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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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https://archive.org/details/31/6111/6487 74 


‘ 


CANADA as 


VOL1 
1974 


Sunset at 
Point Pelee National Park 


Coucher de soleil, 
Parc national 
dela Pointe Pelée 


A. F. Helmsley 


Published by Parks Canada under the authority of 
the Hon. Jean Chrétien, Pc, MP, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
©Information Canada, Ottawa, 1974 

INA Publication No. QS-1241-000-BB-A1 
Design: John Ball Graphic Arts Service Ltd. 


Conservation Canada is a quarterly publication 
Editors: Sheila Crutchlow, Martin Filion 
Production: Eric Plummer 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 


Translations of articles in the other official language are 
available on request from The Editor, Conservation Canada, 
Information Services, Department of Indian and Northern 
Affairs, Ottawa, KIA 0H4. 


Publié par Parcs Canada avec l’autorisation 

de hon. Jean Chrétien, c.p., 

député, ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord. 
©lInformation Canada, Ottawa, 1974 

Publication AIN N° QS-1241-000-BB-A 1 
Présentation: John Ball Graphic Arts Service Ltd. 


Publication trimestrielle. 
Rédaction: Martin Filion, Sheila Crutchlow 
Production: Eric Plummer 


On peut reproduire les articles en mentionnant 
leur provenance. 


On peut se procurer des versions anglaises ou frangaises des 
articles parus dans ce numéro en s’adressant au Rédacteur, 
Conservation Canada, Services de Il’ Information, Ministere des 
Affaires indiennes et du Nord, Ottawa, KIA 0OH4. 


Indian and 


iv 


Northern Affairs 
Parks Canada 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Parcs Canada 


Q 


NG. de ministre responsable de Parcs Canada 
depuis 1968, ce fut toujours un grand plaisir et une 
source constante d’inspiration que de m’associer a 
tous les Canadiens qui ne cessent de témoigner un 
intérét grandissant a l’égard de leur patrimoine 
historique et naturel. Grace a cet intérét, nous avons 
pu créer 10 nouveaux parcs nationaux, parmi lesquels 
se trouvent les premiers des territoires septentrionaux 
et du Québec. 

Les canaux historiques ont d’autre part été trans- 
férés a Parcs Canada et l’on continue d’aménager les 
lieux historiques nationaux, d’un océan a l’autre. 

Les parcs marins nationaux, les routes et les voies 
d’eau historiques nationales nous posent de nouveaux 
défis, tout comme Il’aménagement de routes pano- 
ramiques et la conservation de sites d’intérét national. 


Les Canadiens veulent en connaitre davantage au 
sujet de leur pays et de leur histoire. Conservation 
Canada, une publication trimestrielle, vise précisé- 
ment a combler ce désir. La revue entraine cependant 
ses lecteurs “‘dans les coulisses’’. Par leurs articles et 
leurs photographies, vous ferez la connaissance des 
membres du personnel de Parcs Canada. 


Nous voulons que les citoyens canadiens puissent 
apprendre ce qui se fait, pour eux et grace a eux, 
dans le domaine de la préservation, de la conserva- 
tion et de la mise en valeur du patrimoine du Canada, 
héritage récent peut-étre, mais inestimable toutefois. 


A. Minister responsible for Parks Canada since 
1968 it has been a great source of pleasure and in- 
spiration for me to be part of the increased interest 
and involvement of Canadians in their natural and 
human heritage. Because of this commitment on the 
part of so many, we have been able to establish 10 
new National Parks, including the first National 
Parks in Québec and in the northern territories. 
Canada’s historic canals have been transferred to 
Parks Canada and exciting work 1s underway on 
National Historic Sites from coast to coast. There 
are also new challenges in National Historic Land 
and Water Routes, National Marine Parks, Nationa! 
Landmarks and Parkways. 

Clearly, it is the desire of Canadians to know more 
about their land and their history. Conservation 
Canada is dedicated to that principle but with a 
difference. This quarterly publication takes its reader- 
ship ‘“‘behind the scenes” to meet the people who are 
Parks Canada. All articles and illustrations are by 
staff members. We would like the people of Canada 
to know what is being done on their behalf and with 
their support to conserve, preserve and enhance our 
rather young but priceless Canadian heritage. 


New Ch fe? 


Introducing / Rencontres: A.T. Davidson 


John Olson 3 


Conserving Historical Resources in Canada 


John Rick 4 


Mettons le cap sur les Rocheuses 


Jean La Boissiére 8 


Plus 


12 


Empire Builder at Work and War 


Malcolm McLeod 16 


Ladies of the Locks 


Doug Nixon 20 


Les drapeaux en Nouvelle-France 


René Chartrand 24 


Et Cetera 


28 


“Basically, ’'m a pragmatist,”’ said the Assistant 
Deputy Minister as he sat behind his desk on the 
15th floor of Ottawa’s Centennial Towers. 

Alexander T. Davidson had headed the conserva- 
tion program of Indian and Northern Affairs for less 
than a month when he was interviewed early this year. 

In his new position, he is responsible for the direc- 
tion of National Parks, National Historic Parks and 
Sites, Historic Canals and Byways and Special Places. 

Al Davidson takes a very practical approach to his 
new duties. 

“Tm suspicious of philosophies that say if you be- 
lieve this, these are the things you must do.” 

He continued, ““You have to determine what’s the 
sensible thing to do... what’s workable. 

“It’s pretty early to say if there will be any major 
changes in the direction Parks Canada is moving’’, 
said the 47-year-old native of Thunder Bay, Ontario. 

Two areas of concern to the ADM are the town- 
sites at Banff and Jasper and the Byways and Special 
Places Program. 

“We have to resolve some of the townsite problem 
one way or another. It’s urgent because it takes up a 
great deal of the time of our staff. . . on all levels. 
I’m not saying the townsites aren’t important. But 
there are other areas of concern we have to deal with. 

‘Also there’s the parliamentary committee. We 
have to consider their views. They’ve brought out the 
point that self-government for residents of these 
townsites needs to be developed. 


Continued on page 27 


Introducing... 
Rencontres... 


A.T. Davidson 


by / par John Olson 


“Je suis fondamentalement pragmatique.” C’est ce 
que nous a déclaré M. Alexander-T. Davidson, le 
sous-ministre adjoint, a son bureau du 15e étage a 
Ottawa. 

M. Davidson est responsable de la gestion des pares 
nationaux, des parcs et des canaux historiques et du 
programme “Lieux et parcours privilégiés’’. Il n’oc- 
cupe ses fonctions que depuis quelques mois. 

Agé de 47 ans et natif de Thunder Bay, Ontario 
M. Davidson aborde son travail avec un sens pra- 
tique. “Je me méfie des systémes de pensée qui pré- 
conisent de faire nécessairement telle action si vous 
partagez telle idée. Il faut déterminer, poursuit-il, ce 
qui devrait se faire et .. . pourrait se faire.” 

Quant a Parcs Canada, “‘il est trop tot pour prédire 
des changements importants dans son orientation.” 

Le SMA s’intéresse actuellement aux lotissements 
urbains de Banff et de Jasper et au programme “‘Lieux 
et parcours privilégiés”’. 

‘‘Nous devons résoudre le probleme des lotisse- 
ments urbains d’une facon ou d’une autre. Une solu: 
tion urgente s’impose, car le personnel, a tous les ni- 
veaux, y passe la majeure partie de son temps. Je ne 
veux point dire que ces lotissements urbains soient 
sans importance, mais nous devons nous occuper de 
plusieurs autres choses. 

‘“‘Nous devons également prendre en considération 
les points de vue du comité parlementaire. Les mem- 
bres ont souligné qu’une administration autonome 
devait étre mise en place pour le bénéfice des rési- 
dants de Banff et de Jasper. 

“T’autre part, je trouve le programme des lieux et 
parcours privilégiés tres intéressant et je voudrais le 
voir prendre son essor. 

“On a déja fait beaucoup de travail en ce qui con- 
cerne ce projet et j’'aimerais qu’on continue a le mettre 
en oeuvre. Je crois que c’est un concept plein d’ima- 
gination. II reste a le matérialiser. Au cours des deux 
ou trois prochains mois, nous aurons une série de 
rencontres avec les gouvernements des provinces.” 


Suite a la page 27 


Conserving Historical 
Resources In Canada Bn. 


Careful on-site cleaning of pottery shards turned up in the 
dig 


Les richesses historiques sensibilisent Thomme a son 
passé et lorientent vers l'avenir. Tout en déplorant la 
destruction de vestiges par V-homme et par la nature, 
M. John Rick nous fait connaitre les activités de conser- 
vation au Canada et explique les lignes de conduite qui 
président au programme national de commémoration. 


Historic resources are scarce, often unique, non- 
renewable, tangible remains of man’s past activities. 
They range from the archaeological evidence of the 
peopling of the New World to examples of 20th cen- 
tury architecture and technology; from archaeological 
and ethnographic specimens, through documents, 
objets d’art and antiques, to buildings and large par- 
cels of land. The thread common to all these remains 
is that they illustrate, in concrete form, man’s past for 
the benefit of the present in facing the future. 


They are easily destroyed, all too often threatened 
and, once gone, lost forever. 


“Conservation”? encompasses all those activities 
required to understand the significance of these re- 
mains, enjoy them in the present and preserve them 
for the future. 


Implicit in this concept is human activity and in- 
tervention. An archaeological specimen, for example, 
may be well preserved underground. Yet in that state 
it contributes nothing towards human understanding 
or enjoyment; excavation, analysis, and display are 
necessary before this can be achieved. Thus, the con- 
servation of resources also implies their wise exploita- 
tion—their use in a fashion which contributes to 
human knowledge while preserving the tangible re- 
mains for future generations. 


Value of the resources 

Whether from simple curiosity or from desire to 
control his own destiny, man seeks to understand the 
universe and his place in it. Since our current con- 
dition is clearly the result of all that has gone before, 
the historical disciplines constitute a major avenue 
towards such an understanding. By seeking to learn 
how we have arrived where we are, we hope to under- 
stand ourselves better, to avoid repetition of past 
mistakes and to profit from experience in order to 
cope more ably with the problems of the future. 


The importance of understanding and preserving 
the past has been recognized, implicitly or explicitly, 
by virtually every country in the world. This concern 
is manifested in the establishment of archives and 
museums, in the commemoration of historic events 


Repairing the beadwork on an old Indian jacket 


and significant figures, in the preservation of historic 
places and objects, and through the enactment of 
antiquities legislation. 


Although one cannot place a dollar value on the 
intellectual, emotional and aesthetic aspects of his- 
torical resources, it is clear that the wise use of such 
resources generates considerable revenue. 


Effects of man 

Each year, an unknown portion of Canada’s histor- 
ic resources is destroyed by natural causes (erosion, 
for example), but this is only a fraction of the de- 
struction caused by man himself. Unlike natural re- 
sources, historic resources are basically man-made, 
and their removal consequently represents the de- 
struction by man of his own handiwork. Unlike scenic 
or wilderness resources, they derive their cultural 
interest and relevance from their status as the crea- 
tions of human minds and hands, particularly in the 
case of buildings. Age, decay and the natural propen- 
sity of society for change, as well as the sheer growth 


of human numbers, mean that historic sites are 
among the cultural resources most prone to loss. 


The construction of dams, reservoirs, highways 


and pipe lines often results in the obliteration of 
| 


archaeological sites. Urban renewal and urban spraw! 
take an annual toll of Canada’s surviving old build- 
ings; they also destroy or encroach seriously on the 
original surroundings that create an historical en- 
vironment for the structures. Ancient shipwrecks are 
stripped of their contents for amusement or private 
gain, sometimes being damaged so extensively that 
their identification is impossible. 

The tragedy of such loss is, if anything, aggravated 
by the fact that the precise magnitude of the de- 
struction is not presently known. 


Present preservation 

In Canada, the responsibility for the protection of 
archaeological sites, and of historic sites of provincial 
or local significance rests (with certain exceptions) 
with the provincial governments. A number of these 


Left to right: 


Divers at the underwater archaeology project at 
Restigouche 


Repairing an antique musical instrument 


Cleaning a metal artifact with a strong solvent 


have enacted protective legislation, while others have 
indicated an intention to do so. The provinces also 
have programs, varying widely in scope, for the de- 
velopment of historic sites of provincial significance 
for public education and enjoyment. 


At the federal level, the National Museum of Man 
works closely with provincial agencies and the univer- 
sities in carrying out archaeological surveys and 
excavations of prehistoric sites. Such projects are 
dictated by both the need to fill gaps in current knowl- 
edge and the threat of destruction to sites in certain 
areas. 


The Museum of Man also preserves in its collection 
objects of archaeological, ethnological and aesthetic 
significance while the National Museum of Science 
and Technology, as its name implies, protects those 
artifacts illustrative of scientific and technological 
developments in Canada. The Public Archives of 
Canada is responsible for the preservation of docu- 
ments relating to Canada’s past, while the National 
Gallery of Canada is custodian of many of the na- 
tion’s art treasures. 


Federal responsibility for the acquisition, protec- 
tion and development of sites of national historic 
significance is vested in the Minister of Indian and 
Northern Affairs. 


The National Historic Parks Branch of this Depart- 
ment maintains sites which have been acquired 
specifically because of their importance in Canadian 
history and their development potential. National 
Historic Sites are designated by the Minister of Indian 
and Northern Affairs on the recommendation of the 
Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, an 
advisory group of eminent historians and archivists 
appointed regionally across Canada. The recommen- 
dation of this Board is also taken under consideration 
when determining the type and extent of commemo- 
ration and preservation to be undertaken. 


Since National Historic Sites are preserved for the 
benefit of all Canadians, some form of development 
is considered essential to permit persons of all age 
groups, educational backgrounds, etc., to appreciate 
the nature and significance of these historic places. 
The necessary development may take such forms as 
an on-site interpretation centre containing graphic 
exhibits and artifacts, interpretation signs, restora- 
tion and period refurnishing (in the case of standing 
structures), or stabilization of archaeological remains. 


The objective of any form of development must be to 
preserve as much as possible of the original fabric. 


Guidelines for the historical commemoration 


program 
The national historical commemoration program 
is based on four guidelines: 


1. It must encompass the principal themes of Cana- 
dian history. A satisfactory thematic balance will 
also contribute to an appropriate geographic 
spread. 


2. The selection of each National Historic Park or 
Site must be based on clear criteria. 


3. The development of each historic site must be 
based on thorough archaeological, architectural, 
artifactual and historical research. The goal must 
be the highest possible degree of authenticity and 
integrity. 

4. The development of individual historic sites 
should be imaginative and of the highest quality. 
They must be stabilized (or restored or reconstruct- 
ed as the case may be), and furnished where 
feasible and appropriate. Above all, there must be 
a vivid, imaginative interpretation to bring them 
to life to convey as much of the texture of the 
time as possible. 


We must try to touch the imaginations of our 
visitors—to help them recreate in their minds the 
way of life, its quality, its privations and its colour as 
it was for our forebears. If we succeed, history will 
never be dull. 


To achieve these objectives, current, well-conceived 
policies must guide the development of the system of 
National Historic Parks and Sites. 


Conclusion 


Good progress has already been made in the field of 
national historical commemoration. As of January 
1974 there were 48 National Historic Parks and major 
Historic Sites across Canada, many of which are still 
under development; 35 more are in the early stages of 
development or about to be developed; and negotia- 
tions are under way for a further seven. An additional 
18 sites have been, or are being, restored in co- 
operation with provincial and municipal governments 
and with local historical societies, chambers of com- 
merce, and other interested groups. There are more 
than 600 plaques and monuments across the country 
commemorating persons, places or events of national 
significance. However, much remains to be done, 
both in the creation and development of new parks 
and sites and in the completion of existing parks and 


Say MERE maser wages 


sites, to produce a well-balanced high-quality pro- 
gram of historic preservation and commemoration 
worthy of Canada’s history. 


It should be recognized that no significant portion 
of any country’s historic heritage can be saved if its 
citizens do not care enough to become involved. 
Through the Canadian Inventory of Historic Build- 
ing program, private groups and individuals are 
becoming involved, on a volunteer basis, in the re- 
cording of Canada’s architectural history. Further, 
the establishment of Heritage Canada has given 
Canadians everywhere, an opportunity to participate 
actively in the conservation of our country’s historic, 
architectural and natural heritage. Historic sites, 
monuments and museums operated by all levels of 
government and by private concerns, seek the same 
end—the stimulation of an awareness of national 
identity, of a shared culture, and the desire to pre- 
serve and understand that which has made us what 
we are. 


en prea cr een oe NR Fa ee 
Mr. Rick is Chief of the Research Division, National His- 
toric Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada. 

Reprinted from Conservation in Canada: A Prospectus, 
edited by J.S. Maini and A. Carlisle; Canadian Forestry 
Service, Information Canada, 1974 


ettons le cap 


sur les “Kocheuses 


PAR JEAN LA BOISSIERE 


Information Officer, Jean La Boissiére was, for four 
years, Travel Editor for La Presse. Last summer he 
travelled, as a tourist, through the National Parks of 
the Rockies. Besides describing the incredible beauty of 
the parks, he gives information on accommodations 
and points of interest which will be of value to anyone 
contemplating a trip to this spectacular part of Canada. 


Le théatre est grandiose ...la mise en scene im- 
muable...les acteurs éternellement jeunes... le 
spectacle permanent. Au cours de la belle saison, 
Penchantement visuel est de dix-huit heures par jour! 


Lendroit? Les parcs nationaux des Rocheuses 
canadiennes, a la mi-juillet. On chercherait en vain, 
partout ailleurs au monde, autant de blancheur aveu- 
glante, autant de verdure chatoyante, autant de viva- 
cité dans les coloris. 


Le décor est aussi féerique en hauteur qu’en pro- 
fondeur; un coup d’oeil suffit pour passer de l’abime 
des canyons aux sommets crénelés des montagnes. 
A Vhorizontale, le paysage prend tant6t forme de 
ruisseau, de riviere, de lac, tantdt de glacier, de forét, 
de prairie ou de vallée, qui se succédent en une suite 
de fondus enchainés des mieux réussis. 


La faune et la flore vivent dans un habitat privi- 
légié et a l’altitude qui leur convient. Par exemple, la 
chévre de montagne et la marmotte habitent les ré- 
gions élevées; le moufion et le wapiti préférent les 
régions basses, tandis que l’orignal, le castor et le rat 
musqué vivent au fond des vallées. 


Alors que les coniféres abondent au creux des 
vallées, les pentes intermédiaires sont peuplées de 
pins et d’épinettes. Plus laltitude est élevée, plus la 
végétation se raréfie, de sorte qu’au-dela de 7,000 
pieds, c’est-a-dire a la limite de la zone arborescente, 
le paysage alpin ressemble étrangement a certaines 
régions de |’Arctique. 

Du cadre champétre aux solitudes glaciaires, il n’y 
a qu’un pas ou, si vous préférez, qu'un saut. La 
meilleure fagon d’accéder aux sommets est, a coup 


stir, la marche a pied. Dans bien des cas, cependant, 
le temps requis et l’endurance physique ne permet- 
tront pas aux visiteurs de se livrer a pareil exercice. 


Il existe, dans les deux principaux parcs des Ro- 
cheuses, a Jasper et 4 Banff, un moyen beaucoup plus 
rapide de franchir les distances verticales. II s’agit du 
téléphérique qui peut transporter une trentaine de 
personnes debout, comme celui de Jasper, ou de la 
télécabine suspendue au flanc du Mont Sulphur et 
dans laquelle quatre personnes assises confortable- 
ment peuvent admirer Banff et ses environs. 


Les parcs des Rocheuses 

Sept parcs nationaux sont situés dans les Ro- 
cheuses: les parcs Jasper, Banff et des lacs Waterton, 
en Alberta, et les parcs Yoho, Glacier, Kootenay 
et du mont Revelstoke, en Colombie-Britannique. 
Une exploration complete de tous ces parcs deman- 
derait des mois, si lon tient compte du nombre de 
sentiers qui les traversent et du temps nécessaire pour 
se rendre d’un point a un autre. 


II faut donc se résigner a n’en voir qu’une partie, 
au cours d’un premier voyage, quitte a découvrir les 
autres plus tard. De toute fagon, si vous y allez une 
fois, vous aurez trés certainement le gotit d’y retour- 
ner un jour ou l’autre. 


Edmonton et Calgary sont des points de départ et 
darrivée a considérer. Une route nord-sud, trés 
directe, relie les deux villes, mais la route panora- 
mique qui va d’Edmonton a Calgary passe au coeur 
des Rocheuses et dans les deux plus grands pares, 
Jasper et Banff. 


Le glacier Victoria et le lac Louise 


Une route capricieuse mais pittoresque 


Deux autres parcs nationaux, Yoho et Kootenay, 
sont situés a proximité, constituant ainsi des desti- 
nations idéales pour des excursions d’une journée 
dans la province voisine. 

Voila done un itinéraire qui réunit a la fois des 
éléments assez intéressants pour occuper une semaine 
de loisirs et des déplacements peu nombreux qui 
représentent une économie appréciable de temps. 
Ajoutons a cela que les haltes sont nombreuses, en 


RNY Gh aay 
oe CME 


Ht MRT RE TOME REE 
UE UA GAVEL) hrc) A) CORRE 
iit KE 


ay 


Un paysage typique des Rocheuses canadiennes 


Des affiches bilingues et rustiques 


cours de route, ce qui réduit considérablement la 
fatigue du voyage. 

N’oubliez surtout pas, lors d’une promenade a 
pied, que l’altitude a laquelle vous vous trouverez a 
certains moments, jouera un role prédominant sur 
votre comportement physique. Plus vous monterez, 
plus l’oxygéne sera rare et plus vous ralentirez le pas, 
sinon vous découvrirez trés vite que l’expression bien 
connue ‘“‘des paysages 4 vous couper le souffle” peut 


9 


10 


étre employée aussi bien au sens propre qu’au figure. 

A eux seuls, les parcs Jasper, Banff, Yoho et 
Kootenay ont une superficie trois fois supérieure a 
celle de I’Ile-du-Prince-Edouard. En effet, ces quatre 
parcs nationaux couvrent plus de 7,800 milles carrés 
de territoire, alors que la plus petite province du 
Canada n’a qu’une superficie de 2,184 milles carrés. 


De méme que nous aurions tort de ne passer que 
24 heures dans la province qu’on qualifie de ““berceau 
de la nation canadienne’, n’aurions-nous pas la 
moindre idée des parcs nationaux en ne faisant 
qu’entrer et sortir de ces endroits privilégiés. 


Les parcs ont été créés et aménagés pour qu’on 
puisse y vivre en union tres étroite avec la nature. 
Ce ne sont pas tellement les habitudes de vie qui 
changent, c’est plutdt le cadre des activités quoti- 
diennes qui differe. Une entrec6te sur charbon de bois 
naura peut-étre pas plus de saveur dans un parc 
national que dans la cour arri¢re de votre maison. 
Vous admettrez, toutefois, qu’il est beaucoup plus 
agréable de cuisiner dans le décor d’un parc des 
Rocheuses canadiennes qu’au fond d’un jardin de 
ville, ou bruits et pollution ne parviennent pas a faire 
oublier le milieu urbain dans lequel nous vivons a 
peu pres tous. 


Qw importe son nom, il égayait notre réveil 


Fig 


Le lac Emerald 


Services et accueil 

Les parcs nationaux de |’Ouest canadien offrent 
un grand nombre d’emplacements de camping et de 
caravaning aux adeptes du nomadisme moderne, 
sans compter bon nombre d’endroits favorisant le 
voyageur solitaire qui, sac au dos la plupart du temps, 
n’exige que le minimum de commodités. 


Les touristes en général trouveront un gite a portée 
de leurs bourses, s’ils ont la bonne fortune d’arriver 
assez tot aux différents établissements hoteliers et, 
surtout, s’ils ont pris Vinitiative, avant le départ, de 
réserver leurs chambres aux endroits stratégiques 
comme Jasper et Banff par exemple. 


Il est fort possible qu’au cours de la période d’af- 
fluence—du 15 juin au [5 aotiit—vous connaissiez 
certaines difficultés d’hébergement. Ne vous affolez 
pas et contactez immédiatement le bureau d’admi- 
nistration du parc ou vous vous trouvez. Les préposés 
a l’accueil aux visiteurs de Parcs Canada vous met- 
tront sur la bonne voie. 


Au sujet de l’accueil aux visiteurs, ouvrons ici une 
parenthése a intention des francophones: tous les 
parcs nationaux du Canada, sans exception, pos- 
sedent un personnel bilingue capable de servir le 
public dans les deux langues officielles. De plus, la 
signalisation routiere, les tableaux d’interprétation 
ainsi que les affiches, les panneaux indicateurs et les 
écriteaux sont bilingues. Voila quelques précisions 
qui vous encourageront sirement a vous adresser en 
francais, chaque fois que vous en aurez l’occasion. 


Ces remarques s’appliquent également lorsqu’il 
s’agit de visites guidées en des lieux particuli¢rement 
intéressants—canyons, glaciers, cols, etc.—d’excur- 
sions dans les sentiers d’interprétation de la nature, 
de présentations de films et de diapositives. De plus, 
toutes les publications de Parcs Canada sont bilingues 


et sont disponibles aux postes d’entrée ainsi qu’aux 
centres d'information des 28 parcs nationaux du 
Canada. 


En effet, chaque province canadienne ainsi que les 
territoires, celui du Yukon et du Nord-Ouest, sont 
dotés de parcs nationaux. Le parc le plus au nord 
estaccluipde wie Batiin; Je pare de la Pointe Pelée 
est situé a l’endroit le plus méridional du pays, a 
Pextrémité sud-est de |’Ontario. 

Le parc le plus a lest, Terra Nova, est baigné par 
les eaux de l’Atlantique, alors que le parc national 
Pacific Rim, situé sur la céte ouest de Il’Ile Vancouver, 
offre une vue imprenable sur |’océan Pacifique. 


Les parcs nationaux sont “‘dédiés au peuple cana- 
dien pour son bénéfice, son instruction et sa jouis- 
sance”’, comme le précise la Loi adoptée en 1930, et 
ils doivent étre “‘entretenus et utilisés de maniére 
qu’ils restent intacts pour la jouissance des généra- 
tions futures”’. 

Nous vous engageons a méditer sur ce theme, 
quand vous visiterez un parc national. Si chaque 
visiteur cueillait une fleur sauvage ou gravait ses 


Une photo? D’accord, mais faites vite! 


initiales sur l’écorce d’un arbre, que resterait-il des 
beautés naturelles que nous avons le devoir de Iéguer 
aux générations qui nous succéderont? Posons plutét 
des gestes concrets en faveur de la conservation de 
nos parcs nationaux actuels et encourageons |’amé- 
nagement de nouveaux parcs qui ajouteront a l’héri- 
tage culturel que nous possédons déja. 


A la mi-juillet, sur la langue du glacier Columbia 


Jean La Boissiére, Responsable de la Promotion francaise, 
était auparavant chef des pages touristiques au journal La 
Presse de Montréal. Il est membre de la Society of Ameri- 
can Travel Writers depuis 1966, organisme dont il fut 
président du chapitre canadien en 1971, 


I] 


Un bruit de soie plus lisse que le vent 
Passage de la lumiére sur un paysage d’ eau. 
ANNE HEBERT : 


16 


The portrait of Daniel-Marie Liénard de Beaujeu which 
hangs in the basement of the “‘make-believe church 


Empire Builder 


At Work and War 


Daniel-Marie Liénard de Beaujeu, 


1711-1755 


by Malcolm McLeod 


L’auteur souligne le réle du lieutenant de Beaujeu dans 
la campagne militaire de 1746 pour la reconquéte de 
[Acadie et nous fait mieux connaitre ce personnage 
dont la carriére militaire s échelonne de son enrélement 
dans la Marine frangaise dés son adolescence jusqu’ au 
commandement d’un fort de ’ Ohio et sa mort en 1755. 
Le musée du parc national de Grand-Pré rappelle sa 
mémoire. 


In the basement of the museum building at Grand 
Pré National Historic Park, a watercolour portrait of 
Daniel-Marie Liénard de Beaujeu shows a man in 
typical aristocrat’s rig of the mid-1I8th century—lots 
of frills, white powdered curls, a bunch of white lace 
at his throat. He seems a pastel man, soft and delicate 
looking. No impression could be further from the 
truth. 


A life and a death 


Beaujeu was a weathered fighter and voyageur and, 
by dint of brawn and personality as well as by ap- 
pointment, a leader of men of the most rough-and- 
tumble sort. Born in Montreal in 1711, he joined the 
Marine troops stationed in the French colony of 
Canada as an officer cadet while still a teenager. He 
rose to the rank of captain before being killed in 
action in July 1755. It was a very famous action. 
Newly-named commandant of Fort Duquesne in 
disputed Ohio country, Beaujeu led a 900-man sortie 
out to ambush a 2000-strong vanguard of the in- 
vading Anglo-American force. He directed the open- 
ing manoeuvres of a confused engagement when the 
two forces met unexpectedly in the forest, but was cut 
down by British grapeshot before the battlescale had 
begun to tip to one side or the other. The French 
squad—two-thirds of them Indian allies—gradually 
gained the upper hand by superior tactics. Before 
nightfall half the British unit had been wiped out. 
Beaujeu was buried where Pittsburgh now smokes. 

What on earth is the likeness of this Québécois 


Ohio hero doing in the basement of a make-believe 
church at Grand Pré, Nova Scotia? 


The “make-believe church” at Grand Pré National Historic Park 


Campaign in the East, 1746-1747 


In June 1746 when Lieutenant Beaujeu was 35 
years old, he was one of 20 officers named to lead an 
army of 700 Canadians from Québec into Acadia. 


After an American force had captured Louisbourg 
the previous year, the French government had de- 
cided on a big effort to retake the Cape Breton 
fortress and perhaps seize Annapolis as well. A size- 
able fleet under Duc D’Anville was due to arrive in 
the harbour of Chibouctou (now Halifax). The colony 
of Canada raised and dispatched its contingent, of 
which Beaujeu was part, to join the European French- 
men in the struggle. The Canadian troops established 
their base at Beaubassin (near Amherst, Nova 
Scotia). As always in military matters the most vital, 


and the scarcest, item was information. The com- 
manding officer, Captain Claude-Roche de Ramezay, 
sent scouts and spies fanning out in all directions: to 
Prince Edward Island, to count the enemy there; to 
Cape Breton for a report on Louisbourg; to Schuben- 
acadie to get in touch with Abbé Le Loutre and his 
Micmac retainers; to the Annapolis Valley to check 
British dispositions and Acadian attitudes; to Halifax 
to learn if the fleet from France had arrived. In 
October, having learnt that D’Anville’s fleet had been 
wrecked by storms and sickness, the Canadian force 
attacked Annapolis without him. They failed, and by 
Christmas had withdrawn to Beaubassin. Shivering 
in winter quarters, they were faced by the likelihood 
that six months of fatigues and feints had earned 
them nothing. 


17 


18 


An officer of the French troops which garrisoned Canada 
(Compagnies franches de la Marine), circa 1750 (Water- 
colour by Eugene Leliépvre) 


Early in January news arrived that about 500 New 
England troops had occupied Grand Pré with the 
intention of erecting a permanent fortification there 
in the spring. This was a strategic escalation of the 
struggle, similar to the Canadians’ establishing them- 
selves at Beaubassin, but it was not a move Ramezay 
and his men were willing to accept lightly. That same 
day they decided to attack the Americans at Grand 
Pré. Two hundred and fifty men began a long, cold 
march on January 21 carrying with them most of what 
they would need in the way of food. When they began 
to run out they began to do without. 


By regular routine, a squad of 20 men with the 
sturdiest snowshoes started each day’s march well in 
advance of the others, to pack down the trail and 
make the movement of the main force that much 
swifter. As they progressed, their ranks swelled by 
half a hundred, as Catholic Micmacs and venture- 
some young Acadian men joined up. They were also 
three weeks getting from Beaubassin to their target— 
marching, eating and sleeping out-of-doors in tem- 
peratures that fluctuated between 40 above and 10 
below zero. With bleary eyes, and the imprint of 


exhaustion and exposure, too filthy to be smelled 
comfortably at close range, and with icicles in over- 
grown beards, they stumbled into Pipiguit (Windsor) 
at dusk on February 9—a worn but hardy band, and 
dangerous! 

From the people of Pipiguit they learned the Amer- 
icans had taken over 24 of the villagers’ homes for 
their quarters, and, in each of these barracks, were 
keeping watch day and night. Captain Louis Coulon 
de Villiers, commanding the strike force, decided to 
launch a simultaneous surprise attack against ten of 
these posts. The most detailed account of the attack is 
in Beaujeu’s journal: 

“11 February 1747—At 3 a.m. the commandant 
gave the order to set out. After assuring us that he 
knew well the way to the stone guard house we were 
supposed to attack, M. Coulon’s guide led us instead 
to the house which was the target of M. de Lotbi- 
niére’s group .. .. A sentry who spotted us cried 
‘Who goes there?’ .. . . We saw the watch-keeper 
come at once to the door of the house. But the night 
was so dark, and we were hugging the ground so 
closely with our bellies, silent as thieves, that although 
we were within 30 paces, the enemy considered it to 
have been a false alarm and went back inside 
again .... The sentry cried ‘To arms!’ and the whole 
guard gave us a volley... . I was intent on silencing 
that sentry, and indeed he was the first man I killed. 
In less than ten minutes we took the guard house. All 
our people did marvels there: 21 corpses and three 
prisoners were proof of the detachment’s courage .... 
To this point, we were in perfect ignorance of how 
the other detachments were making out. All around 
we could hear terrific musket fire. In every direction 
we could see men in movement without being able to 
distinguish if they were our forces or the enemy. No 
guides to lead us. We had almost all lost our snow- 
shoes and the amount of snow prevented us from 
moving smartly. In this extremity, the officers sug- 
gested we should proceed to the old shed where the 
English had boats stored .... We arrived in time to 
share the pleasure of seizing the two vessels in which 
the English had stored the lumber all cut for two 
redoubts and a good proportion of their muni- 
Honss: . I sent M. Marin to go search out the 
whereabouts of M. le Chevalier de la Corne—at that 
time commandant of the force—and ask for orders 
on what to do next. 


“Returning two hours later, Marin informed us 
that the English had withdrawn to the stone guard 
house outfitted with artillery—the one which M. 
Coulon had been scheduled to strike. M. le Chevalier 
de la Corne was keeping them under attack from a 
house he had seized. He had been joined by the 
Villemonde, Repentigny, Gaspé and Bailleul detach- 
ments, and all these squads had taken the targets 
assigned to them.” 


So went the fighting, and Beaujeu’s part in it, in the 
famous battle of Grand Pré. The next day, the Amer- 
icans surrendered and were permitted to withdraw 
to Annapolis. The defeated column that emerged 
from the stone house on February 14 was 350 
strong; 125 Americans had been killed, and 50 taken 
prisoner. On the French side, 300 men had made the 
assault, of whom seven were killed and 15 wounded. 
The Canadians returned to their headquarters at 
Beaubassin, and as the wording on the National 
Historic Sites plaque has it, “‘the British resumed 
their uneasy possession of mainland Nova Scotia’. 
Superb intelligence, which had enabled the Canadian 
striking force to move so far and so openly across the 
country, and still arrive unreported beneath the 
windowsills of sleeping, unwary troops, no doubt 
contributed to Anglo-American distrust of the Aca- 
dians—distrust which culminated eight years later in 
their wholesale forced removal from the country. 


