these 
two agents is minimal,” they say. 

furthermore, there is a danger 
of talking addicts into alcoholism. 

“In view of the current talk 
about alcoholism, many patients 
may be beginning to ask them- 
selves is not alcoholism to be an 
expected outcome or concomitant 
of narcotic addiction? 

“We must be especially careful 
not to injudiciously help progagan- 
dize them into such a self- 
fulfilling belief at a time of spe- 
cial susceptibility.” 

The team, Drs. Jordan Scher, 
Kenneth Smith and Suck-oo Kim, 
of the National Council on Drug 
Abuse and the Methadone Mainte- 
nance Institute in Chicago, made 
an intensive study of 628 of 2,000 
addicts seen at the Methadone 
Maintenance Institute clinic over 
the past three years. 

The study was aimed at evaluat- 
ing misuse of alcohol in conjunc- 
tion with, or as a result of, addic- 

Of the 394 patients who admit- 
ted using alcohol, 62% admitted 
they had first drunk before in- 
volvement with narcotics and 38% 
said they had first drunk after be- 
coming involved with narcotics. 
Thirty-five per cent said they had 
drunk to the point of stupor and of 
these, 15% said it had happened on 
more than one occasion. 

Eighteen per cent admitted 
combining alcohol with other 
drugs such as marijuana and 

Of those who admitted drinking, 
the researchers estimated 5% had 
a serious alcoholic problem and 
about 117o more were heavy drink- 
ers and potential alcoholics. 

Among the heaviest drinkers, 
average age was 36 years, 10 
years older than the average for 
the whole group. 

“This would suggest either their 
increased alcohol use was related 
to their older age or alcohol may 
be a substitute or enhancing fac- 
tor in use of drugs, as addicts get 

"It was the younger patients, a 
proportion of whom combined al- 
cohol and polydrugs, who often 
had fewer skills, less of a work 
history and more of a tendency to 

of psychiatry, assessed physiologi- 
cal and subjective effects over 
30-minute observation periods of 
single doses of 10 mg and 25 mg 
cocaine by intranasal and intrave- 
nous administration. 

The study is the initial one in a 
series aimed at identifying and un- 
derstanding cocaine’s systemic ef- 
fects and determining if treat- 
ment is indicated and if so what 

Physiological parameters mea- 
sured were heart rate, blood pres- 
sure, respiration, oral tempera- 
ture and handgrip strength. 

Subjective effects measured 
consisted of “high”, pleasantness, 
speeding, hunger, strength, and 
acute effects. Subjects rated de- 
gree of sensation on various scales 
and acute effects were assessed 
by the number of positive respon- 
ses to 32 statements, including “I 
have a weird feeling”, “My mem- 
ory seems sharper to me than 

misuse combinations of alcohol 
and polydrugs,” the team re- 

Although a number of the pa- 
tients admitted simultaneous use 
of alcohol and narcotics, these 
drugs did not seem to be mutually 
stimulatory. It also did not appear 

that the sei'ious misuse of narcot- 

ics necessarily entrained an 
equally serious misuse of alcohol. 

In many patients during detoxi- 
fication, or shortly after, there 
was a transient increase in use of 
alcohol. When this increase oc- 
curred, it was generally 
self-limited to a period of a few 
days to a few weeks. 

Patients who did not have a se- 
vere drinking problem were 
usually older and had the heaviest 
family responsibilities and job 
pressures. Most of those with a se- 
rious alcohol problem said they 
had always been heavy drinkers. 
In many cases, so had their par- 
ents. In about 7% of the entire 
group, there was a history of sec- 
ond or third generation narcotic 
addiction as well. 

“Aside from the transient in- 
crease in alcohol misuse in those 
in the process of detoxification, it 
is our impression that narcotic ad- 
diction in and of itself, does not 
promote heavy drinking or alco- 
holism as such. 

“Nor is there a cross compul- 
sion in the majority of these pa- 
tients between these two agents, 
from our observations.” 

“Drinking in the American pop- 
ulation at large seems to be facili- 
tated by a number of factors— -a 
familial history, presence or ab- 
sence of a broken home, marital 
problems, financial problems, 
pressures of work or achieve- 
ment, an effort to self-treat an un- 
derlying psychiatric condition, an 
effort to suppress anger, to facili- 
tate social intercourse, and oth- 

“Drinking in our addicted popu- 
lation seems to be primarily a so- 
cial phenomenon and one essen- 
tially leisure-related,” said the 

The researchers said the popu- 
lation of the Chicago clinic may be 
slightly different from that of 
other clinics in that there is a high 
percentage of the patients work- 
ing and self-supporting. In other 
clinics, where there are few pa- 
tients with jobs and or skills, and 
perhaps a greater number of lei- 
sure-oriented individuals, the fre- 

usual” and “I feel less discour- 
aged than usual”. 

Cocaine administered through 
the nose produced measurable ef- 
fects only at the 25 mg dosage. 
Blood pressure rose and subjects 
reported a very mild and some- 
what pleasant experience. The ef- 
fects were maximal 10 minutes 
after the drug was given and were 
still evident at the end of the ob- 
servation period. 

Cocaine injected into a vein pro- 
duced significant dose-related ef- 
fects on three of the physiological 
measures and all the subjective 
measures— except strength. 

At the 10 mg dosage, the heart 
rate rose an average of 23 beats 
per minute: systolic blood pres- 
sure increased 13 mm; and dias- 
tolic blood pressure, 5 mm, which 
was not significant, said Dr. Res- 

Following 25 mg intravenous co- 
caine, heart rate was -|-32 beats/ 
min; systolic blood pressure was 
-1-26 mm; and diastolic blood pres- 
sure was -f-14 mm. 

The onset of these effects oc- 
curred within two minutes and 
peaked within 10. Onset and in- 
tensity of the physiological 
changes corresponded with the 
onset and intensity of the subjec- 
tive changes. 

At the end of the observation pe- 
riod, almost all subjective effects 
returned to ’normal except a lack 
of hunger which persisted. 

Physiological changes were still 
present 30 minutes after the drug 
was administered. After the acute 
effects subsided, almost half of 
the subjects reported feelings of 
anxiety or depression. 

Dr Resnick is associate profes- 
sor and director of research for 

the division. His collaborators 

were Dr Richard Kestenbaum, as- 
sistant research professor and as- 
sociate director of research, and 
Dr Lee K Schwartz, a researcher. 


reports from the 

National Drug 

Abuse Conference, 

New Orleans, La. 

quency of polydrug use and alco- 
hol use may be higher, they said. 

“One wonders whether issues 
such as excessive leisure, job 
frustration, absence of job or job 
skills, and a seemingly bleak fu- 
ture, may not have more to do 
with the reported much higher in- 
cidence of heavy drinking and al- 
coholism in other clinic settings 
where narcotism is treated. 

“We seriously wonder whether 
it is not a necessary cross, or se- 
quential relationship between nar- 
cotics and alcohol per se, so much 
as other social and personal fac- 
tors which may be of far more sig- 
nificance in accounting for the 
level of reported cross-addiction. 

“A population that is deeply 
frustrated, not only by its inability 
to divest itself of addiction but 
also by its inability to make seri- 
ous social and upwardly mobile 
changes, may be very ripe for the 
misuse of many different types of 
drugs simultaneously, not the 
least of which would be alcohol. 





A LITTLE work, a little play, 
and sex: For men and women 
in the aging years, that is 
probably the best formula for 
avoiding alcoholism, accord- 
ing to American psychiatrist, 
Dr. Leon Saltzman. 

For those approaching re- 
tirement years, his message 
is: Plan ahead. 

“Retirement without ad- 
equate preparation for alter- 
native activities may lead to 
boredom, loneliness, and feel- 
ings of worthlessness,” said 
Dr. Saltzman, deputy direc- 
tor, Bronx Psychiatric 
Centre, and clinical professor 
of psychiatry, 'Albert Einstein 
College of Medicine. 

Such feelings, he said, may 
lead to depression which in 
turn, may lead to alcoholism. 

“The crisis years in the ab- 
sence of responsible involve- 
ment in some activity, be it 
work or play, lend themselves 
to depression or its equivalent 
often ending up in excessive 
drinking to a point of alcohol- 

The relevant issue in both 
sexes seems to “refer to the 
marked effects of the reduc- 
tion or sudden termination of 
hitherto active functioning ei- 
ther in professional or domes- 
tic roles”, said Dr. saltzman. 

“In the aging crisis, for 
many of us the difficulty lies 
in the unfortunate assumption 

impossible in the declining 

While the prescription for 
prevention of such difficulties 
is comparatively simple, he 
said, the program to carry it 
out is “enormously difficult” 
in a society “where only the 
young and the active are re- 
warded with both financial 
and social acceptance”. 

There should be programs 
of community education, re- 
forming and restructuring of 
social security laws, im- 
proved retirement programs 
by organizations, and altered 
attitudes towards the aging, 
“particularly those in the 
years from 45 to 70”, he said. 

“These are the most pro- 
ductive years in the sense 
that the individual has now 
arrived at the height of his 
skills in his occupation or pro- 
fession and can be a very 
effective participant in any 
program, even if he is not as 
physiologically capable as he 
was in the earlier years. 

“In addition, misconcep- 
tions about sexual activities 
need to be clarified since the 
aging years are not asso- 
ciated with a loss of sexual in- 
terest but, in fact, may be as- 
sociated with an increased 
sexual interest even though 
there may be decreased fre- 
quency. 'There is surely the 
continued capacity for full 
and total sexual enjoyment.” 