An empire in the making 


We are left with the same question we started with. 
Why is a faded pastel portrait of Beaujeu among the 
thousand-and-one items in the inventory of Grand Pré 
National Historic Park? 


One plausible reason is that Beaujeu has signifi- 
cance for Grand Pré as one of the leading fighters 
from another colony who came down east to help 
protect humble Acadians from the oppression of the 
Anglo-American soldiers and governors whom his- 
tory had parachuted down on top of them. Plausible 
but insufficient. There is no particular indication that 
Beaujeu’s unit came to help the Acadians. Indeed, by 
heightening tensions in the province, the Canadians 
may very well have hastened the decision to deport 
the Acadians—some help! 

A second way to see the significance of Beaujeu’s 
career is to consider him an actor caught up ina great 
dramatic struggle for imperial possessions between 
rival European peoples, the British and the French. 


Officer’s pistol, French navy issue, circa 1750 (Private 
Collection) 


This is fine as far as it goes, but it does not go far 
enough. French-British rivalry for control of North 
America now appears as a passing phase in the con- 
tinent’s history. Records and remembrance of that 
rivalry have little relevance to Canadians in the 
1970’s, now that France and Britain have both 
become foreign countries more or less like the others. 


A third way of understanding the events of Beau- 
jeu’s career is the most meaningful. When Europeans 
first started coming here in large numbers, two early 
centres of population and influence developed—the 
Boston-New York axis and the Saint Lawrence val- 
ley. These two communities became rivals for control 
of the rest of the continent. What Beaujeu and his 
cohorts were doing in Nova Scotia and in the Ohio 
valley was attempting to attach these fringe lands to 
the St. Lawrence valley, rather than let them enter 
the enemy’s sphere of influence. 


During the half-century from 1710 to 1760, when 
New Englanders and New Yorkers conquered the 
colonies of Acadia and Canada with help from 
Britain, it seemed that all the continent north of 
Mexico would form one political bloc. But the Amer- 
ican Revolution re-established the old split. The 
traditional north-south rivalry has continued to our 
own times. A hundred years ago, Confederation 
seemed to confirm that central Canada has a stronger 
pull upon the Maritimes than New England did. 
Now, military and political expressions of United 
States attraction are muted, while the degree of Amer- 
ican influence over our culture and industries is a 
major Canadian concern. 


Up to the present time then, the tendency towards 
widespread influence and interference radiating from 
central Canada—for which Beaujeu fought and 
died—has succeeded at least as well as could be ex- 
pected. In the weary soldier tramping through the 
Maritimes on snowshoes, we can recognize a repre- 
sentative of powerful historic forces which have 
pushed together and kept together a dozen different 
communities to form this northern empire we call 
Canada. Grand Pré 1747 and Ohio 1755 were two of 
the occasions when that empire-building tendency 
met in violent collision with the ambitions of our 
neighbours. Fostering such aims and apprehensions, 
the 18th century canadien seems a very contemporary 
figure. 


a as a a 
When he wrote this article, Mr. McLeod was Historic 
Interpretive Officer, Atlantic Region, Parks Canada. He is 
presently on staff at the Nova Scotia Teacher's College at 
Truro. 


19 


20 


Karen Bouessa (left) and Patti Fund— 
ladies of the locks 


by Doug Nixon 
photos by Michel Bouchard 


Dans le cadre d’un travail saisonnier, deux Jeunes 
filles ont participé aux taches liées a lentretien et a 
Péclusage sur le canal Rideau. Voici leurs impressions. 


This is the story of two women who worked as 
lockmistresses on the Rideau Canal last summer. 
They were a trifle nervous at first, but that was to be 
expected. After all, the job description did mention 
that, among other things, “‘the successful applicant 
must be capable of heavy manual labour’. 

But they worked hard, and within a short time 
their nervousness disappeared. The newness of it 
also passed, tucked safely away behind several sets 
of blisters and a burgeoning set of biceps. In the 
words of one of their mates, a veteran canal worker, 
“They were doin’ just fine.” 


Then one day nearly two months later, a news- 
paperman from nearby Elgin happened along. He 


we 


spotted Patti working and started asking a lot of 
questions. 


Before long, pictures of Patti and Karen appeared 
in the Kingston Whig-Standard, the Ottawa Journal 
and the Toronto Globe and Mail. 


Then, as if that wasn’t enough, a mobile film crew 
from the CBC in Toronto appeared on the scene. An 
interview was staged with the women, setting off a 
further flurry of activity. 


Such were the events leading to the writing of this 
article. Upon meeting the women, no Betty Friedans 
or Kate Millets could be found lurking within either; 
nor were there any burning desires to advance the 
cause of women’s rights. They were just two young 
women, 1973-style, whose only comment on the whole 
thing was, “‘What’s all the fuss?” 


Pleasure boats wait in the sunlight while water, frothing at 
the gate, begins to fill the lock 


atti Fund and Karen Bouessa are two very 
likeable women who have lived most of their lives in 
Smiths Falls, Ontario. You could expect to find 
thousands like them wherever you went in Canada, 
full of youthful exuberance and tremendously aware 
of what’s going on around them. 


A friend of both girls, Melanie McNamee, works 
at the Canada Student Manpower Centre. Melanie, 
a proclaimed feminist, this summer, as with the last, 
tried to get females, as well as males, to apply for 
jobs on the Rideau Canal. 


Her previous year’s effort had met with failure. 
Two girls, whom she had managed to get interested 
in her words, ‘‘chickened out, at the last minute’’. 
The work had sounded too hard. 

So this year, when she resumed her summer job, 
Ms. McNamee contacted the Rideau Canal’s south- 
ern division Superintendent, Carl Peel. He informed 
her that yes, he would again be accepting applications 
from both men and women wishing to obtain jobs on 
the lock stations within his jurisdiction. 

Melanie then phoned Patti and told her of the 
openings. Patti, who had worked for the past five 


The blue wharf at the entrance to Davis Lock 


21 


summers in her mother’s photography studio, was 
interested. The change was appealing and she liked 
working outdoors. She smiled broadly when told of 
the $3.57 per hour, three-and-a-half-day, 36-hour 
work week. She was planning to study journalism at 
Conestoga College in the fall and felt that she “‘could 
definitely use the extra money”’. 


Next, Melanie phoned Karen, who had a summer 
job working in a local factory which manufactured 


Karen prepares to operate winch 


Doug Nixon, author of this story, chuckles over his discovery 
of the skull and cross-bones sign in South Crosby Township 


metal tool boxes and steel drawers. While Karen 
was definitely not enamoured with her present job, she 
was a little hesitant regarding her friend’s suggestion. 


Melanie pressured her, ““Look Karen, Pattiis going 
to apply, so why not you, too?” That was all Karen 
needed. She said “okay”, and within a few days 
interviews were arranged with Mr. Peel. 


This turned out to be an experience in itself. 
According to the girls, ““Mr. Peel really made us 
sweat.” First, he mentioned how the job would entail 
a great deal of working with the public. This is 
something both like and do very well, so they were 
happy. But he set them to worrying when he em- 
phasized that the successful applicant must be 
reasonably strong. 


Statements like that, and others referring to 
“carrying your own weight”, led to Karen’s decision 
that “‘I was just going to do it, and that’s all’’. 


A few days later, she wasn’t so sure. The day 
before she was to begin work, her father drove her to 
Lock Station #17, ‘“‘The Narrows’. While he was 
talking with the lockmaster, one of the fellows who 
worked there, approached Karen and mumbled, 
“You know, this is a very busy lock.” 


“The Narrows” is a single-lock station, one of 
many on the 141-year old Rideau Canal. Located in 
North Crosby Township, some 20 miles southwest 
of Smiths Falls, it squats on the narrow strip of land 
which separates Big Rideau and Upper Rideau lakes. 
In 1972, this lock station alone recorded 3,646 
lockage operations. 


Meanwhile, Patti was all set to start work at Jones 
Falls, Lock Station #21, about 15 miles down the 
canal system. This station contains three locks in- 
flight, a separate lock, and some of the heavier and 
harder-to-operate equipment in the system. Keen as 
she was, it proved a little too strenuous for Patti, and 
she was later transferred to Davis Lock. 


Both girls took an immediate interest in their work. 
Neither knew a thing about canals and locks before 
they started, though both had lived most of their 
lives in Smiths Falls. This community of approxi- 
mately 10,000, some 50 miles southwest of Ottawa, 
straddles the Rideau waterway, and has three 
separate lock stations and six locks within its 
bounds. 


In a matter of days, new words, and old ones with 
new meanings, began to sneak into their vocabulary. 
Expressions like ‘‘the crab’, ‘‘sluices’’, and ‘‘the blue 
wharf” are all part of the lockmaster’s lexicon and 
now these two young girls could be heard slinging 
them around with the greatest of ease. 


A crab is a winch or set of gears. On the canals, it is 
used to open massive lock gates weighing as much as 
six tons, and as well to operate other heavy equip- 
ment. 


A sluice is, in essence, a valve. When opened, it 
allows the free flow of water to a lower level. These 
sluices permit the emptying and filling of the lock 
chamber, and thus the raising and lowering of boats. 

The blue wharf is simply a long wharf with one side 
painted blue. Every lock has two, one at each end, 
and they are the designated queuing areas for boats 
waiting to enter the locks. 

It would be stretching things a little too far to say 
the girls fell in love with their work, but they were 
content with their new jobs. They enjoyed Opening 
and closing the big lock gates, sluicing hundreds 
of thousands of cubic feet of water during each 
lockage, operating the steel swing-bridge (the Nar- 
rows), meeting boaters from all over the provinces of 
Ontario and Québec, and others from New York 
State, Pennsylvania and Ohio, and even mowing the 
lawns. 

The key to this whole story is Patti and Karen’s 
serendipity. For most of their lives, they had been 
walking past, driving over and swimming near a 
Canal. 

Oh, they were both well aware of their hometown’s 
canal, but not its Canal. The former just existed— 
more as a bit of hometown clutter than anything else. 


But the latter is alive. Its long black crab-chains 
rattle along over the cast-iron moldings of the lock 
winches. As workers winch open the sluices, great 
balloons of white water froth to the surface of the 
lock, buffeting some of the smaller boats against the 
algae-green walls. 

Never had the girls noticed such things or, better 
put, never had they taken the time to notice. But 
now, as they finished their 32-mile drive home from 
work, they'd glance purposely at the blue wharf, at 
the entrance to the east-bound section of the town’s 
most westerly lock station. 


Further on, as they crossed the Abbott Street 
bridge, they would gaze knowingly up and down the 
locks, scanning the canal area for familiar activity. 
Occasionally, on their days off, the girls would walk 
over to Old Slys, the most easterly lockstation at 
Smiths Falls, and talk shop with the summer students. 


Probably the best example of their enthusiasm can 
be found in Patti’s recounting of a little ritual which 
happened every day. The girls drove to and from 
work together and when Patti returned each evening 
to the Narrows to pick up Karen, before anything 
else they'd bubble out, “‘“Well, how many d’ya have 
COGaAVes. 2777 

The girls became keenly interested in the activities 
along the whole canal system. They developed a 
sense of ‘“‘“community” with the 47 or so locks which 
are sprinkled along the Rideau and Cataraqui River 
systems, from Ottawa to Kingston. 


As well, they developed camaraderie with work- 
mates, like Roger Gallerneault, the lockmaster at 
Davis Lock. 


‘“He’s a good and fair person to work for,” Patti 
emphasizes. It is also obvious that she was impressed 
with his gardening. Roger had planted flowers near 
the locks and all about the surrounding property. 


Davis Lock is hidden away in a secluded section of 
South Crosby Township, 33 miles north of Kingston, 
near Elgin, Ontario. Its isolation is jokingly accen- 
tuated by a hand-painted sign, nailed to a big oak 
tree, alongside the gravel approach road. The sign 
declares the area to be the Republic of the Hills and 
all entry is barred. A skull and cross-bones beneath, 
emphasizes the point. 

The Davis Lock station is surrounded by a mixed 
forest of intense greens and by well-manicured lawns. 
The picture is beautifully completed by the reds, 
whites and purples of Mr. Gallerneault’s salvias and 
petunias. 

Will Karen and Patti miss it? Yes, of course! 

Karen has proven something to herself—she can 
still do anything, if she puts her mind to it. 

And Patti, well, she loves the outdoors, so much so 
that when we arrived she was fretting about her latest 
pet, a small garter snake. Things were relatively quiet 
and she had laid him out on the top of one of the 
lock gates hoping he would soak up some of the hot 
August sun. But he had slithered one too many 
slithers and had fallen headlong, or maybe it was 
tail-long, into the canal. 

Will they be back again next year? 

You bet! 

‘““We’re spoiled now’, laughed Patti, referring to 
the excellent working conditions and that “‘man- 
sized”’ wage. 

As far as the two are concerned, there’s nothing 
special about having women working on the canals. 
‘“‘What’s so spectacular about it?” they demand in 
one voice. 

They’re right, of course. What is special about this 
particular situation is that two very warm and ami- 
able young people have been party to a rewarding 
experience. They have learned a lot of new things 
about a lot of old things and a little bit more about 
themselves. 


Messrs. Nixon and Bouchard are Information Officers with 
Indian and Northern Affairs. 


Zo 


Pavillon et flamme a croix d’un navire de 
commerce. Détail dune illustration de 
Champlain (A.P.C.) 


Les drapeaux 
en 


Nouvelle~France 


PAR RENE CHARTRAND 


Military curator, René Chartrand, traces the history of 
the French flags from the middle ages to their use and 
evolution during the French Régime in Canada 1534- 
1760. 


Le drapeau bleu, blanc, rouge représente aujour- 
d@hui la France partout au monde. Toutefois, ce n’est 
qu’en 1790 qu’il fut adopté comme drapeau national, 
longtemps aprés que les derniers pavillons francais 
eurent cessé de flotter au Canada. 


Quel aspect avaient ces pavillons? Voila un problé- 
me complexe car la France d’Ancien Régime ne 
possedait pas de drapeau national et I’armée, les 
vaisseaux du Roi, la marine marchande, la marine des 
galeres en Méditerranée, les villes maritimes et bien 
str le Roi lui-méme, arboraient des drapeaux aussi 
nombreux que divers. Sans espérer vider la question, 
nous allons tenter d’en éclaircir certains aspects a 
l’aide de quelques documents d’époque. 


Le Moyen Age 

Au Moyen Age, la banniére bleue fleurdelisée était 
l’enseigne du Roi et du royaume de France. Toutefois, 
a la suite des croisades, les différentes nations euro- 
peennes adoptérent également des pavillons portant 


4 la croix, la France pour sa part utilisant un pavillon a 


croix rouge sur fond blanc. Vers 1360 cependant, pour 
une raison inconnue, les couleurs s’inversérent et, 
dans la deuxiéme moitié du XVe siécle, les vaisseaux 
arborerent, avec le fleurdelisé, ce nouveau pavillon 
carré, a fond rouge et a croix blanche. On retrouva 
ancien drapeau blanc a croix rouge chez les Anglais, 
‘la croix de Saint Georges”’. 


Les débuts des colonies 

Ainsi, il nest pas surprenant de voir un pavillon 
carré bleu a trois fleurs de lys flotter sur le fort 
Caroline, un établissement de huguenots francais 
fondé en Floride en 1562 et détruit par les Espagnols 
trois ans plus tard. Il nous semble également raison- 
nable de penser que les drapeaux fleurdelisé et A croix 
blanche furent tout probablement arborés sur les 
vaisseaux et dans les premiers établissements francais 
au Canada, au cours du XVle siécle. 


“. . nous fimes faire une Croix haute de trente 
pieds, et fut faite en la présence de plusieurs 
diceux sur la pointe de ce port, au milieu de la- 
quelle mimes un écusson relevé avec Trois Fleurs- 
de-Lis, et dessus etoit écrit en grosses lettres en- 
taillées en du bois, ‘“‘VIVE LE ROY DE FRANCE.””” 

A Gaspé, le 24 juillet 1534, Jacques Cartier prend 


possession du Canada au nom de la France avec la 
croix et l’écu bleu a fleurs-de-lys des rois francais. Le 


Fran eo1se 


méme scénario se répéte le 3 mai 1536 lorsqu’on 
éléve une croix a Stadaconé (Québec): 
“Sous le croizillon de laquelle il y voit un Ecusson 
en bosse des armes de France: et sur icelui estoit 
écrit en lettres antiques: FRANCISCUS PRIMUS, DEI 
GRATIA FRANCORUM REX, REGNAT.”’ 


Champlain, pour sa part, nous montre les vais- 
seaux arborant des pavillons a croix blanche car ses 
expeditions au Canada étaient surtout commerciales. 
Cependant ce dernier pavillon, répandu sur les na- 
vires de la marine marchande, avait subi une autre 
transformation. Sa couleur de fond était passée du 
rouge au bleu, cette couleur étant pratiquement la 
seule utilisée sous Henri IV (1589-1610). Quant a sa 
gravure de |’Habitation de Québec, on y voit une 
flamme chargée de trois fleurs de lys. 


La disparition graduelle du fleurdelisé 

Mais a cette époque, le fleurdelisé était en voie de 
disparition, méme dans la marine royale. En dépit 
des édits de 1543 et de 1584, qui précisaient que les 
vaisseaux du Roi devaient porter les lys de France et 
les armes de |’Amiral, ce fut un pavillon de poupe 
rouge qui devint populaire dans les années 1620-1640. 
Les gravures de I’époque nous montrent également 
des pavillons et des flammes d’une variété et d’une 
richesse extraordinaires. 


Nouveau Pautllon 
Marchand Francais 


Marchand francois 


Détail du Tableau de tous les pavillons 
que l’on arbore dans le monde connu 
dressé a la fin du I7e siécle pour 
Louis XIV. Francois: le drapeau arboré 
par les vaisseaux du roi. Flamme Fran- 
¢oise: également arboré par les vaisseaux 
du roi. Nouveau Pavillon Marchand 
Francois: arboré par les vaisseaux mar- 
chands depuis 1661. Marchand Fran- 
¢ois: modifié selon une ordonnance de 
1689 


Ce n’était la qu’apparat car un texte de 1643 nous 
apprend que la marine de guerre arbore alors un pa- 
villon blanc “‘sans aucun blason pour l’ordinaire”’ et 
“que la Marine de commerce porte le pavillon bleu a 
croix blanche.” 

Le 9 octobre 1661, Louis XIV émet l’ordonnance 
suivante: 

“Sa Ma‘ ayant esté informée que plusieurs parti- 
culiers Cap", M®** et Patrons de vaisseaux estans 
a la mer et allans en voyages de long cours aulieu 
de porter seulement Il’ancien pavillon de la nation 
francoise prennent la liberté d’aborder le pavillon 
blanc... . deffenses a tous Cap"s, M*® et Patrons de 
vaisseaux particuliers, ses sujets, de porter le pavil- 
lon blanc qui est reservé a ses seuls vaisseaux, et 
veut et ordonne qu’ilz arborent seulement allans a 
la mer, ou en quelque autre rencontre que puisse 
estre, l’ancien pavillon de la nation frangoise qui 
est la croix blanche dans un Estandart d’Etoffe 
bleue avec l’Escu des armes de sa Ma* sur le 
tOUL ee 


Cette ordonnance confirmait donc le pavillon blanc 
comme privilége royal. Le drapeau blanc possédait 
également le privilege royal dans l’armée jusqu’a la 
Révolution francaise et chaque régiment, en plus de 
ses drapeaux régimentaires, en possédait un “parce 
que le Blanc signifie la couleur de France.” 


No 


(An 


26 


Un plan de 1692. Un drapeau blanc flotte a droite (A.P.C.) 


Le drapeau blanc au Canada 

En ce qui concerne les drapeaux arborés au Canada 
dans la premiere partie du XVI le siécle, nous n’avons 
pas trouvé de preuve concluante a ce sujet. Mais, 
puisque la colonie se trouvait alors sous ’administra- 
tion de compagnies de commerce, il nous semble 
logique d’affirmer que le pavillon utilisé par la marine 
marchande “‘allans a la mer, ou en quelque autre 
rencontre que puisse estre’ selon les mots de 
Louis XIV, devait y flotter. 


En 1664, toutefois, le Roi concéde le Canada a la 
Compagnie des Indes Occidentales. Cette compagnie 
dont le vaste monopole s’étendait non seulement en 
Amérique mais aussi en Afrique, avait par privilége 
royal, un pavillon “‘blanc avec les armes de France’’, 
différent de celui de la marine marchande. 


Finalement, en 1674, le Canada passa compléte- 
ment sous l’administration royale et c’est sans doute 
a cette époque que le drapeau blanc fut hissé pour 
de bon. I] flottait probablement déja sur les nombreux 
forts que les troupes royales, arrivées en 1665, avaient 
déja construits. 


Il semble évident qu’a partir de cette Epoque, le 
drapeau blanc fut le symbole francais au Canada. En 
1687, on envoie au ‘“‘fort de Plaisance en I’Isle de 
Terre-Neuve” un ‘“‘pavillon blanc” et ‘‘une flame 
rouge, et une blanche pour les signaux.” En 1695, 
on trouve “Un pavillon pour le fort d’un vaisseau 
de premier rang” parmi I’équipement nécessaire pour 
le rétablissement du ‘fort au bas de la Riviére 
St. Jean” en Acadie. En 1714 enfin, les Anglais re- 
prirent possession du fort Nelson a la baie d’Hudson 
et le Gouverneur Knight écrivit: 


“Un des Indiens s’approcha quand j’ai_ hissé 
Union Jack et me dit quil n’aimait pas le voir 
mais qu'il aimait le pavillon blanc car beaucoup 
des Indiens ont une grande amitié pour les Francais 
ites 


La méme tendance semble avoir cours jusqu’a la 
fin du régime frangais. Parmi les marchandises re- 
quises pour Louisbourg en 1757, figurent ‘*3 grands 
pavillons de cent aunes de toille blanche pour les 
batteries”’. La petite flotte frangaise sur le lac Ontario 
arborait elle aussi le pavillon des vaisseaux du Roi. 


I] nous semble donc que le pavillon ordinaire em- 
ployé au Canada, de 1674 a 1760, était le drapeau 
blanc dont nous avons également relevé l'utilisation 
dans d’autres colonies frangaises. 


Mentionnons ici que usage du pavillon blanc se 
répandit méme dans la marine marchande et rem- 
placa peu a peu le bleu et blanc de sorte qu'il était 
presque universellement utilisé par les marchands 
frangais au milieu du XVIIIe siécle. Le Roi s’inclina 
finalement en le leur accordant officiellement en 1765. 
La Compagnie des Indes avait toutefois eu le privi- 
lege de larborer dés 1696. 


Tee vaisseaux du or le DEOwmcare arborant 
les flammes blanches, 1757(A.P.C.) 


La signification du drapeau blanc 

Le drapeau blanc était loin d’avoir dans les com- 
bats qui impliquaient des Frangais la signification 
qu’on lui préte aujourd’hui. De nombreuses pein- 
tures nous montrent les flottes frangaises en plein 
combat, arborant le pavillon blanc. Lors d’un combat 
dans l’océan Indien en 1782, par exemple, le pavillon 
de poupe du navire frangais ‘“‘Le Héros”’ fut abattu 
aux cris de joie des marins anglais. Le commandant 
donna l’ordre de couvrir le vaisseau de pavillons 
blancs et le combat reprit aussit6t avec l’ardeur re- 
doublée des marins. L’histoire témoigne des valeurs 
guerri¢res des soldats et des marins francais au 
Canada. Nous mentionnerons en terminant le geste 
du capitaine de Bassignac du régiment Royal- 
Roussillon a la bataille de Carillon, en 1758, alors 
qu il attacha son mouchoir blanc au bout d’un fusil 
pour défier ’ennemi a se battre. 


René Chartrand est conservateur militaire, Parcs Canada. 


Davidson—Continued from page 3 


“The Byways and Special Places program is a good one and 
I want to see it get off the ground.” 


‘A lot of hard work has been put into it already and I’d 
like to see it get moving. I think it’s an imaginative concept. 
All we have to do is make it workable. We’ll be holding dis- 
cussions with the provinces in the next two or three months.” 


Mr. Davidson said several important questions are arising. 


“Do we have a role in national recreation? Do we have a 
role in national fitness...tourism? Do we have a role in all of 
these in addition to preservation? I think the answer to 
these is yes.” 


Al Davidson has been concerned with Canada’s resources 
for much of his life. His father was a prospector and, as a boy, 
he grew up in the bush in the Sturgeon and Savant Lakes area 
north of the Lakehead. 


After a brief stint in the navy, he was off to university. ‘I 
started out in geology at Queen’s. Then I got the conservation 
bug and decided geology was a bit too commercial.” He 
changed courses. He obtained a B.A. in Economics and 
History, then he switched to geography and obtained a 
Masters from the University of Toronto. 

Al Davidson then began a career spanning more than 22 
years which has taken him to Regina and the Saskatchewan 
Department of Natural Resources, then Ottawa and a variety 
of federal departments including Northern Affairs and 
National Resources, Agriculture, Forestry, Energy, Mines and 
Resources and Environment. 


“All in all, | guess you could say everything I’ve done has 
had to do with the management of most resources.”’ 


One of the greatest resources of this country are those areas 
preserved by Parks Canada, he said. 


“Tm not making any speeches about it, but I really do feel 
these parks have a big, special role to play. One way is through 
the fact they are federal. People in one part of the country 
can relate to a park in another. They really are a symbol 
of unity.” 

The development of historic sites is another way Parks 
Canada is making a contribution to Canada. 


““We’ve done some excellent work, but there’s a great deal 
to do. We have more of a backlog to catch up than with 
National Parks.”’ 

Mr. Davidson said he feels that the most intensive environ- 
mental management should be carried out in the National 
Parks. “‘But obviously there’s a problem. How do you ac- 
commodate demand for use without impairing the future of 
these areas. 

“If the parks were ecological preserves we could exclude 
humans, but it’s not like that in most areas of our parks. This 
problem of people versus preservation... it’s a matter of 
continual good work and continual accommodation. That 
requires a lot of pragmatic approaches. Conservationists don’t 
like to talk about accommodation. They only talk of preserva- 
tion. But our objectives embrace both. So that’s never going 
to be easy.” 


John Olson is an Information Officer with Indian and 
Northern Affairs. 


Suite de la page 3 


M. Davidson a ajouté que plusieurs questions importantes 
se posent actuellement. 


““Jouons-nous un r6le dans les activités de loisir au Canada? 
Jouons-nous un réle dans le conditionnement physique... 
dans le tourisme? Aurons-nous d’autres réles A jouer que 
celui de la conservation? Je crois qu’on doit répondre par 
affirmative.” 


Les ressources naturelles du Canada ont toujours tenu une 
place dans la vie d’Al Davidson. Son pére était prospecteur 
et il a passé sa jeunesse dans la brousse, dans la région des lacs 
Sturgeon et Savant, au nord de Thunder Bay. 

Aprés un court séjour dans la marine, il s’inscrit a ’'univer- 
sité. ‘‘J’ai commencé mes études a l’Université Queen’s, en 
geologie. Le virus de la conservation m’a alors atteint et jai 
conclu que la géologie était une activité trop commerciale.” 
Ce changement d’orientation lui valut un baccalauréat en 
économie et en histoire. I] décrocha ensuite une maitrise en 
géographie de |’ Université de Toronto. 

I] joignit alors les rangs du ministére des Richesses naturelles 
de la Saskatchewan. Aprés des études en administration 
publique a l’Université Carleton, il passa au ministére du 
Nord canadien et des Richesses nationales. Ii devint ensuite 
sous-ministre adjoint des ministéres des Terres et Foréts, de 
l’Energie et, de 1971 a 1973, de T Environnement. 

“En résumé, je crois que tout ce que j’ai accompli par le 
passé, touchait en grande partie a la gesiion de la plupart des 
ressources. 

Certaines des plus importantes ressources de ce pays, 
affirme-t-il, sont celles que préserve Parcs Canada. ‘‘Je ne veux 
pas trop m’étendre sur le sujet mais je crois vraiment que ces 
parcs jouent un role particulier. L’une de leurs facettes est le 
fait que ces parcs sont du ressort du gouvernement fédéral. 
Les gens d’une région peuvent ainsi se sentir chez eux dans un 
parc, situé a l’autre extrémité du pays. Ils sont vraiment un 
symbole de l’unité nationale.” 

La mise en oeuvre des lieux historiques est une autre facon 
par laquelle Parcs Canada contribue a l’unité canadienne. 

*“Nous avons accompli de l’excellent travail, mais il y a 
beaucoup a faire. Nous avons dans ce domaine plus de rat- 
trapage a faire que dans celui des parcs nationaux.”” 

M. Davidson estime qu’une gestion de l’environnement 
devrait étre effectuée de fagon plus intensive dans les parcs 
nationaux. ‘“‘Mais de toute évidence, un probléme se pose. 
Comment concilier la demande d utilisation sans porter 
atteinte a avenir de ces régions?” 

‘Si les parcs étaient des réserves, nous pourrions en exclure 
les visiteurs, mais il n’en est pas ainsi dans la plupart des 
secteurs de nos parcs. Concilier les intéréts de ’ homme et ceux 
de la conservation...c’est une question de travail sans relache 
et de perpétuels compromis. Ceci requiert beaucoup de de- 
marches pragmatiques. Les écologistes n’aiment pas entendre 
le mot ‘“‘compromis”’. Ils ne parlent que de conservation. 
Mais nos buts comprennent a la fois les deux. Cela ne sera 
donc jamais facile.” 


Mes i a oe ee ee ee 


John Olson est agent d@’information au ministere des Affai 
res indiennes et du Nord. 


28 


PARCS NATIONAUX 


Les gouvernements fédéral et de Terre-Neuve ont signé 

en aoat les documents finals concernant l’établissement du 
parc national de Gros-Morne. Situé sur la cote ouest de 
Vile de Terre-Neuve, le parc couvre une superficie de 

750 milles carrés et offre des paysages variés: falaises, 
collines, plaines cétiéres et fjords spectaculaires. 

Le ministre a alors annoncé des projets d’investissement 
de l’ordre de $10 4 $12 millions de dollars répartis 

sur cing ans. 


PLAINS BUFFALO PRESERVED 


The ground was black with them. In the 1870s and 1880s, 
the plains vibrated with the thunder of the hoofs of millions 
of plains buffalo ranging over western North America. 


With the Plains Indians, there was a balanced relationship. 
The Indians took only for their basic needs of food, cloth- 
ing, shelter and fuel and made no greater demands on the 
herds than their annual increase could supply. 


Then came the white man—with his guns and links with 
far-distant markets—the buffalo herds seemed almost inex- 
haustible. In a season, white and Indian hunters might kill 
one to three thousand buffalo to supply the commercial 
demand for hides and meat. Taking the skins, or in some 
case, only the buffalo tongues—considered a delicacy in 
Europe—they left mountains of flesh to rot in the prairie 
sun. Later the heaps of bleached bones were used to make 
fertilizer. 


By 1900, the plains buffalo was near extinction. Then, in 
1906, the last large herd of plains buffalo was discovered in 
Montana. 


Canada bought about 700 buffalo in 1907. By 1912, most of 
the herd was quartered at Wainwright, Alberta. Later 
more than 6,600 were moved to Wood Buffalo National 
Park. Intermingling with the wood buffalo, a darker, larger 
relative of the plains buffalo, increased the stock until now, 
there are about 13,000. 


Today, small herds can also be seen at Riding Mountain, 
Prince Albert, Waterton Lakes, Jasper and Banff National 
Parks. The largest fenced herd is at Elk Island National 
Park. 


Since 1968 four auctions of buffalo from this herd haye been 
held for Canadian ranchers interested in breeding domestic 
herds of this once, near extinct wild animal. 

At Elk Island National Park, Alberta, a plaque to comme- 
morate the preservation of the plains buffalo was erected by 
the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. 


LE PETROLE...AU SIECLE DERNIER 


Peu de gens connaissent les débuts de l industrie du 
pétrole et la part qu'un citoyen canadien y a joué au 
siécle dernier. 


La distillation du k éroséne, a partir de minerai de charbon, 
contribua a la naissance de cette industrie géante et 
omniprésente de notre société actuelle. Le mérite en revient 
a Abraham Gesner, médecin et chirurgien, géologue 

dans ses temps libres. 


Né a Cornwallis, Nouvelle-Ecosse, en 1797, Gesner y 
poursuivait ses expériences en géologie lorsqu il trouva la 
fagon de distiller, a partir du charbon, une huile qu il 
appella kéroséne. 

Le kéroséne assurait un meilleur éclairage que les chan- 
delles de suif ou les lampes aU huile de baleine dont on se 
servait alors. Gesner organisa des démonstrations de 

son pétrole lampant a Charlottetown, en aout 1846, et un 
peu plus tard a Halifax. 


Les auditoires s esclafférent. Voyons ! Le centre méme de 
l'industrie de la péche a la baleine remplacerait I’ huile de 
cet animal par le kéroséne? Impensable ! 


Gesner tenta toutefois d’implanter une compagnie de 
kéroséne a Halifax. L’inévitable se produisit. Son échec le 
conduisit alors a New-York. En 1854, il obtint trois brevets 
américains a’ invention concernant ce produit. La North 
American Kerosene Gas Light Company connut alors 

un vif succes. 


Ses concurrents cherchaient cependant une autre source 
dot ils pourraient tirer ce pétrole lampant. Le forage 

du premier puits et la découverte de pétrole en Pennsylvanie, 
en 1859, leur apporteérent la solution et lancérent une 
nouvelle industrie. 


Gesner mourut a Halifax, le 29 avril 1864. Un monument 
commémoratif érigé a Chipman Corner, N.-E., par la 
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques, rappelle 
son souvenir. 


rate: 


: vino aan 


ibaa Naat 


tetas ep te EE AEDT 


= 


sant 


San Birnie 


one 


Recycling our yesterdays 
L’histoire nous accueille 


okey 


“Spay 


aS DUOIsIH [LUONEN esjyeay] Pues soejed 


y nary 


J1A04S1 


os 
9 


goejeg pues aujeay| jeuoieu 


Gash ool Ay 


Mea heh 
ak 


NBN 


As we see it/ Un mot de la rédaction... 


La vraie nature des parcs nationaux 


Pierre DesMeules 5 


Going Back a Long Way 
for Small Things 


John Beswarick Thompson 9 


Duffle Coats, KLIM Tins and “I wonder 
what became of Sally” 


Wayne Colwell 13 


Plus 


16 


Mackenzie River Journal 


Tom Kovacs 19 


La naissance d’un mythe 


Yvon Desloges 25 


Et Cetera 


29 


I am more than pleased and honoured at becoming 
Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, as I feel 
a very deep affinity for this Department. 


I have been, since February 1973, Chairman of 
the Standing Committee on Indian and Northern 
Affairs, and before that, Parliamentary Secretary to 
my predecessor and friend, Jean Chrétien. 


In my new role I shall be particularly interested 
and challenged by the programs of Parks Canada. 


The establishment of many new National Parks, 
the further development of our National Historic 
Parks and Sites and the extension of the Parks 
Canada program through ARC (The Agreement for 
Recreation and Conservation, formerly called 
Byways and Special Places) — all, are of the utmost 
urgency. And, in addition, there are many other 
aspects of our programs that are informative and 
exciting. Through the pages of Conservation Canada 
we hope to provide meaningful insights into our 
progress and achievements. 


pe appris avec joie et fierté ma nomination au 
poste de ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord. 

Mais avant toute chose, je voudrais rendre 
hommage a mon ami et collégue, monsieur Jean 
Chrétien, qui m’a précédé et dont je fus le secrétaire 
parlementaire dés 1970. Cet homme s’est entiére- 
ment consacré a son travail et ses efforts furent 
couronnés de succés. Sa persévérance et son 
enthousiasme devinrent pour moi des exemples 
a suivre. 

L’expérience acquise par ma participation a 
divers comités de la Chambre des Communes et 
surtout en tant que président du Comité permanent 
des Affaires indiennes et du Nord, depuis février 
1973, me permettra de me lancer d’emblée dans les 
voies Ouvertes par monsieur Chrétien pour l’amé- 
nagement et I’exploitation du patrimoine historique 
et naturel et d’en tracer de nouvelles. 

L’intérét du public envers ce patrimoine est déja 
en éveil; je ferai tout en mon pouvoir pour le nourrir, 
le diversifier et le faire croitre. 

Je profite de ’occasion pour souhaiter a mon tour 
aux lecteurs de Conservation Canada, un agréable 
voyage de découverte de la nature et de l'histoire 
du Canada. 


al 


SS) 


AS we see it... 


Un mot de 
la rédaction... 


(Nee Faille, legendary prospector of the Nahan- 
ni, is dead. But his name will linger forever — not 
only on the pages of history but also on the trail that 
for forty-some years he trudged, alone, in his futile 
search for gold. 


The portage around spectacular Virginia Falls in 
the newly created Nahanni National Park, is to be 
named Faille Portage. Parks planners had decided 
upon the name even before the old man died at the 
agerolrrs oon December 3 11973: 


During his trek down the Mackenzie River, Tom 
Kovacs met and took what are probably the last pho- 
tographs of the world-famous prospector. This meet- 
ing and the pictures are included in Tom’s article 
“Mackenzie River Journal”. 


While Albert was solitarily panning for Yukon 
gold, Canadians were reading about the R.C.M.P. 
vessel St. Roch, which in 1944, had just completed 
her second conquest of the Northwest Passage. This 
October 16, the little ship, renovated and refurbished 
to her appearance of that voyage, will be officially 
opened as a National Historic Site. The restoration of 
the St. Roch has taken the better part of four years. 
Historian, John Thompson and curator, Wayne Col- 
well give their impressions of the relationships that 
exist between the ship and the people whose job it 
has been to bring her back to life. 


Featured this issue, is an article by Pierre Des- 
Meules, on the Resource Inventory of Parks Canada 
and Yvon Desloges appraises the hero as hero in his 
discussion of the rise of de Salaberry to historic 
prominence. 


IB ’équipe de Conservation Canada vous convie a 
poursuivre votre visite des parcs nationaux, des parcs, 
lieux et canaux historiques du Canada. 


Nous avons essayé de garder le méme équilibre 
dans la présentation thématique des articles; vous 
pourrez ainsi connaitre le travail d’inventaire des res- 
sources des parcs nationaux, revivre lépoque de 
Charles-Michel de Salaberry et monter a bord du 
St. Roch. En effet, ce navire de la GRC, complete- 
ment restauré, sera ouvert au public le 16 octobre 
prochain, 30 ans apres son retour du voyage Van- 
couver-Halifax par le passage du Nord-Ouest. 


De plus, si les loisirs en plein air vous attirent, une 
descente en canot du fleuve Mackenzie saura vous 
intéresser. Vous ferez alors la connaissance, malheu- 
reusement posthume, d’Albert Faille, un prospec- 
teur de la région du nouveau parc national de Na- 
hanni, décédé le 31 décembre dernier a l’age de 85 
ans. En souvenir de cet homme attachant, Parcs 
Canada vient de donner son nom au portage con- 
tournant la chute Virginia a l’intérieur du parc. 


Enfin, nous vous incluons en pages centrales des 
photographies sur lautomne et sur les animaux 
pourvu qu’elles ne vous fassent pas oublier de lire 
notre rubrique de comptes rendus de volumes. 

Si la contemplation, ou lanalyse ou . . . la critique 
vous a mis en verve, écrivez-nous et faites-nous part 
de vos impressions. 


C. Elliott 


LA VRAIE NATURE 
DES PARGS NATIONAU 


L’INVENTAIRE DES RESSOURCES 


PAR PIERRE DESMEULES 


Pierre DesMeules is the Chief of the Applied Re- 
search Division of Parks Canada, which has the task 
of locating, identifying, analysing, mapping and com- 
puterizing all the natural and historic resources in 
Canada’s National Parks. In this article, he outlines 
what kind of information is required by the Inven- 
tory and describes how it is collected and catalogued. 


Vous découvrirez, en visitant un parc national, des 
éléments caractéristiques des “grands paysages” dt 
Canada ou des traits uniques de sa géographie. Hs y 
sont protégés, intacts, pour le bénefice des Cana- 
diens .. . et de leurs descendants. 

La préservation et l'utilisation sont toutefois deux 
activités difficilement conciliables. Seule une con- 
naissance approfondie de l’ensemble des ressources 
de ces territoires peut permettre aux spécialistes d’ela- 
borer des plans qui en assureront la pérennite tout en 
les rendant accessibles 4 un nombre toujours crois- 
sant de citoyens avides de l’émerveillement que leur 
procurent la grande nature sauvage, les grands es- 
paces aussi exempts que possible des empreintes de 
homme industriel. 


4 


Une vallée typique du parc national de I’Ile Baffin 


> 


Photographie aérienne servant a la délimitation des types 
de paysage: G1, plaine deltaique; A5, A6, plaine cotiere 
légérement ondulée; B2, B3, piedmont (région des col- 
lines). Parc national de Pukaskwa 


Un reptile du parc national de 
la Pointe Pelée 


Sa genése 

L’inventaire systématique et intégré des ressources 
des parcs nationaux est une activité relativement ré- 
cente. Lors de la premiére série d’audiences publi- 
ques tenue au sujet des plans-cadres provisoires, une 
des représentations les plus constantes visait l’insuffi- 
sance de nos connaissances de base des ressources des 
parcs qu’on se proposait d’aménager. Jusqu’a ce jour, 
linitiative de recueillir les données d’inventaire était 
laissée au planificateur. Pressé qu’il était par d’autres 
priorités et soumis a un échéancier trés strict, ce der- 
nier était le plus souvent incapable de recueillir toute 
l'information nécessaire. Convaincue qu'il fallait, au 
plus tot, remédier a ce manque de données adéqua- 
tes, la Direction mit sur pied, a la fin de 1970, un 
groupe de travail chargé de mettre au point une mé- 
thodologie d’inventaire, d’élaborer un plan d’attaque 
et d’en coordonner la mise en ceuvre. 

Les participants a ce groupe de travail ne se leur- 
raient pas; ils devaient s’attaquer a une tache gigan- 
tesque: décrire et localiser en termes précis, pour des 
usagers de disciplines trés variées une gamme pres- 
que infinie de ressources, allant du plus petit animal- 


D. H. Rivard 


cule a la communauté végétale la plus complexe, en 
passant par les séries de sols les plus obscures et les 
formes de relief les plus extravagantes. Tout ¢a, ré- 
parti a travers un réseau de parcs de superficies 
diverses — quelques cents acres a 18,000 milles car- 
rés — disséminés ¢a et la entre la cote de Ie Van- 
couver et Terre-Neuve, I’Ile Baffin et la Pointe Pelée, 
le point le plus méridional du Canada. 


Methodes et cueillette 


Au départ, on disposait de nombreuses méthodes 
pour effectuer des inventaires de ressources. Toute- 
fois, chacune de ces méthodes avait été élaborée en 
fonction de besoins spécifiques, généralement orien- 
tes vers exploitation d’une ressource en particulier. 
C’est ainsi que la plupart des méthodes d’inventaires 
forestiers traduisent leurs résultats en cordes de bois 
a pate ou en “pieds mesure de planche”, les inventai- 
res géologiques, en tonnes de minerais ou en barils 
@huile, les inventaires ichtyologiques en livres de 
poissons a l’acre-pied, et ainsi de suite. Pareilles mé- 
thodes, il va sans dire, ont peu d’application dans un 
parc national ot lexploitation des ressources n’a 
guére sa place. 


L. M. Cumming 


Une des premiéres taches du groupe de l’inventai- 
re des ressources devait donc consister en une revue 
des méthodes disponibles pour les adapter a nos be- 
soins, ou d’en soutirer les meilleurs éléments dans le 
but d’en élaborer de nouvelles, mieux adaptées aux 
fins poursuivies par les parcs nationaux. Mais, en ces 
années ou le progrés technologique est si rapide, nul 
ne peut se contenter trop longtemps d’une méme 
méthode. Tel moyen technique qui nous apparaissait 
avant-garde hier, peut facilement étre dépasseé au- 
jourd’hui. Aussi faut-il constamment remettre en 
question la valeur de nos méthodes et nous tenir a la 
fine pointe du progrés. L’élaboration de nouvelles 


M. M. Grandtner 


1, Le recensement des orignaux dans le parc 
national de Pukaskwa 


2, Plis de glissement dans les calcaires. Parc 
national de Gros Morne 


3. Sous-bois. Parc national de la Mauricie 


4, Communauté végétale pionniére. Parc national 
Forillon 


techniques d’inventaire, mieux adaptées a nos be- 
soins, doit donc demeurer, chez nous, un soucl 
constant. 


A l'exception des gardes de parc, qui y jouent un 
role de plus en plus important, le personnel de Parcs 
Canada n’est pas impliqué dans la cueillette méme des 
données d’inventaire. Le rdle de l’équipe est limite a 
formuler les besoins, a arréter la méthodologie, et a 
superviser et coordonner l’activité. La majeure par- 
tie des travaux est confiée a des spécialistes d’autres 
agences gouvernementales, a des chercheurs duniver- 
sités ou a des consultants privés. Parmi les agences 
fédérales qui contribuent le plus étroitement a l’in- 
ventaire citons: le Service canadien de la Faune, 
Institut d’Aménagement forestier, la Commission 
géologique du Canada, le Musée des Sciences natu- 
relles, le Service de l’environnement atmosphérique, 
l’Office des Recherches sur les Pécheries et en parti- 
culier sa Section de la Recherche sur l’Arctique. Plu- 
sieurs de ces agences du gouvernement fédéral dis- 
posent d’un personnel qui voue tout son temps a 
Vinventaire de nos parcs. 


Le réseau des parcs nationaux du Canada com- 
porte présentement 28 parcs totalisant une superficie 
de plus de 50,000 milles carrés. Il va de soi qu'il n’est 
pas possible d’effectuer d’un seul coup l’inventaire de 
tous ces territoires. Nous ne disposons ni de l’argent 
ni de l’expertise nécessaires. 


Il faut présentement pres de trois ans, dont deux 
consacrés aux travaux sur le terrain, avant de comple- 
ter l’inventaire d’un parc national. On doit d’abord 
faire exécuter la prise de photographie aérienne a 
une échelle appropriée et faire préparer les cartes de 
base, pendant qu’on procéde a une compilation et a 
un examen minutieux de l'information déja existante, 
afin d’éviter les dédoublements, didentifier les prin- 
cipales lacunes et de tracer un plan d’action. On 
s'attaque ensuite a la classification bio-physique du 
territoire, c’est-a-dire a lidentification et a la délimi- 
tation des “types de paysages”. Par “type de paysa- 
ge”, on entend ici une unité de terrain reposant sur 
une roche-mére donnée sur laquelle se développent 
des sols et une séquence de végétation homogenes. Ce 
morcellement du territoire en unités naturelles ho- 
mogénes sert de cadre a un échantillonnage ultérieur 
des communautés animales et végétales qui y sont 
associées. L’inventaire ne se termine pas la. [1 nous 
faut de plus connaitre le climat général et les micro- 
climats de certains coins particuliers, ’hydrologie, la 
limnologie et j’en passe. 


Les inventaires archéologiques et historiques ne 
doivent pas, non plus, étre négligés car les territoires 
aujourd’hui constitués en parcs nationaux renfer- 
ment des vestiges trés importants de l’époque pré- 
industrielle. On risquerait autrement de détruire une 
partie importante du patrimoine culturel qu’il nous 
incombe de préserver, tout autant que le patrimoine 
naturel. 


L’ Atlas des ressources 


Mais ce n’est pas tout de recueillir pareille quan- 
tité de données sur les ressources de nos parcs. Le 
plus difficile reste a faire. Il s’agit de presenter ces 
données de facon a ce que tous les usagers possibles 
puissent les mettre a profit dans lélaboration de 
plans-cadres, de plans d’aménagement des ressour- 
ces et d’interprétation de la nature, de méme que 
dans les décisions de gestion que le surintendant doit 
prendre quotidiennement en vue d’assurer la bonne 
marche du parce qu'il doit administrer. 


Nous sommes présentement en train d’élaborer, de 
concert avec des spécialistes en présentation graphi- 
que, un Atlas-type qui tentera précisément de synthe- 
tiser toute l'information pertinente aux ressources 
d’un parc sous une forme qui la rende utilisable par 
toutes les personnes concernées et avec un minimum 
d’effort. L’Atlas des ressources ne sera pas une pana- 
cée, mais il contribuera sans doute grandement a 
faciliter le processus de planification et la prise de 
saines décisions de gestion concernant les parcs na- 
tionaux. S’il ne faisait que cela, l’effort nécessaire a 
sa production serait pleinement justifié. 


Aprés trois années d’efforts, malgré les difficultés 
énormes rencontrées, le bilan de linventaire est assez 
impressionnant: l’Atlas des ressources est en voie de 
préparation pour trois parcs, les travaux sur le ter- 
rain sont a toutes fins utiles terminés dans sept autres 
parcs et en bonne voie dans trois. Ils viennent d’étre 
amorcés dans une demi-douzaine d’autres. La néces- 
sité de données d’inventaire de qualité s’affirme de 
plus en plus et l’inventaire demeurera une activité 
permanente au sein de Parcs Canada. 


L’auteur, ingénieur forestier et biologiste de la faune, est 
chef de la Division de la recherche appliquée de Parcs 
Canada. II fut, entre autres, chef de la Division de la faune 
terrestre du ministére du Tourisme, Chasse et Péche du 
Québec de 1964 a 1967 et recherchiste-en-chef sur I’ éco- 
logie du lion au sein du Ngorongoro Conservation Unit, 
en Tanzanie, Afrique orientale, de 1968 a 1970. 


Cast and crew of the St. Roch restoration project left to right: Wayne Colwell (curator), Pat Hunt (former crewman) 
Alf Wildsmith (restoration engineer), Stan McKenzie (former crewman) and John Thompson (historian). 


Dave Clark 


“Going Back a©Long Way 
for EHiall “Things...” 


By John Beswarick Thompson 


The Historian and the St. Roch 


John Beswarick Thompson relate les circonstances 
qui l’ont amené a travailler au projet de restauration 
du navire St. Roch. Il explique les difficultés rencon- 
trées, rappelle les joies ressenties et fait revivre les 
amitiés nouées durant cette période. 


| cannot now recall whether November 23, 1970 
was a bleak day or not. It must have been. It was a 
Monday in the gloomiest month of the year and it 
was on the afternoon of that day that my supervisor 
walked up to my desk and, stroking his beard, won- 
dered whether I would be interested in a little rush 
project. It had to do with the St. Roch. 


“An R.C.M.P. ship... out in Vancouver . . . went 
through the Northwest Passage in the 1940’s. “We've 
got to put up a small interpretive display around it 

.need a historian to write the copy. Would you 
like to work with the designer on the thing?” 


It wasn’t that I had never heard of the St. Roch. 
Somewhere in the mists of memory bobbed the flot- 


sam of long-vanished schooldays, a remembrance of 
her exploits as told in a fifth grade reader. But with 
my nautical experience extending no further than 
one ride on the Vancouver-Nanaimo ferry years be- 
fore, I felt somewhat less than eminently qualified to 
tell the tale of the St. Roch to the people of Canada. 
Nevertheless, I got the job. 


It turned out to be an enjoyable assignment. I 
spent the dreary days of waning November devour- 
ing as many books and articles on the subject as 
could be found. By the time the Christmas rush had 
seized the city, the display texts had been written, 
edited, rewritten and submitted. And that, I thought, 
was that. 

But such was not the case. In February 1971 
came word that the St. Roch, bare and rotting in the 
Vancouver Maritime Museum, was to be at last re- 
paired and restored by the National Historic Sites 
Service. The job would take three years and $316,000 
to complete. An historian was required on the pro- 
ject immediately. As the resident expert on the his- 
tory of the ship by virtue of my two week crash 
course in late autumn, I was, of course, that historian. 


10 


For those who have read this far without an ink- 
ling of the “national historic importance” of the Sr. 
Roch, an expository digression seems now in order. 
The ship was built in 1928 by the Burrard Dry Dock 
Company of North Vancouver for the Royal Cana- 
dian Mounted Police to supply their northern posts, 
to serve as a floating detachment wherever needed 
and to patrol the waters of the western Arctic. Every 
year from 1928 to 1939, the St. Roch had sailed 
the Arctic Ocean. During this time she had spent 
eight winters locked in the ice. In 1940 the ship set 
out from Vancouver on a secret mission to sail from 
west to east through the Northwest Passage to 
demonstrate Canadian sovereignty over the Arctic 
islands in a time of war. Over 27 months later, in 
October 1942, the St. Roch arrived at Halifax. She 
was the first ship ever to travel from the Pacific to 
the Atlantic through the Arctic Ocean. In July 1944, 
following an extensive refit, the St. Roch set off 
again on a “secret mission” to the north. This time 
she headed along the more northerly route through 
the Northwest Passage which had never been suc- 
cessfully navigated. Eighty-six days later, on Octo- 
ber 16, 1944, after a remarkable voyage marked by 
both great skill and good luck, she arrived in Van- 
couver. The St. Roch became the first ship to com- 
plete the Passage in a single season, the first to travel 
through the northern, deep-water route, and the first 
to sail the Northwest Passage in both directions. 


In time, the two voyages of the St. Roch were 
recognized as achievements of considerable national 
importance. Due to the efforts of a number of dedi- 
cated individuals, the ship was saved following her 


R.C.M.P. 


retirement in 1954 and was put on public display by 
the City of Vancouver in 1958. Four years later the 
St. Roch was declared “of national historic signifi- 
cance” by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board 
of Canada. In 1968 the Board recommended that 
the ship be restored by the Government of Canada 
to her appearance during the voyage through the 
Northwest Passage in 1944. Planning of the restora- 
tion of the St. Roch began in February 1971. 


Great changes had been made to the ship in the 
27 years following 1944. I was asked that February 
to find out, in as much detail as possible, what the 
vessel looked like during her second trip through 
the Passage. With this information the marine engi- 
neers could correctly repair and accurately restore 
the ship. Later, the curator could acquire the ap- 
propriate fittings, furnishings and gear to make the 
St. Roch come alive again. 


I began by collecting as many photographs of the 
ship taken in 1944 as I could find. It soon became 
obvious that although there were many pictures of 
the exterior of the ship, there were very few of the 
interior. Nobody, it seemed, took photographs in- 
side a small, dark ship. I had to take a new tack. 


The most inviting course seemed to lie in looking 
for the men who had sailed on the St. Roch in 1944. 
If they could be found, surely they would be able to 
fill in the many missing interior details. I knew that 
Henry Larsen, captain of the ship from 1928 to 
1948, had died in 1964. I felt there was little chance 
that two old-timers who were on board in 1944, 


o7 AZ 


], July 44 Cpl. Pat Hunt and Seaman Stan McKenzie, 
seated together upper left, photographed with the rest of 
the crew aboard the St. Roch in Halifax just before the 
now famous 86-day voyage through the Northwest 
Passage. 


2. February’73 =Hunt and McKenzie tour the restoration- 


in-progress offering valuable assistance and advice. 


Rudy Johnsen and Ole Andreasen, would still be 
living. But what of the other nine crewmembers? 
Where were they? 


Starting with a list of their names and addresses 
taken from the February 1945 issue of the Canadian 
Geographical Journal, | began thumbing through 
Canadian telephone directories. There was a Frank 
Matthews listed in the Port aux Basques, Newfound- 
land book. A call, however, revealed sadly that he 
had died about a year and a half before. His friend 
and fellow Newfoundlander on the St. Roch, Stan 
McKenzie, I was told, was living in Yarmouth, Nova 
Scotia. A phone call there brought me in touch with 
him. He averred that he had not kept track of the 
St. Roch since he had served aboard her but had 
visited Henry Larsen when his former captain had 
lived in Lunenburg in the early 1960’s. He thought 
he still had a pretty good idea of what the inside of 
the ship looked like in 1944 and he said he would 
be happy to help. He did not know the whereabouts 
of any of the other crewmembers. 


Dave Clark 


Back to the telephone books. William Cashin, my 
list noted, had come from Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. 
Five families of Cashins were listed in the Halifax 
directory. As luck would have it, on my first call I 
reached Bill Cashin’s brother. The man I was look- 
ing for was living in the Yukon. At Carmacks, to be 
exact. Unfortunately, he had no telephone. A letter 
would have to do. (I did not know at that time how 
difficult Bill Cashin would be to reach. Nine months 
passed before I finally spoke to him for the first time 
on the telephone.) At least I now knew of two crew- 
members. 


Two others, Lloyd Russill and G. B. Dickens, had 
names sufficiently uncommon to prompt me to check 
various Canadian phone books for their where- 
abouts. None of the Dickens in New Brunswick, 
however, could help me find the former cook. Mrs. 
Russill of Wauchope, Saskatchewan believed that 
the former radio operator on the St. Roch was a 
relative, but she had no idea where he was. 


I then learned from Alex Stevenson, Chairman of 
the N.W.T. Historical Advisory Board, that Pani- 
pakuttuk, the Inuit guide who had joined the crew 
of the St. Roch at Pond Inlet, N.W.T. as a special 
constable, had died only a year before my search 
had begun. About the same time I discovered in a 
batch of press clippings, the obituary of Rudolph 
Johnsen. He died in Vancouver in 1966 at the age 
of 90. Later I learned that Ole Andreasen had been 
the first of the crew to pass away, also in Vancouver, 
in 1946. 

At this point a most helpful ally in the pursuit of 
men, the R.C.M.P., who had owned the St. Roch, 
responded to my request for help. Stan Horrall, his- 
torian of the Force, informed me that most of the 
crew of 1944 had been special constables, sworn in 
only for the voyage, and that no record had been 
kept of their whereabouts. Three of the crew, how- 
ever, had been full-time police officers and for pen- 
sion purposes the R.C.M.P. had their addresses on 
file. One, G. W. Peters of Chilliwack, B.C., had died 
in 1969. The others were Patrick G. Hunt of Win- 
nipeg and James B. Diplock of St. Catharines. My 
call that evening to Pat Hunt introduced me to the 
only man living who had made both trips through 
the Passage in the St. Roch. He was uncertain 
whether his memory would help us much (it did), 
but he promised as much assistance as he could 
provide. 

Early the next morning I reached Jim Diplock, 
then on the night shift of the St. Catharines police 
force, before he went to bed. He had made a hobby 
of going around the schools in the area with a film 
of the St. Roch and talking about the ship to the 


1] 


12 


Bruce Easson 


students. He was eager to help. He also thought that 
he still had the address of Lloyd Russill. Three 
months later it turned up in the clutter of an old 
drawer. He was so excited with his discovery that he 
called me long distance with the news and forgot to 
reverse the charges. 


Little wonder I had been unable to locate Lloyd 
Russill in Canadian telephone directories. He had 
moved to the United States. It eventually took a 
month of futile calls to California before I finally 
tracked down the former radio operator at his new 
address at Encinitas, near San Diego. He said that 
he remembered the St. Roch fondly — even had a 
painting of her in his den — and, like all the others, 
he offered to do what he could to help us restore the 
old ship. Lloyd Russill was the fifth and last crew- 
member I found. Six had died. I never found 
Dickens, the cook. 


The next stage of the project took me, along with 
Frank Harley*, the marine engineer in charge of the 
restoration, across the continent from Nova Scotia 
to California to visit each crewmember. With us we 
brought the photographs, a blank isometric drawing 
of the interior of the ship, a tape recorder and a bot- 
tle of rum. We hoped to restore the St. Roch with 
sufficient accuracy to make the ship look lived-in. 


“Frank Harley died suddenly on December 30, 1972. His careful 


planning and infectious enthusiasm for the St. Roch restoration 
still remains. 


Frank Harley in earnest conversation with Jim Diplock 
during the initial phase of restoration. 


We hoped that when we were finished, a member of 
the crew of 1944 could visit the vessel and find her 
like she had been then. Accordingly, we asked ques- 
tions as general as the colour the ship was painted 
and as picayune as the brand of cigarettes each man 
smoked. One by one, each man added what he could 
recall of the St. Roch in 1944. In the end, our draw- 
ing which had been blank was full of lively detail. 
“Tt was,” as Jim Diplock put it, “going back a long 
way for small things.” 

Each man also gave us more photographs of the 
1944 trip. Taken by amateurs on small box cameras 
— often under adverse northern conditions — these 
pictures were sometimes fuzzy and faded, but they 
extended our knowledge of the ship and were in- 
valuable in the restoration. They also added a 
human dimension to the voyage, showing the crew 
hauling in buckets of drinking water, poking eagerly 
through northern caches and smiling happily at the 
end of the trip. 


After the former crewmembers had finished tell- 
ing us about the material things that had been on 
board, they began to talk about the little things that 
had happened during the trip. I was fascinated. 
Twenty-seven years before, each man had come to 
the St. Roch from a different place and later each 
man had left the ship to go his separate way. Only 
the voyage which they had all shared, united them. 
Yet each man had a different view of that journey. 
It was not one voyage. It was each man’s voyage. 

Moreover, some of the others who had been on 
board in 1944 but who had since died, had left their 
accounts of the trip. Henry Larsen, who, according 
to Pat Hunt, “wouldn’t say a bad word about any- 
body,” recorded his kindly impressions of the journey 
in his book The Big Ship. In North magazine Pani- 


_pakuttuk published his reminiscences of the voyage 


filled with the poetry of his fears and delights. Final- 
ly, Ole Andreasen, the old Norwegian-born north- 
erner to whom writing did not come easily, left 
us a simple and eloquent first mate’s log which was 
discovered on a dusty shelf in the Vancouver Mari- 
time Museum. Filled with Ole’s references to “sea 
girls”, “walrose” and “bear Polars”, it gave colour 
and depth to each of the 86 days of the trip. 

When it came time to write my report, I found 
it had been written for me. The photographs and the 
reminiscences made a story. I simply performed the 
service of marriage. 


a 


I'submitted my report in the spring of 1972 and 
confidently thought that I would be free to turn to 
other matters. Again, such was not the case. There 
always seemed to be more to do — another question 
to answer, another meeting to attend. There was a 
plaque to write, a pamphlet to compose and more 
letters to send. In February 1973, the engineers, the 
curator and I spent several days on board the St. 
Roch in the company of Pat Hunt and Stan McKenzie 
while they inspected the restoration work that had 
been done up to that time. They pointed out mis- 
takes that we had made and added more details 
about the appearance of the ship as they remembered 
her. We hope when they — and others of the 1944 
crew — return to the St. Roch after the restoration 
is completed that they will be able to say, “Yes, this 
is pretty much the way she looked 30 years ago.” 


Three years have now gone by since I began work 
on the St. Roch. The end, which once seemed so 
far away, is now in sight. On October 16, 1974 the 
ship will be officially opened to the public. It is a 
date that the late Frank Harley and I came up with 
as we drove leisurely down the Nova Scotia coast to 
Yarmouth for an appointment with Stan McKenzie 
on a fine September day long ago. It is a date of 
some significance — exactly 30 years to the day 
that the St. Roch sailed into Vancouver to complete 
her second voyage through the Passage. It is a date 
of great anticipation, a date we have set the watches 
of our working lives upon. But when that date has 
passed, a reluctant historian in idle moments occa- 
sionally wonders, what will our feelings be then. 
What it is like at the end of a voyage? 


John Beswarick Thompson is a writer/historian with 
Parks Canada. His book, The More Northerly Route, 
is being published this fall, by Information Canada. 


a \ ik . 
Primus stove, scarlet tunic and dog harness are but three 
of the myriad items required for the refurbishment of the 
St. Roch. 


Rudy van der t 


am 


Duffle Coats, Klim 
Tins and “I Wonder 
What Became of 
Sally—’ 


By Wayne Colwell 
The Curator and the St. Roch 


Le travail de conservateur chargé de la reconstitu- 
tion d’un lieu n’est pas toujours aussi facile quon 
pourrait le croire. Wayne Colwell nous le démontre. 


De the course of being questioned for infor- 
mation concerning the St. Roch and her 1944 
voyage, former crewman Jim Diplock remarked “Tt 
was going back a long way for small things”. His- 
torian John Thompson aptly chose to use that phrase 
as the title of his article on the historian’s role in the 
St. Roch project. But I have no doubt that I would 
have utilized Diplock’s phrase for my title if not 


oS) 


14 


beaten to the punch by Thompson, perhaps with 
even greater justification. After all, though the vet- 
erans of the Passage have had to jog their memory- 
banks for the details, the minutia, that surrounded 
them during that historic voyage, and the historian 
had to facilitate the jogging with the right questions, 
the right libations, it has fallen to me, as the project’s 
curator, to literally “go back a long way for small 
things”, and obtain them in order to present the ves- 
sel to her 1944 Northwest Passage appearance. 

If asked prior to my involvement with the St. 
Roch if refurnishing a structure to a relatively con- 
temporary era, in this case a vessel of 1944, pre- 
sented any particular problems, I’m certain my reply 
would have been negative. Problems? Why? Mate- 


rial of thirty years ago wasn’t much different from’: 


that around today, was it? And after all, that era 


is familiar to anyone, like myself, on the plus side of:, 
forty. After spending almost two decades furnishing “. 


and interpreting a wide variety of historic units I 
would have felt I based my judgement on reasonably 
firm ground. 

But I was wrong. My experience had never in- 
cluded anything later than an 1865 blacksmith shop. 
As I became more deeply involved in the St. Roch 
project, I quickly learned that a “modern” restora- 
tion was a whole new ball game, and the St. Roch 
was to prove to be the toughest, most difficult his- 
toric refurnishing assignment I had faced. Why? 
Several reasons, among which are some that at first 
glance would seem to make the curator’s task easier, 
whereas in actuality they added to the difficulties. 


First, the very wealth of information creates prob- 
lems. Unlike most other projects there were five 
living veterans of the voyage to consult, plus others 
somewhat less involved, taped reminiscences and an 
excellent photo file compiled by the historian that 
revealed much data on the vessel’s equipment. And 
then there was the ship itself, with some items still 
on board from 1944. All 19th century projects I had 
been involved in might have had an archeological 
report, a skimpy equipment list, with luck a para- 
graph or two of a contemporary description. But 
mostly, lots of educated (we hope) guesses were em- 
ployed on what a typical residence, craft shop, or 
what have you, looked like at a given time. The 
large amount of known data on the St. Roch left 
almost no opportunity to go this route. We weren’t 
refurbishing a typical arctic patrol vessel, we were 
redoing the St. Roch. Take the radio shack for ex- 
ample. The former radio man, Lloyd Russill, had 


Stan McKenzie and Wayne Colwell discuss the fur- 
nishing of the reconstructed bunkhouse. 


been interviewed on several occasions and he de- 
scribed his cabin and its equipment quite thorough- 
ly. We also had a list of the wireless equipment as- 
signed to the vessel. Therefore I couldn’t be satisfied 
obtaining typical gear of the war years, I had to 
locate a Marconi 3V-SW-5 emergency receiver, a 
Marconi 200 main transmitter, and Russill even 
drew up a sketch of what his own personal radio 
looked like that year — though unable to remember, 
unfortunately, the make, year, or model. And the 
same held true for the rest of his cabin, in fact the 
rest of the ship. Not only did several of the vets re- 
call lots of bottles of lime juice — but that the bot- 
tles were large (32 oz.) and the brand was Mont- 
serrat! There went my chance to utilize a competitive 
brand of Rose’s Lime Juice with bottles and labels 
still available. 


A second reason that makes a fairly contemporary 
restoration contribute to a curatorial headache can 


Dave Cla 


be laid at the door of the Industrial Revolution it- 
self. As the time period to be interpreted approaches 
our own era, there becomes far less use of the hand 
crafted artifact, and greater employment of assembly 
line factory made items — ones that become in- 
creasingly more difficult to reproduce. And a 1944 
restoration is made up virtually 100% of items turn- 
ed out by a sophisticated complex technology. Ex- 
ample: In the course of equipping the circa 1860's 
blacksmith shop at Lower Fort Garry I was able to 
have much of the needed tools and other items hand- 
forged by a smith. But banks of glass jar batteries for 
the vessel’s power plant or any of the mentioned 
radio gear are not produced on a blacksmith’s anvil. 


A third reason, related closely to the above is that 
even as the level of sophistication of manufactured 
goods increases at a dizzying pace, throw-away rate 
also increases perhaps even faster. Models change, 
new packaging, new labels, replace those of last 
year. Again using the wireless gear as an example, 
not much thirty-year-old equipment is still in use. 
Supplanted, the bulk of it has been junked by now. 
And even the wireless collector buffs tend to acquire 
the truly early gear; not the mass-produced wartime 
stuff. 


Then again, when a great deal of data is avail- 
able, problems arise in reconciling differences that 
occur between the varied sources. We find that not 
in all instances do the surviving crew members agree. 
One might insist that the bunk curtains were brown 
and yellow striped; another that they were green and 
cream. 


Conservation technicians working 
to refurnish the St. Roch for her 
October 16th debut. 

Luigi Dalgrande restores a ship’s 
washbasin while Stephen Duffield 
fills bench cushions and Alois 
Luzecky assembles folding stools. 


Rudy van der Ham 


Despite the many difficulties in acquiring, or 
having reproduced, the hundreds of different items 
needed for the St. Roch, slowly but surely the pieces 
of the jigsaw are falling into place. Grey naval duffle 
coats were located in a Toronto surplus store, the 
wartime life-jackets required were discovered, after 
much fruitless searching of maritime museums, for- 
mer manufacturers, and yacht clubs, in a Yarmouth 
ship chandler’s warehouse, buried under piles of dis- 
carded marine gear. 

“KLIM”, Borden’s famous powdered dairy pro- 
duct (“that’s MILK spelled backwards”) was remem- 
bered well by the crew. No longer produced in 
Canada, the famous old brown, yellow, and white 
lithographed-on-tin label has all but disappeared — 
dead as the dodo. Though this endangered species 1s 
still produced in Ireland, a check with the firm re- 
vealed that, yes, foiled again, they redesigned both 
the tin and the label several years ago. “Our” tin is 
no longer available. 