While this applies to both 
male and female, for the fe- 
male “it may also be a period 
of greater sexual enjoyment 
since there is no longer any 
need to restrain or to inhibit 
one’s sexuality because of 
children and other social re- 

For both men and women, 
although often at different 
ages, there are many disrup- 
tive elements whether they 
are single, married, with or 
without families, said the 

Alcohol and narmtics 

A minimal 

Page 8— THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975 


Gary Seidler 

Anne MacLennan 

Milan Korcok 


Lachlan MacQuarrie (Hong Kong) 
Walt Nagel (Calgary) 

Tom Hill (Rorida) 

Saul Abel (Los Angeles) 

Mary Hager (San Francisco) 
Dorothy Trainor (Montreal) 

Jean McCann (Cleveland) 

Betty Lou Lee (Hamilton) 

Bryne Camjthers (Ottawa) 

Otha Unton (Washington) 
David Zimmerman (New York) 
Alan Massam (London) 

Tom Land (London) 

David Ehrlich (Geneva) 

Peter Thompson (Vancouver) 
Manfred Jager (Winnipeg) 

The Journal 


Dr. Harding Le Riche, Prof., School of Public Health and Hygiene, University of Toronto 
Dr. Albert Rose. Dean, Faculty of Social WoiV, University of Toronto 
Dr. Thomas Bryant, President Drug Abuse Council. Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Lionel Solursh, Associate Head, Dept, of Psychiatry. Toronto Western Hospital 
Dr. Wilf Boothroyd. Senior Medical Consultant, ARF 
Henry Schankula, Director of Administration. ARF 
Or. Eugene LeBlanc, Assistant Head. Research Division, ARF 
Dr. David Smith, Medical Director. Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic. San Francisco 
Dr. Thomas Ungerleider. Associate Professor of Psychiatry. UCLA Medical Centre 

PuUished monthly by the 

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Equal time for women 

FOR THE addictions field to believe that the call for attention to 
women’s specific needs and problems is a middle-class phenome- 
non that can be taken lightly, is wrong. 

Slowly but certainly, the mistake of lumping women alcoholics 
and addicts with men is beginning to haunt us. That we ignore 
them at our peril and, more important, at the peril of the next gen- 
eration, was dramatically illustrated in a paper presented to the 
National Drug Abuse Conference in New Orleans. 

Of 118 women in 44 therapeutic communities, 44% had had inces- 
tuous relationships by the time they were 15 years old. One can 
only surmise what sort of homes those children lived in, what 
other relationships they had. 

But today, some of their children are in custody or treatment for 
alcoholism, addictions, and other “anti-social” behavior. 

As the paper’s presenter. Dr. Judianne Densen-Gerber, put it: 
How often can we expect a female child, violated at three, four, 
or five years old by a man from whom she had every right to 
expect protection from sexual exploitation, develop into a coping, 
functioning member of society? And what can we expect of her 
children? (Many of the women studied had several, said Dr. Ju- 
dianne Denser (Berber. ) 

Although more investigation is needed, to deny the potentially 
profound implications of this study in the etiology of alcoholism 
and addiction in women would be rash. 

Troubled men and troubled women make troubled children- to- 
gether. To set women above men would be no more right than 
having neglected them. But to fail to give them equal time and 
attention is to fail the next generation. 


A “slick” beginning 

THE INTRODUCTION in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario, 
of educational programs highlighting the risks of alcohol con- 

Riirr\ntif»n ssKowr a lot of faith ir\ the persuasive power of the public 


How effective the Ontario program will be in changing attitudes 
is still to be determined. 

But if the media is at all effective in modifying social attitudes, 
this program should work since it has been crafted according to 
the highest professional and technical standards of the visual arts, 
television, radio and film. “Slick” is the word we normally use. 

As was suggested at the Ontario program unveiling, “slick” is 
to many people a pejorative. “Multi media,” and “commercial” 
mean playing to the gallery. 

Well what’s wrong with that? 

In this case it is the gallery that counts and the gallery is accus- 
tomed to slick, sophisticated, commercial productions. 

It’s true the amounts spent in these programs are but fractions 
of what is spent by alcohol merchandising concerns, and competi- 
tion for the viewers attention is fervent. 

But a beginning has been made. Public money in sizeable 
amounts has been appropriated for the purpose of getting people 
to use alcohol more carefully, to drink less. 

More than likely, the provincial programs won't make dramatic 
intrusions into public drinking practices. Not yet. It takes time for 
attitudes to change and it takes time for that change to work its 
way into the style of living. 

But, a beginning has been made, it should be encouraged. 

A closer reality 

EMOTIONAL TRAUMA is routine these days. We get it in color 
with breakfast. 

And as dutifully as Adler’s rats salivated, we respond with the 
appropriate noises. 

Resigned, we prefer our shocks giant-sized— wars, famine, cor- 
ruption. And we are grateful when they are delivered, packaged, 
by our televisions and newspapers. 

These are dangers in our responses to those distant 
disembodied stimuli. They allow for, perhaps encourage, an al- 
most luxurious notion that reaction is compassion. And they 
threaten to overwhelm our capacity to be moved by closer reali- 

Recently, a doctor was lecturing a group of medical students. 
The subject was child abuse, the message was real, and the doctor 
chose to illustrate with slides. 

Outraged and indignant, the students raised a storm of protest, 
but not about the assaults on the children. The slides had offended 

They had been confronted with a reality too close, too real. 

One fears that the medical students, bright and presumably 
concerned, may not have been particularly unusual— as students 
or human beings. And one wonders how many of them, indeed how 
many people in the field of addictions, would find themselves as 
repulsed— by needle marks on a mother’s arm, a father’s drunken 
stupor, the smell of grinding poverty, or even a different lifestyle. 

Defences against distant surrealism may now be an essential 
part of life. More reason why the capacity to be moved by one’s 
own reality, must not be allowed to become an historical relic, an 
embarrassing memory. 


Letters to the Editor 


As I read The Journal, (April 
1 ) , I am appalled to note that at no 
time in any report of scientific re- 
search, or any write-up of addic- 
tive circumstances, is any sugges- 
tion made as to what might pre- 
vent individuals becoming ad- 

It is a well-known fact that the 
problem of alcoholism is at an 
all-time high. The one and only 
cause is ALCOHOL. 

The educational program to 
teach “responsible drinking”, 
which is now being instituted by 
some groups, will be an impossi- 
bility because each person will 
choose to be his own judge of “re- 

The lowering of the legal drink- 
ing age, the opening of outlets, the 
lengthening of hours of sale,''''the 
leniency in granting so-called 
“special permits”, have all con- 
tributed to the marked increase in 
sale and consumption of alcoholic 
beverages. This in turn has re- 
sulted in more crime, broken 
homes, and highway accidents. Al- 
cohol has played a major part in 
the cause. 

Is it not time that those study- 
ing the problem think of preven- 
tion rather than cure? 

Mrs. Janet L. Armstrong 
Editor, News Bulletin 
Ontario Woman’s Christian 
Temperance Union 

‘Brain damage’ 


We are disturbed at the manner 
in which a recent research project 
was reported in The Journal, 
(March 1). 

Under the headline “Animal ex- 
perimentation indicates Mari- 
juana produces brain damage” 
was the report of a recent study on 
rats injected with varying 
amounts of THC. Although it was 
stated that the series “provided a 
reasonable model for heavy drug 
use among humans”, the figures 
provided were simply absurd. 

To put aside the. enormous dif- 

The study’s authors reply— page 12 

ference in the neurophysiology of 
a rat and a human brain for the 
moment, the amount of THC ing- 
ested was simply enormous. Bear- 
ing in mind that the average mari- 
juana cigarette weighs about 1.5 
grams and contains marijuana of 
an average 2% potency, for a 
human to injest an equal amount 
of THC to obtain the 20mg THC/kg 
body weight, the poor unfortunate 
would have to boil down approxi- 
mately 300 marijuana cigarettes 
and quaff the brew daily for at 
least a month. Since the 10 mg/kg. 
experiment (150 marijuana ciga- 
rette brew daily) produced negli- 
gible results, we must ask what 

Dr. Kalant’s reasoning was. 

It has been demonstrated that 
extracting the nicotine from less 
than ten cigarettes would be fatal. 
If one niust poison rats with toxic 
doses of powerful chemicals, so be 
it. But to relate in any way this 
massive chemical trauma in a 
manner so totally unlike any 
human usage to human usage is 
utterly irresponsible, and most un- 
like the normal reportage of The 
Journal. The study was well done; 
the headline should have read 
“Rats stomach-fed with massive 
doses of an extract from mari- 
juana exhibit mental dysfunction” 

After checking our files, we 
note that that the only verifiable 
death due to marijuana injestion 
occurred in December, 1973. 

On that date, Bruce McKenney, 
an 18-year-old student at Northern 
Illinois University, was found 
dead in his room. It was learned 
he had been distilling marijuana 
in alcohol and acetone, and had 
been drinking the resulting solu- 
tion for some time. 

Dr. Kalant might make use of 
this knowledge to forego any pos- 
sible duplications of his tests in 
humans. You can kill a person 
with enough of anything, but ap- 
parently rats have a higher resist- 
ance to THC than humans. 
Laurence O. Mckinney President 
Cannabis Institute, Cambridge 




IN 1972, Canadian drug stores dis- 
pensed more than 91 million pre- 
scriptions to portions of this coun- 
try’s 20 million people. 

That is well over four prescrip- 
tions for every man, woman, and 
child. And it does not include 
drugs dispensed in hospitals and 
other institutions. 

That same year, each resident 
of the United States averaged 5.5 
scripts via retail outlets. 

Particularly significant in this 
scenario is the number of those 
pills and potions engineered to 
alter one’s consciousness, to 
change one’s mood. 

Stimulants, major and minor 
tranquillizers, antidepressants, 
sedatives, and hyponotics make up 
a big piece of action for the drug 
industrial complex. 

In 1971 Hoffman-LaRoche, 
whose products account for half of 
the world’s sales of psychotropics, 
reported their sales had been in- 
creasing at the rate of 15% an- 
nually over the past few years. 

It has been estimated recently 
that 22% of adult American men 
and 37% of adult women use some 
type of psychotherapeutic drug at 
least once a year. 

And U.S. researchers (Stolley et 
al in 1972, and Hugh Parry and, 
others in 1973) reported that al-' 
most 17% of all prescriptions writ- 
ten in U.S. drug stores are for psy- 

That calculation, as far as it 
goes, is remarkably similar to one 
reported by Addiction Research 
Foundation scientist Ruth Cooper- 
stock who in 1974 claimed that 
17.8% of all prescriptions in an 
Ontario sample were for psycho- 

But Cooperstock took it one step 
further to show that even this 17% 
was a conservative estimate. 