So the search goes on. And if you’ve “Wondered 
What Became of Sally”, a recent phone conversation 
with Lloyd Russill elicited — we thrive on detail — 
the fact that among the old 78 RPM records carried 
on the voyage was one by that title, and it was Skip- 
per Henry Larsen’s favorite. Anyone know the 
whereabouts of such a disc? 


Wayne Colwell is a curator with the Conservation and 
Curatorial Service of Parks Canada. 


\O 


1 


18 


Tom Hall - 


A typical view of the snow peaked Mackenzie mountains seen from the river. 


Tom Kovacs nous raconte les péripéties de sa des- 
cente de 780 milles du fleuve Mackenzie, entre Fort 
Simpson et Inuvik, dans les Territoires du Nord- 


Ouest. 


ired of the same campgrounds and resorts each 
summer? 


Traffic on our recreational roads getting you 
down? 


Try something different for your next holiday. 
There are still many opportunities in this country to 
learn, to see and to experience the unusual. 


One such opportunity presented itself as part of 
the 1973 Parks Canada field program. The assign- 
ment: trace the route of Alexander Mackenzie down 


the river that bears his name. Purpose: to examine 
the possibility of the river playing a part in future 
Parks Canada programs. 

Our trip, of course, bore no more than a super- 
ficial resemblance to that of the famous Scottish 
explorer. We travelled in a 31-foot flat-bottomed 
scow powered by two 20-horsepower kickers and 
followed a safe path in a well marked shipping chan- 
nel. Physical hardship was at a minimum; proper 
clothing, convenience food, warm sleeping bags and 
dry tents provided relative comfort. 


19 


20 


We arrived in Fort Simpson on August 12. Due 
to begin the river journey on the 14th, there was 
plenty of time before departure to look around and 
talk to people. It is a busy place, the settlement 
changing so rapidly that long-time residents no 
longer feel at home in it. 

Albert Faille is 85. No longer able to set out on 
his annual pilgrimage to the South Nahanni in search 
of the lost gold mine, he lives in a small cabin facing 
the Mackenzie River. 

During the hour we spent with him, he spoke of 
the distant past when he was the first white man to 
reach Virginia Falls and the first to get above, to stay 
up and to come out alive. Although in all the trying 
years he never found gold, he is a man at peace with 
himself. Calm and dignified, almost saintly in ap- 
pearance, he is content with his contribution to the 
colour, history and culture of this land. 

Meeting him is like coming face-to-face with times 
long passed; a humbling and moving experience. 


August 14 


We cast off at 10.30 a.m. It had rained and the 
wind was up. Two miles out of Fort Simpson, going 


Impressive Bear Rock as seen from the Mackenzie near Fort Norman 


full throttle on the sheltered side of the river, a bald 
eagle passed us flying into the wind. 

The many cabins along the banks are used by 
Indians for fishing in the summer and trapping in 
the winter. 

By noon we got our first glimpse of the Mackenzie 
Mountains. Only 60 miles out and we were cold and 
wet through from wind and spray. We stopped for 
tea at a small abandoned cabin. Despite its leaky 
roof it was more comfortable than being outside 
and we decided to spend the night. Our supper of 
dehydrated food was not well received. 


August 15 


If the river had seemed hostile last night, it was 
twice as angry today. The scow got turned around 
and had to be unloaded and dragged into a sheltered 
creek a few hundred yards from its moorings. 

A band of light between the dark clouds raised 
our hopes for a turn in the weather which did not 
materialize until after 6 p.m. 

Most of the day was spent on housekeeping 
chores. So far the trip seems more like a survival 
course than a planning exercise. 


August 16 


We were on the river by 8 a.m. It had stopped 
raining but the wind was still strong. Within an hour 
we were into Camsell Bend and looking for the en- 
trance to the South Nahanni. When we found it, 
entry was impossible as the mouth was clogged with 
driftwood and the water too low. 


The riverscape with the snow-capped Mackenzie 
Range looming above it, is spectacular. The scenery 
is just as attractive further north and many potential 
campsites were noted. Near the mouth of the Root 
River there was abundant evidence of large game — 
wolf, bear and moose tracks everywhere. 

We made a quick run in high winds for Willowlake 
River. There, we stopped at a tiny settlement occu- 
pied by only a few families. The cabins are imma- 
culate, attractively decorated with old photographs, 
calendars, snowshoes and rifles. 

We gratefully accepted the offer of coffee in this 
lovely setting — undoubtedly one of the most beau- 
tiful we have so far seen. 

We camped well before 6 p.m. on a wide, level 
sand beach, two miles down river from Wrigley. 
Two fellows in a square-stern fiberglass canoe with- 
out a kicker arrived. Fed up after 13 days on the 


river, they wanted to give away their canoe. They 
found a taker and departed on the first flight south 
from the Wrigley airstrip. 


We have covered 82 miles today and have started 
to gel as a crew. 


August 17 


We rose early and went into Wrigley to pick up 
fresh supplies at the Bay store, mail letters and film, 
and to check in with the R.C.M.P. to let them know 
we had made it safely so far. 


Down river about 85 miles, we stopped at two 
old cabins near the mouth of the Blackwater River. 
Structurally sound, their innards had been ransacked 
by souvenir hunters. We wondered who had lived 
there and why they had chosen that lovely but lonely 
spot. We might have found out, as there is a grave 
located in the nearby woods which we did not see 
until we had cast off and were on our way again. 


The sunny afternoon cheered our spirits and we 
pushed past Old Fort Barrow to set up camp a few 
miles short of Fort Norman. 

It has been a pleasant 120-mile day, but the heavy 
commercial traffic on the river has destroyed our 
illusion of wilderness. Along with the tugs and 


22 


One of the many aban- ¥ 
doned cabins along the #j@ 
rivers of the north ix 


Welcome rest stop at Ochre River 
—left to right, Gilles Robitaille, 
Keith Thompson, Sonny Ville- 
neuve (pilot) 


barges we have learned to expect, a large hovercraft 
passed us late in the afternoon. Its roar could be 
heard long after it had disappeared around a turn 
in the river. 


August 18 


After a very cold night, we were up with the sun 
to set out for Fort Norman. Heralded by Bear Rock, 
it is an impressive sight with the mountains as a 
backdrop. 

Handicrafts in Fort Norman were plentiful, attrac- 
tive and inexpensive. The settlement is off the well- 
trodden tourist path and local craftsmen are not yet 
demanding competitive prices for their products. 

We had seen plenty of evidence, but no actual big 
game until this afternoon, when we glimpsed a large 


brown bear lazing about near the shore. Unfortu- 
nately it disappeared before we could take any decent 
pictures. 

Just 20 miles short of Norman Wells it began to 
rain but we pressed on and got thoroughly soaked 
in the process. We bought 10 kegs of gas and grate- 
fully took the last vacant room at the hotel. A group 
of Indians from Wrigley on their way to the Nor- 
thern Games were not so lucky and had to spend 
the night on the beach in a makeshift camp. 


Norman Wells is not an attractive place, with 
abandoned machinery lying about almost every- 
where. Nevertheless, we stayed a second night to do 
a laundry as the river was too wild for us to proceed. 


Some impressions of the river so far — scenically, 
far more beautiful than expected; a wilderness ex- 
perience only in parts; its potential lies in motorized 
boating. 


August 20 


Weather looked great north of the Wells and we 
left early with some fresh fish to relieve us of the 
freeze-dried rations. 


It is a real joy to be on the river in nice weather. 
We observed that the best views are to the east and 
not to the west as expected. 


We passed by an increasing number of oil drums 
left behind on the river bank and stopped for lunch 
before shooting the Sans Sault Rapids. We were a 
bit let down as the rapids, though interesting, are 
neither spectacular nor demanding, as long as the 
boat is kept within a well marked channel. 

We took a good fast run down the Ramparts to 
Fort Good Hope which was hosting the Northern 
Games this year. We caught the tail-end of the fes- 


An outstanding example of primitive art from the mural tivities and watched the men’s and women’s rope- 
of Our Lady of Good Hope church at Fort Good Hope 


pulling finals. It was good to see all the happy faces 
as the participants engaged in friendly competition. 


We also took in the stunning murals of the church, 
Our Lady of Good Hope; exquisite examples of 
primitive art. 


We had already covered 121 miles, but took ad- 
vantage of the longer daylight of the north to get in 
a couple of more hours on the river before making 
camp at | a.m. 


August 21 


Weather still great and the fresh bannock for 
breakfast delightful. This was the first day that the 
wind has been with us, its speed matching the scow’s. 
It is an odd sensation to travel at 15 miles an hour 
and face no wind. The high banks and rolling hills 
of the Travillant Lake area is attractive but there is 
no doubt that we are getting further north as the 


Women finalists in the rope-pulling contest at the 1973 Northern Games at Fort Good Hope 


ZS cma 


24 


vegetation is changing to black spruce, aspen and 
willows with occasional patches of tundra. 

We had hoped to equal yesterday’s mileage in 
order to reach Arctic Red River today but stopped 
at Pierre Creek just 20 miles short of our goal. 
Lucky that we did, as a flash thunderstorm came up 
in the evening which would have driven us off the 
river. 


August 22 


Our campfire smouldered all night despite the 
heavy downpour. Burning in earnest when we 
awoke, it illustrated how easily forest fires are started. 


We fought huge waves in the downwind stretches 
to reach the Arctic Red River where we decided that 
we had enough gas to reach Inuvik and pushed on. 
We managed to stay fairly dry and comfortable in the 
high winds and waves until we reached Point Separa- 
tion where the river splits into its numerous channels 
at the base of the delta. Lacking the protection of 
the river banks here, we faced the full force of the 
storm. 

We passed a couple of canoeists stroking hard 
and bravely riding the waves. They refused our offer 
of a tow to safety. 


We bottomed the scow in a particularly shallow 
stretch but were fortunate in not damaging the en- 
gines. We built a huge fire and burned our backsides 
trying to get warm and dry out. 

We passed the canoeists later valiantly carrying 
on. They had at least a day and a half of travel 
ahead of them. 


We stopped only once more, at Rocky Hill where 
the flat, heavily wooded delta meets a unique hard- 
rock outcrop. An hour later we had completed the 
most gruelling day of the expedition, tying up at 
Inuvik. 

We have covered 780 miles of the Mackenzie 
River in nine days. 

Boating down the Mackenzie was a working trip 
for us but it was immensely rewarding on both a pro- 
fessional as well as a personal level. The river and its 
people are an experience I won’t forget. 


Tom Kovacs is a Park System Planner with Parks Canada. 


On Hearing Of The Death 
Of Albert Faille 


Tom Kovacs 


You fought the furious river 

Scaled the back-breaking trail 

First whiteman to get above the falls 
First there to survive and stay 


Alone in the unyielding mountains 
You doggedly searched for gold 
Loser of forty-some battles 

You kept coming back for more 


Old man, Red Pants, dreamer 

No more will you sail the river of hope 
Ina frail craft with a stout heart 

For never-to-be treasures 


Rest your tired body 

Your search was never in vain 
For your spirit has touched us all 
In an indelible way 


Médaille du lieutenant N. Duchesnay des V olti- 
geurs canadiens, émise en 1848 et distribuée aux 
survivants des batailles entre 1793 et 1814 
(Parcs Canada) 


Charles de Salaberry has long been held in esteem as 
one of the major heroes of Québec. Yvon Desloges, a 
historian with Parks Canada, reexamines de Salaber- 
ry in his role as hero in light of a new assessment of 
the political, economic and social climate of his time. 


6 harles-Michel de Salaberry a occupé dans his- 
toire traditionnelle une place de choix, un piédestal 
de héros par sa participation au combat de la Cha- 
teauguay, le 26 octobre 1813. Plusieurs historiens 
racontent qu’a la téte de 300 hommes et d’une poi- 
gnée d’Indiens, il aurait repoussé de 4,000 a 7,000 
Américains, sans toutefois nous faire connaitre exac- 
tement ces forces d’invasion. 

Puisant méme a histoire grecque, certains l’ont 
qualifié de “Léonidas canadien”, ayant sauvé aux 
“Thermopyles” le Bas-Canada. Devons-nous accep- 
ter cette version des faits? 

Cherchons 4a décrire cet épisode, a définir le role 
que Salaberry y a joué et a expliquer l’interpréta- 
tion traditionnelle. 


Charles-Michel de Salaberry 

Né en 1778, il est le fils de Louis-Antoine de Sala- 
berry, seigneur de Beauport; de ce fait, il est lie 
aux grandes familles de l’époque. A lage de 14 ans, 
il s’engage, sous la protection du duc de Kent, dans 
Yinfanterie britannique. Salaberry est d’abord en 
garnison 4 Québec, puis passe aux Antilles. En 
1796, il est recu maitre-macon dans les loges; ceci 
n’a rien de surprenant lorsqu’ on sait que les mili- 
taires et presque tous les seigneurs de l’epoque fai- 
saient partie de ce qui n’était qu’une association 
patriotique. 

Aprés avoir combattu aux Antilles, en Sicile et en 
Irlande, Salaberry rentre au Canada en aout 1810, 
aprés une absence de 16 ans. La population l’ac- 
cueille comme un militaire chevronné. L’ agitation 


politique, causée par les réactions de Craig, telles la 
fermeture du journal Le Canadien et l’emprisonne- 
ment de Bédard, est tres grande. Le successeur de 
Craig, le gouverneur Prévost, tentant d’apaiser les 
esprits, demande a Salaberry de lever parmi ses com- 
patriotes un corps d’élite: les Voltigeurs canadiens. 


Le combat et les forces en présence 

C’est le combat de la Chateauguay qui confére a 
Salaberry ses titres de noblesse, du moins en ce qui 
concerne notre histoire traditionnelle. Mais que se 
passe-t-il sur les rives de la Chateauguay, le 26 octo- 
bre 1813? Les Américains sous les ordres de Hamp- 
ton et de Izard marchent sur Montréal en passant par 
la Chateauguay; ils tentent de rejoindre le général 
Wilkinson a la hauteur de lile Perrot. Les Américains 
sont plus puissants, militairement, car ils disposent 
d'une artillerie de campagne et d’une unité de cava- 
lerie. Mais le refus des miliciens de traverser la fron- 
titre, la fatigue, le froid et les conditions du terrain 


Charles-Michel de Salaberry, minia- 
ture, vers 1S15 (Chateau de Ramezay, 
Montréal. Photo, Musée de guerre) 


forcent une bonne partie de l’armée d’invasion (dont 
lartillerie et la cavalerie) a rester a l’arriére-plan. Du 
coté canadien, avec les réserves, Salaberry dispose 
d@environ 1,500 hommes. Fait intéressant a souli- 
gner, il écrira a son pére que les forces américaines 
sont équivalentes. 

Salaberry fait construire un abattis au ravin Bryson 
et dispose ses troupes sur six lignes, dont deux pro- 
tegent les passages a gué Grant et Morrison. L’armée 
américaine déplace son avant-garde. La veille, Purdy 
et un groupe d’Américains avaient traversé sur la rive 
sud, dans l’obscurité, afin de contourner les positions 
canadiennes et de les prendre a revers. A l’aube, ils 
n’ont pas beaucoup progressé, Les Canadiens Daly et 
Brugieres traversent la riviére et surprennent l’avant- 
garde de Purdy qui doit se replier. Il y a manque de 
communication entre les deux corps d’armée améri- 
cains. En entendant des coups de feu sur la rive sud, 
Hampton avance ses troupes; aprés quelques volées, 
les Canadiens ripostent, tout en utilisant les cris des 


Indiens et le son des clairons. De la rive nord, ils 
tirent ensuite sur les troupes de Purdy. C’est la dé- 
route; les Américains retraitent. 


Hampton a-t-il vraiment voulu livrer bataille? Ses 
troupes sont fatiguées, car leur marche avait été en- 
travée du fait que Salaberry avait fait couper tous les 
ponts. De plus, ce dernier connaissait bien la topo- 
graphie de la région, car il y était passé quelques 
semaines plus tot; enfin, il avait eu quelques jours 
pour préparer sa défense et choisir l’endroit le plus 
propice. 


Contexte économique et politique 


Dés le lendemain du combat, Salaberry est acclamé 
comme un “héros” dans les journaux de l’époque. 
L’événement prend une ampleur qui se transmettra 
a notre héritage historique. La victoire de Chateau- 
guay est celle des Canadiens frangais qui composent 
environ 90% des troupes de Salaberry. L’enrolement 
de miliciens canadiens-franc¢ais résulte de deux fac- 
teurs. Au point de vue politique, les Canadiens fran- 
cais se doivent de prouver leur loyauté au gouverneur 
Prévost, qui s’est montré beaucoup plus conciliant 
que Craig sous l’administration duquel les membres 
des professions libérales et les marchands anglopho- 
nes avaient connu de graves affrontements. 


D’autre part, au point de vue économique, le Bas- 
Canada connait une récession; il y a crise agricole, 
alors que 80% de la population est rurale; cette crise 
provoque un excédent de main-d’ceuvre, surtout dans 
la construction navale. Or, les conditions de recrute- 
ment des miliciens sont généreuses; dans la milice 
incorporée, le milicien regoit huit piastres par mois 
en plus de l’uniforme et de Ja nourriture. Quant aux 
Voltigeurs, ils regoivent la solde d’un régulier britan- 
nique de méme que nourriture et vétements; de plus, 
Salaberry leur promet officieusement une terre (ce que 
le Conseil Législatif confirmera en 1816). La lutte 
contre le républicanisme y joue également un role. 


Pour les seigneurs, parmi lesquels se recrutent les 
officiers subalternes, la victoire d’un des leurs les 


GBB Troupes canadiennes 
(—] Troupes ameéricaines 
a3 Abattis 

—— Route 


Position des troupes, Forét 
‘ \ Marecages 
lors de la bataille. 


remplit d’une immense fierté. Ce groupe peut ainsi 
raffermir son prestige sur ’échiquier politique, pres- 
tige qu'il a perdu lors de la montée des professions 
libérales. Sil ne peut reprendre son rdle, il pourra 
tout au moins faire peser son influence auprés des 
dirigeants britanniques. 


En s’adressant a Salaberry, Prévost comptait faire 
dune pierre deux coups: s’assurer des services d’un 
fin stratége et recevoir une réponse favorable dans le 
recrutement de miliciens car Salaberry jouissait d’une 
forte popularité aupreés de la population. Ainsi la po- 
pulation francaise du Bas-Canada redore son blason 
aupres des marchands anglophones. 


Par ailleurs, “élite” y trouve aussi son profit; a la 
suite de “sa” victoire, elle se rapproche des dirigeants 
britanniques et de leurs bienfaits. Elle entrevoit méme 
la renaissance d’un régime aristocratique qui lui avait 
été si profitable au 18e siecle. De plus, la victoire de 
Chateauguay permet au Bas-Canada et notamment 
aux marchands anglophones de respirer plus a laise. 


Salaberry et la société bas-canadienne 
Dés la fin de la guerre, Salaberry se retire dans sa 
seigneurie de Chambly; celle-ci ne rapportant que 
trés peu, il doit envisager un poste plus rémunéra- 
teur. Il recherche les honneurs; en février 1814, le 
Conseil Législatif lui vote des remerciements. En fé- 
vrier 1816, il est fait compagnon de l’Ordre du Bain. 


Salaberry veut succéder a son beau-peére, M. de 
Rouville, au Conseil Législatif; or la loi anglaise in- 
terdit au pére et au fils de siéger en méme temps au 
Conseil. Parrainé par monseigneur Plessis, il y acce- 
dera en 1818. Considérant cette nomination comme 
un honneur, il assiste peu aux séances, Ce nest qu’en 
1822 qu'il y joue un réle, en sopposant au projet 
d’Union; choisi comme délégué a Londres, il se de- 
siste A cause de sa santé et recommande Louis-Joseph 
Papineau. II participe aussi au Conseil d’administra- 
tion de la compagnie du canal de Chambly. Il meurt 
le26tevrier S29. 


Ravin Bryson 
my Se 


7 


“Ny 


Gue 
Grant 


(AcE Cy) 


Heéroisme social et politique 

Mais peut-on parler d’héroisme dans I’Episode de 
Chateauguay? La définition académique nous rap- 
pelle qu’un héros est un personnage qui se distingue 
par des vertus ou des actions extraordinaires. Qu’a 
fait Salaberry 4 Chateauguay? Il a su déployer ses 
troupes et agencer un systeme de défense cohérent. 
Mais il n’était pas au front lorsque les Américains 
commencent a tirer; il n’arrive que par la suite. Il 
fait retraiter les Américains en faisant sonner les 
trompettes mais McDonnell a l’arriére y fait sa part. 
C’est aussi la sortie du capitaine Daly, sur la rive sud, 
qui empéche les Américains de contourner les posi- 
tions canadiennes. En sachant ces faits, Salaberry 
peut-il encore étre considéré comme un héros? 

Il ne s’agit donc plus d’héroisme militaire mais 
plutét d’héroisme social et politique, si expression 
est permise. Salaberry est la plaque tournante de 
l’épisode de la Chateauguay. D’une part, il agit com- 
me catalyseur entre les marchands anglophones et la 
population francophone, de l’autre comme tremplin 


28 politique a lélite de l’époque. 


Officier des Voltigeurs canadiens, 
1813 (Aquarelle de 
Derek FitzJames, Parcs Canada) 


La naissance d’un mythe 


A la lueur de ces faits, nous constatons que nos 
historiens ne se sont jamais arrétés pour analyser la 
signification profonde de l’épisode de Chateauguay; 
ils se contentaient de colporter ce que nos ancétres 
leur avaient raconté ou ne consultaient que la docu- 
mentation apte a nourrir le mythe qu ils entretenaient. 
La “canonisation” d’un personnage tel Salaberry est- 
elle nécessaire? Faire de l’histoire qui soit a la portée 
de tous et chanter l’épopée du pays sont-ils les seuls 
buts poursuivis? La puissance du patriotisme ne ser- 
virait-elle pas plutét 4 promouvoir lidéologie a la- 
quelle on appartient, en puisant du passé les hommes 
dont on veut voir prolonger l’action et les idées? 
histoire traditionnelle nous démontre le besoin que 
ressent un peuple de perpétuer une tradition héroique, 
lui permettant de subir une situation économique et 
politique dans laquelle son réle est efface. 


L’auteur est recherchiste en histoire, Parcs Canada. 


el cao 


Amor de Cosmos 


He was a prospector, newspaper editor, premier of 
British Columbia — yet his memory lingers as the man 
who changed his name. 


Born William Alexander Smith, at Windsor, Nova Scotia 
in 1825, his dreams of glory carried him to the California 
Gold Rush at the age of 24 . . . along with hundreds of 
other Bill Smiths. So he became Amor de Cosmos — lover 
of the universe. 


His wanderings took him to British Columbia and in 
1856 he founded a newspaper, the still thriving Victoria 
Colonist. 

Wielding an acid pen, Amor de Cosmos was a vigorous 
critic of the colonial government. “It’s too late to stop men 
thinking,” he declared, urging responsible government. 
The man with the mystical name took to politics, be- 
coming a member of the legistlature. He fought for con- 


federation with Canada — on British Columbia’s terms 
— which included a railway link to the east. When the 
Pacific colony joined the Dominion in 1871 , he was a 
delegate to the federal parliament in Ottawa. 


In 1872, Amor de Cosmos became the second premier of 
British Columbia but his political star was short-lived. A 
land-speculation scandal extinguished it at the age of 48. 
During his remaining 25 years, he was one of Victoria’s 
characters. He walked the streets in full morning dress 
sporting a cane. He drank to excess. Never married, he 
became a recluse, afraid of electricity. He was finally 
judged insane. 

On July 4, 1897, the lover of the universe who helped to 
make British Columbia a part of Canada, died. 

In the provincial legislature in Victoria, a plaque, erected 
by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, 
recalls the career of Amor de Cosmos — the man who 
changed his name. 


DONALDSON, GORDON. 

BATTLE FOR A CONTINENT QUEBEC 1759. 
Doubleday Canada Limited, Toronto, Ontario. 
(Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New 
York). 1973, 241 p. illustrations. 


Ce livre présente une version populaire des événements 
de Québec de 1759. L’auteur trace, entre autres, un 
tableau des différents acteurs de la Conquéte, esquisse la 
situation de la Nouvelle-France au dix-huitiéme siécle, 
rappelle quelques batailles qui ont précédé 1759, parle 
bri¢vement de la vie militaire de l’€poque, retrace le siege 
de Québec et les deux batailles subséquentes et tente, 
dans un paragraphe ou deux, de rattacher le drame de la 
Conquéte au Québec contemporain. 

Bien que cet ouvrage n’apporte a peu prés rien de nou- 
veau sur cet important chapitre de notre histoire, tant au 
niveau des faits que de leur interprétation, auteur a su 
capter et exploiter habilement certains personnages ou 
épisodes qui plairont au grand public. Les exploits de 
Radisson et des Groseilliers (Squire of the Gooseberries) 
souléveront la curiosité historique de plusieurs. Mais il 

y aun danger de toujours revenir sur certains tristes per- 
sonnages dont la bande a Bigot le voleur, de la Pompa- 
dour ou de sa digne représentante 4 Québec, la Péean. A 
force de toujours répéter les mémes rengaines, il devient 
difficile de faire la part des choses entre la vérité et la 
fantaisie. 

La description quelque peu sommaire que l’auteur nous 
sert de la situation politique des colonies du Saint-Laurent 
d’avant 1759 s’inspire plutét de l’interprétation histor1- 
que de la fin du siécle dernier. On doit apporter des 


nuances sur l’esprit de la loi et sur sa pratique sous le ré- 
gime “totalitaire” présenté par l’auteur que les Canadiens 
du dix-huiti¢me siecle n’auraient certes pas toléré. D’ail- 
leurs, un coup d’oeil rapide sur la bibliographie nous 
montre que l’auteur aurait eu avantage a consulter des 
ouvrages de plus récente date sur la Nouvelle-France. On 
n’a qu’a lire les instructions annuelles du Roi aux gou- 
verneurs pour voir que le Souverain était beaucoup plus 
intéressé 4 administrer en bon pére de famille plutdt 
qu’en tyran. 

De toute fagon, cette partie du livre ne sert qu’a préparer 
le lecteur aux événements les plus importants de 1759. 
Heureusement, cet épisode de notre histoire a déja été 
traité ailleurs et personnellement, je préfére l’explication 
que nous a laissée Vhistorien C. P. Stacey. 

A la toute fin du livre, l’auteur tente, dans une page, de 
résumer l’évolution du Canada francais depuis 1759 
jusqu’a nos jours. C’est peut-étre 1a une fagon d’assurer 
une certaine actualité 4 son ouvrage, mais il aurait eu 
lieu de se pencher plus sérieusement sur ces deux siécles 
Vhistoire du Canada frangais. 

En plus des illustrations, on retiendra particulierement 
les descriptions touchant la vie interne du camp militaire, 
les rivalités entre officiers, par exemple, entre Wolfe et 
Townshend, et surtout les antécédents des grandes fa- 
milles d’épée en Angleterre. 

Bref ce livre, inspiré du roman historique, est tres bien 
présenté et saura trouver la faveur du grand public. 


Louis Richer 
Recherches historiques 
Parcs Canada 


30 


GODFREY, W. EARL. 
ENCYCLOPEDIE DES OISEAUX DU QUEBEC. 
Volume 3 de L’Encyclopédie de ! Homme, Montréal, 
Les Editions de !Homme, 1972. 663 pages. Illus- 
trations de John A. Crosby, adaptation de Henri 
Ouellet. Index. 


L’Encyclopédie des oiseaux du Québec de W. Earl God- 
frey est une adaptation de I’excellent ouvrage “Les 
oiseaux du Canada’, du méme auteur, paru chez L’Im- 
primeur de la Reine en 1967. On y a tout simplement rete- 
nu les textes et illustrations se rapportant aux oiseaux du 
Québec et remplacé la section sur l’aire de distribution 

au Canada par une nouvelle section spécifique-au Québec. 
Les illustrations ont été réagencées et bon nombre de 
celles qui apparaissent en couleurs dans “Les oiseaux du 
Canada” sont ici reproduites en noir et blanc. Les repro- 


ductions en couleurs sont souvent de fort mauvaise qua- 
lité, la densité des couleurs n’étant pas respectée et le 
repérage trés mauvais, ce qui nous laisse avec des con- 
tours dédoublés. L’identification des oiseaux s’avérera 
ainsi trés difficile, sinon impossible. 

On semble avoir voulu publier un volume d’un format 
pratique, facilement transportable en poche lors d’excur- 
sions sur le terrain. Malheureusement cette brique ne 
remplit pas ces objectifs. C’est un ouvrage trop volumi- 
neux qui se tient mal entre les mains et qui se feuillette 
également mal. 

Dans ces conditions, l’achat d’un exemplaire, “Les 
oiseaux du Canada” a $12.50 m’apparait comme un 
meilleur investissement. 


Pierre DesMeules 

Chef, 

Division de la recherche appliquée 
Parcs Canada. 


RUMILLY, ROBERT. 

HISTOIRE DE LA PROVINCE DE QUEBEC, 
Home): 

LOUIS RIEL. Fides, Montréal, 1973. 313 pages, 
Index, Illustrations. 


C’est dans le cadre de la réédition du monumental ou- 
vrage de Robert Rumilly sur Vhistoire de la province de 
Québec qu’est paru en 1973 le cinquieme tome intitulé 
Louis Riel. L’édition originale datant de 1941, il nous 
apparait utile pour le bénéfice des lecteurs d’en faire une 
bréve analyse. Le titre de ’ouvrage est plutét trompeur 
puisque M. Rumilly accorde seulement le tiers de son 
volume a Riel. Les 200 derniéres pages sont en effet con- 
sacrées au Parti national et a Mercier, ce qui, en un sens, 
nest pas nécessairement une erreur puisque ces deux 
sujets ont été intimement liés a l’affaire Riel. Nous analy- 
serons toutefois la partie qui traite précis¢ment du 

chef métis. 


Il ne faut pas s’attendre a trouver dans ce volume un récit 
détaillé de ce quis’est passé dans l'Ouest en 1885. L’au- 
teur a plutot mis l’accent sur les réactions au Québec face 
ala rébellion et a sa répression. En ce sens, il est demeuré 
fidéle au cadre général de son oeuvre qui est l’histoire 

de la province de Québec. 

M. Rumilly passe rapidement sur les événements qui ont 
précédé la capture de Riel alors que l’opinion publique 
québécoise, mal informée, se partageait entre deux pdles 
représentés par la Minerve du coté ultramontain et 
VElecteur du coté libéral qui accusait le gouvernement 
fédéral de tous les maux. 

L’emprisonnement de Riel et la possibilité qu’il soit pendu 
marque toutefois, selon l’auteur, un réveil en masse de 
Vopinion publique: “Ce fut, au pays du Québec, comme 
sila foudre était tombée sur chaque maison”. A compter 
de cet instant, M. Rumilly suit au jour le jour l’évolution 


des événements. II nous fait voir comment le sentiment 
général, au départ partagé, se range de plus en plus der- 
riére Riel pour demander au gouvernement de le gracier. 
Il profite également de l’occasion pour passer ses idées 
personnelles sur la question: le gouvernement fédéral, par 
son refus d’entendre les requétes des Métis, est respon- 
sable de la rébellion; une fois la sentence de mort rendue 
par le jury, l’affaire Riel devient une bataille de races, 
comme ce fut le cas en 1837; la vie de Riel a été sacrifiée 
aux intéréts des partis politiques. Rumilly se pose donc 
en défenseur de Riel en qui il voit un “mystique dévieé”’. 
Selon nous, l’auteur a visé juste dans ses conclusions. 


Au chapitre des critiques, on peut reprocher a l’auteur de 
ne pas avoir insisté sur le fait qu’en 1885, le choc des 
civilisations était inévitable et qu’en ce sens, Riel devenait 
la victime d’un contexte plutot que V’instigateur des trou- 
bles. On pourrait également reprocher a M. Rumilly 
d’intercaler dans son texte des passages qui cadrent assez 
mal dans l’ensemble de I’étude (asiles, division du diocese 
de Trois-Riviéres . . .). Peut-étre faudrait-il attribuer ce 
défaut au souci de l’auteur de n’oublier aucun détail. 

Par contre, l’ouvrage de M. Rumilly a le mérite de mieux 
nous faire connaitre le visage de certains hommes poli- 
tiques de l’époque, en particulier de Chapleau ce ministre 
qui n’était plus “ministre de la province de Québec, mais 
de tout le Canada”. La conclusion de l’auteur dénote 

de l’amertume et méme un reproche a l’égard du compor- 
tement de quelques chefs de file canadiens-frangais dans 
l’affaire Riel: “Les plus patriotes des représentants de la 
province de Québec, devenus ministres a Ottawa, ont 
rapidement cessé de penser en Canadiens frangais pour 
penser en Canadiens tout court, voire en hommes d’Etat 
britanniques”’. 


Jean-Pierre Proulx 
Recherches historiques 
Parcs Canada 


Published by Parks Canada under the authority of 
the Hon. Judd Buchanan, PC, MP, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
©Information Canada, Ottawa, 1974 

INA Publication No. QS-1241-020-BB-A1 
Design: John Ball Graphic Arts Service Ltd. 


Conservation Canada is a quarterly publication 
Editors: Sheila Crutchlow, Martin Filion 
Production: Eric Plummer 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 


Translations of articles in the other official language are 
available on request from The Editor, Conservation Canada, 
Information Services, Department of Indian and Northern 
Affairs, Ottawa, K1A OH4. 


Indian and 


iv 


Northern Affairs 
Parks Canada 


Priidu Juurand 


Publié par Parcs Canada avec l’autorisation 

de hon. Judd Buchanan, cP, députe, 

ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord. 
©Information Canada, Ottawa, 1974 

Publication AIN N° QS-1241-020-BB-A1 
Présentation: John Ball Graphic Arts Service Ltd. 


Publication trimestrielle. 
Rédaction: Martin Filion, Sheila Crutchlow 


Production: Eric Plummer 


On peut reproduire les articles en mentionnant 
leur provenance. 


On peut se procurer des versions anglaises ou frangaises des 
articles parus dans ce numéro en s’adressant au Rédacteur, 
Conservation Canada, Services de Information, Ministere 
des Affaires indiennes et du Nord, Ottawa, K1A 0H4. 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Parcs Canada 


oy) 


11g uyor ap aiydnssojoyd :ainjsaanog 
livg “yor &q ojoyd saaog 


. 


Be 


AS wesee it... 


Un mot de 
la rédaction.... 


QO, all the Canadian provinces, Saskatchewan is 
probably the least understood and the most ma- 
ligned. In addition to the callous references to ‘flat’, 
‘treeless’ and ‘uninteresting’, the prairies have 
borne the brunt of a number of distressing geo- 
physical clichés. 

In this issue of Conservaticn Canada, we are 
pleased to pay tribute to that great trapezoid in our 
midst. The Last of the Great Grasslands by Claude 
Mondor examines the past and future potential of 
the great Canadian plains while Legend and Land- 
scape by Colleen Snipper and Margaret Amoroso 
paints a vivid portrait of the magnificent Qu’Appelle 
Valley. 

Also this issue, Luce Vermette, an ethnographer 
with Parks Canada analyses the importance of the 
hearth and its utensils to the early Canadian home in 
Feu et Lieu. As well, Francois Leblanc informs us 
of some of the exciting new uses to which the com- 
puter is being put by Technical Services. 

To complete the issue and make winter a bit 
friendlier, we have four pages of glorious scenes of 
winters past. 


D u domestique a l’informatique, du connu a l’ou- 
blié: voila en quelques mots le ton de ce numéro. 


En publiant l’article Feu et lieu de Luce Vermette, 
jai d’abord voulu souligner la récente parution de 
son volume Les objets familiers de nos ancétres tout 
comme mettre en lumiére ces humbles serviteurs de 
la maison si souvent oubliés. 


Charmante guide, Luce Vermette nous fait pé- 
nétrer dans une habitation de la Nouvelle-France et 
nous fait connaitre, en prenant le foyer comme point 
de convergence, une foule d’instruments, de plats et 
d’ustensiles qui servaient a l’accomplissement de 
diverses taches quotidiennes. __ 

Francois Leblanc, pour sa part, aborde dans le 
domaine de la conservation historique, un sujet tout 
contemporain: Lutilisation de lordinateur comme 
outil de référence pour la restauration de batiments 
historiques. Les hauts lieux de Vhistoire s’associent 
aux techniques de notre époque. 

Claude Mondor nous fait mieux connaitre les 
Prairies et leur écologie, tandis que Colleen Snipper 
et Margaret Amoroso nous révelent les beautés et 
les légendes de la riviere Qu’Appelle, en Saskatche- 
wan. Ce coin de pays qu’on ne connait que par des 
clichés, prend un tout autre éclairage. 

Enfin, la lecture des comptes rendus des volumes 
de Pierre Dansereau et de Jean-Claude Marsan nous 
feront réfléchir sur l’écologie, l’équilibre de la nature 
et la qualité de vie en milieu urbain. 

Bon hiver et agréable lecture! 


Government 


Publications 
ONY NOv3 
NO 3 
1975 
As we see it/Un mot de la rédaction . . . 2 
Colleen Snipper A 
Legend and Landscape Margaret Amoroso 
The Last of the Great Grasslands Claude Mondor 11 
Plus 16 
Feu et Lieu Luce Vermette 20 


Francois Leblanc 25 


| oman Infothéque 
28 


Et Cetera 


by Colleen Snipper and 
Margaret Amoroso 


Tom Searth Each panorama of the Qu’Appelle Valley is a new discovery; 
each one different, each breathtaking. 


Dans le cadre dune étude du programme ARC 
(Accords au sujet de la Récréation et de la Conser- 
vation), les auteurs ont découvert la vallée de la 
riviére Qu’ A ppelle, havre habité depuis des millénai- 
res et qui a conservé ses légendes, ses lieux histori- 
ques et ses attraits naturels. 


“I need not try to describe the exceeding beauty 
of the scene for I could not; I will merely state what 
the components of the picture were... Part of the 
valley in deep shade and part brightly illuminated 
... The blue smoke of wigwams rising up high and 
straight from the bottom of the valley. The river 
with its complicated coils, gliding among the willow 
bushes, to the south. The great prairie, ocean-like 
with its many islands of poplar and single trees, 
looking in the distance and by twilight, like becalmed 
ships.” 


Dawson-HInp SuRVEY EXPEDITION, 1859. 


Mere than a century later little has changed in 
many sections of the Qu’Appelle valley, other than 
the disappearance of the wigwams. And even they 
spring quickly to the imagination, prompted by the 
isolated, idyllic setting. 

The Qu’Appelle River winds its way sinuously 
from near the elbow of the South Saskatchewan 
River across the province to join the Assiniboine 
River in Manitoba. At seven points along the way, 
the river waters collect to form a “rosary of lakes” 
as Hudson’s Bay Company employee Isaac Cowie 
aptly termed them. A glacial spillway, in prehistoric 
times, the valley cuts a huge swath two miles broad 
and 100 to 300 feet deep across the southern prairie 
landscape. 


The Qu’Appelle Valley provides a magnificient 
contrast to the endless rolling plains on either side 
of it. At each approach to the valley the sudden drop 
into it unveils a unique, breathtaking view. Velvety, 
flat-topped coulees on the north side of the valley 
face treed slopes on the south. The rich valley bot- 
tom provides some of the area’s best farming land. 
Yet at first glance the valley itself seems relatively 
undisturbed by farm machines or people. 


The Cree named the river katapaywie sepi. Ac- 
cording to a legend, told to the Hind expedition in 
1859, a lone Indian heard his name called as he 
paddled on the river. His repeated responses brought 
no answer and although he searched, he could not 
find the caller. From that time on it was known as 
the “Who Calls River”. To make the story more 
intriguing to the romantic tourist, the legend has 
undergone a bitter-sweet twist. The eve of his wed- 
ding day, the Indian brave hears the voice of his 
beloved. Upon returning to camp he learns that she 
has died, calling out his name. Disbelievers, of 
course, argue that it is the valley’s echoes that ex- 
plain the origin of the name. Whatever the reason, 
translated by the French-Canadian fur traders, the 
“Who Calls” became the Qu’Appelle River. 


In 1974 the ARC programme of Parks Canada 
(formerly Byways and Special Places) presented a 
proposal to the Saskatchewan government which 
identified the Qu’Appelle Valley as part of a con- 
tinuous land corridor crossing the three prairie 
provinces. ARC was asked to outline areas of pos- 
sible involvement in the development of the valley's 
historical and recreational resources. The purpose 
of our trip was to assess the present state of the val- 
ley’s historical resources. During our four day trip 
along the valley, we visited National and Provincial 
Historic Parks, National, Provincial and local mu- 
seums, churches, ethnic settlements and valley 
residents. 

It was a trip back into 10,000 years of history. 


A solid week of rain before our arrival had turned 
the secondary roads into what prairie residents term 


5 


Colleen Snipper 


1. An elaborate stained glass window of 
the New Stockholm Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. 


“sumbo”, i.e. mud akin to quicksand. So we were 
forced to drive up on the prairie rather than along 
the valley bottom; our forays into the valley being 
determined by the presence of sites or good access 
roads, or the happy coincidence of the two. 

Last Mountain House Provincial Historic Park 
was our first stop. An example of the Saskatchewan 
government’s novel approach of inviting the public 
to view or participate in archaeology projects, the 
Last Mountain House site had been worked by a 
group of skilled amateur archaeologists from 
Regina. 

The restored master’s house of this old Hudson’s 
Bay Company outpost stands alone, sandwiched be- 
tween the steep banks of Last Mountain Lake and 
Highway +20. The combined effect of the cold wind 
sweeping across the bald hillside, of the bare un- 
furnished rooms, and of the lone student caretaker 
tending the fire in the fireplace, was to turn the clock 
back to the era of the fur trade and the buffalo hunt. 
Situated on the edge of the plains where the great 
herds of buffalo roamed, Last Mountain House was 
one of the many provisioning posts established by 
rival fur trade companies. Along this valley for over 
a hundred years, posts of the X.Y., Northwest and 
Hudson’s Bay Companies collected pemmican, a 
mixture of dried flaked buffalo meat mixed with 
lard, for distribution as a food staple to the northern 
fur trade brigades. 


Margaret Amoroso 


We managed, but not without difficulty, to visit 
four other fur post sites in the vicinity of the valley. 
Fort Qu’Appelle, located in the resort town of the 
same name between Echo and Mission Lakes, was 
easy enough to find. In the 1860’s Fort Qu’Appelle 
was a major Hudson’s Bay Company post in the 
valley. Today at the site there is a small modern 
museum and one of the original buildings, a tiny 
schoolhouse. While en route to meet the rebel forces 
at Batoche in 1885, General Middleton used the 
schoolhouse as his office during a stay at Fort 
Qu ’Appelle. 

Locating the other fur trade sites in the eastern 
section of the valley would have been a problem, 
had it not been for the assistance of one of the 
province’s most delightful “historical resources”, the 
local residents. In this case it was Mr. and Mrs. 
George Barker. They had come to Saskatchewan 
over fifty years ago leaving behind them, in England, 
the amenities —- running water, indoor plumbing, 
electricity — for the rigours of prairie life. Now 
retired from farming, they make their home in Spy 
Hill where they are leading members of the Wol- 
verine Hobby and Historical Society Museum. 

We accepted the Barkers’ invitation to guide our 
tour of the sites of the fur trade posts, and set out 
to follow their car. Rather, we tried hard to follow 
the dust cloud, our only clue to the direction the 
Barkers had taken. En route, we drove along the 


2. Fort Qu’ Appelle, nestling in its valley is the hub of 
the fishing lakes recreational area. 


Margaret Amoroso 


We drove on a few miles further, across the pro- 
vincial boundary, to visit Fort Ellice, a Manitoba 
Historic Site. From its high hilltop location, the site 
has a commanding view of the Qu’Appelle valley 
and the lush Assiniboine Valley. In its day Fort 
Ellice marked the end of water travel for the traders 
and settlers moving west. Here they made arrange- 
ments for horses and Red River carts to carry their 
families and supplies along the trails fanning out 
across the prairies from Fort Ellice. An officer in 
charge of the first Fort Ellice writing in the late 
1850’s could remember the time when the Crees, 
“ _. The entire tribe who now hunt on the Qu’Ap- 
pelle and South Branch would approach the Fort 
to receive their supplies, to the number of 800 war- 
riors, splendidly mounted, and singing their war 
songs.” 

Today the site doubles as a local amusement park 
complete with hot dog stands, rides, grandstands, 
World War II guns, and garbage everywhere. Van- 
dals have completely destroyed any signs of the 
original post and the graveyard the Barkers recalled 
seeing to the west of the fort. 

Mr. and Mrs. Barker had as well, opened Spy 
3. Last Mountain House Provincial Historic Park Hill’s museum for us. It is typical of many of the 
twelve museums we visited outside Regina. Most are 
privately owned and operated with very little, if any, 


| east bank of the beautiful valley to Cut Arm Creek, financial assistance from government. Nevertheless 
| the Qu’Appelle Valley on a reduced scale. the collections still reflect the rich and varied mosaic 
After a stop amid the wheat-fields on the valley of prairie life and in some instances, the eccentri- 
| bottom to view the site of Fort John, we moved up cities of the curator. Almost every one of them 1s 
| and out of the valley over the road to the Fort crammed from floor to ceiling, and on into the attic, 
Esperance National Historic Site. Our trip came to with every object imaginable — Indian arrow- 
a sudden halt —— the owner of the adjacent land had heads, tools, and quillwork; cherished china brought 
ploughed and seeded the road to the site. Fortu- from Europe, butter churns, beaver hats, buffalo 
nately Mr. Barker knew the back roads and a short robes, ploughs, sleighs, trading beads, hand-made 
detour brought us to Fort Esperance. cradles, and in one instance, a pickled rattle snake. 
Etched against the blue prairie sky and the folds There are an infinite number of Indian artifacts 
of the valley’s north slope stood three white granite and many known prehistoric and historic Indian 


markers. One held the plaque, the others — striking sites in the Qu’Appelle basin, but there is not a 
and imaginative sculptures of a buffalo head, and a single Indian museum and only two marked sites. 


stretched beaver pelt with canoes and buffalo de- However, we do see the beginnings of a movement 
picted on its surfaces. They symbolized the link be- to remedy this oversight. Yet It seems easy to ac- 
tween the buffalo and the fur trade along the Qu’Ap- quire a sense of that history even in the absence of 
pelle valley. The detour had certainly been worth- official markers. For today 7,300 Crees, Assini- 


while! boines, Saulteaux and Sioux Indians are living on re- 


The historic plaque at Fort Esperance is an excellent 
example of Parks Canada’s imaginative use of contem- 
porary styling. 


Opposite Page: 

Among the several hundred species of birds which 
occupy the valley, are flocks of the endangered white 
pelican. 


serves in the Qu’Appelle basin. During our trip to 
the valley the centennary of the signing of Treaty 
#4, the Qu’Appelle Treaty, was being celebrated 
on the Cote Reserve. Although we didn’t see them, 
we were aware that in and alongside the valley were 
burial and camp sites, tipi rings, bison killsites, and 
petroglyphs attesting to the continuous occupation 
of the Qu’Appelle Valley for the past 10,000 years 
by the ancestors of the present Indian population. 
The provincial government plans to mark these sites 
in the near future and in addition, has recently 
initiated a comprehensive recording and evaluating 
of all the prehistoric and historic sites in the valley. 


According to the people with whom we spoke at 
the Indian Cultural College in Saskatoon and the 
Federation of Saskatchewan Indians in Regina, 
there is a growing demand by Indian youth for in- 
formation and instruction in their history, language, 
and traditions. Their own history pervades the 
Qu’Appelle Valley. 


It was from the Cowesses, Kahkewistahaw, She- 
sheep and Sakimay Reserves on the shore of 


Margaret Amoroso 


Crooked Lake that we saw what the valley must 
have looked like in its pristine state, before the ar- 
rival of the white settlers. 


The settlers came from Hungary, Germany, Fin- 
land and Sweden, to towns they named Esterhazy, 
Lemberg, Tantallon, and Stockholm on the prairie 
to the north of the valley. We visited a Hungarian 
church south of Esterhazy and the New Stockholm 
Evangelical Lutheran Church built in the midst of 
meticulously kept farms on the rolling plains. The 
cemeteries around these and other churches re- 
vealed the area’s ethnic roots and the hardships en- 
countered by young and old. 


The Qu’Appelle Valley also hosted attempts at 
communal or co-operative living. With the Barkers 
we visited the site of the Hamona Colony in the 
Qu’Appelle Valley to the west of Cut Arm Creek. 
Established by the Harmony Industrial Association 
in 1895, five years later the experiment had dis- 
solved. Today all that remains is the pastoral set- 
ting, a small orchard and the foundations of a lime 
kiln that was to keep the colony financially soluble. 


Tom Searth 


On the other hand, a success story is about to be 
re-told at the Motherwell Homestead which will be 
developed over the next decade as a National His- 
toric Park. It was the home of a former provincial 
and federal minister of agriculture, W. R. Mother- 
well, whose progressive technique in agriculture will 
be demonstrated at this site. The original fieldstone 
house still stands, with its large Ontario-style barn 
in the back, — deserted and lonely now, but soon 
to be brought back to life. 


To the area south of the valley came the English 
immigrants. They were a particular breed — remit- 
tance men — such as the Honourable Claude Man- 
ners of Spring Creek. We were told that the economy 
of the area was buoyed up by the allowances sent 
out to these sons of the British aristocracy. At one 
time in the town of Moosomin you could determine 
the day of the week by the sport being played. If it 
was cricket then it must be Friday, if polo then 
Saturday, and if tennis, it had to be Sunday. British 
to the core, they played tennis in buffalo robes rather 
than forsake the game in bad weather. 


We garnered these anecdotes from Mr. Gilbert 
McKay, editor of the Moosomin newspaper for over 
forty years and resident historian. He joined us for 
coffee one early morning to fill us in on the history 
of some of the historic trails that had passed through 
Moosomin and on anything else we wanted to or 
should know. In fact he chauffeured us over the re- 
maining six miles of the Fort Ellice-Wood Moun- 
tain trail across Pipestone Creek. Mr. McKay, it 
turned out, was a descendant of a remarkable family 
who, in serving the Hudson’s Bay Company as 
hunters, freighters, traders, clerks, postmaster and 
Chief Trader, had won the respect of Indians and 
Métis. 

Sections of the trails that criss-crossed the prairies 
and the valley are still identifiable from the ruts 
made by the Red River carts. This is true of the 
Fort Qu’Appelle Touchwood Hill trail north of Fort 
Qu’Appelle, the Fort Ellice — Fort Qu’Appelle trail 
just east of Broadview, the Fort Ellice-Wood Moun- 
tain trail in Moosomin, and the Fort Ellice-Fort 
Carlton trail north of Spy Hill. At Fort Qu’Appelle, 
from our motel, aptly called the Valley Trails, we 
could see the obvious ruts of one of the old trails on 
the face of the coulee. After hiking the trail to the 
top of the coulee, it was easy to pinpoint the other 
trails that had converged on Fort Qu’Appelle. 


10 


Only the Fort Ellice-Elbow Trail, actually fol- 
lowed the length of the valley. It crossed from the 
south side of the valley to the north at Ellisboro. 
This point in the trail in the 1870’s was known as 
Racette’s Crossing named after a former Hudson’s 
Bay Company employee who helped travellers ford 
the river here. Before the end of the century, an 
easterner, J. H. Ellis who established a store and 
post office here gave the town its name. 


Ellisboro is tucked away in a particularly peace- 
ful part of the valley. There are not more than five 
buildings in the town. The original church and 
general store are still standing while another church 
nestles in the trees next to the modern home of the 
farmer who owns the surrounding land. The nearby 
Wolseley Museum has purchased the simple frame 
church and plans to re-erect it on the museum 
grounds. However, the neighbouring farmer is hope- 
ful that the church can be left in its historical 
context. 


The Qu’Appelle was an interesting name, a river 
on a map — before our trip. But now, the Qu’Ap- 
pelle evokes images of Cree hunters herding buffalo 
into pounds, of lonely outposts of the fur trade, of 
prehistoric persons taking welcome shelter in the val- 
ley, and of early settlers travelling the prairie trails 
in creaking Red River carts — and memories of the 
rolling prairie dipping into the valley, miles of blue 
sky and friendly prairie people. 


Colleen Snipper is an historian with ARC and Margaret 
Amoroso is with the Agreement Section of the same 
program. They discovered that for purposes of their 
own work, they would be travelling through Saskat- 
chewan at the same time and got together for the trip 
and this vivid glimpse into a “special place’. 


Margaret Amoroso 


Tom Searth 


1. The simple frame church at Ellisboro, recently 
purchased by the Wolseley Museum. 


2. One cannot leave the Qu’ Appelle Valley without one 
backward glance. 


. Tipi rings such as this can be found 


along valley rims and bottoms 
throughout the Canadian Plains. 


. The prairie crocus is common in open 


prairie and hills throughout south- 
ern Saskatchewan and Alberta. 
Sheep may be poisoned by this plant 
and their digestive system may be 
impaired by the felty hairs. 


Story and photos by Claude 
Mondor 


Découvreurs, peintres et naturalistes 
ont été vivement frappés par limmen- 
sité des plaines de l'Ouest, par le mode 
de vie des Indiens et la vie animale 
qui sy trouvait. Mais le “progres, 
depuis 1867, menace cet environne- 
ment. Claude Mondor s’interroge sur 
l'avenir de ce milieu. 


1] 


|e 


1. Wood Mountain Historic Park was 
developed by the province of Saskatche- 
wan as a tribute to the Northwest 
Mounted Police who brought the Queen's 
law into a vast territory and paved the 
way for settlement of the west. 


2. A Plains Indian rock cairn on the Suffield 
Military Reserve. Located on a high 
promontory, it forms the centre of a 
‘medicine wheel’ and is connected to a 
circle of stones over 100 feet in diameter 
by radiating spokes of straight lines of 
stones. 


3. The coming of the railway marked the 
end of plains ecology and towering grain 
elevators replaced the Plains Indian tipi. 


“...that country is notable primarily for its 
weather, which is violent and prolonged; its empti- 
ness, which is frighteningly total; and its wind, 
which blows all the time in a way to stiffen your 
hair and rattle the eyes in your head’. 

WALLACE STEGNER, “WOLF WILLOW” 


\ \ hen a young fur trader by the name of Henry 
Kelsey travelled southwest from Hudson Bay in 
1690, he emerged from several hundred miles of 
treacherous rivers and forests to become the first 
European to see the immensity of the Canadian 
plains. He notes in his diary for August 19 that, 
“... this plain affords nothing but short round sticky 
grass and Buffilo (sic), and a great sort of a bear 
which is bigger than any White Bear, and is neither 
white nor black, but silver haired, like our English 
rabbit. Ye Buffilo likewise is not like those to ye 
Northward, their horns growing like an English ox, 
but black and short.” Later, while travelling across 
the open prairie he described the plains as “barren 
ground, it being very dry heathy land and no water, 
but here and there small ponds.” 


To Kelsey, the west was an empty wilderness, 
a negative illusion of the Canadian Plains which 
still runs through the minds of many Canadians. 
Viewed personally and historically however, that 
almost featureless prairie glows with color. 


Before Canada’s Confederation in 1867, the 
Canadian plains, the lands rolling westward from 
the Red River in Manitoba to the foothills of the 
Rockies in Alberta and northward from the U.S. 
border to the forest lands, were primitive. 


They were as thousands of years of geological 
and climatic evolution had made them. Grasses 
clothed the bareness of land and softened the beat 
of wind and rain; the prairie fires ran in the wind; 
the bison, elk and pronghorn grazed through the 
changing colours of the seasons. 


Rivers flowed to distant seas unchecked. Across 
empty miles the wind whistled, turning over every 
blade of grass, every pale primrose, in search for 
whatever it is looking for, and blew the hawks and 
song birds about the sky. The sky was the biggest 
anywhere, a light pure transparent blue, across 
which moved navies of cumuli, fair-weathered 
clouds, their bottoms parallel to the earth’s surface. 
The air was clean, there was no haze, the horizon 
— aclean line a dozen miles away. 


Primitive, but not uninhabitated. Man had barely 
touched them, for man himself was primitive, in 
that he had adapted himself to the ecology, and not 
the ecology to himself. One could not travel for 
long on these grasslands without seeing the Plains 
Indian and his works. Early travellers were particu- 
larly impressed by the way the bison provided most 
of the materials required for his needs: with the 
skins he clothed himself, built his teepees, made 
ropes and obtained wool; with the sinews he made 
threads; from the bones he shaped awls; the dung 
he used for firewood; the bladders he used as jugs 
and drinking containers. 


Particularly impressed was George Catlin, an 
artist and writer, who in 1842 advocated that the 
entire plains region be set aside as a National Park 
to preserve both the buffalo and the Indians who 
depend upon them for their livelihood. As he notes 
in his book detailing his adventures amongst the 
North American plains Indians — 


“And what a splendid contemplation too, when 
one (who has travelled these realms, and can duly 
appreciate them) imagines them as they might in 
future be seen, (by some great protecting policy 
of Government) preserved in their pristine beauty 
and wildness, in a magnificant park, where the 
world could see for ages to come, the native 
Indian in his classic attire, galloping his wild 
horse, with sinewy bow, and shield and lance, 
amid the fleeting herds of elks and buffaloes. 
What a beautiful and thrilling specimen for 
America to preserve and hold up to the view of 
her refined citizens and world, in future ages! A 
nation’s Park, containing man and beast, in all 
the wild and freshness of their nature’s beauty! 


He was too far ahead of his time to be taken 
seriously. None of his readers had heard of a “Na- 
tional Park”, or the conservation of wilderness for 
the future. 


It would take another 30 years before Yellow- 
stone would be established as the first National Park. 


The plains remained archaic or neo-archaic until 
a century ago because they were isolated, even more 
isolated than the Arctic Ocean is today. This isola- 
tion was to end; the already dwindling bison herds 
were only an anticipation of what was inevitable. 
The end of the plains ecology and plains Indian 
culture can be dated exactly: the signing of Con- 
federation in 1867. As W. L. Morton, a leading 
Canadian historian noted: “Confederation was, in 
part only, but also in essential fact, a prelude and 
preparation for the annexation of the prairies to the 
Canadian version of continental integration”. Yet, 
merely thirty years after that crucial date, the rail- 
way, the town, agriculture from the east, ranching 
from the south, industry and modern civilization 
followed — the plains had been domesticated, the 
emptiness occupied. 

The fruits of modernization of the plains awaits 
any tourist who travels the Trans-Canada Highway 
between Winnipeg and Calgary. Mile after weary 
mile he is greeted by the all pervasive checkerboard 
texture of black summer fallow alternating with an 
ocean of wind-troubled grain fields, interrupted oc- 
casionally by ship-like farm buildings, of shelter- 
belt trees, and regularly spaced towns with their 
towering red and orange elevators that seemed to 
be differentiated in name only. 

Unnoticed, to the travellers eyes, however, are the 
more subtle and far reaching effects of this thrust of 
settlement. Creature after creature of the plains — 
each a unique and irreplaceable work of eons of 
years of evolution — has declined since the prairies 
were annexed to the rest of Canada. Some have been 
the victims of heedlessness and greed: the seemingly 
endless flocks of Eskimo curlews, were slaughtered 
with grim efficiency because there was “sport” or 
money in it. Others have been exterminated because 
of real or imaginary threats to the interests of men: 
the strikingly beautiful “white” race of plains wolf 


oS) 


14 


1. The Middle Sand Hills on the Suffield Military 
Reserve is a remnant of an extensive sand dune area 
which developed on a glacial outwash plain at the 
end of the last glaciation. 


2. and 3. Tenacious prairie flowers will find a foothold 


almost anywhere whether in solid sandstone along 
the Milk River (above) or among the glacial debris of 
the Kildeer badlands. 


and the huge and powerful plains grizzly, the last of 
which were painted by John James Aubudon in 
1843. Other species of Canadian Plains fauna tee- 
tered on the brink of extinction — the plains bison 
and the pronghorn antelope, the sole living mammal 
which is distinctive to North America. 


In more recent years, environmental contamina- 
tion by chemical pesticides and the decline of suit- 
able habitat, have become factors in the further 
dwindling of the plains wildlife resources. The prai- 
rie falcon and other grassland birds of prey are be- 
coming increasingly rare because of the cumulative 
effects of pesticide poisons derived from their prey. 
The shy little kit fox with his big ears living on kan- 
garoo rats, ground squirrels and grasshoppers, faces 


an uncertain future for he has fallen victim to the 
traps and poisoned baits set out for the coyote. The 
black-footed ferret, never very common, has _be- 
come perhaps the rarest of all our mammals with 
the continued destruction of the prairie-dog colonies 
on which it depends for both shelter and food. The 
prairie-dog itself is also in peril of extermination in 
Canada. Restricted to a few colonies in the valley 
of Frenchman River southeast of Val Marie, Sas- 
katchewan, it is often shot for sport or poisoned by 
the ranchers who allude that they compete with his 
livestock for available forage. 


The impact of modern civilization on the Cana- 
dian plains has been devastating. The bulk of the 
great central grasslands has disappeared past re- 


4. Erosion has removed the thin cover of glacial till of 
the Killdeer badlands in southwestern Saskatchewan, 
exposing the underlying sediment to further erosion 
and creating bizarre-shaped landforms. 


ly 


. Dinasaur Provincial Park in Alberta contains the 
most extensive and impressive badland formations 
in Canada. The bedrock formations provide oppor- 
tunities to trace the geological history of the area 
over a time span of 70 million years. 


6. Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park is an area of 
mystery and beauty. A holy place to the Blackfoot 
Indians, it contains many priceless pictographs as 
above, some of which were carved upon the rocks 


before the white man had ever seen the waters of the 
Milk River. 


call. The plow has broken the deep prairie sod and 
turned its store of riches to the production of wheat: 
domestic cattle now roam the range where the great 
bison and pronghorn herds once grazed. Towns and 
cities linked by railroads and highways now cluster 
the Canadian plains, and only names are left to 
remind us that this was once a different country. 


Despite the progress, there still remains a number 
of areas where remnants of the Plains, as an ecology, 
as a native Indian culture, can be viewed and appre- 
ciated in a relatively undisturbed state. The most 
extensive of these include the Suffield Military Re- 
serve, the Milk River, Manyberries and Dinosaur 
Badlands areas in southeastern Alberta, and the 
Govenlock, Wise Creek and Val Marie-Killdeer 
areas in southwestern Saskatchewan. There, it is 
still possible to step into the past for a little while, 
to turn the clock back a century and experience the 
original grandeur and solitude that so awed the 
early visitors to the Canadian Plains. Here, it is pos- 
sible to mentally reconstruct the details of the 
sketches drawn by Catlin, Parkman and Kane, al- 
though their subjects have gone forever. 

Although there is yet an apparent abundance of 
undisturbed grassland — the need for protecting 
plains ecology is approaching urgency. All the re- 
maining areas are being affected by human pres- 
sures and their quantity does not ensure the protec- 
tion of any individual one. 


es ee ee 


Claude Mondor is a Parks System Planner with Parks 
Canada and one of the prairies biggest fans. 


16 


BS 


5 


* 


Ray Standefer 


Pat McCloskey _ 


(oa) 


1 


. 
a 


19 


eu et lieu 
Le foyer aux XYIIe et XYIIIe siecles 


par Luce Vermette 


R, Standefer 


20 2 Soufflet a main 3 Potence et chaudron 4 Braisiére 


In this article, Luce Vermette, an historian with the 
Material History Section of Parks Canada, outlines 
the importance of the hearth and its utensils to the 
early Canadian home. Ms Vermette has recently 
co-authored a book on French Canadian furniture 
and housewares. 


i e foyer désignait 4 proprement parler aux XVIIe 
et XVIIIe siécles, le lieu ot I’on faisait le feu mais 
le terme a vite englobé, par extension, la maison et 
la famille. 


En Nouvelle-France, le foyer était considéré com- 
me le centre vivant de la salle commune, piéce prin- 
cipale, voire unique du logis. La, se déroulaient la 
plupart des activités domestiques. Mentionnons de 
plus que la description des biens meubles au décés 
d'un propriétaire commengait généralement par les 
objets qui garnissaient la cheminée. Cétait le point 
de repere de la maison. 


Le foyer et plus spécialement les objets qui l’en- 
tourent, témoins de la vie quotidienne d’autrefois, 
reprennent de nouveau dans cet article leur place au 
centre des travaux et des jours. 


Attisons le feu 


Construit en terre ou de préférence en pierre, le 
foyer est, a cette époque, adossé a lun des murs 
pignons de la maison et, par la suite, au milieu de 
Yhabitation pour une meilleure répartition de la 
chaleur. 


Le fond de la cheminée peut étre garni d'une 
plaque de cheminée ou de contrefeu, pour protéger 
la maconnerie des flammes et réfléchir la chaleur 
du feu dans la piéce ou dans une piéce adjacente a 
la cheminée. Fabriquée en fonte ou en tole, la pla- 
que peut étre unie ou marquée d’armoiries, recevoir 
des dates ou illustrer des scenes religieuses ou autres. 
Elle sera parfois remplacée par une grille de fer. En 
labsence de plaque de foyer, le contrecceur peut 
tre garni de briques, celles-ci reflétant mieux la 
chaleur que la pierre. 

Dans l’atre, dallé de briques, de pierres ou de 
chantignoles, (briques de demi-épaisseur) se trou- 
vent les chenets destinés 4 maintenir les baiches et 
faciliter leur combustion en les isolant du sol. La 
tige avant du chenet peut se parer d’un ornement 
tel une pomme, une figure ou une fleur de lys. Quant 
aux grands chenets de cuisine, aussi appelés landiers 
ou hatiers, ils sont habituellement pourvus de cro- 
chets permettant d’y adapter une broche a rotir. 

Une série d’instruments a habituellement sa place 
dans l’atre, ou & proximité, pour faire et entretenir 


“e 


"Rudy Van der Ham 


5 Plaque de cheminée 


le feu. Ainsi, pour exciter le feu et activer la com- 
bustion, on se sert du soufflet d main, instrument 
composé de deux palettes de bois maintenues par du 
cuir et A embout métallique, ou du soufflet a bouche, 
moins répandu et de facture plus rudimentaire, con- 
fectionné le plus souvent a partir d’un vieux canon 
de fusil. Les pinces, les pincettes a feu ou les tenail- 
les sont employées pour disposer et déplacer les 
biiches, saisir les charbons incandescents. La pelle 
A feu est utilisée pour remuer et racler les cendres ou 
débarrasser la cheminée de celles-ci. Quant au tison- 
nier, il est destiné a replacer les biches, a attiser le 
feu. 

La fonction premiére se rattachant au foyer est 
certes le chauffage. En un pays ot les froids se font 
si rigoureux et si longs, la chaleur est trés recher- 
chée. Recherchée pour le confort des occupants de 
la maisonnée et pour le réconfort de ceux qui arri- 
vent de l’extérieur. Par temps maussade, rien ne vaut 
mieux que de se blottir auprés du feu. On remar- 
quera de plus qu’on choisit quelquefois la proximité 
de la cheminée pour dormir. Ainsi des cabanes, 
sorte de lits clos en usage au XVIle et au début du 
XVIIle siécles, sont placées a cété de la cheminée. 


21 


De 


Pendons la crémaillére 

Le foyer assume une deuxiéme fonction: celle 
d’assurer la cuisson des aliments. Ce role s’avere 
trés important puisque durant tout le régime fran- 
cais, seul l’Atre pourvoit a ce besoin de l’alimenta- 
tion. Ce n’est qu’aprés la conquéte et surtout au 
XIXe siécle que le poéle, d’abord utilisé seulement 
pour le chauffage, servira également a cette tache. 


Il existe plusieurs ustensiles propres a la cuisine a 
l’atre. Tout d’abord, dans la cheminée, pend la cré- 
maillére, ustensile indispensable pour suspendre les 
chaudrons et les marmites pour la cuisson des ali- 
ments sur le feu. Certaines sont constituées de plu- 
sieurs anneaux terminés par un crochet, d’autres, 
plus rudimentaires, de plusieurs crochets reliés en- 
semble; d’autres enfin se composent d’un morceau 
de fer muni de plusieurs crans obliques. La chemi- 
née peut aussi comporter une potence. C’est un sup- 
port de fer ou de bois relié au jambage du foyer sur 
lequel on accroche la crémaillére ou, en l’absence 
de celle-ci, les chaudrons, marmites et autres usten- 
siles pourvus d’anses. Quant au trépied, il est Vins- 
trument sur lequel on expose au feu un récipient 
généralement démuni d’anses ou méme un vaisseau 
pour une cuisson lente au-dessus des braises. II est 
fait dun cercle ou d’un triangle de fer reposant sur 
trois pieds. 


Tout un assortiment d’ustensiles se trouvent a la 
disposition de la cuisiniére d’antan pour la cuisson 
proprement dite des aliments au feu de l’atre. Ainsi 
la broche a rotir sert a faire rotir les viandes et les 
volailles directement sur le feu. Celle-ci, déposée sur 
les crochets des chenets, est le plus souvent tournée 
a la main au moyen d’une manivelle. Dans certaines 
maisons plus aisées, un mécanisme plus ou moins 
complexe assure une meilleure régularité de rota- 
tion: le tournebroche a poids ou a chien. Le tourne- 
broche a poids est le plus répandu: c’est une petite 
machine dont le mouvement est imprimé a la broche 
a rotir par la descente d’un poids reli€é par un sys- 
téme utilisant corde, arbre, roues, poulies et chaine. 
Le tournebroche a chien consiste en une grande roue 
de bois en forme de cage, placée contre le foyer et 
dans laquelle on enferme un chien. La course de 
l’animal entraine la cage dans un mouvement de 


rotation qui se communique a la broche a rotir par 
un systéme de chaine et de poulies. Sous la broche 
a rOtir, on place une léchefrite en cuivre rouge ou 
jaune pour recueillir la graisse des viandes au cours 
de la cuisson. Quant au gril, pourvu de cing a huit 
branches, il remplit le méme réle, soit faire rotir les 
viandes et les volailles directement sur le feu. 