When she tallied preparations 
with “hidden" psychotropics, and 
added in central nervous system 
preparations, it appeared that 44% 
of all prescriptions dispensed con- 
tained some mood-modifying sub- 

Within this broad range of psy- 

CODA involved 


This will act as a mild objection 
to the rather offhand reference to 
the Council On Drug Abuse in the 
news item Drug Pamphlets in 
Pharmacies (The Journal. April 1, 

It should be pointed out that 
CODA established the first health 
education centres in the two drug 
chains mentioned in the news item 
some five years ago. 

This was in the form of a rotat- 
ing metal unit in which six of the 
CODA brochures on drug abuse 
were displayed. These units have 
been constantly supplied up to late- 
1974 when both drug chains de- 
cided to enlarge their information 
centres to include other health 

CODA has distributed more 
than 2.500,000 pamphlets, mainly 
through these outlets, from coast 
to coast, and weekly replenishes 
these centres upon request. You 
might say that the CODA pam- 
phlets are the “best sellers" of 
these units. 

However, we are pleased to see 
that the importance of these 
health information centres has 
been formally recognized. 

E. A. Westendrop, President 
Council on Drug Abuse 

chotherapeutic drugs, the minor 
tranquillizers— particularly the 
benzodiazepines (such as Librium 
and Valium) make up more than 
43% of all prescriptions. This is 
the largest single grouping. 

If there is any overall pattern in 
the consumption of prescribed 
drugs over recent years, it is that 
there has been a gradual increase 
in use of all classes of psychotrop- 
ics (hypnotics, stimulants, seda- 
tives, antipsychotics and antide- 
pressants). But use of anti-anxiety 
agents (primarily the minor tran- 
quillizers) has more than doubled. 

As Cooperstock notes; “Valium 
is by far the most popular individ- 
ual drug in the United States, as 
elsewhere. One in 10 Americans 18 
years of age and over had a pre- 
scription for Valium in 1973.” 

Given these facts, many people 
have characterized this psycho- 
tropic drug use as the signal of a 
stoned society. They have devel- 
oped stereotypes and cliches, the 
most hackneyed of which is that 
the upper- and middle-class subur- 
ban housewife, bored with her lot 
and swallowing tranquillizers by 
the handful. 

Not all of these cliches are jus- 

Studies by researchers from the 
U.S. National Institute of Mental 
Health in collaboration with 
George Washington University, 
and the Institute for Research in 
Social Behaviour at Berkeley, 
show it is not the middle-class 
suburban woman who is the most 
common user of psychotropics but 
the poorer and less educated 


The bear went over the mountain 
The bear went over the mountain. 

The bear went over the mountain. 

To see what he could see .... 

We all know what the bear saw. 
And having turned the corner on 
drug abuse, we're not much better 
off than that fabled bear who 
could only see the other side of the 

We can only surmise that the 
bear chose to climb his way over 
the obstacle rather than digging 
through. The song doesn’t disclose 
the motive for the climb, but does 
reveal the consequences. 

What the bear saw was not a re- 
sult of poor vision, but of condi- 
tioning in the climb. And like the 
bear in mind, the drug abuse field 
has been similarly conditioned. 
The result for us has been limited 
visions and obstructed views. For 
example, at some point in the 
climb, all of us have been side- 
tracked at Rhetoric Gap or 
stopped off at Liberal View. For 
some reason we liked what we 
saw: “poverty, racism, unemploy- 
ment, illiteracy, poor housing, and 
the lack of educational opportuni- 
ties” as the causes of drug abuse. 
The other side of the mountain 
was all that we could see. 

With this view, let’s examine 
four groups on the slopes: Experi- 
menters, Regulars, Down-Hill 
Racers, and the Retirees. Each 
with different causes, conflicting 
reasons, varying excukes. 

The Experimenters: Hoards of 
them. Red and yellow, black and 
white. All unconspiring. Breeding 
curiosity. Responding to normal, 
appropriate, necessary and 
healthy instincts. For them, our 
litany of causes has been itself 

The Regulars: When we see 

It appears the lower the social 
position, the more likely the 
housewife is to be a consistent 
psychotropic drug user. 

As the studies show, better- 
educated and better-off women 
have fewer social pressures on 
them, more social options and re- 
leases, and are more capable of 
using drugs in a restrained and 
cautious manner. 

The construction of stereotypes 
has proven to be a plague to an 
understanding of drug using pat- 

North Americans, for example, 
have been characterized as sliding 
to Hell on a cascade of pills. But 
several studies dispute the notion 
that they .are any more prone to 
pharmaceutical excess than the 
citizens of other industrialized na- 

Cross-national data showed 
that the level of anti-anxiety seda- 
tive drug use in the United States 
would have fit right into the mid- 
dle range of nine European coun- 
tries in which measurements were 

Parry-Baiter data suggest some 
very clear trends of drug use in the 

• About 8% of Americans can 
be classified as high users (high is 
regular daily use of psychotropics 
for at least two months ) ; 

• About twice as many women 
as men fall into the high user cate- 

• People over 30 years old have 
twice the prevalence rate of high 
use as have people from 18 to 30 

• Residents of western states 

them do dope regularly, we know 
that they have to (a) do it to be 
liked, (b) be liked for doing it, (c) 
like it because they do it, (d) do it 
because they like it, te) none of 
the above. The causes or justifica- 
tions for regularity begin to get 
complicated. The Regulars don’t" 
fit the litany that didn’t fit the Ex- 

The Down-Hill Racers: The 

causes, the reasons dramatically 
change. The litany doesn’t and 
we’re trapped with an incidence 
and prevalence survey. (You see, 
the Trapper'^as a tracking grant 
from the Committee. The terri- 
tory, of course, has been assigned 
by the Single State Ranger.) The 
questioning begins. The object: To 
confirm the litany. The Trapper 
knows what you, the Racer, know. 
And he knows you know he knows. 
But if you know what he knows, 
you know that he doesn't know 
what he told them he knew. So 
what is learned is that the other 
side of the mountain is all that 
they can see. 

The Retirees: The results of the 
Racer survey are processed by the 
former racers as part of bear-trap 
training (camouflaged as creden- 
tialing). And the Committee pon- 
ders for days and weeks and 
months and four minutes the mys- 
teries of the other side of the 
mountain. And since the Retirees 
want to get on the Committee, 
they see what they can see. 

Viewing drug abuse this way 
has enabled us to (a) dodge the 
problem, (b) escape reality, (c) 
support the status quo, (d) spawn 
program mediocrity, (e) all of the 
above. We have conveniently 
linked our fate to a host of other 
social problems we have resolved 
unresolved. And entrenched in our 
self-styled security, we say that 


not only report higher prevalence 
rates for psychotherapeutics (on 
prescription or over the counter) 
they are also more likely to get 
their drugs through non-medical 

A pivotal factor in the use of 
psychotherapeutics is, of course, 
the physician. And how great the 
impact of physician restraint can 
be in this area is exemplified by 
Canada’s experiment with the im- 
position of restrictions on amphe- 
tamines in 1973. (At this time, the 
federal government implemented 
a plan holding physicians account- 
able for prescribing of amphetam- 
ines for anything other than rigidly 
defined therapeutic criteria— not 
weight reduction. 

Partly because of adverse publi- 
city about physician prescribing 
abuses, but primarily because of 
the federal legislation, consump- 
tion of amphetamines dropped 
90% within the first year after im- 
positioq of regulations. 

The impact of physicians’ pre- 
scribing practices on the dispersal 
of psychotropics is tremendous. 
But the origins of these practices 
are often shrouded in misconcep- 
tion. For example; the bulk of 
psychotherapeutic prescriptions 
are issued not by psychiatrists, 
but by general practitioners and 

In a Toronto study done by 
Cooperstock, general physicians 
wrote more than 70% of all pre- 
scriptions for psychotherapeutic 
drugs. In the Parry-Baiter 
studies, psychiatrists and neurolo- 
gists accounted for only about one 
third of the prescriptions for anti- 
depressants and major tranquilliz- 
ers— primarily for mental dis- 

In fact, 85% of the patients sur- 
veyed who had used psychothera- 
peutic drugs in the preceding year 
had never seen a psychiatrist pro- 
fessionally in their lives. 

(Next month: The “walking 
wounded”, polydrug users, the dif- 
ficulty in their treatment. ) 

JOURNAL, May 1, 1975— Page 9 

until all these other problems are 
.solved, we shouldn't expect too 
much from our drug abuse efforts. 

This focus blindfolds the plan- 
ners and equips the system with 
another excuse for incompetence. 
Racism, impoverishment, elitism, 
and a false sense of security result 
or continue. 

Unconscionably, we’re locked 
into this vision. We can’t see the 
options. The other side of the 
mountain is all that we can see. 

But the options are there. For 
example, we can see drug abuse 
as a result of the isolation of the 
human spirit, loneliness, low self 
esteem, indifference, peer pres- 
sure, need for instant gratifica- 
tion, and too many mountains to 
climb. All of these issues are in- 
different to race, environment, 
economic and social status. What- 
ever relationship exists between 
drug abuse and the list of social 
problems cannot be explained as 
causal. Drug abuse like other so- 
cial problems is an independent 
barometer of the quality of human 

If we can track where we've 
been we can start over. With new 
visions. In North American Indian 
folklore, the bear track is a “good 
omen." Our choices begin with 
(a) grin and bear it (b) prevent 
forest fires, (c) rocky mountain 

high, (d) 

Now's the time to explore alterna- 
tives, and new horizons, and use 
the leverage we have with drug 

(Peter Hammond is Director of 
Communications at SAODAP. ) 




THE GUINESS Book of World 
Records, the famous bible of 
trivia and esoterica freaks, 
very sensibly refuses to list any 
records involving the consump- 
tion of more than two litres of 
beer and absolutely refuses to 
list any records involving the 
consumption of liquorf 

However, a close perusal (a 
very close perusal— you may 
not find these records in the 
book at first reading or the sec- 
ond . . . ) of The Guinness Book 
of World Records shows that 
there are a few world records 
of interest to those involved in 
the alcohol and drug field in 

For instance, there is: The 
Most Hypocritical Hooker(s): 
In March of 1975 the provincial 
government of Ontario, Can- 
ada, announced a $3 million 
3-year multi-media advertising 
campaign against the evils of 
alcohol abuse in the province. 

Since the yearly anti-alcohol 
advertising budget represents 
2.6%. of the province’s annual 
profits from the sale of alco- 
holic beverages ($266 million), 
this supercedes the previous 
record for hypocritical hooking 
which was held by Senora 
Maria Salanero of the Ram- 
blas, Barcelona, who each year 
faithfully contributed 2.9% of 
her gross to research into the 
treatment of venereal disease. 

The Worst ‘Good news and 
Bad news’ Joke in the World: 
Told by H. B. Twillingham of 
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada on 
April 17 of 1975 — 

‘There’s good news and bad 

news. The good news is that 

soon you will be able to 

order a drink of milk in an 

Ontario tavern’. 

What’s the bad news?’ 

‘They won’t let you have any 

peanuts with it’ 

The Silliest Defence Against a 
Divorce Action: H. R. Wilbur- 
force of Toronto, Canada, con- 
tested a divorce action brought 
against him by his estranged 
wife Edith on the grounds that 
his actions— the capricious 
censoring of his wife’s enter- 
tainments, his secret discipli- 
nary tribunals which resulted 
in withdrawl of privileges and 
which were not subject to ap- 
peal, and his high-handed and 
arrogant manner— were not 
examples of ‘mental cruelty' 
as alleged by his spouse since 
he was only trying to respond, 
to the best of his ability, to a 
request in a government adver- 
tising campaign that he learn 
to become ‘his own liquor con- 
trol board'. 

The Goofiest Film Script 
Ever Created: John W. Throc- 
ton-Boggs of Hamilton, On- 
tario, Canada, submitted to a 
Hollywood agent a film script 
so incredibly absurd, so silly, 
that neither Woody Allen nor 
Mel Brooks would consider it. 

The proposed film dealt with 
the response of provincial au- 
thorities to a new law allowing 
young people to consume alco- 
holic beverages at age 18. 
When the authorities discov- 
ered that impaired driving 
charges against 18-to 21- 

year-olds increased by 900% in 
Toronto as a result of the legis- 
lation, they responded by send- 
ing police to a border town tav- 
ern where they looked into the 
rectums of young drinkers— for 

* There are no prohibitions 
against records for marijuana 
consumption but since none ap- 
pear in The Guinness Book of 
World Records, this leads one 
to speculate that marijuana re- 
cord-setters either tend to for- 
get their achievements or lack 
the motivation to forward them 
to the Guinness head office. 


Page 10— THE JOURNAL, May 1. 1975 

Cutaway view oj Volkswagen's driving simulator in which alcohol effects on 
motorists are tested. 

World's most modern 
driving simulator 


MUNICH— How little and how 
much alcohol in the blood stream 
does it really take before a motor- 
ist becomes a menace on the 

The Volkswagen Company’s re- 
search and development division 
recently sought a scientific an- 
swer to that controversial ques- 
tion in cooperation with Dr. 
Joachim Gerchow, a Frankfurt 
professor of forensic medicine. 

The conclusion: Even at 0.05% 
blood alcohol content, a motorist's 
driving ability is seriously im- 
paired. West Germany reduced 
the legal limit from 0.15 to 0.087o 
several years ago. 

The tests were conducted with 
12 drivers, chosen by lots from a 
panel of 1000, on the world’s most 
modern and sophisticated driving 
simulator at the Volkswagen Co.’s 
R-and-D laboratory in Wolfsburg. 

A totally computerized and hy- 
draulically operated rig, it can 
simulate virtually all road condi- 
tions and situations and records 
driver reaction electronically. 

Each of the 12 subjects had to 
participate in 11 drives without ab 
cohol, 10 with a 0.05% content and 
four with a 0.08% content over the 
three-mile simulated course dur- 
ing a period of three days. 

The texts showed that even a 
0.05 7o blood alcohol content stimu- 
lates faster driving and at 0.08% 
the average motorist tends to 
drive 15 7o faster than when com- 
pletely sober. 

Weaving and a tendency to go 
off the road’s right side was so 
pronounced at 0.057o that eight of 
the 12 test drivers would have 
caused serious accidents while at 
0.08% several went off the road 

The tendency to go to the left 




was equally pronounced, although 
two of the 12 drove without mis- 
take and two more tended to veer 
to the left more sharply at 0.05 
than with a 0.08% blood alcohol 

One of the test drivers veered 15 
feet to the left for 3.6 second at 
0.05% and for 9.1 seconds at 

Reaction-time and coordination 
ability, according to the test se- 
ries, also tend to deteriorate 
markedly under the influence of 
relatively small amounts of alco- 

Coordirtation ability decreased 
by 1 % at 0.05 and by almost 12% at 
0.087o. Among some of the test 
drivers the simulator recorded de- 
viations of up to 20% . 

At 0.08% the reaction time of 
some of the drivers increased by 
more than 40% over their sober 

Peripheral vision was also 
tested and at 0.05% was noticeably 
impaired in two of the 12 drivers. 
At 0.08%, nearly half of them dis- 
played signs of so-called ‘tunnel 
vision” which is regarded as a 
major factor in alcohol-related ac- 

The Wolfsburg simulator re- 
creates daylight as well as night- 
time conditions via a television 
screen. The cabin, replete with 
steering wheel, gear shifts, brake, 
clutch and gas pedals, fully- 
operable dashboard, windshield, 
wipers and safety belts, is 
mounted on a hydraulic lift that 
simulates rough-road, varying 
highway crown and shoulder situa- 
tions concurrently with the televi- 
sion picture. 

The test results have been made 
available to the West German 
Transport Ministry for use in its 
current anti-alcohol campaign. 

Psychotropic drugs are being 
dumped in Africa, often disguised, 
African delegates to the United 
Nations Narcotics Commission 
have reported. Dr. Faadji Johnson 
Dagbegnikin of Togo's health de- 
partment, has appealed for tighter 
registration and controls. 

* * * 

A Swedish research team says 

Crime ^pays ’ in Australia , , . 

CANBERRA —Organized 
crime is good for the econ- 
omy, according to William 
Clifford, director of the Aus- 
tralian Institute of Criminol- 

“We would be myopic in- 
deed if we did not recognize 
the economic benefits of the 
operations of successful crim- 
inals— especially organized 
criminals with bloated in- 
takes from gambling, prosti- 
tution and drugs,” he told a 
recent conference on the eco- 
nomic consequences of 

“This money has to find an 
outlet and we cannot possibly 
overlook the benefits which 
accrue from investing it in le- 
gitimate business.” 

Mr. Clifford, former head 
of the United Nations crime 
prevention and criminal jus- 
tice services, also pointed out 
fighting crime keeps a whole 
security industry involving 
locks, alarms, guard dogs, 
and guards in business, and 
provides employment for 
thousands of policemen, 
judges, court officials, proba- 
tion officers, child care 
workers and researchers. 

As far as economics are 
concerned, morals are only 
part of the picture, he said: 
“You must remember that 
RoMn Hood was not just a 
robber, but someone who re- 
distributed wealth by taking 
from the rich and giving to 
the poor.” 

Nevertheless, he predicts 
society will ultimately have 
to make a cost-benefit choice 
between the morally exces- 
sive cost of recycling “crimi- 
nal” dollars and the increas- 
ing sacrifices required to 
fight an ever-rising crime 

The difficulties will be 
compounded by the lack of re- 
search into the amount of 
crime society is prepared to 
accept, how much more it 
wants to spend preventing 
such crimes as drunkenness, 
etc., and by factors such as 
five dollar muggers having 
higher criminal profiles than 
companies making five mil- 
lion dollar profits through 
false packaging, he said. 

, , . but pushers beware 

CANBERRA— Australian drug 
pushers may soon face increas- 
ingly severe penalties, while users 
receive treatment rather than 

Speaking on a new current af- 
fairs television program, Austra- 
lian Minister of Health, Dr. Doug 
Everingham. described existing 
penalties for drug trafficking in 
Australia as “laughable”. 

“They would be crippling to an 
individual, but to a really big or- 
ganization it’s just part of their 
ordinary business expenses,” he 
said. “Some of these pushers are 

very big people and to deter them 
you’ve got to have big penalties.” 

Importation, availability, and’ 
consumption of drugs, have con- 
tinued to increase in Australia as 
in most other countries, mainly 
“because there’s money in it, be- 
cause the community is generally 
more affluent, and because more 
people are involved”. 

However, the federal govern- 
ment aims to eliminate drug traf- 
ficking and will increase police 
surveillance and other methods of 
prevention as necessary, he said. 

Differentiating between mari- 
juana and other drugs, such as 

heroin. Dr. Everingham suggested 
penalties could be lowered for use 
of some drugs, and also for use as 
distinct from pushing. 

He proposed first offenders, and 
some second offenders, be sent to 
treatment centres rather than 
jails, and called for a general 
change of emphasis from drug use 
per se to the underlying social 

“Most of these so-called drug 
problems are, in fact, people prob- 
lems ... if people didn’t have 
problems they wouldn’t turn to 

Long-term treatment 
ineffective in alcoholism 


DUESSELDORF — Long-term 
drying-out treatment of alcoholics 
is not only ineffective but intolera- 
bly expensive, a prominent West 
German researcher insisted at a 
symposium here recently. 

Moreover, said Dr. Thomas 
Zickgraf, head of the mental 
hygiene division of the German 
Medical Association, it tends to 
have a penal and deterrent char- 

Although West German courts, 
welfare agencies and temperance 
societies are advocating long- 
term treatment courses. Dr. Zick- 
graf regards them as “not very 

Keeping alcoholics locked up 
for six months and longer, he said, 
does not usually lead to success 
and costs the quasi-governmental 
health insurance companies DM 
20,000 per patient. 

Hospital treatment lasting six 
weeks, backed up by modern out- 
patient treatment, however, 
results in a 50% cure rate. 

German temperance move- 
ments, he said, had been making a 
mistake for the past century by 
only taking care of and looking 
after alcoholics who had been 
given at least six months’ treat- 
ment. “There is no scientific 
evidence for the correctness of 
their approach,” he contended, 

Wolfgang Glahn, secretary of 
the German Psychosomatic Ther- 
apy Association, speaking at the 

cigar smokers run a greater risk 
of lung cancer than cigarette 
smokers and warn pipe puffers 
they aren't much better off. The 
group at Stockholm's Karolinska 
Institute said the study showed 
“the risks for getting lung cancer 
from cigar smoking are even 
higher than cigarette smoking. ” 

* * * 

same symposium, described alco- 
holism as the “number one 
socio-medical problem in the Fed- 
eral Republic today.” 