Si la broche 4a rétir et le gril permettent la cuisson 
des aliments exposés directement a la flamme, d’au- 
tres ustensiles s’interposent entre les aliments et le 
feu. Parmi ceux-ci mentionnons tout d’abord les 
récipients qui, pourvus de pieds ou d’anses, se re- 
trouvent suspendus a la crémaillére, déposés directe- 
ment dans l’atre ou reposant sur un trépied. Le 
chaudron et la marmite, de fer ou de cuivre, servent 
a la cuisson des légumes, soupes, potages ou viandes. 
La coquelle de fer est plutét réservée pour faire mi- 
joter les viandes. Quant a la chaudiére, fabriquée le 
plus souvent en cuivre rouge, elle est employée pour 
chauffer et bouillir ’eau et également pour cuire 
certains légumes. Le coquemar et la bouilloire, cette 
derniére aussi appelée bouilly, canard ou bombe, 
ustensiles plus maniables que la chaudiére, sont des- 
tinés a chauffer de petites quantités d’eau. 


D’autres récipients, dépourvus de pieds et d’anses, 
sont déposés sur un trépied ou directement dans 
l’atre. Telle est la poéle, récipient habituellement en 
fer et utilisé pour une cuisson rapide des aliments. 
Il existe aussi la poéle a café, la poéle a confiture, le 
poélon, la poélonne, la casserole et la bassine. La 
poissonniére, long vaisseau en cuivre muni d’un tire- 
poisson (grille) a Vintérieur sert, comme son nom 
l'indique, a faire cuire le poisson. De plus, toute une 
série de pots, allant au feu, peut figurer parmi cette 
liste: ils sont faits de terre vernissée et sont munis 
d’une anse ou d’une queue. 


Pour la cuisson des aliments a l’étouffée, on utilise 
la braisiére et la tourtiére. La braisiére de cuivre ou 
de fer posséde un couvercle a rebord sur lequel on 
dépose des braises favorisant ainsi une cuisson des 
viandes, poissons et légumes des deux cdtés a la 
fois. Quant a la tourtiére, fabriquée le plus souvent 
en cuivre rouge, on y fait cuire des tourtes, des 
patés de viandes. 


6 Bouilloire 


14 Casserole 


11 Trépied 


7 Coquemar 


12 Poélon 


15 Poissonniére 


& Soufflet a bouche 


13 Bassine 


0 iP: 


hat = 


24 


17 Tournebroche a poids 


16 Tournebroche a chien, chenets 
et broche a rotir 


Vous resterez bien encore un peu? 

Si le chauffage et la cuisson des aliments s’averent 
deux fonctions importantes du foyer, cependant 
celui-ci n’est pas restreint a ces deux roles. Car dans 
la vie quotidienne, on lui attribue une plus grande 
valeur. Ainsi en est-il de l’éclairage. A une époque 
ou la vie est en grande partie réglée par la lumiére 
solaire, l’on se contentait souvent, a la tombée du 
jour, de la simple lueur du feu de l’atre, par man- 
que ou par économie d’éclairage d’appoint. 


C’est aussi le lieu ot, le soir venu, les membres 
de la communauté familiale se regroupent et parti- 
cipent quotidiennement a une série d’activités. Par- 
mi celles-ci, on mentionnera les travaux ménagers 
tels le filage, le tissage ou le tricot. Les activités ludi- 
ques, tels les jeux de cartes, de dames ou de trictrac 
peuvent également se dérouler dans ce coin de fa- 
veur. Et pourquoi ne s’y retrouve-t-on pas aussi pour 
lire et écrire? Enfin, réunis autour du foyer, parents, 
voisins et amis se racontent histoires et légendes. 


Le foyer a donc été en Nouvelle-France le cceur 
de la vie. Tant qu’a subsisté le feu d’atre, le foyer 
est demeuré le lieu le plus important de l’intérieur 
domestique, concentrant a son voisinage travaux, 
loisirs, conversations et réveries. 


18 Crémaillére a dents 
Crémaillére a crochets et 
anneaux 


Ethnographe de Parcs Canada, Luce Vermette vient de 
publier aux Editions de !Homme, en collaboration avec 
Nicole Genét et Louise Décarie-Audet, un volume inti- 
tulé “Les objets familiers de nos ancétres’. Ce réper- 
toire nous décrit les objets domestiques en usage en 
Nouvelle-France. Luce Vermette collabore aussi régu- 
liérement a la revue Décormag. 


COLLECTIONS: 

Chateau de Ramezay: 13 

Ferme Saint-Gabriel, Montréal: 1,2,3 

Musée des Augustines de l’H6tel-Dieu, Québec: 14 
Musée du Québec: 11 


Musée militaire et maritime, Montréal: 7,9,10 
(tisonnier), 12,15 


Musées nationaux du Canada: 8 
Parcs Canada: 4,5 


Les autres objets font partie de collections privées. 


##% INFOTHEQUE #44 


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L’ordinateur et la restauration 
par Francois Leblanc 


The computer is a strange beast — often misunder- 
stood, more often not understood at all, At Parks 
Canada, the computer is looked upon as a friend, 
being useful to The Canadian Inventory of Historic 
Building. Francois Leblanc, with Technical Ser- 
vices writes of the uses to which the friendly beast 
is being put in his Branch of the Department. 


1. La courtine Saint-Louis. Dessin de F. G. Dawson, 
too27A.P.C.) 


2. Une des réponses fournies @ un utilisateur désirant 
obtenir des renseignements sur le type de cons- 
truction des murs de fortification entre 1800 et 1860 


com eic eee eco e ecco ecco ee oo oe meee ee ee 8 


bo 
‘Nn 


Ls fichier de référence Infothéque est né en juillet 
1971 pour répondre au désir des ingénieurs et des 
architectes du ministére de posséder leur propre cen- 
tre de documentation spécialisé en restauration et 
en conservation de batiments historiques. 


On créa donc un fichier central, muni d’une série 
de renvois, dans lequel des données techniques sur 
les méthodes de construction, la technologie ou les 
matériaux étaient versés. 


Mais des facteurs de temps, d’espace et d’acces- 
sibilité (surtout lorsque Ton sait que les opérations 
de Parcs Canada sont réparties en cinq bureaux ré- 
gionaux) ont bientdt poussé les responsables a 
stocker les renseignements recueillis a ’ordinateur. 


Fonctionnant depuis novembre 1973, ce pro- 
gramme d ordinateur, traité en l’occurrence sur un 
IBM 360-85, constitue pour les architectes et les 
ingénieurs en restauration un outil de travail pré- 


cieux et rapide pour les aider a résoudre des pro- 
blemes techniques particuliers. 

Des dédoublements de travail et de vaines re- 
cherches sont ainsi évités et un temps précieux, con- 
sacré a d’autres activités. 

Sa rapidité et sa capacité d’absorption ont vite 
attiré d’autres utilisateurs. Les services de planifica- 
tion et l’équipe de recherche historique en culture 


26 matérielle s’en servent maintenant pour emmagasi- 


ner dans ce corpus central, trouvailles, documents 
historiques et rapports de recherche. Le tableau de 
la conservation et de la restauration se complete 
peu a peu. 


Les aliments 


L’utilisation d’Infothéque est relativement simple. 
Le client reporte sur des formulaires l’intégral ou le 
résumé de rapports, de volumes, d’articles de revue, 
de notes de recherche, de bibliographies, d’articles 
de journaux tout comme des descriptions de dessins 
et de gravures historiques, relatifs a son travail. 


Il y souligne alors les mots ou les groupes de mots, 
qui constituent, selon lui, essence du texte ou peu- 
vent servir de points de repére les plus importants 
pour retracer plus tard l'information. On mention- 
nera qu’on peut utiliser nimporte quelle langue a 
caractéres romains. 


Il peut également étre nécessaire Wutiliser des 
codes pour faciliter l’insertion de données. Dans ces 
cas, les codes deviennent eux-mémes des mots clés. 


Des renseignements complémentaires tels le prix 
d’un volume, la période historique que décrit un 
volume ou un article, la date de parution et les sour- 
ces sont également inclus. On peut facilement res- 
treindre les recherches a un lieu ou une période 
déterminés. 


1. Planche tirée de | Encyclopédie de Diderot et 
ad’ Alambert, 1763. Article: Charpentes 


2. Ruines du haut-fourneau des forges du Saint-Maurice, 
circa 1900. Les chercheurs de ce projet comptent 
parmi les principaux utilisateurs d’Infothéque 
(Université Laval, Division des archives) 


De plus, on peut stocker des dessins faits par 
ordinateur tels études démographiques, organigram- 
mes et schémas d’aménagement urbain. 

Le texte est acheminé a la banque centrale. Cha- 
que client recoit alors un code de trois lettres qui 
lidentifie. Le texte est transcrit intégralement sur 
fiches d’ordinateur et donné a la “dévoreuse”. 

D’autre part, un client qui ne désire pas partager 
les données qu'il fournit a la banque, qu’elles soient 
confidentielles ou qu’elles fassent partie de travaux 
encore inachevés, peut les verser a une banque pri- 
vée d'Infothéque. L’accés y est évidemment restreint 
et est protégé par un code spécial. 

On peut ajouter de nouveaux renseignements a 
Infothéque en tout temps. Selon les directives du 
client, ce qui est périmé ou infirmé par de nouvelles 
recherches est détruit. 


L’extraction 

Un index des mots clés, simples ou groupés, est 
publié sous forme de dictionnaire et est périodique- 
ment mis a jour. Un recueil de synonymes est égale- 
ment disponible. De plus, il existe une version de 
index alphabétique qui comprend toutes les per- 
mutations des mots groupés comme par exemple: 

architecture militaire des fortifications 

militaire des fortifications, architecture 

fortifications, architecture militaire des 


Le client consulte ces index et répertoires, for- 
mule une question en se servant de mots clés, sou- 
met le tout a l’ordinateur et en recoit une réponse. 


Infothéque et la restauration 


En regroupant tous les renseignements techni- 
ques pertinents a la restauration historique, présen- 
tement enfouis dans les archives, les bibliothéques, 
les rapports de recherche, les fiches et les mémoires 
des personnes concernées, Infothéque permet de 
résoudre plus rapidement des problémes de travail. 


A ce propos, un ingénieur fit récemment appel a 
la banque centrale afin d’obtenir des renseignements 
sur le décapage de la peinture et du vernis appli- 
qués sur les briques d’un batiment historique. Utili- 
sant des mots clés tels peinture, vernis, décapage, 
décapant, analyse et les groupant en quatre ques- 
tions différentes, il obtint 70 sources ou documents, 
en quelques heures. 

On peut affirmer sans crainte d’exagérer qu’un 
travail semblable, pour trouver, lire et résumer le 
méme nombre de documents, aurait nécessité de 
deux a trois semaines de travail. 

Infotheque facilite aussi interaction entre les res- 
ponsables de la restauration de batiments historiques 
et élimine des dédoublements de travail. Les mem- 
bres d’équipes de recherche peuvent aisément se 
partager la lecture de sources de référence et les résu- 
mer en mots clés pour leurs confréres. D’autre part, 
les index renferment tous les titres des ouvrages 
traités; on s’évite bien des peines en les consultant. 

La disponibilité de nombreuses données histori- 
ques et techniques permet d’éviter des erreurs de 
restauration souvent attribuables au manque de 
temps et de sources d'information pour procéder a 
des vérifications nombreuses et précises. 

Enfin, Infotheque deviendra un complément du 
travail de l’Inventaire des batiments historiques. Cet 
inventaire posséde déja plus de sept millions de 
données sur les traits architecturaux de 100,000 
batiments au Canada. 

Ces deux outils permettront 4 un chercheur, dé- 
sirant des renseignements sur la restauration de 
pignons en croix, par exemple, de trouver des don- 
nées techniques sur les méthodes ou les problemes 
particuliers de construction tout comme des caracte- 
ristiques architecturales, des indications sur les ma- 
tériaux et des photographies d’exemples qui subsis- 
tent au Canada. 


Francois Leblanc est architecte en restauration 


28 


él cé$O 


DANSEREAU, PIERRE. 


La Terre des hommes et le paysage intérieur 
Editions Ici Radio-Canada et Leméac. 1973 
190 pages. Bibliographie. 


Quel titre évocateur! La Terre des hommes nous 
rappelle Antoine de Saint-Exupery, le philosophe et 
Vhomme d'action, et le paysage intérieur, Gérard 
Manley Hopkins, le poéte qui a lancé le mot “inscape” 
pour décrire notre perception de V’environnement. Ce 
choix de Pierre Dansereau ne nous étonne guére 

car lui aussi est avant tout un penseur engagé et un 
humaniste. Voila plus de 40 ans qu’il publie articles, 
mémoires et volumes qui traitent de phytosociologie, 
d’écologie et de biogéographie, quwil participe a des 
congrés internationaux, qu’il enseigne dans les plus 
grandes universités ou fait des recherches dans toutes 
les zones climatiques. Travailleur infatigable, voyageur 
actif et curieux, éclectique dans ses lectures, il réussit 
dans ce volume a se débarrasser de sa carapace 
d’homme de science et nous livre ses réflexions un peu 


comme l’ont fait Teilhard de Chardin ou Jean Rostand. 


L’auteur veut aller au fond du probléme. II constate, 
comme plusieurs l’ont déja fait, que notre planéte 
court de graves dangers, menacée par la pollution, 

la surpopulation, les conflits sociaux, le gaspillage des 
ressources, l’industrialisation et l’urbanisation aveugles 
et quil y a un seul moyen de sauver notre espéce du 
suicide: modifier notre “imagerie intérieure” pour 
qu’elle serve de modéle au remaniement du paysage. 
Tout est remis en cause, notre culture, nos traditions, 
nos perceptions, nos principes qui sont en fait dictés 
par le couple Technologie-Etat Industriel. Nos sens 

se sont atrophiés dans les villes artificielles ou nous 
avons oublié tout contact avec la réalité, le minéral, le 
végétal et l’animal. Dés le Néolithique, le schisme était 
amorcé, mais c’est avec l’éthique chrétienne que 
Vhomme rompt définitivement avec la nature, qu’il 
méprise les besoins physiologiques et tue la sen- 
sualité. La suprématie de Vhomme a retenu notre 
attention beaucoup plus que son intégration dans 
Penvironnement. 


“La richesse de nos paysages intérieurs est un pré- 
liminaire 4 une bonne gestion de nos ressources” et 
V'Ecologie — l’Ecologie humaine méme — peut 

nous fournir le cadre conceptuel et méthodologique 
pour atteindre ce but. Traditionnellement, le cyclage 
des ressources est illustré par un triangle stratifié pour 
suggérer que, de la base au sommet, a partir des 
plantes en passant par les herbivores jusqu’aux 
carnivores, le nombre d’espéces et d’individus impliqués 
dans la chaine alimentaire va en décroissant. Mais 
Dansereau, toujours innovateur, nous présente une 
nouvelle vision du monde: c’est une sphére, un systeme 
qui tient compte de flux d’énergie, d’apports de res- 
sources et d’échanges, tout en y ajoutant deux autres 
notions, celle de l’investissement et du controle. 


La premiére consiste en ressources qui n’entrent pas 
dans le cycle courant ou qui semblent axées sur des 
fonctions a long terme, comme I’addition d’anneaux 
concentriques a un arbre ou la mise en réserve de 
noix par les écureuils. L’autre réfere aux pouvoirs de 
Vhomme d’orienter les forces de l’écosysteéme, comme 
la coupe sélective, urbanisation ou la construction 
de barrages. 


Ce schéma est suivi d’un tableau qui retrace l’escalade 
de l’emprise de homme sur environnement et son 

role dans le changement du visage de la terre. Huit 
stages y sont expliqués: la cueillette, la chasse, Pélevage, 
l’agriculture, l’industrialisation, Vurbanisation, le 
controle du climat et l’échappée de la gravité. En 
utilisant la sphére et le tableau, le lecteur prend 
conscience, au niveau philosophique et écologique, de 
la place qu’il occupe dans la nature. 


La lecture est facile, forte d’exemples et de phénomenes 
qui sont bien connus de l’auteur et qui peuvent étre 
compris par tous. Il ne faut pas étre surpris de passer 
du cog 4l’Ane, de laisser un sujet et de le retrouver 
dans un autre chapitre, comme dans un conte ou une 
conversation. Et pourtant, en refermant le volume, on 
sent quil y a un lien entre tout ce quia été dit et 

que chaque élément se rattache au theme principal: 


essayons de retrouver notre ame primitive et servons- 
nous de l’Ecologie comme code d’éthique pour l’amé- 
nagement de la Terre des Hommes. 

Marc Bisson 

Division de la Recherche appliquée, 

Inventaire des ressources 

Parcs Canada 


RICHMOND D. HOBSON JR. 

The Rancher Takes A Wife 

McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1974. 
236 pages 


The nineteenth century pseudo-scientific belief that 
climatic and scenic conditions have a direct influence 
on the molding of national character, has, in the 
twentieth century, become a useful tool employed by 
writers and publishers seeking to cash in on growing 
English Canadian nationalist sentiment. With increasing 
regularity there now appear new additions to the 
growing canon of English Canadian literature on which 
lovers of “the true north strong and free” can feast 
their patriotic eyes and spend their minted-in-Canada 
dollars. Fortunately, not all literary publications with 
this theme are examples of money-grubbing. In recent 
years writers such as Margaret Laurence and Alice 
Munroe have undertaken honest, sensitive explorations 
of human relationships that result from the interaction 
of people and their environment in particular Cana- 
dian settings. They and other writers like W. O. 
Mitchell have contributed towards creating worthwhile 
literature that does have unique Canadian aspects 

and incorporates the effect of geography and climate 
on human life. 


The same, however, cannot be said of The Rancher 
Takes A Wife, the most recent volume in McClelland 
and Stewart’s Canadian Nature Classics Series. 
Apparently an autobiographical account of the true 
experiences of one Richmond D. Hobson, Junior (an 
American), the book’s main Canadian content lies in the 
fact that it takes place in the interior of British 
Columbia. The story line is simple: in the early 1940's 
strong, virile cowboy Rich, marries beautiful, ultra- 
feminine, wealthy Gloria, a girl from the big city of 


Vancouver. Together they go off, not into the sunset, 
but into “a jungle of swamps, rivers, and grasslands” 
where, prior to his marriage Rich and his faithful 

dog, Bear had roamed as employees of a large cattle- 
ranching firm. In attempting to establish a cattle ranch 
of their own, Gloria and Rich and their small hardy 
group of acquaintances encounter, 1. blizzards, 2. wild 
animals (bears and wolves), 3. floods, 4. isolation from 
other humans. The crises are easy to tabulate since 
almost each chapter recounts one of them. 

High drama is meant to result as this small group of 
humans, attempting to civilize this last frontier, 
overcome such adversities. In reality, the reader can 
only respond by a yawn — the Hardy boys’ adventures 
were more exciting. Descriptive passages are written 
in hackneyed cliches; attempts at insight end in 
platitudes; and moments of high intensity reflect the 
sensitivity of a soap opera. Mr. Hobson may have lived 
through these experiences but his lack of ability to 
share them in an interesting and perceptive manner 
with his reader make one wish that he had hired a 
competent ghost writer. 

The portrayal of Gloria, (the heroine promised in the 
title) is enough to make anyone other than a die-hard 
male chauvinist despair, as one watches her exhibit 
“typically female” traits such as stubborness and 
irrational emotionalism. In two instances she almost 
meets her end because of her persistent refusal to 

heed her husband’s advice, only to be pulled from the 
jaws of death by faithful dog, Bear, who saves the 

day. Feminists can take consolation however, in the 
fact that the development of the males’ personalities is 
equally thin and stereotyped. 

One can only conclude that McClelland and Stewart 
and Mr. Hobson have produced an unsuccessful 
literary amalgam of Frederick Jackson Turner’s 
“frontier thesis” and the Canadian “myth of the land”. 
For readers interested in accounts of “roughing it in 
the bush”, English Canadian literature already has far 
superior offerings. This book is recommended only 

for masochists who torture themselves through 
boredom. 


Georgina Wyman, Historian 
National Historic Parks 
and Sites Branch. 


30 


MARSAN, JEAN-CLAUDE. 


Montréal en évolution 
Montréal, Fides, 1974. 423 p. 
Bibliographie sélective, Index et illustrations. 


La croissance incontrélée des métropoles d’aujourd’hui 
nous menace tous, telle un monstre en liberté, préte 

a profiter des moindres faux pas de ses victimes. Ce 
danger a favorisé derniérement la montée d’un mouve- 
ment de conscientisation qui vise 4 promouvoir 

une certaine qualité de vie en milieu urbain. L’ouvrage 
de Jean-Claude Marsan “Montréal en évolution” 
s’inscrit d’emblée dans ce courant. 


Professeur a la Faculté d’aménagement de l’Université 
de Montréal, dipl6mé en architecture de la méme 
institution, en urbanisme de l’Université d’Edimbourg, 
Jean-Claude Marsan milite pour la protection de 
l'environnement au sein d’organismes tel Sauvons 
Montréal. Les amis de la gare Windsor, et ! Association 
espaces-verts. 


Le grand mérite de Montréal en évolution, cest davoir 
réussi a rendre histoire du développement physique 
de Montréal a la fois intelligible et passionnante. 
L’architecture et l’environnement y sont considérés 
comme un tout homogéne, le produit de forces et de 
conjonctures identiques. Celles-ci occupent donc une 
position privilégiée. Dans un premier temps, l’auteur 
décrit le milieu ambiant (site géographique, caracté- 
ristiques du sol et du climat) puis raconte comment les 
Européens, rompus a un mode de vie particulier se 
sont progressivement adaptés a ce nouvel environne- 
ment; cette dépendance envers les forces du milieu 
s’exprime d’abord par un modéle d’occupation du sol 
en cOte (ou rang) ainsi que par une architecture ver- 
naculaire modifiant peu a peu ses modéles européens. 
Le Montréal de cette époque pré-industrielle refléte 
une dépendance du monde rural: la ville gravite autour 
de la place du marché lieu indispensable d’échanges, 
et de la Place d’armes, centre social de la commu- 
nauté, bornée par l’église paroissiale et la résidence 
des seigneurs (Séminaire). 


La section la plus importante couvre la période indus- 
trielle et s’articule autour de phénoménes nouveaux 
tels la mécanisation des moyens de production et la 
révolution dans les communications qui ont bouleversé 
les structures sociales, marquant ainsi profondément 
le paysage de Montréal. L’espace urbain devient alors 
une simple denrée de consommation. La ville se déve- 
loppe suivant un quadrillage uniforme et se scinde 
spatialement en quartiers francophones et anglo- 


phones, pauvres et nantis. Les maisons cossues des 
riches reflétent alors les prétentions et les emprunts 
culturels d’une classe coloniale privilégiée tandis que 
les logements des pauvres manifestent dans leurs 
formes une adaptation compléte aux réalités socio- 
économiques. 


L’ouvrage se termine par un regard sur l’ére contem- 
poraine. Montréal, métropole, étire maintenant ses 
bras tentaculaires partout dans la plaine avoisinante. 
Les industries inaugurent un nouveau pattern d’implan- 
tation le long des axes routiers tels ’autoroute trans- 
canadienne tandis que le centre-ville, autour des 
squares et des places se trouve transformé en un vaste 
champ d’asperges (selon l’expression colorée de 
auteur). Dans cette derniére section, plus schémati- 
que que les autres, Marsan ne touche guére qu’aux 
réalisations architecturales qui ont particuli¢rement 
marqué la vie de la cité soit celle du métro et des 
batiments qui ont contribué a créé un nouveau centre- 


ville (Place Ville Marie, Place Bonaventure, Place 


Victoria cites.) 


Cette vaste étude s’appuie principalement sur des 
sources secondaires, l’ampleur du sujet ne permettant 
pas une recherche exhaustive de sources manuscrites. 
Mais ceci ne nuit en rien a la qualité du livre qui 
demeure un excellent ouvrage de synthése. Le lecteur 
appréciera bien stir la rigoureuse articulation de 
l'ensemble. Mais il gotitera tout particuli¢rement le 
ton du récit car Marsan, en professeur passionné de sa 
matiére, sait communiquer sa ferveur a ses éléves. 
Sans jamais tomber dans le pathos verbal, il s’éléve 
contre la politique de laisser-faire en matiére de 
planification, communique son enthousiasme pour des 
hommes tels Champlain ou Dollier de Casson et son 
dédain de toute architecture qui ne matérialise pas 

des besoins sociaux. On retrouvera dans ce livre des 
théses déja connues comme celle de la double tradition 
médiévale et baroque de l’architecture québécoise 
(Gowans) ou celle de l’adaptation au milieu (Morisset); 
cependant, les passages les plus savoureux concernant 
le paysage urbain découlent d’observations “in situ”, 
empreintes d’une sensibilité et d’une intuition re- 
marquables. 

Il faut espérer que Montréal en évolution connaisse 
une vaste distribution et qu’ainsi soit aiguillonné 
Vintérét du grand public envers l'avenir d’une ville 
aussi passionnante que vulnérable. 

Mathilde Brosseau, 

Analyste, 


Inventaire des batiments historiques. 
Parcs Canada 


Published by Parks Canada under authority of 
the Hon. Judd Buchanan,Pc, MP, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
©Information Canada, Ottawa, 1975 

INA Publication No. QS-1241-030-BB-A1 
Design: John Ball Graphic Arts Service Ltd. 


Conservation Canada is a quarterly publication 
Editors: Sheila Crutchlow, Martin Filion 
Production: Eric Plummer 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 


Translations of articles in the other official language are 
available on request from The Editor, Conservation Canada, 
Information Services, Department of Indian and Northern 
Affairs, Ottawa, K1A 0H4. 


To have your name added to our mailing list please write to 


Ray Standefer 


Publié par Parcs Canada avec l’autorisation 

de ’hon. Judd Buchanan, cp, député, 

ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord 
©Information Canada, Ottawa, 1975 
Publication AIN N° QS-1241-030-BB-Al 
Présentation: John Ball Graphic Arts Service Ltd. 


Publication trimestrielle. 
Rédaction: Martin Filion, Sheila Crutchlow 
Production: Eric Plummer 


On peut reproduire les articles en mentionnant 
leur provenance. 


On peut se procurer des versions anglaises ou frangaises des 
articles parus dans ce numéro en s’adressant au Rédacteur, 
Conservation Canada, Services de |’Information, Ministere 
des Affaires indiennes et du Nord, Ottawa, KIA OH4. 


On peut faire inscrire son nom a la liste d’envoi de la revue 
en écrivant a la méme adresse. 


Indian and 


the above address. 


Northern Affairs 
Parks Canada 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Parcs Canada 


Fublishted by Parks Canade under 
suthority of the Hon. Judd Buchanan, 
>C_ WP. Minister of Iindiam andi 

Jorthern Affairs 

information Canada, Ottawa, 1975 

NA Publication No. OS-T24T-040-BB-At 


Publié par Parcs Canada avec l'auto- 
risatiom de hon. Judd Buchanam, CP, 
député, ministre des Affaires indiiennes 
et dw Nord 

©lnformation Canada, Ottawa, 1975 
Publication AIN N* OS-1241-040-BB-At 


‘ditors- Sheile Crutchiou, 


Aartim Filion 

troduction: Eric Plummer Production= Eric Plummer 5 
Jesign« Jacques Charette andi Graphisme- Jacques Charette et 
issociates Ltd Assaciés Ltée 

trticles may be reproduced with z On peut reproduire les articles em men- 
Tredit line. Translations of articles im tionnant leur provenance. Om peut se 


he other official lanquage are available procurer des versions anglaises ou 
rt request from The Editor, 


Information, Ministére des Affaires 
indiennes et du Nord, Ottawa, KTA OH4. 


lorthterm Affairs, Ottawa, KTA OH4_ 


a have your name added to our mailing 
ist please write to the zhove eddress_ 
lanservation Canada is @ quarterly 
publication. 


On peut faire inscrire som nom @ la liste 
d’envoi de la revue en écrivant 2 la 


tequiar readers will already have noticed something a little 
fifferent about the presentation of our current issue. But let 
IS assure you that the design is the only thing we've changed. 
is promised im issue one, we are touching down at some 
(ery exciting places on the Parks Canada map. 

First. to Artillery Park im the heart of Québec City 
uhere the 260-year-old relic is undergoing a facelift. 

Then om to the Fundy Trail to discover the charms 
historical and otherwise) of trekking a path so important to 
he development of Canada as a nation, and take a nostalgic 
jlimpse into the past when wooden sailing ships were manu- 
‘actured along the Fundy coast. Finally, a brief but highly 
nformative look at our glacial heritage. 

And those readers who enjoy the color photos to the 
=xtent of extracting them and mounting them for decoration 
mill be delighted by the cover and Plus section. 


2 = Louis he : 


Denis S t-Louis — 


hae Whytock “Rivers of ice” 


an Etc 


La conservation du patrimoine hieworiques et la sauvegarde 
des quartiers urbains anciens font l'objet de nombreux _ 
articles et de longues discussions de nos jours. Louis: Richer 
et Denis St-Louis abordent ces deux sujets en nous présen- 
tant le Parc de I’Artillerie, dans le Vieux-Québec. Louis 
Richer nous relate Ihistoire des lieux depuis les débuts en 
1712 tandis que Denis St-Louis nous parle des travaux — 
actuels de restauration. pa 

Nicholas Coomber pour sa part, nous convie aune_ 
randonnée touristique sur les pourtours de la baie de Fundy. 
Il nous parle des marées, des lieux historiques et de la vie 
paisible de ce coin des Maritimes qui attirent une multitude | 
de visiteurs, chaque année. 

Henrik Deichmann, dans son article sur la construction 
navale, nous rappelle un aspect de Ihistoire traditionnelle . 
des Maritimes. Kim Whytock nous fait connaitre la beauté 
et la ““fraicheur”’ des glaciers. 

Ce numéro marquera notre premier anniversaire. Vous 
avez sans doute remarqué que nous avons fait peau neuve. 
Nous espérons que cette nouvelle présentation, encore plus 
dégagée et souple que la précédente, saura vous plaire. 

Voila quelques autres aspects des programmes de Parcs 
Canada. L’été est la: profitez-en! 


Conservation Canada 


Par Louis Richer — 


Louis Richer dirige 'équipede cher 


cheurs du projet du Pare de | Artillerie. 


© Le Parc de |’Artillerie, dans le Vieux- 


= Québec, renferme une dizaine d’édi- 
| fices qui racontent chacun une tranche 


ede l'histoire de la ville de Québec, de 


la Nouvelle-France et du Canada. 
Ces batiments raménent le visiteur 
| jusqu’en 1712, faisant connaitre les 


F débuts de cet ensemble militaire défen- 


i sif dont les ouvrages ont servi de quar- 

™ tiers généraux a la garnison francaise 

| de Québec tout comme plus tard de 

| centre d’activités du Service de I’Artil- 
lerie britannique. Ils rappellent aussi la 
période industrielle du parc et racon- 

| tent enfin la croissance de la ville de 

| Champlain en évoquant tout aussi bien 

| les défricheurs de 1627 que la restau- 

| ration actuelle, reconquéte d'un quar- 

| tier urbain. 


Fortifier la ville 
Le traité d‘Utrecht de 1713 mettait 
fin A plus de vingt ans d’hostilites entre 
fla France et |’Angleterre. On procéda 
| alors en Nouvelle-France a une reorga- 
| nisation du systeme de défense colo- 
| niale. Québec céda sa place, comme 
centre stratégique, 4 Louisbourg ou on 
| construisit une forteresse digne des 
| places fortes d'Europe. On abandonna 
© alors tout projet de fortifier la ville, 
= sous prétexte que les Anglais ne répe- 
| teraient pas leurs aventures désas- 
| treuses de Phips en 1690 et de Walker 
en 1711.Les récifs du Saint-Laurent 
| qui avaient fait échouer la flotte de 


2 Conservation Canada 


Walker sur I'lle-aux-Oeufs, protege- 
raient la ville de toute attaque. Ainsi, 
l'ingénieur Chaussegros de Léry, arrive 
dans la colonie en 1716, vit-il tous ses 
différents projets de fortifier Quebec, 

y compris la construction d'une cita- 
delle, refusés. 

Lorsqu’arriva 4 Québec la nouvelle 
de la chute de Louisbourg en 1745, la 
population locale, affolee par la pers- 
pective d'une attaque, demanda la mise 
en place d'un systeme de défense. Les 
autorités locales acquiesceérent a cette 
demande et de Léry mit en chantier de 
nouvelles fortifications. L’année sui- 
vante cependant, le Roi donna |’ordre 
d‘arréter les travaux. Celui-ci répri- 
manda le gouverneur pour avoir engagé 
d’importants fonds sans sa permission. 
Mais la volonté populaire |’emporta 
sur celle du souverain, et les travaux 
se poursuivirent; le Roi dut se conten- 
ter de payer la note. 

Les murs actuels de Québec suivent 
le tracé des fortifications construites 
par de Léry. Formée de six bastions, 
(celui de la Glaciére disparut en 1622 
lors de |’érection de la Citadelle), cette 
ligne de défense allait de la porte du 
Palais au nord jusqu’aux hauteurs du 
Cap, a l’ouest. Elle devait assurer la 


_its history from its beginning in the 
early 1700's to the present day, de- 
scribing its components (fortifications 

and buildings) and recalling the main 
historical events and the persons 
connected with it throughout its long 
history. = 


_ Louis Richer, Head of the historical 
research team for Artillery Park traces 


sécurité de la ville de son cdté vulne- | 
rable soit celui donnant sur les Plaines} 
d’Abraham et sur la riviere Saint- j 
Charles. Les autres parties de la Haute 
ville jouissaient d’une protection natu) 
relle a cause de l’aspérité du terrain. | 
La Basse-ville, pour sa part, était dée- | 
fendue par des batteries de fort calibr) 
Montcalm en 1759, puis Murray 
|'année suivante préférérent livrer 
combat a l’extérieur de l’enceinte de 
Québec. lronie de l'histoire, ces forti- 
fications construites par les Fran¢ais, | 
assurerent aux Anglais la possession 
de la ville a deux reprises. Murray se | 
réfugia a |intérieur des murs suite a $I 
défaite de Sainte-Foy en 1760, tandis 
que Lévis martelait la fortification a 
coups de canon. L’arrivee d'une flotte 
anglaise dans le Saint-Laurent, quel-_ 
ques jours plus tard, scella le sort de} 
Québec en faveur de Murray. En 177! 
1776, les fortifications francaises pel 
mirent a Carleton de tenir en échec le 
Américains venus assiéger la ville. | 
Deux des six bastions construits 
par cet ingénieur font partie du Parc | 
de |’Artillerie actuel. Cette fortificatic 
au nord, en particulier du demi-basti: 
de la Potasse jusqu’a |’ancienne port} 
du Palais, était une des parties les pl 
importantes pour la défense de la vil} 
Sa position stratégique commandait } 
approches du coté de la riviere Saint 
Charles. Aussi, possédait-elle deux 


lignes de défense. La premiére, un 
muret en forme de bastion, était percé 
de meurtriéres pour la mousqueterie. 
Sa construction remonte a 1712 alors 
qu'il faisait partie d’un projet de dé- 
fense mis de I‘avant par |‘ingénieur 
Beaucours mais qui ne fut jamais ter- 
miné. |i fut rehaussé sa hauteur 
actuelle vers 1800 afin d’en prévenir 
l’escalade par les soldats de la garni- 
son en quéte de sorties nocturnes. 