According to Glahn there are 
900,000 known alcoholics and an 
additional 600,000 “unregistered 

(Federal government statistics 
refer to 600,000 known alcoholics 
plus 600,000 additional “problem 

Alcoholism, he said, costs DM 6 

PARIS— A survey of people who 
followed a 5-day plan to quit smok- 
ing has shown that about 40% of 
them were still not smoking 12 
months later, a group of French 
doctors-was told here. 

The doctors were attending a 
session on smoking held during 
the Entretiens de Bichat, the 
annual medical meetings for gen- 
eral practitioners in France. 

The large attendance at the ses- 
sion, as well as the absence of cig- 
arette smoke, was considered a 
landmark by anti-smoking forces 
in a country just becoming aware 
that smoking is dangerous. 

The free five-day plans, con- 
ducted by the Life and Health 

East African Airways is increas- 
ing its efforts against employees 
involved in smuggling narcotics. 
Several airline employees have 
been charged with smuggling mar- 
ijuana from Kenya to Britain. 
Director-general has asked flight 
crew and cabin staff for assistance 
in reporting any members 
suspected of trafficking. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

billion in lost productivity 
annually, not to mention the 
expense of its treatment. 

A shortage of 20,000 hospital 
beds and 10,000 staff, Glahn said, 
precludes even effective short- 
term treatment of alcoholics. He 
called for the establishment of a 
network of institutions specializ- 
ing in the treatment of psychoso- 
matic diseases, of which, at pre- 
sent there are only two with a 
total capacity of 300 beds. 

League, which is affiliated with 
the Seventh-Day Adventist 
Church, are the only widespread 
programs here to help people stop 
smoking. They were introduced in 
France in 1965, and since that 
time approximately 50.000 persons 
are estimated to have partici- 

Philip Augendre. who edits the 
League s publication, said that 
about 80%-85% of people who start 
the plan are able to stop smoking 
at the end of the five days, and 
that at least one follow-up survey 
showed 40% at the end of one 

The five-day plan is the work of 
E. J. Folkenberg and Dr. Wayne 
McFarland. Rev. R. Jublin 
explained in an interview follow- 
ing the session. It consists of an 
informational meeting followed by 
five 90-minute sessions on five 
consecutive days. 

During the 5 days. Mr. Jublin 
explained. participants are 
encouraged to abstain also from 
all alcoholic beverages, from 
stimulants such as tea and coffee. 

For French smokers 

A 5-day way to quit 

THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975— Page 11 

Father Me Vernon: 

'Religious trips too often deteriorate' 

religious counsellor can play a con- 
structive role in “the drug scene”. 

However, it is important that he 
approach the role modestly and 
with proper understanding, says 
Rev. John J. MeVernon. a Roman 
Catholic priest who has been 
working with drug-using young 
people for more than a decade. 

“Too often a religious trip dete- 
riorates into a sentimental kind of 
surface faith that doesn’t last'and 
leaves the person as burnt out and 
disenchanted with religion as he 
may have been with drugs. You 
can’t hide from life in God. If you 
could, we wouldn’t have the sixth 
graders smashed on methadone in 
the Williamsburg section of 
Brooklyn, or the multi-million dol- 
lar amphetamine ring in Phoenix, 
or nine million people wrecked by 
alcohol in this country. 

“Laying a sermon on the head 
of everyone who comes into the 
chaplain’s office won’t turn that 
head around. But a little patience 
and a little reality and a lot of love 
and no handouts might do the 
trick. ” 

The fundamental insight for 
clergymen working with drug- 
dependent people is to realize they 
are just like everyone else except 
they use a lot more drugs. “And 
even that distinction isn’t always 
valid.’’ says Father MeVernon. 

Chaplain of the New York State 
Drug Abuse Commission, the 
Brooklyn priest serves two state 
institutions for the mandatory 
treatment of drug users. His con- 
gregation represents that segment 
of the drug-using population least 
amenable to treatment. 

Father MeVernon does not use 
the term “addict” or “junkie” or 
“dope fiend” to identify the peo- 
ple with whom he works. 

“Whatever an addict, or junkie, 
or dope fiend is, those labels do 
not adequately describe all that 
they are. They are people first- 
men and women, parents, chil- 
dren, lovers, loners, workers or 
goof-offs. Just as with any other 
congregation, we must live with 
them and work with them as they 

“We have to be careful too, to 
avoid hiding behind labels our- 
selves— like ‘ex-addict,’ or 
‘straight’ or ‘cleric’. Our title, 
even our garb, can protect us 
from reality just as drugs protect 
others If we expect our peo- 

ple to live, we have to be willing to 
live with them.” 

Father MeVernon says it is a 
mistake to imagine that to be 
effective with people deeply in- 
volved with drugs, you have to 
dress like them, get high with 
them and use their language. 

“You generate a great deal of 
despair in those whose lives are 
coming apart with drugs if your 
life is no different from theirs. 
They want to have hope that there 
is something better than the tur- 
moil they find themselves em- 
broiled in.” 

Some religious counsellors may 
be turned away from contact with 
drug addicts because of publicity 
describing addicts as “violent and 

While the person on the street 
can be extremely violent “in his 
hustle to get the fix.” says Father 
MeVernon, the drug user in low 

key conversation with a religious 
figure is quiet and non-violent. 

“He’s lonely and if you come 
off as a non-threatening, non- 
punishing, open individual, he 
won’t turn you off. He has too few 
friends to squander any.” 

Is the addict manipulative? 
“Yes, about on a par with a pastor 

who has to con his people for a 
more generous contribution when 
the basket comes around.” 

But fear is not the only reason a 
clergyman may avoid the heavy 
drug user. Often there’s a feeling 
of inadequacy. As Father Me- 
Vernon puts it; 

“We’ve been taken in by the 

mystique that surrounds the drug 
scene— an aura created by drug 
experts, suggesting that some 
rare skills must be acquired and 
some hidden knowledge unearthed 
in order to be effective with drug 
users. The truth is that the same 
skills and same knowledge that 
make you competent to help any 
problemed person will enable you 
to aid a person whose problem 
happens to be drugs.” 

Although religious programs to ' 
combat drug addiction have been 
hailed enthusiastically. Father 
MeVernon does not regard them 
as always effective. 

“I know Teen Challenge has im- 
pressive statistics and the Muslim 
and the Hassidim have met with 
success. Thank God for those mir- 
acles of grace. But it doesn’t work 
for everybody.” 

Discussing his own work. Fa- 
ther MeVernon said the commis- 
sion is responsible for the care of 
people who have been committed 
by the court as wards of the state 
because of drug usage. It cares for 
these persons for from three to 
five years. 

“Our statistics do not describe 
an experience of unalloyed suc- 
cess. Most often our efforts don’t 

“But then, what intervention 
program— if it’s honest about its 
dropout rate and complete in its 
followup— can point to dazzling 
success? Like most efforts, our at- 
tempt helps maybe 5% of the ad- 
dict population to reach the tax- 
payers’ definition of success— no 
crime, no illegal drugs, no wel- 

UK health minister 
angered by 


LONDON— The British cigarette 
manufacturing industry is coming 
under increasing pressure to re- 
strict its advertising and promo- 
tion and to make a substantial 
contribution towards health edu- 

And Minister of State for 
Health, Dr David Owen, has re- 
vealed in a House of Commons 
statement that he is very angry in- 
deed about the industry’s refusal 
to co-operate. 

Dr Owen said he made detailed 
proposals to the industry last July 
seeking “voluntary agreement to 
new measures designed to bring 
home to the public the very serious 
dangers to health of cigarette 

The proposals included: 

1 That the industry should give 
a sizeable percentage of its total 
expenditure on promotion towards 
financing public education on the 
health hazards of smoking; 

2 That the advertising of ciga- 
rettes in cinemas should be abol- 

3 That tighter control be exer- 
cised over the way sponsored 
events are used by manufacturers 
to promote their products; 

4 That discussions between in- 
dustry and the department of 
health on the display of tar yields 
on individual brand packets of cig- 
arettes should reach a speedy con- 

5 That the present health warn- 
ing on cigarette packets (Govern- 
ment Warning: Smoking may 
damage your health) should be 
changed to read DANGER; CIGA- 


DISEASE, and that it should be 
transferred from the side to the 
flap where it would be seen more 

6 That gift coupons (“credit 
notes” included in some cigarette 
brand packets which can be col- 
lected and exchanged for goods) 
should be abolished or limited to 
brands with low or low-to-middle 
tar yields. 

Dr Owen told the House of Com- 
mons (in answer to an MP’s ques- 
tion) “It is a matter of great re- 
gret to me and, I think, to all who 
are concerned about the real dan- 
gers to health which come from 
smoking, which currently ac- 
counts for at least 50,000 prema- 
ture deaths a year (in Britain), 
that the industry was not able to 
agree to any of these proposals.” 

On his key proposal (that manu- 
facturers should put large sums of 
money into health education) Dr 
Owen said the industry would not 
reveal to the department of health 
how much it spent on promotion. 

The department estimated, 
however, that in 1974-75 the indus- 
try’s expenditure on press, poster 
and cinema advertising in the 
United Kingdom would be about 
fl5V2 million ($37,665,000); on 
sponsorship between £2 and £4 mil- 
lion ($5 million and $10 million); 
and on gift coupons about £50 mil- 
lion ($121 million). 

The total figure for promotion 
in 1974-75 would probably there- 
fore be around £70 million ($170 
million). Health education spend- 
ing at a national level on smoking 
in the United Kingdom was 
£.330,000 ($802,000). 

Dr Owen’s one success so far in 
his campaign was to persuade the 

industry to submit its cigarette 
advertising to a code of practice 
laid down by the Advertising Stan- 
dards Authority (an independent 

The code is expected to take ef- 
fect soon (probably this month) 
and will be aimed at preventing 
cigarette companies from asso- 
ciating their products with a 
healthy aura and suggestions that 
they might bring sexual, social or 
financial success. 