La deuxiéme ligne de défense était 
la courtine, construite en 1745, reliant 


le demi-bastion de la Potasse a la porte 
du Palais. Cette muraille de cing pieds 
d'épaisseur était percée de dix-sept 
embrasures a canon. En 1775, le tir de 
son artillerie démolit |’ancien Palais 

de I'Intendant situé au bas de la falaise. 
Les Américains s‘y étaient réfugiés et, 
du haut de la coupole du batiment, ils 
tiraient sur les soldats circulant a |‘inté- 
rieur de l’enceinte. Aucune attaque, 
méme par les rigueurs du climat, le 


plus grand enremi de nos vestiges 
historiques, n’a pu détruire ce mur 
toujours en place. 


La garnison et les casernes 
Québec avait aussi besoin d'une 
bonne garnison pour répondre aux exi- 
gences de la guerre, qui durera 4 toutes 
fins utiles jusqu’a la capitulation de 
Montréal en 1760. Depuis la paix de 
1713, les troupes Franches de la Ma- 
rine chargées de la défense de la colo- 
nie, avaient été négligées. Les soldats 
se préoccupaient plus de traite de four- 
rures que d’exercices militaires. De 
toute facon, la discipline n’avait jamais 
été a |‘honneur puisque, dans la plupart 
des cas, les soldats ne vivaient pas en 
casernes. On décida donc d’en amé- 
nager et, en 1750, la garnison de Qué- 
bec passa de 336 4 750 hommes. 

Les deux batiments principaux du 
Parc de |’Artillerie, !a redoute Dau- 
phine et les Nouvelles Casernes, fai- 
saient partie de |‘aménagement de ces 
deux corps de logis militaires. L’ingé- 
nieur de Léry termina, en 1748, la 
construction des logis de la redoute 
Dauphine afin de pouvoir y loger cent 
soldats, et construisit les Nouvelles 
Casernes adossées a la courtine entre 
le demi-bastion de la Potasse et la 
porte du Palais. 

Les débuts de la redoute Dauphine, 
le batiment le plus ancien du Parc de 
l’Artillerie, remontent a 1712 alors que 


Les 260 ans du Parc de l’Artillerie 


Beaucours travaillait a un nouveau pro- 
jet de défense. Le muret dont nous 
avons déja parlé, faisait partie de ce’ 
méme projet. Les travaux furent inter- 
rompus avec le retour a la paix de 
1713. 

La nouvelle ligne de fortification 
avait rendu inutile |’éperon du bati- 
ment, mur de défense prévu a | origine 
et sur lequel on devait monter huit 
canons: i] fut simplement abandonne 
dans son état incomplet. On en a re- 
trouvé les vestiges. 

La Dauphine fut construite sur des 
terrains vagues ou on enterrait ‘avec 
horreur’ les soldats hérétiques morts 
4 I'Hétel-Dieu. Ces terres basses qui 
forment en grande partie |’emplace- 
ment actuel du Parc de |’Artillerie, 
étaient peu propices a la construction 
domiciliaire. Les eaux de la ville s’y 
déversaient depuis les hauteurs du 
Cap. Aussi, en 1727, | intendant Du- 
puy eut-il |’idée d’y creuser une citerne 
afin d’alimenter la fontaine située dans 
les jardins du Palais de I’ Intendant 
situé au bas de la falaise. 

En plus des logements des redoutes 
Dauphine et Royale (cette derniére 
disparut en 1810), de Léry construisit 
les Nouvelles Casernes. Ce batiment 
de pierre, long de 525 pieds, avait 
trois étages dont deux vodtes, et était 
surmonté d’‘un grenier. En plus de 
casernes, on y retrouvait des salles 


piielles Casernes et de la redoute 


lee 5 Bitouniques et Vere 
industrielle / 
De 1759 4 1871, le secteur des | 


Suaiice atoanet de plus de: 
d’officiers tandis que ses sous-sols 

servirent en 1775 et 1776, de prison 
aux détenus américains captures lors 
del’ invasion ameéricaine. / 


Trois ents de pier 
nant un c de garde, un | 
ciers e ar rappellent 
sage des artilleurs dans le Par 


en 1880, vint altérer grandement 
l’'apparence originale du Parc. Des édi- 
fices et des installations industriels 
furent construits un peu partout, dé- 
truisant certains batiments déja en 
place, y compris une poudriere et 
changeant |’ spect premier de | 
autres. / 

Par contre, la fonderie de | oe 
construite dans le bastion Saint-Jean, 


1 ‘activité de milliers de Québécois qui 
ont travaillé a ‘Arsenal de la Cote du 
— Palais. 


L’établissement d’une cartoucherie ~ 


cone. 
situées sur | 
|’Hotel-Dier xiéme se situe a 
l‘intersection des rues ‘McMahon et 
Carleton. Ces maisons sont des exem- 
ples intéressants de \‘évolution de 
l‘architecture civile du Vieux-Québec © 


_ des XVIlle et XIX@ siécles. La maison — 


Flamand, en voie de restauration, a éte 


__construite vers 1756 par un des grand 


NS 


entrepreneurs | l‘époque. Nous retrot 
vons, sous les couches de papiers peint 
et les crépis, la décoration originale 


-peinte a la main sur les boiseries de 


cette noble maison de pierre. 
L'intérét de ces maisons vient éga 
lement de leurs différents occupants. 


4 — Conservation Canada 


Le Poe 2 [Artillerie en 1829. Aa 


centre, la redoute Dauphine, au fond, 
a gauche, une partie des Nouvelles 


- Casernes et a I'arriére-plan, la riviére 


Saint-Charles. J. P. Cockburn, R.O.M. 
Toronto. 


_ Lentrée principale du Pare. J.P Coe 


burn, 1830. Archives du ee de 
Québec 


Gaillard et 


— 


SINOT-1$ Siuag sed 
uleqin enbiiojsiy 8;quissus un,p 


8 


Conservation Canada 


Les travaux de restauration de la redoute 
Dauphine. (Jacques Hébert) 


Denis St-Louis est l’architecte-résidant, 
coordonnateur des travaux d’'amenage- 
ment au Parc del Artillerie. 


The restoration of Artillery Park was 
begun in 1972. The enormous task of 
restoring and refurnishing this 260-year- 
old military complex is magnified by its 
position within one of the oldest and 
most highly urbanized areas of Quebec. 
Denis St-Louis, a restoration architect 
tells of the problems and solutions 
devised to accomplish the renaissance 
of an important part of our historical and 
architectural heritage. 


En 1972, un vaste projet de mise en 
valeur d’un patrimoine historique et 
architectural et de rénovation urbaine 
débutait dans le Vieux-OQuébec. Le Parc 
de |‘Artillerie, devenu un parc historique 
national, allait renaitre. 

Blotti a |’angle nord-ouest des forti- 
fications de la ville, le Pare de |Artillerie 
couvre une superficie de 8,15 acres et 
renferme une dizaine d‘édifices d impor- 
tance historique et architecturale, 
quelques maisons et des édifices com- 
merciaux. 

Le projet représente pour le minis- 
tere une des plus importantes entreprises 
de restauration et de réhabilitation en 
milieu urbain. Ses crédits s‘éléevent a 
plus de 11 millions de dollars. Les tra- 
vaux respecteront | ’évolution historique 
et architecturale de |‘ensemble et contri- 
bueront également d'une facon dyna- 
mique au réaménagement du Vieux- 
Québec. Dans la méme veine, on peut 


ici mentionner le projet Halifax Water- 
front, inauguré en 1973, qui implique la 
rehabilitation de batiments commerciaux 
historiques tels des entrepdts et une 
banque dans le quartier du port d‘Halifax. 
Les visiteurs se présentant au parc 
devront apprendre a garder un casque 
protecteur sur la téte, a entendre un 
tintamarre de marteaux pneumatiques, 
de ciseaux a pierre et a voir des écha- 
faudages et des excavations car les 
travaux s échelonneront jusgqu’en 1981. 


La création du projet 

En 1971, un comité fédéral- 
provincial, créé par le ministére de 
‘Expansion économique régionale et 
| ‘Office de Planification et de Dévelop- 
pement du Québec, recommanda le 
parc comme une priorité d’aménage- 
ment. Cette recommandation était 
conforme au voeu exprimé a cet égard 
dans le Concept de réaménagement du 
Vieux-Québec, publié un an plus tét 
par les autorités municipales de Québec. 

Suite a une étude plus poussée de 
| ‘Tlot de |’Arsenal par la Corporation de 
|‘Hdtel-Dieu, le ministére proposa un 


Perspective des maisons de la Céte du Palais, 
une fois restaurées 


projet de restauration du Parc de | ‘Artil- 
lerie qui engloberait les propriétés de 
I‘hdpital et celles du ministére qui leur 
sont adjacentes. Le ministére s’engagea 
moralement et financiérement avec 

| ‘aide des crédits de |’entente Canada- 


Québec sur les zones spéciales a trouver 


une solution convenable au probleme 
du stationnement de |‘Hdtel-Dieu. 

La Commission des lieux et des 
monuments historiques du Canada avait 
reconnu | importance des lieux en 1959. 
Mais il est une autre histoire dont je 
voudrais ici brosser les grandes lignes: 
celle des profondes transformations et 
de la lente dégradation des lieux. 


Le visage du parc 1880-1972 

La transformation graduelle du 
secteur militaire du parc en complexe 
industriel modifia profondément les 
espaces libres et les édifices. En 1907, 
par exemple, on construisit sur l’ancien 
champ de parade entre la redoute 
Dauphine et les Nouvelles Casernes, un 
immense atelier. Des entrepdts occu- 
pérent par la suite les espaces encore 
disponibles. 

Les Nouvelles Casernes constituent 
peut-étre le meilleur exemple de déla- 
brement et de défiguration qu‘ont pu 
connaitre ces batiments durant cette 
période. Le batiment fut victime de deux 
incendies partiels; on y reconstruisit 
alors une section centrale completement 
étrangére a l'ensemble. Lorsque les 
Casernes devinrent une usine de muni- 
tions, au début du XXiéeme siecle, on y 
construisit une centrale génératrice et 
un laminoir et on joignit graduellement 
les murs des casernes au parapet, 
couvrant ainsi d‘un toit tout le bastion. 
L’édifice était presque méconnaissable. 
Aprés la disparition définitive de 
‘Arsenal en 1964, les Nouvelles Caser- 
nes furent laissées a |abandon. 

La zone civile du parc connut elle 


Conservation Canada 


9 


10 


Conservation Canada 


aussi un sort aussi pénible. Entre 18/5 et 
1930, on démolit des maisons, rues de 
|‘Arsenal et McMahon. On y construisit 
aussi | ‘édifice Québec Gas Co. (que 
nous avons démoli depuis). La aussi, les 
incendies causérent des ravages et 
quatre maisons y furent gravement en- 
dommagées. Fort heureusement, une 
partie de la trame urbaine typique de la 
Vieille ville subsiste en partie sur la 
Céte du Palais. 

La présence de |’automobile et de 
véhicules de transport en commun dis- 
proportionnés a la largeur des rues, a 
|‘intérieur des murs de la ville, a eu un 
double effet sur le développement du 
Parc de |‘Artillerie. Les espaces libres et 
les batiments laissés a |’abandon ont 
servi de stationnement. 

De plus, a cause de la topographie 
accidentée de la Vieille ville et du peu 
d‘accés haute-ville, basse-ville, des 
bréches furent effectuées dans les murs. 
A |‘ouest, le rempart fut perce pour 
laisser passer la rue Richelieu. Au nord, 
la porte du Palais fut démolie pour 
faciliter le passage des tramways et des 
automobiles. Les conséquences directes 
de ces deux phénomeénes furent | inter- 
ruption par le fait méme du lien pieton 
au niveau de la promenade des remparts 
et la création de croisements de circu- 
lation peu souhaitables. 

Des édifices furent construits a 
méme les remparts et les glacis, détrul- 
sant toute la perspective des l1eux. 
Enfin, les services publics inadequats, 
protection contre les incendies, evacua- 
tion des eaux de surface, éclairage, et 
|‘abandon de plusieurs batiments acce- 
lérérent la détérioration des lieux et 
encourageérent le vandalisme. 


On peut aisément conclure que cet 
ensemble était mal, sinon a peu pres 
pas, exploité dans le contexte du 
Vieux-OQuébec. 


Les travaux de restauration 

Les travaux actuels et futurs au Parc 
de |’Artillerie viseront a conserver et a 
exploiter les éléments les plus signifi- 
catifs de |’ensemble afin de présenter au 
public une vue coherente et authentique 
de |’évolution historique et architectu- 
rale des régimes francais et britannique. 
lls amélioreront la qualité esthétique 
des lieux et redonneront une vocation 
urbaine a |’ensemble. 

Les travaux dans le secteur militaire 
auront pour objet les fortifications, six 
batiments militaires, dont la redoute 
Dauphine, les Nouvelles Casernes, le 
logis d’officiers et la fonderie, construits 
entre 1712 et 1901, |‘ameénagement 
paysager des places, des sentiers de 
piétons et des voies de service. 

La nature des travaux consistera 
essentiellement en des travaux de res- 
tauration dont le degré sera different 
selon |‘utilisation prévue, la valeur histo- 
rique du batiment, son état actuel, sa 
rareté, voire son unicité. 

La redoute Dauphine et | édifice 
no 1 (la fonderie de |‘Arsenal), illustre- 
ront notre propos. 

La redoute Dauphine, le batiment le 
plus ancien du parc, fut construite entre 
1712 et 1745 et constitue un exemple 
typique d ‘édifice militaire ayant subi 
de multiples modifications au cours de 
son histoire. 

Concue a l‘origine comme avant- 
poste défensif, mais laissée inachevee, 
la redoute Dauphine a été terminée 
comme corps de casernes, a | intérieur 
d'un systéme défensif nouveau et de 
plus grande envergure, protegeant tout 
le cOté ouest de la ville. Grace a des 


Les Nouvelles Casernes, hier et aujourd ‘hui 


ee ae 10h) 
Re opr 


12 


Conservation Canada 


études comparatives, différents états 
nous sont maintenant bien connus. 

A cause de son unicité, de sa com- 
plexité et de la rareté du type architectu- 
ral auquel ce batiment appartient, la 
restauration du batiment s’attachera 
surtout a |interprétation de son type 
architectural d’origine, et a la conserva- 
tion de ses principaux états historiques. 

Dans la restauration de |’ensemble 
architectural, on restituera |’€peron et 
d‘autres éléments significatifs, mais de 
telle facon qu’ils puissent étre identifies 
par le public, comme interventions 
contemporaines nécessaires a la compre- 
hension de |’édifice et de son évolution 
historique. 

La fonderie, construite en 1901, 
nous est parvenue dans un trés bon état. 
Cet édifice demeurera le seul exemple 
de batiment construit a des fins indus- 
trielles par |‘Arsenal du Dominion. 

On restaurera intégralement son volume 
architectural. A cause de sa conception, 
du vaste espace qu'il offre et de sa 
position stratégique a | entrée sud-ouest 
du bastion Saint-Jean, cet édifice servira 
de centre d’accuell aux visiteurs. 

Les travaux de restauration se feront 
dans le respect de | évolution de cha- 
cune des structures, car chacune d‘entre 
elles a été marquée par |évolution et 
‘adaptation au temps, aux modes, au 
climat, aux usagers et aux nouvelles 
découvertes techniques. 

Le respect de |évolution et le réta- 
blissement de la continuité de la forme 
en réintégrant des composantes archi- 
tecturales modernes seront les deux 
grands principes qui présideront a tous 
les travaux de restauration. 


Le parc dans la ville 
Le Parc de |Artillerie offre ainsi, par 
son envergure et ses possibilités d’amé- 


nagement une occasion unique d ‘intro- 
duire dans le tissu urbain une toile de 
fond d’activités multiples indispensables — 
a |’équilibre fonctionnel du milieu. 

Un quartier sain fait appel a la pre- 
sence dun noyau stable de population 
qui cherche a combler ses besoins 
d'habitation, de travail, de commerce, 
de culture et de loisirs dans un environ- 
nement qui posséde les services auxi- 
liaires, réseaux de communication, 
transport, énergie qui permettent de les 
bien satisfaire. 

La réhabilitation d'une partie des 
maisons de la Céte du Palais et la cons- 
truction d'une nouvelle trame urbaine a 
|’échelle du quartier permettront une 
exploitation des fonctions résidentielles 
et de travail dans un flot actuellement 
mal utilisé. 

Le probleme de la zone civile du 
Parc est essentiellement celui de la 
réintégration d'un jlot résidentiel dans 
un quartier en voile de mutation sociale 
rapide et de délabrement toujours plus 
accentué. 

La réhabilitation de | ilot consistera 
a réutiliser des ressources recyclables 
existantes. Ces batiments a !’échelle du 
quartier pourraient servir a des fonctions 
contemporaines et abriter des rési- 
dences, des bureaux, et des boutiques. 
Les travaux viseront a préserver leurs 
composantes architecturales particu- 


Enfin, la relocalisation du stationne- 
ment a |’extérieur des murs permettra 
d‘éviter |°encombrement du parc par les 
vehicules automobiles et d’y diminuer 
la pollution visuelle et auditive. L’amé- 
nagement des zones de verdure, de 
sentiers pour piétons et |’amélioration 
du mobilier urbain contribueront a re- 
hausser la qualité de vie en milieu urbain. 

On peut déja prévoir des effets 
secondaires a plus long terme. Le projet 
géneérera trés probablement un réamé- 
nagement des zones périphériques 
incluant la réhabilitation de secteurs 
résidentiels, la mise en valeur des fortifi- 
cations, la réfection des voies publiques 
et des services publics et |‘amélioration 
de la qualité du mobilier urbain. 

La nécessité de protéger et de 
mettre en valeur cet ensemble dont la 
restauration a exigé des investissements 
liéres et a y aménager les services néces- massifs, le cheminement de |'idée de 
Saires pour répondre adéquatement aux conservation maximale de |’environne- 


Proposition de restauration des Nouvelles 
Casernes 


nouvelles fonctions ou destinations ment bati par des techniques actuelles et 
des batiments, sans en altérer le cachet la présence d'une main-d‘oeuvre formée 
historique. a |'idée de préserver des matériaux et 
Les travaux d’aménagement con- des matiéres recyclables, laissent déja 
temporain, en architecture et en génie entrevoir cette orientation. 
seront réalisés 4 |’échelle de |’ensemble Le projet du Parc de |‘Artillerie 
du territoire et de chaque batiment. s‘insere dans une nouvelle politique de 
La construction d‘édifices d’accompa- préservation et de mise en valeur des 
gnement, |‘aménagement paysager des quartiers anciens en milieu urbain a 
places et le traitement des voies publi- laquelle contribuent déja de nombreux 
ques, | installation des canalisations programmes gouvernementaux. || est 
souterraines et la construction d‘une évident que la participation de |’entre- 
centrale de services, la mise en place prise privée et des comités de citoyens 
d‘un mobilier urbain approprié (en- devra venir se greffer a cette entreprise. 
seignes, bancs, éclairage), doteront le La participation de ces derniers 
territoire de services essentiels a | ‘utili- est essentielle puisqu’un des principaux 
sation active du secteur. buts de cette mise en valeur est finale- 


ment de protéger et de revaloriser les 
investissements des citoyens sur un 
patrimoine Immobilier dont ils pourront 
jouir et qu’ils auront a animer de leur 
présence soutenue. 


Conservation Canada 13 


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Tides, 
taleSanalooster 


Nowhere on the Fundy coast is the erosive 
action of the tides better displayed than at 
Hopewell Cape. These flowerpot rocks have 
been carved out of sandstone cliffs by the 
constant wave action of the tides. 


By Nicholas Coomber 


Nicholas Coomber is a Parks Systems 
Planner with the ARC (Agreements for 
Recreation and Conservation) Program 
of Park Canada. 


Nicholas Coomber, planificateur du 
programme ARC (Accords au sujet de 
la Récréation et de la Conservation), 
nous fait part des impressions que lui 
ont laissées le littoral, les lieux histo- 
riques et les légendes de la baie de 
Fundy, dans les Maritimes. 


18 Conservation Canada 


raps 


If you can imagine a snail crawling up 
a wharf with the water lapping at its 
heel all the way, you will have an idea 
of how fast the tide rises in the Bay of 
Fundy. 

The highest tides in the world occur 
at Economy Point, Nova Scotia where, 
twice a day, twenty-five cubic miles of 
the Atlantic Ocean are jammed into 
the Bay of Fundy and its estuaries. 
This results in a shoreline difference 
between high and low tides, of up to 
50 feet. 

This remarkable Canadian event is 
caused by the narrowing of the Bay at 
its mouth and its division into two 
branches, the Cumberland and Minas 
Basins, by the Chignecto Peninsula. 
Incoming tides are forced into the bot- 
tlenecks and the water rises dramatic- 
ally. This cramming effect is especially 
vigorous in the estuaries at the head of 
the Bay where the water builds itself 
into a foaming wave several feet high 
and gallops upstream at incredible 
speed ignoring the downward flow of 
water. This is the tidal ‘bore’ an inap- 


The French Cross at Morden, Nova Scotia, 
marks the site of the tragedy which befell three 
hundred Acadian refugees in the winter of 
1755-6. 


propriate name to the snail cling- 

ing precariously to his wharf while the 
brine roars over him and the tardy 
fisherman rowing for his life because 
his watch stopped. 

What is hazardous for the snail and 
fisherman is a curiosity for sightseers. 
All of the major estuarine towns of the 
Bay of Fundy — Moncton, Saint John, 
Truro and Windsor — furnish visitors 
with tidal bore schedules, vantage 
points and souvenir postcards of their 
own individual bores. 

While none of the towns actually 
claim to having the biggest bore, Saint 
John does promote its ‘‘World Famous 
Reversing Falls’’ an attraction which is 
at least, geologically remarkable. The 
coincidence of 40-foot tides, a narrow 
bottleneck in the Saint John River and 
a natural underwater barrage combine 
to cause incoming tides to cascade 
down the exposed upstream side of the 
barrage. Ebb tides do the reverse. The 
effect is rather like a set of churning 


’ rapids and definitely no Niagara; but 


where else could you go up the falls 
for an encore. 

A few centuries ago tides swept 
daily over vast areas of swamp and 
mudflats around the Bay. A dozen or 
so of these marshes in Nova Scotia 


nd New Brunswick were dyked and 
jrained by Acadian settlers in the early 
lighteenth century. Their technique 
| as to construct wooden framed dykes 
ir aboideaux, along the lower portions 
f the main river channels, extending 
nem upstream as far as necessary to 
jrevent the tides from overflowing 
round the upper end. The effect was 
channel river and tidal water be- 
ween the artificial banks so that the 
ich silty soil behind the dykes could 
le cultivated. In this way some of the 
ajor river estuaries of the Bay — 
re Annapolis, Cornwallis and Avon 
vers in Nova Scotia and the Tantra- 
dar, Aulac, Missiguash, Memramcook 
nd Petitcodiac in New Brunswick — 


ne first permanent white settlements 
) North America were established by 
ne Acadians. 

The significance of these and other 
sttlements in our history has been 
Pcognized by Parks Canada in the 


erection of numerous commemorative 
plaques and the establishment of sev- 
eral National Historic Parks. 

Grand Pré National Historic Park 
marks the site of a former Acadian 
village and is taken to be the setting for 
Longfellow's epic poem ‘Evangeline’. 
Fort Anne at Annapolis contains well 
preserved earthworks of a French fort 
dating back to 1695, and a powder 
magazine which is the oldest standing 
structure in the National Historic 
Parks system. Almost directly across 
the inlet from Fort Anne lies Port Royal 
Habitation, home for several dozen 
French fur traders between 1605 and 
1615. Among them was Samuel de 
Champlain whose institution of the 
Order of Good Cheer began North 
America’s first gourmet cooking club. 
Other settlements were the forerunners 
of todays towns — Annapolis, Pisiquid 
(Windsor), Cobequid (Truro), and 
Beaubassin (Amherst). 

Beyond the great dykes thousands 
of acres are briefly uncovered by the 
receding tides — vast beaches, shim- 
mering mud flats, rocks, boulders, 
sand-bars and... dulse. 

To anyone born outside the Atlantic 
provinces, dulse may be simply sea- 


weed. To maritimers it is akin to am- 
brosia and people all over the world 
agree with them. This pungently mari- 
nated natural pickle is usually sundried 
but sometimes it is toasted before it is 
eaten. Occasionally it is powdered and 
used to add a seaside flavour to a 
variety of dishes. 

Of course, dulse isn’t the only 
thing left behind by the tide. If you 
have a strong back, clams are there for 
the digging and periwinkles and mus- 
sels for the picking. Because the tides 
race backwards and forewards across 
the mudflats one has to dig fast and 
continuously, a feat made easier if 
practiced from the time of childhood 
buckets and spades. Traditionally it is 
a man’s job, women hold most of the 
jobs in the shelling and packing plants 
along the shore. The shell-fish industry 
is made up primarily of small, often 
family businesses throughout the mari- 
times except at Chamcook, New Bruns- 
wick, where nearly two million pounds 
of clams were taken last year. 

The abundance of seafood in the 
Bay of Fundy has played an important 


Conservation Canada 


role in the area’s history. Often re- 
counted to visitors to the village of 
Morden, Nova Scotia, is the tragic 
story of about 300 Acadians from 
Belleisle in the Annapolis Valley, who, 
in 1775, after their expulsion by the 
British, were led by a Pierre Melancon 
on a march to Blomidon and hence to 
friends at Chignecto. They were forced 
to winter on the North Mountain coast 
with no food except mussels which 
they gathered from the icy rocks. Only 
60 of the group survived the ordeal and 
today the site of the tragedy is marked 
by the French Cross in what is now the 
village of Morden. In 1790 during its 
construction, the walls of St. Mary’s 
church in Auburn, seven miles inland 
were plastered with powdered mussel 
shells left by the French fugitives. 

There is a wealth of seafaring 
stories along the North Mountain Coast 
which runs from Digby Gut to Cape 
Split. 

At Margaretsville, Peter Barnes 
gave his name to Peter’s Point when, 
in 1793, he hung false signal lights 
which wrecked the Saucy Nancy. |ron- 
ically, he fell to his death from the 


20 Conservation Canada 


same point, twenty years later after 
mistaking other lights for those of his 
own Cabin. 

Hall’s Harbour is named for Cap- 
tain Hall whose ship was wrecked after 
his retreat from a plundering trip inland 
— his loot was never found. Isle |’Haut, 
a forbidding rock twenty miles out 
from Morden is the supposed site of a 
treasure hoard buried by a particularly 
cruel buccaneer named Ned Low. It is 
said to be guarded by the ghost of his 
youngest crew member, killed by the 
Captain for that very purpose. 

In all of the maritimes there are 
historic tales the equal of any in Can- 
ada, but it is the Isthmus of Chignecto 
which surpasses them all. Here were 
the two major fortifications active in 
the Anglo-French conflict Fort Beau- 
séjour (now a National Historic Park) 
and Fort Lawrence. This was the area 
of the first Acadian settlements, the 
site of the ill-fated ship railway from 
the Cumberland Basin to Baie Verte, 
the site of three large Micmac encamp- 
ments, an old Indian portage route, old 


French military roads, the first Method. 
ist church in Canada and a host of 
other sites of historical and general 
interest. 

Further west along the coast are 
the sites of the Loyalists settlements 
that began after the War of Indepen- 
dence. Saint John is the largest but 
St. Andrews at the tip of the Cham- 
cook Peninsular within a cannon shot 
of the United States is the most pic- 
turesque. In its early days it grew 
quickly on a diet of shipping, lumber, 
army garrisons and the railroad. Today 
retirement pensions, tourist dollars, a 
biological station and lobsters help the 
town keep its original charm. Thanks 
to a fire-free history St. Andrews is one 
of the few Canadian towns with an 
abundance of historic buildings. To 
take a stroll around the town is like 
stepping back a hundred years or more 
There are three places of particular 
interest in this tiny hamlet — the Algon: 
quin Hotel a giant resort operated by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway and one 
of the most photogenic in the country; 
Minister’s Island named after the Loya 
ist Reverend Samuel Andrews and late 
the retreat of railway baron Sir Willian 


in Horne where he built the largest 
‘use in New Brunswick and St. 
‘\drews Blockhouse, a cantilevered 
ucture near the shore, which is now 
je of Parks Canada’s special places. 
Lobsters along with herring are the 
1st important catch of the Fundy 
ast. At St. Andrews however, it 
uld not be completely honest to call 
[2 lobsters a ‘catch’ as most are 
»»ught from the lobster pounds at 
er Island. The pick of the season's 
Stch are used for restocking the 
Dund for a year-round supply. 

| To the casual observer the Fundy 
cast villages all look identical. But 
bre are many differences if you look 
¢ them. The alignment of each wharf 
/ries to afford the greatest amount of 
selter for the fishing boats and every 
nttage takes advantage of a rocky 
dge, a sunny slope or a sheltered 
Diff. Whatever the subtleties of design 
?Bry village leaves an indelible image 
) the visitor’s mind — lobster traps 
| Cked along the backshores, fishing 
Jats resting quietly beside high timber 
\arves and weatherbeaten fishermen 
(pecting their gear — unique and 


1morable characteristics of the Bay 
Fundy. 


/ 
| 


Conservation Canada 


22 


Ship building days at Alma 


Conservation Canada 


Cet article nous rappelle les beaux 
jours de la construction navale a Alma 
Beach. 


by Henrik Deichman 


K. Henrik Deichman is Chief Park 
Naturalist at Fundy National Park. 


Alma Beach at the eastern end of 
Fundy National Park in New Brunswi 
is a quiet spot where many visitors to 
the park enjoy the pleasures of sea 
bathing — today. It was once however, 
a bustling centre of business where 
wooden sailing ships, to ply the ocean 
of the world, were manufactured. 

A ready supply of timber nearby 
and skilled Scot’s hands to fashion 
the graceful shapes made Alma Beach 
ideally suited to this almost forgotten 
Craft. 

From about 1870 to the end of the 
First World War, some 27 vessels wer 
launched; some were quite small, but 
few went over 500 tons. They were 
mostly schooners, but there were also 
brigs and barquentines. Schooners 
were most popular because with their | 
tapered sails they were best for ‘‘coas| 
ing’’, that is, they could tack against | 
the wind. For crossing the ocean, othe’ 
ships, with their square sails, had ad- | 
vantages, but lots of schooners went | 
over too. | 

After years of doldrums in the shij! 
building industry, a Mr. White, owner) 
of the local sawmill and other enter- | 
prises, decided, in 1917, to revive 
shipbuilding at Alma. He engaged Hel) 
bert Condon of nearby Hopewell Cape) 
to line up a crew. Condon, a master | 
builder with much experience, had no. 
actually done much with ships for : 
some years, but he lined up a crew of | 
the best men available, and the keel o- 
the ‘‘Meredith A. White’’, a schooner,» 
was laid in August, 1917. 

No sooner was the ‘‘Meredith” 
started, when White decided to build | 
sister ship and engaged a young man | 
of potential talent, some 40 miles awit! 
across the Bay of Fundy at Parrsboro. 
This was to be James Graham's first 
ship. No doubt he had learned a lot 
from his father, a man, who at 70, 
had reputedly launched ships equal ir. 
number to the years of his life. Graha) 
laid the keel for the “Vincent A . 
White’ in November, 1917. Both ship 
were designed tobe of 452 tons. 

When Graham came to begin wor. 
as master carpenter and foreman, he | 


| 


jught a couple of experienced Nova 
)tians with him. This was a wise 
e, as all the skilled local men were 
ady working with Condon. To fill 
| his crew, Graham trained some of 
| younger men. In spite of his appar- 
disadvantage, Graham’s crew 
ved ahead with great strides; and 
urther speed his progress, he de- 
d ways to eliminate tedious hand 
k. Timbers, once selected from the 
, were rough sawn ona small mill, 
ing on time-consuming axe shaping. 
ndon’s crew did everything by hand 
lhe old way, and, by late spring, 
{ham had gained the three months 
(nis belated start. Bets were being 
{de on which ship would be launched 
. Before long, it was announced 
I the “’Vincent’’ would be launched 
Ly ugust 7th, and the ‘’Meredith’’ on 
i. Both vessels waited on the 


ways, their masts and spars bedecked 
with flags and bunting. Everyone in the 
village dressed up in their finest; the 
first launching for twenty years! 

To ensure that everything was right, 
Graham sent for his father. Graham 
senior methodically went over the posi- 
tions of the chocking, and supervised 
the greasing of the ways. The appoint- 
ed moment came, the chocks were 
knocked out, and the ‘’Vincent”’ slip- 
ped beautifully out into the full tide. 
Now it was time for the ‘‘Meredith”’ 
to have a turn, and her ways were 
lubricated. It was said that Mr. Lean- 
der Graham commented ‘‘she’ll start... 
but she'll stick’’. And stick she did, and 
the Grahams were blamed for hogging 
the grease! 

A further attempt was made on the 
following day. With the application of 
more grease, the ‘’Meredith’’ went out 
in style, one day late on August 9, 
1918. The last started was the first 
launched. 


Though built at Alma, both the Meredith and 
Vincent were registered in Parrsboro, 
Nova Scotia. 


The White ships under construction. The 
Vincent js in the foreground. 


Conservation Canada 


& 


Joe Boyle: King of the Klondike, 
William Rodney, 

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., 
Toronto, Ontario, 1974. 


Who was Joe Boyle? To a small number of Cana- 
dians Boyle was the archetypal Canadian hero, a 
man whose life and achievements rank him with the 
heroes of American popular history. The fact that he 
was, and is, a little known figure has fostered the 
legend and ina peculiarly Canadian way given it a 
cult-like quality. Whether this image will survive the 
publication of William Rodney’s Joe Boyle: King 
of the Klondike is open to question, for although 
Rodney has written that “‘in the stirring times in 
which Boyle found himself — the Klondike gold 
rush, the Russian Revolution, Roumania’s survival 
and rehabilitation during and after World War I, 
international oil politics — his responsibilities far 
exceeded the parochial. His achievements... 
matched the times and were extraordinary in their 
practical application and long-term effects” (xii), 
the portrait of Boyle that emerges is not that of a 
man in control of events but rather that of aman 
curiously detached from his times. Joe Boyle, hero 
or otherwise, never comes alive in these pages and 
the pity is that it is not for want of effort on Rodney’s 
part, but seemingly because of it. 

Rodney faced an awkward dilemma in 
attempting this biography. Because Boyle had, or 
at least left, no personal records (there are a few 
Boyle letters scattered in other collections), Rod- 
ney was compelled to reconstruct Boyle’s life from 
the personal reminiscences, diaries and corre- 
spondence of others, newspapers, and official cor- 
respondence, reports and despatches. Another, 
possibly wiser, biographer might have decided that 
there was only enough relevant information to 
justify a medium-sized biography. Rodney, his 
search for evidence having taken him from Dawson 
City to Roumania, took the opposite approach with 
the result that Joe Boyle: King of the Klondike, with 
a text of 300-odd pages in small type, is a classic 
of the scissors and paste genre. If history, as one 
wag suggested, is one damn fact after another, 
Rodney's Joe Boyle is an example of what can 
happen when an author tries to compensate for a 
paucity of prime source material by including what 
must have been every reference, irrelevant as well 
as pertinent, that issued from his research. The 
end result is that Boyle, the man, often fades from 
view. This is unfortunate because no one can dis- 
pute that this book is based on a prodigious amount 
of research and because the odd chapter shows 
that Rodney is capable of well-considered, tightly 
written, prose. 