Mr Peter Thompson, director of 
ASA, stressed, however, that the 
code was only likely to affect a 
few brand advertisements and 
was not, as some critics of the to- 
bacco industry have suggested, 
the first step towards a total ban 
on cigarette advertising. 

“The Advertising Standards Au- 
thority is not in the business of 
doing the Government’s job for 
it,” he said. “If they want a ban 
on cigarette advertising then they 
must shoulder the odious task of 
doing it.” 

The total ban on cigarette ad- 
vertising (at present such adver- 
tisements are only banned from 

Polish drug stud y 

Britain’s television screens) is the 
objective of many doctors and 
health educators, however. _ 

One Welsh family physician, Dr 
Alistair Wilson for example, is or- 
ganising a lobby of doctors to 
press their MPs for a ban on 
cigarette advertising. Sir Cyril 
Clarke, president of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians is understood to 
have expressed his support. 

Dr Wilson is also forming a 

Welsh branch of the Royal College 
of Physicians pressure group. Ac- 
tion on Smoking and Health, whose 
director, Mike Daube, says he 
would like to see a total ban on the 
advertising of all tobacco products 
enforced by law. He said of Dr 
Wilson’s efforts: “We believe that 
a lobby by doctors later in the year 
could have a greater effect on pub- 
lic opinion than any efforts by a 

Cancer not a death sentence 

LONDON— Cancer of the 
bronchus causes more than 
30,000 deaths annually in Eng- 
land and Wales and many au- 
thorities consider prevention 
the leading hope of reducing 
the mortality. 

This was acknowledged re- 
cently by Lord Brock, former 
president of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, who re- 
viewed his experience of lung 
cancer surgery in the British 
Journal of Surgery. 

He said although most 
cases do badly even when the 

lesion appears to be resect- 
able at operation, the diagno- 
sis need not necessarily be re- 
garded as a death sentence. 

Lord Brock gave details of 
13 patients who had lived 
more than 20 years after sur- 
gery, but he was going back 
over 35 years of experience. 
He mentioned that nine 
patients apparently success- 
fully treated for their original 
tumour subsequently devel- 
oped a second lung cancer. 
Five of them had failed to give 
up smoking. 

8% of teenagers have experimented 

MUNICH— More than 8% of teen- 
age Polish school pupils have 
experimented at least once with 
drugs or narcotics. 

This is the conclusion of an ex- 
tensive survey conducted by a 
group of Polish sociologists in the 
high schools and vocational 
schools of the tri-city area of 
Gdansk. Gdynia and Sopot on the 
Baltic Sea coast. 

Results of the survey, con- 
ducted in 1972, were published in 
the most recent (December 1974) 
issue of Sociological Studies, a 
quarterly of the Polish Academy 
of Sciences. 

The researchers queried a 
cross-section of 15- to 19-year-old 

students in the tri-city area which 
has a population of 660, 0(X). They 
concluded that 8.3% had tried 
drugs at least once, although they 
surmise, from the high number of 
questionnaires that remained un- 
answered, that the percentage 
may be even higher. 

The survey did not illuminate 
what kind of drugs were being 
used, but other Polish sources 
have previously called attention to 
the widespread use among teenag- 
ers of TRI— or trichlorethylene— 
a cleaning fluid that is readily 
available and produces an intoxi- 
cating effect when inhaled. 

Marijuana, hashish, LSD and 
opium-based narcotics are report- 

edly also in use but not as preva- 

According to the survey, drug 
usage and experimentation are 
more prevalent among boys (11%) 
than girls (about 6% ). 

Up to age 16, only 5.7% have 
been exposed. In the 17- and 18- 
year-old group, use and experi- 
mentation reaches 9.2%. It then 
declines again to 7.8% among' 
those aged 19. 

The survey also disclosed a cor- 
ollary between drug use and alco- 
hol consumption and smoking. 
Among students who admitted 
they smoke regularly, the drug i- 
figure was 18.3%. 

Page 12— THE JOURNAL, May 1. 1975 

More letters 

‘‘Pot produces 
brain damage” 


Referring to Milan Korcok’s ar- 
ticle “Marijuana produces brain 
damage” (The Journal, March 1), 
I would like to ask a few ques- 

1) What’s the point of doing a 
research about behavioural re- 
sponse to cannabis-taking in rats, 
while this research has been al- 
ready done in humans (Zinberg- 
Weil, etc.)? 

^ , 2) How can Dr. Kalant define as 
“a reasonable model for heavy 
drug use in humans”, doses of 10 
mg or 20 mg THC/kg, correspond- 
ing to 700 or 1400 mg in an adult 
human being, while the average 
social dose is 6.2 mg (Le Dain Can- 
nabis Report 1972, page 34 ) ? 

3) How can one shift from THC 
effects to cannabis effects, from 
behavioural change to organic 
brain damage, and finally from 
brain damage in rats to brain 
damage in humans, which is the 
obvious implication of the arti- 
cle’s title? 

Giancarlo Arnao 

Freedom and Drugs Committee 

Roma, Italia 


I was dismayed to see a mari- 
juana research article (The Jour- 
nal March 7) headlined “Mari- 
juana Produces Brain Damage”. 
The principle researcher. Dr. Har- 
old Kalant, “defines brain damage 
in terms of functional impairment 
instead of in terms of cellular 

The article in this case did not 
support the headline and misled 
me as a reader. First there was no 
histological confirmation; no cel- 
lular damage was found. Second, 
the speculation that maze errors 
after a three month break from 
the drug could only be the result of 
brain damage (accelerated aging) 
hardly seems conclusive. The dose 
of 20 mg/kg for 6 mo. in a rat is 
equivalant to 75 joints a day. 
totally consumed for 12 years by a 
human. Such an experience would 
certainly change the way the sub- 
ject reacted to a learning situation 
with or without brain damage. I 
can’t imagine any psychoactive 
compound used in that magnitude 
over such an extended period that 
wouldn’t show major changes in 
behavior afterward. 

Henry H. James 
Drug Education Coordinator 
Gryphon Place 
Kalamazoo, Michigan 

Theory, Practi 

The Treatment 
of Aicoholism 

and Evnluation 




The Treatment of Alcoholism 

Theory, Practice, and Evaluation 

by E.J. Larkin, Ph.D. 

Psychologist, Operations 
Research, Metropolitan Toronto 
Region, Addiction Research 

This book was written to summarize the litera- 
ture related to current trends in the treatment of 
alcoholism and to provide some theoretical anti 
practical information on the evaluation and 
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Coverage provides a review of recent literature 
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(a) The possibility of teaching some alcoholics 
to drink in a “socially acceptable” manner (cont- 
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(b) The premature termination of treatment by 
patients attending out-patient clinics. It suggeste 
some possible reasons for this problem and 
includes suggestions for reducing the number 
of “drop-outs . 

The book also describes difficulties with the 
“Loss of Control” concept and the use of “Abstin- 
ence” as the sole criterion for successful treatment 
of alcoholism. Included is a chapter on program 
evaluation with some ideas about monitoring 
the achievement of program objectives. 

This book should be of interest to professionals 
and students in the field of deviant behavior and 
to administrators in related fields faced with the 
problem of evaluating their programs. 

CAT. NO. P-238 SOFT COVER 73 PAGES 2.95 

Discount to booksellers: 30% 

To order, send payment to: 

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Authors’ reply 

Dr. Harold Kalant and Mrs. Kevin 
Fehr, co-author of the study re- 
ferred to, clarify; 

“The correspondents have 
fallen into the ‘dosage trap’ that 
lies in wait for people who are ig- 
norant of pharmacology. 

“They have taken our THC 
doses of 10 and 20' mg/kg in the rat, 
multiplied by 70 for the average 
human weighing 70 kg and con- 
cluded that the amount is ‘absurd’ 
because it corresponds to a dose of 
700-1400 mg in man. The first point 
of which they are obviously una- 
ware is that, over a wide range of 
species and drugs, sensitivity to 
drugs is inversely related to body 
size and surface area. A mouse 
needs five to 10 times as niuch al- 
cohol, barbiturate, morphine, or 
any other drug acting on the brain, 
as a man does to produce the same 
degree of effect. 

“For example, the rat requires 
a THC dose of 1-2 mg/kg intrave- 
nously to produce consistent re- 
producible effects on the EEG and 
on relatively sensitive tests of be- 
havior, such as discriminated Sid- 
man avoidance. Such doses have 
no effect at all on the rat’s motor 
coordination, while the same dose 
smoked by man would produce 
gross incoordination, hallucina- 
tions and possibly an acute psy- 

chotic episode. 

“The same is true of alcohol. 
We can not help wondering why 
your correspondents did not ex- 
trapolate our 6 g/kg dose of alco- 
hol from the rat to man, as they 
did with THC. Had they done so, 
they would have found that it 
comes to 420 grams for a 70 kg 
man, or about 1250 ml of whisky 
taken all at once. This would be 
fatal in man, yet in the rat it 
causes only a moderately severe 
intoxication, which our animals 
were able to withstand daily for 
six months. 

“The second point is that an 
oral dose of THC has to be at least 
three times as large as an inhaled 
or an intravenous dose to produce 
the same intensity of effect. This 
is true in all species, because it de- 
pends on the fact that absorption 
from the lung is much more rapid 
than from the intestine. On this 
basis, a dose of 10 mg/kg by mouth 
is only about two to three times 
the smallest intravenous dose 
needed to produce a reliable effect 
on the rat’s behavior, while 20 mg/ 
kg is about 5-6 times. The average 
social dose in man, producing a de- 
tectable effect on behavior, is 
about 6-7 mg, and 5-6 times this 
amount would be 30-40 mg. There 
are a number of clinical studies in- 
dicating that heavy regular users 
may smoke 50-150 mg or more of 
THC daily. The experiment was 
not intended to mimic light or 
moderate use of marijuana by hu- 
mans, but heavy regular use; it did 
so. The fact is that the animals 
were visibly intoxicated for only 
about 4 to 5 hours a day. They ate 
well, gained weight, and remained 

in good general health, except for 
their impaired learning ability. 

“As for the relevance of find- 
ings in the rat brain to the human; 
It may come as a shock to many 
humans, but their brains are not 
so different from that of the rat as 
they might wish. Of course the 
human brain is vastly more so- 
phisticated, but the basic func- 
tions are essentially the same. 
The rat brain is also capable of re- 
ceiving and recognizing informa- 
tion from the environment, react- 
ing emotionally, making choices, 
gauging time, solving problems, 
learning, remembering and for- 
getting, Indeed, the resemblances 
are sufficiently clear that new 
drugs are always screened on rats 
and other animals at an early 
stage of investigation, to provide 
an indication of the kinds of effect 
for which they may be useful in 

“Similar research has not been, 
and can not be, done in humans. 
The study by Weil, Zinberg and 
Nelsen dealt only with acute ef- 
fects of a single small dose. This 
study dealt with the damaging ef- 
fects of large daily doses over a 
long period of time. Ethical rea- 
sons obviously preclude such an 
experiment in man. 

“Cannabis is a substance which 
provokes more reactions based on 
emotion or ideology than on rea- 
son. Terms such as ‘absurd’ and 
‘utterly irresponsible’ often boom- 
erang on their user if he is igno- 
rant of basic scientific knowledge. 
One must wonder if it is not ‘irre- 
sponsible’ to make accusations or 
criticisms in an area clearly out- 
side one’s competence.” 

Smoking after heart attacks 
places men in jeopardy: study 

who have already had one or more 
heart attacks are greatly increas- 
ing their chances of dying if |,hey 
continue to smoke. 

This fact clearly emerged as 
one aspect of a giant clinical study 
of risk factors and the use of lip- 
id-lowering drugs in 8,430 men 
aged 38 to 64 years in 53 clinical 
centers across the United States. 
Each man was involved in the 
study for at least five years, and 
many for six or seven. 

In an exclusive interview with 
The Journal, the head of the steer- 
ing committee for the study 
emphasized; “Cigarette smoking 
is still predictive of mortality 
after one or more infarctions, just 
as it is predictive of those who • 
will suffer an initial heart 

Dr. Jeremiah Stamler contin- 
ued; “In this study we took a his- 
tory from each man which essen- 
tially was whether he smoked cig- 
arettes or not. Those smoking at 
entry into our study had about a 
40% to 50% higher mortality rate 
at five years as compared to those 
not smoking at entry.” 

Those “not smoking at entry” 
included both men who had never 
smoked, as well as a large number 
of ex-smokers, which seemed to 
confirm the advantage of quitting 
even by men who had smoked for 
a number of years. 

“The effects were also found to 
be additive, with regard to ciga- 
rette smoking” said Dr. Stamler, 
a world-famous heart disease epi- 
demiologist and chairman of the 
department of community health 
and preventive medicine at North- 
western University. 

“The existence of high choles- 
terol levels and smoking was 
worse than the existence of either 
factor alone. There also seemed to 
be an adverse effect from lack of 
exercise, along with high choles- 
terol levels and cigarette smok- 
ing. So if you compare men active 
at leisure with those who were 
not, and men who. did not smoke 
as compared with those who did, 
and then compared high versus 
low cholesterol levels, you got an 
additive effect. If you compared 
men with none of these risk fac- 

tors versus men with any two or 
all three of these risk factors, the 
risk for the adverse group was 2.5 
times higher.” 

The conclusions from this 
study. Dr. Stamler stressed, were 
that “every means should be 
employed by physicians and oth- 
ers to get people to quit smoking, 
and preferably BEFORE they’ve 
suffered their first heart attack. 

“The big lesson from this study 
is that the key to this disease lies 
in primary prevention, in the 
years before the first event (the 
first heart attack) happens. And 
that lesson is underscored by the 
fact that this first event is fatal in 
one-third of all cases, and that 

most of these deaths are sudden 
deaths. So the approach to this 
disease is primary prevention by 
elimination of risk factors such as 
smoking, if we are ever going to 
stem the coronary disease epi- 

The study in which Dr. Stamler 
was involved was sponsored by 
the National Heart and Lung Insti- 
tute to evaluate the efficacy of 
high and low-dose estrogen, dexto- 
thyroxine, clofibrate and nicotinic 
acid as a means of lowering blood 
lipids (fats) in men who had suf- 
fered one or more heart attacks, 
and to determine the “natural his- 
tory” of the disease. 

Methadone overdose deaths 
related to intravenous use 

maintenance dose of 80 mg. - 120 
mg. methadone is safe when taken 
orally but may be fatal if injected 
intravenously, according to a re- 
port from the University of Wis- 

Khalil A. Khavari of the univer- 
sity’s Midwest Institute on Drug 
Use told the North American Con- 
gress on Alcohol and Drug Prob- 
lems that methadone overdose 
deaths “may be, in part, due to 
people’s underestimation of the le- 
thality of methadone oral dosage 
when diverted to intravenous 

He said rats showed a massive 
and rapid tolerance to oral metha- 
done but virtually no tolerance 
when the drug was injected. 

Consequently, massive oral 
doses of methadone could be toler- 
ated, but the same was not true of 
the injected drug, he said. 

He suggested the studies might 
clarify the mechanism of metha- 
done overdose deaths due to injec- 

Such deaths, he said, are due to 
respiratory failure as methadone 
overdose by injection leads to both 
a sudden severe depression of bul- 

bar respiratory centres and to 
neural blocking which may inter- 
fere with the action of the dia- 

The slower absorption rate 
from the gastrointestinal tract of 
oral methadone may allow for 
effective metabolism of the drug 
in the liver and minimize t le ef- 
fects on the respiratory sys'em, 
he observed. 

He suggested the development 
of tolerance to massive doses of 
oral methadone by rats, raised 
some questions about clinical use 
of methadone. 

Once the daily maintenance 
dose is established, usually 80 mg. 
to 120 mg. in a few weeks, it is 
kept at the same level even when 
the patient is on the narcotic for 
years, he said. 

But, the studies suggest “it is 
most unlikely that the initial 
maintenance dosage produces 
equipotent pharmacological ef- 
fects over long periods ”. 

If this is true, the patient 
“may be using the free daily fix’ 
as a base which is augmented by 
anything else he can get his hands 
on— heroin, morphine, cocaine, 
amphetamines, alcohol, barbitur- 
ates, etc.,” he suggested. 


THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975— Page 13 

Book Report 

Short-term detoxification 
should not be written off 


BANGKOK— Although most com- 
munities have rejected short 
term, ambulatory detoxification 
for heroin addicts, it offers a safe 
and inexpensive treatment which 
can attract large numbers of oth- 
erwise unreachable addicts. 

This was the message of Dr. 
Robert Newman, assistant com- 
missioner of addiction programs 
for the New York City department 
of health, to the 31st International 
Congress on Alcoholism and Drug 
Dependence here. 

Dr. Newman said reluctance to 
consider short term detoxification 
springs from a widespread reluct- 
ance in the addiction treatment 
field to settle for anything less 
than a total “cure”. 

•‘This reluctance persists de- 
spite the notoriously chronic and 
recidivist nature of the condi- 
tion”, he said. 

Yet, "short-term ambulatory 
detoxification has proven itself 
effective in attracting a substan- 
tial proportion of the narcotic ad- 
dict population. It is also among 
the cheapest of all addiction treat- 
ment modalities, since a limited 
number of clinical facilities and 
staff can treat a large number of 

Dr. Newman acknowledged that 
sustained abstinence is an unreal- 
istic goal for a detoxification pro- 
gram which has contact with ad- 
dicts for a limited period of time. 
But, he pointed to a number of 
short term goals which this 
method can achieve. 

"It can enable addicts to lower 
their tolerance and dependence on 


volvement of the alcoholic in the 
planning, delivery and evaluation 
of services for other alcoholics 
has proved a successful compo- 
nent of a community program in 
Taunton. Mass. 

Stephen K. Valle, executive 
director of the Greater Taunton 
Council on Alcoholism, says it has 
been "extremely gratifying to wit- 
ness the change from passive and 
withdrawn consumers (alcohol- 
ics) to people who assert them- 
selves and demonstrate increasing 
self-confidence as they realize 
their own worth”. 

At the recent North American 
Congress on Alcohol and Drug 
Problems here, he described a 
program in which the services 
“are not viewed as an end in 
themselves, but rather as a means 
for the consumer to become in- 
volved in helping others with simi- 
lar problems.” 

For example, the alcoholic who 
visits the centre’s drop-in lounge 
in the evening recognizes that 
"consumers like himself” are 
staffing the lounge. 

Once he realizes others with 
problems are making a contribu- 
tion, the alcoholic recognizes he 
too can make a contribution. This 
can be “a crucial factor in re- 
building the damaged self-concept 
prevalent among those affected by 
alcoholism,” said Mr. Valle. 

The centre has two paid staff 
members, one professional and 
one para-professional. Thus, the 
consumer’s services, whether in 
maintenance, reception or manag- 
ing, become "an integral part of 
the total program”. 

As consumers becorne involved, 
they may, with training, assist in 
providing direct services to other 
alcoholics and, eventually, may 

opiates, if only temporarily; it can 
identify and in many cases resolve 
acute medical and social crises 
which exist; it can act as a buffer 
to the vagaries of the illicit drug 
market, and prevent the ‘panic’ 
which is otherwise associated 
with temporary shortages of sup- 
ply; and it can provide an orienta- 
tion, and facilitate referral, to 
long-term treatment programs 
which are available. ” 

Of major significance is the 
usefulness of this kind of program 
in attracting the otherwise un- 
reachable addict. According to 
Dr. Newman, each new applicant 
for treatment provides additional 
evidence of the need for the pro- 
gram; and the program’s role 
takes on increased significance 
because many of those who re- 
quest detoxification have not pre- 
viously sought other forms of 

The New York City Ambulatory 
Detoxification Program was initi- 
ated in the summer of 1971. To be 
eligible, an applicant must be 18 
years of age or older, have a his- 
tory of current narcotic depend- 
ence, and not have been in treat- 
ment in the program in the pre- 
vious 28 days. 

Methadone is administered in 
dissolved form, with an inflexible 
upper dosage limit of 40 mg per 
day. No take-home medication is 
provided and, whenever possible, 
methadone administration begins 
on the day of application. The 
maximum duration of treatment 
is 14 days. 

Dr. Newman said there have 
been more than 60,000 admissions 
since the program began. The av- 

join the centre’s Advocacy Board 
which plans, evaluates, antf imple- 
ments changes in the program. 

The experience of the alcohol- 
ics, combined with the expertise 
of the professionals, provides “a 
unique combination and increases 
the potential for meeting diverse 
client needs,” Valle noted. 

Problem solving teams are one 
example of successful integration, 
he said, as a recovered alcoholic 
may serve on the same team as a 
psychologist from the mental 
health program. 

In such situations, “the profes- 
sional often gains an appreciation 
for the natural ability of a re- 
covered alcoholic to identify accu- 
rately with the client, and the re- 
covered alcoholic often learns to 
appreciate the skills of the profes- 
sional in facilitating client self- 

The process is not without prob- 
lems, warned Valle. The profes- 
sional must be aware that helpers 
may become overzealous. Con- 
sumers may be insensitive to the 
role of the professional and may 
also overextend themselves to the 
point of failure, a possibility 
which the professional must rec- 

Finally, Valle cautioned, the 
professional may resist consumer 
involvement; He may be unable to 
handle the threat of an untrained 
person’s providing services or he 
may underestimate the value of 
the contribution the consumer can 

Success of such a program re- 
quires professionals skilled at su- 
pervision and training, who are 
not "threatened by the ability of 
others less trained than them- 
selves, and who have an unwaver- 
ing belief in the concept of con- 
sumers as people capable of mak- 
ing significant contributions for 
themselves and others,” he said. 

erage stay is slightly more than 
seven days. 

In the first year of operation, 
approximately half of all patients 
admitted had never before been 
enrolled in any treatment pro- 
gram. The overwhelming major- 
ity of addicts contacted by other 
outreach programs accepted re- 
ferral to the Ambulatory Detoxifi- 
cation Program while rejecting 
long-term modalities. 

Admission process includes a 
physical examination, laboratory 
screening tests and a detailed so- 
cial history. Every effort is made 
to refer the patient for appropri- 
ate diagnostic and therapeutic 
care, including counselling for 
non-medical problems. Special 
emphasis has been placed on cre- 
ating an awareness among pa- 
tients of the long-term treatment 
programs which are available. 

Dr. Newman said about half of 
the people who entered the New 
York City program have returned 
for repeat detoxification. How- 
ever, he stressed that this “re- 
volving door” phenomenon should 
not be considered an indicator of 

“Rather, it is evidence that the 
patients perceive the services of- 
fered as beneficial”. 

"Very few cities”. Dr. Newman 
said, “have established ambula- 
tory detoxification programs as a 
distinct treatment entity. In New 
York City, where a massive am- 
bulatory detoxification program 
has been in operation for over 
three years, its effectiveness has 
been clearly demonstrated— in 
large part by the sheer number of 
addicts who have voluntarily 
sought admission. 

“In order for similar programs 
to be implemented elsewhere, it is 
necessary to recognise the spe- 
cial, short term objectives which 
are applicable in this modality, 
and to accept the relevance of this 
form of treatment to the addict 
population and the general com- 



as reported in The Journal 

Originally prepared as a 
reference document for the 
Senate committee on legal 
and constitutional affairs 
in its current consideration 
of the bill to modify Canada’s 
cannabis laws, this volume 
contains reprints of 141 
articles on legal, social and 
medical aspects of the 
cannabis question as reported 
by The Journal’s international 
team of science and medical 

A valuable guide for students 
and professionals interested 
in and concerned about 
cannabis use. 

A limited number is available at 
$5 each from Marketing 
Services, Addiction Research 
Foundation, 33 Russell Street, 
Toronto M5S2S1. Please 
send remittance with order. 

The following books have 
recently been acquired by 
the Addiction Research 
Foundation library in 
Toronto;' These books are 
not for sale at the library, 
but general enquiries may 
be directed to The Library, 
33 Russell Street, Toronto, 
Ont. M5S 2S1 (595-6144). 

Medical Lollypop, Junkie Insu- 
lin, or What?: Moffett, Arthur 
D., Adler, Freda, Glaser, 
Frederick B., and Horvitz, 
Diana. Dorrance and Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, 1974, 82p. 

A Systems Approach to Drug 
Treatment: Adler, Freda, 
Moffett, Arthur D., Glaser, 
Frederick B., Ball, John C., 
and Horvitz, Diana. Dorrance 
and Company, Philadelphia, 
1974, 328p. 

Sociological Aspects of Drug 
Dependence: Winick, Charles 
(ed.) CRC Press, Inc., Cleve- 
land, 1974, 327p., $41.95. 

A Model Act for the Rehabili- 
tation of Chemically Depend- 

ent Persons : Minnesota Chem- 
ical Dependency Association, 
Minneapolis, 1974, 22p. 

Drug Use Among Vancouver 
Secondary School Students: 
1970 and 1974: Russell, John S., 
and Hollander, Marcus J. Nar- 
cotic Addiction Foundation of 
British Columbia, Vancouver, 
1974, 183p. 

The Problem Drinker: A Man- 
agement Guide: Industrial Ac- 
cident Prevention Association 
of Ontario, Toronto, 1974, 31p. 

Drug Abuse and the Criminal 
Justice System: A Survey of 
New Approaches in Treatment 
and Rehabilitation: U.S. De-^ '■ 
partment of Justice, Washing- 
ton, 1974, 221p. 

Drug Abuse and tbe Criminal 
Justice System: A Summary 
Report: A New Life For You. 
U.S. Department of Justice, 
Washington, 1974, 29p. 

Runaway House: A Youth-Run 
Service Project: Butler, 
Dodie, Reiner, Joe and 
Treanor, Bill. U.S. (Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, 1974, 68p. 


Vol. 2 of the 
Proceedings of the 
International Symposia 
on Alcohol and 
Drug Problems, 
Toronto, 1973 

Social Aspects 

of the Medical Use 
of Psychotropic Drugs 

Ruth Cooperstock, Editor 

This symposium provides an examination of the rapid increase in the 
acceptance and use of psychotropic drugs, through analyses of the 
pharmaceutical industry as a producer and advertiser, the physician 
as dispenser, the patient as consumer, and government as regulator of 
use, and an exploration of the interaction of the above factors. 

The drugs considered include amphetamines and anorexiants, barb- 
iturates and other non-barbiturate sedatives and hypnotics, antide- 
pressants, and tranquillizers. The focus is on prescription rather than 
illicit drugs. 

The following papers appear in this volume: 

- International Drug Control and the Pharmaceutical Industry 
K. Bruun 

- Prescribing and the Relationship between Patients and Doctors 
A. Cartwright 

- Some Factors Involved in the Increased Prescribing of Psychotropic 

R. Cooperstock 

- The Role of the Consumer-Compliance or Cooperation? 

J . Jones 

- Perspectives on the New Psychoactive Drug Technology 
H. L. Leonard and A. Bernstein 

- Regulatory Control of the Canadian Government over the 
Manufacturing, Distribution and Prescribing of Psychotropic Drugs 
A.B Morrison 

- Economic Aspects of Medical Use of Psychotropic Drugs 
C Muller 

- The Family Doctor's Role in Psychotropic Drug Use 
P A. Parish 

- Increased Alcohol Intake as a Coping Mechanism for Psychic Distress 
H.J. Parry, I.FH. Cisin, M B. Balter, C D. Mellinger, and D.I.. Manheimer 

- Family Patterns in Prescriptions of Psychotherapeutic Drugs 

K. Pernanen 

- Drug Utilization and the Quality of Primary Health Care: 

A Methodology for Appraisal 

j C. Sibley 

- The Social Responsibility of the Physician in Prescribing 
Mind-Affecting Drugs 

S. Wolfe 

- Reflecting on Directions in Psychotropic Drug Research 
I K . Zola 

P-226 Soft Cover $6.50 P-227 Hard Cover $1 0.00 

Order by Catalogue No. from 

Addiction Research Foundation 

Attn: Marketing Services 
33 Russell Street 
Toronto, Canada MSS 2S1 

Alcoholics helping others 
leads to positive outcome 

Page 14— THE JOURNAL, May 1, 1975 

LCBO restricts alcohol advertising 

TORONTO— Advertising of alco- 
hol beverages has been cut back 
on both radio and television sta- 
tions in Ontario, in accordance 
with a new set of directives issued 
by the Liquor Control Board. 

The revisions, which went into 
effect March 1, 1975, restrict each 
winery, brewery and distillery to 
sponsoring no more than two 
hours of radio programming and 
IV 2 hours of television program- 

ming per station per week. 

The previous regulations al- 
lowed three hours of radio and 
three hours of television each. 

There is some flexibility in the 
time allotments to permit spon- 
sors of certain cultural or sporting 
events to cover the full events. 
But in no case are they allowed to 
exceed a maximum of 52 hours, 
per station, of radio or television 
program sponsorship, over the 

course of one year. This is a re- 
duction from 78 total hours under 
the previous directives. 

Regulations in respect to the 
print media remain unchanged. 

Daily newspapers, for example, 
are restricted to a maximum of 
1,250 lines per individual ad, a 
maximum of 4,000 lines per com- 
pany per week, and a maximum of 
78,000 lines per company per any 
calendar year. 

The One-Minute 
Urine Assay System 
Evaluation Tsst 

A. Advantages of On-Site 
Emit Urine Assays 

1. Test results are available 1. 

immediately for use in 

2. Sample handling, shipping 2. 

and confusion are minimized. 

3. Your dollar investment in 3. 

urine testing stays in your 

4. In a recent study, 80 urine 4. 

samples spiked with realistic 
concentrations of drug 
metabolite were analyzed by 

three Emit-equipped 
methadone clinics and three 
leading commercial TLC 
laboratories. The labs made 
39 errors out of 240 analyses, 

... an 84% accuracy rate. 

The clinics made 2 errors out 
of 240 analyses, ... a 99% 
accuracy rate. 

5. On-site urine test results are 5. . 
seldom questioned by 
methadone clinic patients. If 
questions are raised a new 

sample can be analyzed 

B. Advantages of Off-Site 
TLC Testing 

(If you have trouble filling in column B, 
fill in the coupon.) 

Until the introduction of the Emit system, urine testing was a necessary but 
not very useful process at most methadone clinics. Urine specimens were 
collected and submitted to outside laboratories, and test results were re- 
ceived several days later. And, when the results finally did arrive, neither 
the patients nor the staff had a great deal of conf