On the plus side, Rodney has given us the first 
scholarly biography of aman whose affairs and 
achievements have long called out for recognition. 


Le pain d’‘habitant, 
Dupont, Jean-Claude 
Leméac 

Montréal, 1974. 


EtcEtcEtcEtcEtc 


SON NII III OTT TOTO COS IOC ICICI OIC COI COICO III ROCIO ICI IOICIOICINICIOICIICICISIeIOICI III 


Le “Pain d‘habitant’’. Pour la plupart des Cana- 
diens francais, ce trait culture! s’est bien amenuisé 
depuis vingt, trente ou cinquante ans et le bon “‘pain 
d’habitant” ou “pain de ménage”’ ne vit plus qu’une 
existence précaire de reliquat folklorique pour les 
touristes sillonnant les routes du Bas-du-Fleuve et 
de la Gaspésie durant les vacances estivales. Pour- 
tant, iln’y a pas encore si longtemps, le pain fait a 

la maison était au centre des préoccupations de la 
vie familiale, surtout dans les campagnes. C’est 
cette réalité, tout cet ensemble de traits culture/s 
rattachés 4 la fabrication du pain et a son utilisation, 
que M. Jean-Claude Dupont a voulu décrire dans 
son petit livre. 

Dans le préambule, I’auteur s‘attache d’abord 
a définir son approche qui sera celle d’un folkloriste 
considérant les faits culture/s autant sous leur 
aspect matérie/ que spirituel. Donc, approche englo- 
bante qui veut cerner |’objet étudié sous toutes ses 
facettes, tout en tenant compte d‘une tradition 
s‘insérant dans un temps culture! qui est celui de 
l'utilisateur. 

Conséquemment, la premiére partie de 
l’‘ouvrage portera sur l’aspect matériel, la techno- 
logie: origine du four a pain; le four a pain, maillon 
d’une chaine d‘activités humaines; types de fours 
a pain au Québec; four communautaire; fabrication 
des fours en glaise; fabrication du “pain d‘habi- 
tant’, du “pain de chantier” et du “pain de cano- 
tier’. Cette section surtout descriptive est appuyée 
de nombreux témoignages oraux. Elle est en général 
bien documentée, mais nous aurions quand méme 
certains reproches a /ui faire sur des points parti- 
culiers. Par exemple, l’auteur parle d'un “four amé- 
rindien du Québec” (p. 22) quiest en fait un four a 
pain a voate percée utilisé par des Montagnais de 
la Céte-Nord. L’expression un peu vague nous 
laisse croire que ce four est typiquement amérindien 
alors qu'il ne s‘agit que d'un emprunt cul/ture!. /l en 
est de méme, a propos de /a fabrication du four en 
glaise a l'aide dun baril, qui est décrite comme 
étant une technique “indienne” tirant son origine 
de Mingan a Sept-lles (p. 40). Un informateur de la 
région de Forillon en Gaspésie, dont la famille était 
originaire de I‘ile de Guernesey, nous a déja rap- 
porté une technique a peu pres identique utilisée i/ 
n'y apas encore tellement d’années par les pécheurs 
saisonniers. On se demande aussi ce que viennent 
faire les descriptions de fours a fondre la graisse de 
baleine, de fours a brique, 4 chaux, a poterie et a 


Conservation Canada 


28 


Conservation Canada 


ottotdasisiotsota 


Despite a tendency to be overly uncritical in his 
treatment of Boyle, Rodney has not sensationalized 
Boyle’s life. To be fair to Rodney, his lack-lustre 
style may have been prompted by Kim Beattie’s 
sensationalized account of Boyle’s life; in any event 
Joe Boyle: King of the Klondike, apart from its solid 
foundation on fact, can be viewed as the antithesis 
of Beattie’s Brother, Here’s a Man! Rodney does 
not, as did Beattie, leave any doubt about Boyle’s 
alleged affair with Queen Marie of Roumania. He 
argues cogently that their relationship was platonic. 
Rodney is also the first author to give Boyle his just 
due in the development of corporate mining in the 
Yukon. This reviewer remains unconvinced that 
Boyle pioneered cold water thawing as Rodney 
asserts, however, since it is not apparent from the 
book that Boyle recognized that cold water was a 
more efficient thawing agent than steam. Rather, it 
appears as though Boyle did no more than take 
advantage of the natural thawing that occurred on 
his Klondike River concession. Although Rodney's 
account of the conversion to capital-intensive 
mining suggests a lack of sympathy for the small 
operator, no one can argue with his assertion that 
the Klondike gold field had to come under the 
umbrella of consolidation if production were to be 
sustained. According to Rodney, Dawson was a 
“singularly poor’ choice for a townsite (p. 31) — 

a claim that does not hold up when the exigencies 
of transportation and the limitations of all northern 
townsites are taken into account. Two minor errors 
might be noted: the Yukon Ditch was 70, not 40, 
miles long as mentioned on p.65, and the Yukon 
Consolidated Gold Corporation did not terminate 
its operations in 1961 (p. 88) but 1966. 


Gordon Bennett 
Historic Research Section 
Parks Canada 


charbon de bois, dans le cadre d’un ouvrage sur le 
pain. Quant a la technique de Ja cuisson du pain 
dans un chaudron de fonte enterré sous les cendres 
chaudes et la braise, elle est trés intéressante. Mais 
nous aurions aimé que |’auteur nous en dise un peu 
plus, surtout que nous I’avons vu décrite dans plu- 
sieurs études ou ouvrages se rapportant a la vie 
traditionnelle en Nouvelle-Angleterre et dans le 
Haut-Canada. 

Les deuxiéme et troisiéme parties, pour uti- 
liser le vocabulaire de |’auteur, portent sur les 
aspects spiritue/s du four et du pain, leur symbo- 
lisme et leur folklore. Des sujets aussi variés les 
uns que les autres, transmis par la tradition orale, 

y sont décrits: le four et le pain, symboles de 
l’attachement aux traditions, de la vie champétre 

et du ‘bon Canadien”; le four et le pain comme 
images de l'homme et de ses sentiments secrets, en 
particulier ce qui regarde la vie sexuelle; la person- 
nification du four et du pain qui culmine dans le 
baptéme du four, lors de sa construction; le four a 
pain et les thémes de la délivrance et de /a punition. 
Pour appuyer ses dires, l’auteur a pris la peine de 
tirer de nombreux exemples, chansons et contes, 
de la tradition populaire. || en résulte un assemblage 
extrémement vivant de faits qui donnent au four et 
au pain un tout autre aspect. Ce ne sont plus de 
simples objets inertes que nous avons devant nous, 
mais des objets qui vivent de la vie de ceux qui les 
ont fabriqués et qui les utilisent..... 

En somme, un petit livre bien écrit et facile a 
lire, séduisant par le sujet qu'il traite et par son 
approche, auquel on pourrait cependant reprocher 
un certain manque de profondeur tant du point de 
vue historique que des faits rapportés, car nous 
savons qu'il existe beaucoup plus de matériel 
ethnographique et de documents écrits sur les fours 
a pain et le pain que nous I|’a présenté M. Dupont 
dans son ouvrage. Mais peut-étre que tel n’était pas 
l'idée de l’auteur d’épuiser le sujet complétement 
et qu’il a voulu formuler, en tant que folkloriste, une 
ceuvre de facture populaire et, sans s’‘embarrasser 
de trop nombreux détails, une premiére synthése 
groupant les faits, gestes et paroles, se rapportant 
au pain. En cela, il a presque réussi. 


Marcel Moussette 
Division de la Recherche 
Section d‘histoire de la 
culture matériel/le 

Parcs Canada 


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Descending from Mount Logan. 


Amorce de retour aprés Il’ascen- 
sion du mont Logan. 


Hans Fuhrer 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. Judd Buchanan, PC, MP, 
Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
©I|nformation Canada, Ottawa 1976 

INA Publication No. OS-7021-010-BB-A1 


Editors: Sheila Crutchlow, 
Madeleine Doyon 

Production: Barry P. Boucher 
Design: Jacques Charette and 
Associates Ltd. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 
Translations of articles in the other official 
language are available on request from 

The Editor, Conservation Canada, Information 
Services, Department of Indian and 

Northern Affairs, Ottawa, K1A OH4. 


To have your name added to our mailing list 
please write to the above address. 
Conservation Canada is a quarterly 
publication. 


Publié par Parcs Canada avec |’autorisation 
de |‘hon. Judd Buchanan, CP, député, 
ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord 
©lnformation Canada, Ottawa, 1976 
Publication AIN N° OS-7021-010-BB-A1 


Rédaction: Madeleine Doyon, Sheila Crutchlow 
Production: Barry P. Boucher 
Graphisme: Jacques Charette et 
Associés Ltée 


On peut reproduire les textes 4 condition 

d’en indiquer la provenance. Pour obtenir la 
traduction d’articles rédigés dans |’autre 
langue officielle, il suffit d’en faire la demande 
au Rédacteur, Conservation Canada, 
Direction de l'information, Division de Parcs 
Canada, Ministére des Affaires indiennes et 
du Nord, Ottawa, K1A OH4. 


S’adresser a la méme personne pour s’inscrire 
a la liste d’envoi. Conservation Canada 
parait quatre fois |’an. 


Contents 


Conservation 
Canada 


Success on Mount Logan 


Rob Duncan 


Les cavernes de Castleguard Jacques Fleury 8 
Challenge Under the Glacier 

Fort Wellington Joan Sadkowski 18 
Lieu mouvant, jamais Marc Trudel 20 
pareil a lui-méme 

Klondike treasure unearthed Lynn Mustard 25 
Etc - oa 30 


Welcome to volume two of Conser- 
vation Canada. This issue we take our 
readers up and under two of the most 
spectacular mountains in the country. 
First up — to the summit of Mount 
Logan in Kluane National Park with an 
ambitious Parks Canada mountain- 
eering team determined to conquer 
Canada's highest peak. Then, under 
— Mount Castleguard in Banff Na- 
tional Park with a group of speleolo- 
gists and their accompanying film 
crew to explore Castleguard Cave, 
the longest cave in Canada and one 
of our very special places. 

As well, we have the story 
behind a modern day treasure from 
the Klondike gold fields and a poetic 
dissertation on Elk Island National 
Park by its naturalist Marc Trudel. 
Finally, a brief glimpse into the kind 
of enthusiasm generated by a bunch 
of kids when interpreters test a recipe 
aimed at enticing their most junior 
audiences. 


Ce numéro nous plonge dans |’action, 
heureusement tempérée par un dé- 
tour a Elk Island et a fort Wellington. 
Méme en plein juillet, les plus 
hauts glaciers du Yukon sont pour 
ainsi dire inabordables. Pourtant, des 
gens du parc Kluane se hissaient 
|‘été dernier au sommet du mont 
Logan, le plus élevé au pays. Autre 
aventure qui requérait de rares qua- 
lités d’'endurance, le tournage d’un 
film a l‘intérieur des cavernes du mont 
Castleguard dans les Rocheuses. 
Enfin, une pompe a vapeur, abandon- 
née sous les déchets miniers, érigée 
au début du siécle par un chercheur 
d‘or qui voulait vendre de |’eau, devait 
déménager a Bear Creek, prés de 
Dawson. Or, c’était un mastodonte. 
Dans une mer de champs cul- 
tivés, en Alberta, Elk Island abrite 
étangs, herbes folles, arbres et bétes. 
Et a fort Wellington, par la magie 
du geste, on devient soldat britan- 
nique du siécle dernier. 


Volume 2 no 1, 1976 3 


$s u ccess on 


fiount Logar n . 


A Parks Canada First 


by Rob Duncan “photos . Hans Fuhrer 


—_— ~— On July 11,1975, two members of a 
f Parks Canada climbing expedition 
became the highest standing members” 
_ of the Canadian Civil Service. They 
lay claim to this distinction by reach- — 
— ._. ingthe summit of Mount Logan, 
ot panaseeriohest mountain. : 
ee Kluane National Park, located in 
| ite Southwest corner of Canada’s | 
| Sel Nukon Territory encompasses a large | 
- ene ae on _gection of the St. Elias Mountain 
aa ~~ aad Icefield Ranges. The St. Elias 
* *- region is an endless sea of snow and 
_— ice where gaping crevasses plunge 
Sees _ to great depths and monstrous moun- 
tains soar up thousands of feet. The 


alte 


Fuane Mountains are also within the 


~» Park. While considerably smaller than 


the St.Elias giants, this rarge still 
boasts some highly impressive peaks. 
The Kluane Range is accessible 

from the Alaska Highway and presents 
the enthusiast with hiking plus rock 
and ice climbing opportunities. Moun- 
taineering in this area falls under 

the alpine classification and while 
climbers must-register in and out at 

__ Kluane Park Headquarters, such 
‘activity is not considered an expedi- 
tion. A pamphlet entitled General 
Information On The St. Elias Moun- 

tains, Kluane National Park provides 
useful information.on the park’s 
other mountain range. Climbing in this. 


region is considered an expedition 


for which-one must meet stringent 


signed by a physician says: ‘The 
climber will be carrying heavy loads 
(often 60-90 Ibs.) at altitudes between 
10,000 ft. and 19,000 ft. conditions 
vary from intense snow glare with 
temperatures as high as‘90°F to - 
storms with winds over 100 .m.p-h and 
temperatures below — 402 PE xpe- 
ditions usually last'from two to six 
weeks. Prolonged confinement within 
cramped tents or snow’caves due to 
bad weather often-occurs. Rescue may 
be exceedingly slow. and uncertain 

in case of serious injury or illness”. 

To have unqualified people 
attempt mountaineering in such an 
area would be to allow a suicide mis= 
sion. Climbing inthe St. Elias Range 
can be arisky:business even for the 
most experienced: climber. lt was with 
this ia mind-that Hans Fuhrer, (Alpine 


“Specialist for the Kluane National 
Park Warden Service) organized an 


. * 


A National Parks expedition had 
ventured a summit attempt in 1973. 
At about the same time a Japanese ex- 
pedition set out to climb the moun- 
tain. Due to weather conditions (ter- 
rible) the Parks expedition turned 
back but the Japanese, after coming 
all this way, refused to quit. They were 
successful but only after an incredible 
forty-eight days, of which merely 
ten were fit to travel. 

To discover the St. Elias area is 
to discover the world’s largest ice- 
fields outside polar regions, not to 
mention Canada’s highest mountain 
ranges. Park wardens such as Hans 
Fuhrer, Ron Chambers and Lloyd 
Freese, after experiencing the area 
first hand, will be better prepared for 


expedition to climb Mount Logan. 
He felt that exposure of Kluane Park 
Rescue Team members to this, the 
King of the St. Elias Range, was an 
endurance test imperative to develop- 
ing skills needed in rescue operations. 
The expedition included two other 
park wardens, Ron Chambers and 
Lloyd Freese, and Dr. Drummond 
Rennie, a member of the Arctic 
Institute of North America (A.I.N.A.). 
The group was flown to the 
Mount Logan area and disembarked at 
the King Trench, 11,000 ft. Eleven 
days later they reached Dr. Rennie’s 
final destination, the Arctic Institute 
Physiology Research Cam at 17,500 
ft. During their ascent to this point, 
they had experienced a near fatal ice 


Expedition leader Hans Fuhrer, 
Chief Park Warden, Kluane 
National Park. 


Le meneur de I’expédition, 
Hans Fuhrer, garde en chef du 
parc national Kluane. 


avalanche plus normal acclimatization 
annoyances. Climbers must acclima- 
tize (become accustomed to their new 
environment) as they gain altitude. 
Above 15,000 ft. it is only advisable 
to gain about 500 ft. per day, without 
returning to a lower altitude to accli- 
matize. Severe storms had confined 
the party to their tents for two of these 
first eleven days. 

The wee hours of the following 
day saw the park trio departing from 
the A.I.N.A. Camp and setting their 
sights on the summit. Finally, pin- 
nacles of the St. Elias Range spread 
out below as expedition members 
stood 19,500 ft. above sea level. They 
had reached the west peak of Mount 
Logan. The hungry eye of their camera 
opened and closed, recording this 
geographic spectacular in the indelible 
mind of film. 

Radio communication, which the 
expedition maintained with the out- 
side world, acted only as an audible 
intrusion in a land where nature’s tune 
is number one. Prospects of being 
picked up by air transport at high alti- 
tudes seemed very dismal, so the 
expedition descended. They were 
picked up at King Trench where, 
twenty-five days earlier it had all 
begun. As the helicopter whisked them 
towards Park Headquarters the 
weather closed in behind and re- 
mained miserable for the next ten days. 


rescue work which may be neces- 
sary in the future. They learned that 
this is an area to be respected, where 
winds issue ominous warnings and 
every crevasse mouth says ‘watch 
your step’’. Yet for those who are 
prepared, an expedition in the St. 
Elias range is perhaps the finest way 
to discover one of Kluane National 
Park’s most exciting facets. 


Rob Duncan Is a summer student with 
the Engineering and Architecture 
Division of Parks Canada in Winnipeg. 


Base camp at King’s Trench 
(11,000 ft) Queen Peak in 
background. 


Point de départ de |’expédition: 
King Trench, 11,000 pieds 
d’altitude. A I’arriére-plan, le 
mont Queen. 


Camping in the shadow of 
King’s Peak. 


Campement cette fois au col 
King. Et voila le pic King. 


His smile of triumph somewhat 
muffled, Ron Chambers poses at 
the summit of Mount Logan 
Wi9;850 ft). 


Enfin au sommet! Altitude 
19,850 pieds. Cet homme emmi- 
touflé, c'est Ron Chambers, 
garde 4 Kluane. 


A spectacular view of the expe- 
dition at Icefall Camp 

(15,700 ft). 

Altitude 15,700 pieds. La tente 
fut dressée pres d’une statue 
de glace. 


pean 
uu 
i 


Le 77 juillet dernier, des alpinistes du 
parc national Kluane atteignaient le 
sommet du mont Logan, le plus élevé 
au pays. Une premiére tentative en 
1973 s 6tait heurtée 4 des tempétes 
qui en avaient eu raison. 

Le parc, situé au sud-ouest du 
Yukon, est traversé par deux chaines: 
les monts Kluane et les monts St. 
Elias. Les premiers, longés par la 
route de /’Alaska, sont a la mesure de 
Sportifs en bonne forme. Quant aux 
seconds, i/s reguiérent plus gue des 
aptitudes. |/ faut une santé exception- 
nelle et /e parc exige un certificat 
médical spécial pour en permettre 
l’ascension. Le vent, le froid, la neige, 
‘altitude surtout mettent les auda- 
cieux a rude épreuve. L’expédition 
dure plusieurs semaines. Durant la 
tempéte, i/ n'y a d’autre issue gue 
den attendre /a fin sous la tente ou 
dans une antfranctuosité de roc ou 
de neige. 

Aussi i/ faut prévoir la formation 
d'une éguipe de secours en cas 
d’urgence. Quel mei//eur apprentis- 
sage gue de gravir soi-méme le mont 
Logan, le plus hardi de la chaine 
St. Elias? Ainsi, Hans Fuhrer, alpi- 
niste a Kluane, partait |"été dernier 
avec deux gardes du parc. 

Portée par hélicopteére a une 
altitude de que/gue 17,000 pi/eds, 
léguipe arrivait onze jours plus tard, 
ayant été retenue deux jours par la 
tempéte, a un centre de recherche 
physiologique situé environ 650 pieds 
plus haut. C’était le but du voyage 
d’un spécialiste de l’arctique gui ac- 
compagnait le groupe. Puls /e trio 
continua j/usgu'au sommet. Heureuse- 
ment i/ faisait beau 419,854 pieds 
d’altitude ce jour-la au Yukon, i/ était 
possible de photographier les monts 
environnants. Enfin, hélicoptere 
venait cuel/lir au méme endroit les 
hommes gu'il avait déposeés vingt-cing 
jours auparavant, hommes qui savent 
maintenant de guelle manieére les 
monts St. Elias se défendent. 


Voila une stalactite étrange. 
Contrairement a ses soeurs 
d’autres grottes, elle a di se 
plier aux caprices du vent qui 
traverse son abri. D’oll vient ce 
vent? On ne sait pas. Apparem- 
ment, la caverne na qu'une 
ouverture. 


Mysterious cave winds have 
sculpted this twisted stalagtite 
over the many centuries of its 
formation. 


“‘Les cavernes du mont Castle- 
guard ont ignoré les lois de la nature. 
Elles sont froides, humides, obscures, 
et rien ou presque rien ne devrait 
se développer en de telles conditions. 
Pourtant, elles abritent les stalac- 
tites et les stalagmites les plus vieilles 
et les plus magnifiques au Canada.” 

L’auteur de cette observation 
n'est pas le dernier venu en matiére 
de formation des cavernes. Derek 
Ford, professeur de géologie a |’uni- 
versité McMaster, est spéléologue 
depuis quelque 27 années. Depuis 
lage de 12 ans, il a exploré pres de 
800 cavernes a travers le monde, 
“certaines, plus de 100 fois”’. 

En avril 1974, lui-méme et une 
€quipe de spéléologues ont exploré 
les cavernes du mont Castleguard, 
dans le parc national Banff, en Alber- 
ta. Leur but était de tourner un film 
qui permettrait a tous les Canadiens 
de découvrir cette région inaccessible. 


Des cavernes particuliéres 

Les cavernes de Castleguard 
contredisent une hypothése généra- 
lement bien acceptée a savoir que 
les stalactites et les stalagmites de 
grande dimension, trés fines et délica- 
tement sculptées, se développent 
exclusivement dans les régions tro- 
picales. 

Cette hypothése se vérifie dans 
la plupart des cavernes des mon- 
tagnes Rocheuses. Les stalactites et 


les stalagmites y sont peu nom- 
breuses, plus petites, moins élabo- 
rées, tres simples, minuscules, et 
parfois trés rares. 

Mais il n’en est pas ainsi dans 
les cavernes du mont Castleguard. 
La section centrale de ces grottes ren- 
ferme une quantité infinie de su- 
perbes stalactites et stalagmites 
toutes trés pures, immaculées ou ro- 
sées. Pourtant, ce sont les couloirs 
les plus élevés au monde. Trés froids, 
ils passent sous une montagne dont 
le sommet s’éléve a plus de 3,000 
métres (10,000 pieds) d’altitude. Ils 
serpentent sous un glacier pour for- 
mer une caverne unique au monde. 

Cette particularité pose aux sa- 
vants une énigme de taille. Toutefois, 
ce n'est pas la seule. De récentes 
explorations ont mené a la découverte 
d’un deuxiéme couloir, mais per- 
sonne ne s’y est aventuré jusqu’a 
présent. 


Crues subites 

Les difficultés techniques ont 
été telles qu’aucune expédition ne 
s'est encore risquée a explorer ces 
gouffres. ‘‘Deux spéléologues ont 
failli laisser leur peau 4 Castleguard, 
révele Derek Ford. Ils étaient partis 
en exploration pour 24 heures afin de 
se rendre le plus loin possible. Au 
retour, ils étaient 6puisés. Une crue 
subite des eaux avait scellé le pas- 
sage et ils se sont vus soudainement 


“Mount Castleguard’s caves ignore 
the laws of nature. They are cold, 
humid and dark and under these con- 
ditions almost nothing should have 
developed. Nevertheless, they contain 
some of the oldest and most magni- 
ficent stalactites and stalagmites in 
Canada.” 

The person making this state- 
ment has great expertise in the field 
of cave formation, Dr. Derek Ford 
of McMaster University, has been a 
speleologist for some 27 years. He 
has explored some 800 caves through- 
out the world since he was 12 years 
old, and has visited some of them 
more than 100 times. He and a group 
of speleologists explored Castle- 
guard cave in Banff National Park in 
April of 1974. 

A number of earlier attempts 
by a variety of cavers had resulted 
only in a partial exploration of the 
cave. Determined to go “all the way”, 
Dr. Ford gathered together a thirty- 
person film crew to accompany the 
five-man exploration team in the hope 
of capturing on film, the penetration 
of what they knew would prove to be 
a remarkable cave. 

Astonishingly, not only did the 
team succeed in following the cave 
the full seven and a half miles to its 
emergence under the Columbia ice- 
field but the entire venture was 
recorded in the film Castleguard 
Cave: Challenge Under the Glacier. 

Castleguard contradicts the 
generally held theory that large, or- 
nate calcite formations develop 
only in tropical regions; a theory that 


prisonniers, emmurés.”’ 

Une équipe de secours est par- 
venue a les tirer de ce mauvais pas. 
‘Le niveau de l'eau avait baissé de 18 
centimétres (7 pouces) et nous 
avons pu les sortir de la sains et 
saufs, précise Ford. Dix minutes plus 
tard, l’‘issue s’est bouchée a nou- 
veau, pour les 19 jours suivants.” 

A cause de ces crues subites et 
fréquentes, les spéléologues ont 
décidé de n’explorer ces cavernes 
qu’en hiver. Cette décision a certes 
amoindri les risques d’accident, 
mais des ennuis d’‘un autre ordre ont 
surgi: une caverne n’est guére con- 
fortable en hiver. Surtout si elle pé- 
nétre sous le champ de glace le 
plus massif et le plus étendu du 
Canada. 


Température 

L’entrée de la caverne est située 
a 2,100 métres (6,500 pieds) d’al- 
titude et le couloir gravit une pente 
d‘un peu plus de 300 métres (1,000 
pieds). Aprés avoir marché, rampé, 
trimé dur pendant plus de 11 kilo- 
métres (sept milles), les spéléologues 
atteignent la fin de |’un des couloirs 
sous le grand champ de glace Colum- 
bia. En cours de route, ils passent 
directement sous le sommet de la 
montagne. Prés de 1,000 métres 
(3,000 pieds) de roc et de glace s‘en- 
tassent alors au-dessus de leurs tétes. 

La température environnante 
rend leur progression encore plus la- 
borieuse. Pour comprendre le phé- 
nomeéne, il suffit de penser a un tube 
incliné, comme le suggére Derek 


is based on the fact that stalagmites 
and stalactites are rare in alpine caves 
and those that exist are mainly very 
small and simple. 

Not so in Castleguard! The 
central section of the grottos contain 
a multitude of superb, very pure 
white or pinkish calcite formations. 
Yet it is the most alpine of environ- 
ments, meandering under a mountain 
whose altitude reaches 10,000 feet 
(3,000 metres) on which rests the 
largest alpine glacier in the world. 

It is a peculiar riddle and made 
more complex by the recent knowl- 
edge that at least one other cave 
exists adjacent to that already ex- 
plored although no one has ventured 
into it as yet. 


Sudden Floods 

Technical difficulties have been 
so great that no single expedition 
has yet taken the risk of exploring the 
recently discovered gallery. 

“Two cavers almost lost their 
lives in Castleguard”’, revealed Dr. 
Ford. “‘They left on a 24-hour trip in- 
tending to cover the greatest dis- 
tance possible in the time. Exhausted 
upon their return journey, they 
stopped for a rest and a sudden rise 
in the water level sealed off the pas- 
sage and they found themselves pri- 
soners in a walled-in cage. 

The level receded to seven 
inches and a rescue team was able to 
get them out safely. Within ten min- 
utes of their escape, the water level 
again rose suddenly and the exit was 
closed off for another 19 days.”’ 


Dans Les Rocheuses au parc 
national Banff, le mont Castle- 
guard haut de 10,000 pieds, 
cache le cheminement de ses 
couloirs intérieurs. 


Mount Castleguard. 


Explorateurs, cuisiniers, un 
meédecin, équipe de tournage: en 
tout trente personnes s’apprétent 


a démystifier la caverne de 


Castleguard. 


The 30-person crew including 
the 5-man exploration team and 
some of the equipment and 


supplies. 


Une grande fissure. 


One of the awesome fissures of 
Castleguard. 


Ford. ‘‘Nous entrons au point le plus 
bas ou, a cette haute altitude, sifflent 
des bises glaciales. Le point le plus 
élevé atteint le champ de glace Co- 
lumbia, un grand glacier, également 
trés froid.’’ Le mont Castleguard 
recouvre la section centrale des ca- 
vernes d’une épaisse couverture 

de roc et de glace. C’est la section 

la moins froide. 

Un violent courant d’air balaie 
‘entrée. En hiver, le thermométre 
n'y indique guére plus de —8°C. 
(20°F). Puis, la température s’éléve 
graduellement et elle atteint O°C. 
(32°F.), € environ un demi-mille de 
l‘entrée. Le mercure monte ensuite 
péniblement jusqu’au point le moins 
froid 2°C. (37°F.) puis, tombe 
rapidement a O°C. (32°F.), a proxi- 
mité du champ de glace Columbia. 

Le froid et |‘humidité traversent 
en un rien de temps les combinai- 
sons des spéléologues, qui ne peuvent 
s’embarrasser de trop de vétements. 
Apres quelques minutes d’escalades 
ou de descentes, ils sont inondés de 
sueurs. S‘ils se reposent, ils de- 
viennent vite transis et leurs muscles 
risquent de se contracter. Par sur- 
croit, les bassins d’eau glacée forment 
des obstacles qu’ils doivent con- 
tourner. 


L’Everest des abimes 

Voici comment les cavernes de 
Castleguard mettent 4 rude épreuve 
l"expérience, |’endurance, |’adresse et 
la robustesse de ceux qui osent sy 
aventurer. Elles sont longues et com- 
portent plusieurs embiches bien 


Because of the frequent and 
sudden flooding, speleologists have 
decided to explore Castleguard only 
during the frozen months of winter. 
Although this decision has decreased 
the risk of accidents, it has resulted in 
a number of nuisances related to the 
discomfort of crawling through an 
ice-lined cave in below zero temper- 
atures. 


Temperatures 

The cave’s entrance is located 
at an altitude of 6,500 feet (2,100 
metres) and the speleologist must 
work, climb and crawl upward, 
another 1000 feet (300 metres) over 
the seven and a half miles to the 
end of the tunnel, an abrupt wall of 
ice under the Columbia icefield. On 
the way they must pass directly 
under the top of the mountain at which 
point, they are conscious of 1000 
feet (300 metres) of rock and ice 
resting serenly, above their heads. 

The cave can be likened to a 
tilted tube. Glacial winds blast the 
entrance, the cave’s lowest point, and 
the highest point under the icefield 
is almost as cold. The thick layer of 
rock and ice of Mount Castleguard 
which covers the central section keeps 
temperatures comfortably higher. 
During the winter the thermometer 
rarely reaches more than minus 08°C 
(20°F ) rising to freezing about half 
a mile in. Thereafter the temperature 
slowly rises to a height of 2°C 
(37°F) and falls sharply again to 
freezing near the icefield. 

The cold and dampness pene- 


Le plancher s’effondre, un puits 
d'une profondeur inconnue em 
péche d‘avancer. || faut lancer 
une échelle de corde, aller jus 
qu au fond, puis remonter. Cette 
cavite de 80 pieds est située a 
prés de deux milles de |’entrée 


The first major shaft — an 80 foot 
drop almost two miles trom the 
entrance. 


Pour contourner le probleme 
posé par la crue des eaux, l’expé 


dition a lieu I’hiver. Mais sur un 
parcours de 900 pieds environ 
la voite est si basse qu'il faut 


ramper sur la glace. 


Looking easy, the 300 yard ice 
crawl is uncomfortable and 
difficult. 


Vingt-sept batteries de moto- 
neige alimentaient |’éclairage 
nécessaire au tournage. C’est le 
moment de les recharger. 


Recharging some of the 27 
12-volt batteries used as a power 
source by the film crew. 


dissimulées. Failles, puits, gouffres, 
tout contribue a empécher les spé- 
léologues de progresser. Seuls quel- 
ques passages sont faciles a franchir. 
Et, bien sar, elles ne tolérent 
pas d’apprentis, car les riques d’acci- 
dents sont trés grands. ‘’Si quelqu’un 
se blessait griévement, précise Derek 
Ford, il n’aurait que trés peu de 
chances de s’en tirer. En somme, les 
spéléologues y rencontrent les mémes 
obstacles que les alpinistes a |’as- 
saut des plus hautes cimes de I|‘Hi- 
malaya. Ces cavernes sont, a n’en 
point douter, |’Everest des abimes.”’ 


Fissures 

Les longues et étroites fissures 
verticales constituent une autre carac- 
téristique des cavernes de Castle- 
guard. Elles atteignent des profon- 
deurs de 12 4 25 métres (40 a 80 
pieds) et courent sur plusieurs milles. 
De véritables canyons souterrains. 

Trés minces, ces fissures ont 
été formées par |’érosion qui a com- 
mencé le long de la voUte et qui a 
découpé des parois verticales comme 
dans un canyon. Elles sont si étroites 
qu'on ne peut marcher sur le plancher 
des cavernes, qui leur céde la place. 

Il faut alors avancer en utilisant 
comme prises de pied, les minuscules 
saillies des parois. Dans de tels cas, 
|’exploration se révéle particuliére- 
ment ardue. Souvent, les parois suin- 
tantes et trés glissantes n’offrent pas 
de saillies. 

L’absence de telles saillies 
oblige le spéléologue a remonter 
ou a descendre pour poursuivre sa 


trate caver’s clothing in no time. Be- 
cause they cannot be hindered by 

too many clothes, they are bathed in 
sweat within a few minutes of 
strenuous climbing. Resting results in 
cooling and the risk of-chills and 
cramped muscles. 


The Mount Everest of 

the Caves 

The Castleguard caves really 
test experience, endurance, skills and 
ruggedness of those venturing 
into them. They are long and contain 
several well-hidden traps. Faults, 
shafts and abysses all hinder the 
cavers progress. Only a few passages 
are easy to cross. 

These caves are definitely not 
for the novice, because the risk of 
accidents is very high. “lf someone 
were to be seriously injured, there 
would be little chance that he would 
get out’’, Derek Ford explained. “‘In 
short, the speleologists have to over- 
come the same obstacles as the 
mountain climbers meet on the high- 
est slopes of the Himalayas. These 
caves are undoubtedly the Mount 
Everest of the caves”. 


Fissures 

Long, narrow vertical fissures 
are another characteristic of the 
Castleguard caves. Their depth va- 
ries from 40 to 80 feet (12 to 25 
meters) and their length often reaches 
several miles. They are veritable un- 
derground canyons. 

These fissures were formed by 
erosion that started along the ceiling. 


Un canif permet d‘évaluer la 
dimension de ces perles sur le 


sol. Perles, car elles se dévelop- 
pent comme dans une huitre. Un 
grain de sable devient le centre 
de dép6ts calcaires. 


Cave pearls are formed by even 
layers of calcium deposited 
about minute grains of sand. 


1o) 


Métro. 
The subway. 


route. Il s’arc-boutera des pieds sur la 
paroi qui lui fait face, et appuiera 

son dos sur |’autre pour se maintenir 
en équilibre au-dessus de la fissure. 
Ces passages s’avérent les plus épui- 
sants des cavernes. 


Satisfactions 

Si les cavernes de Castleguard 
présentent un grand nombre de diffi- 
cultés, elles procurent en retour un 
nombre égal de satisfactions. Elles 
sont en quelque sorte un chef- 
d'oeuvre de sculptures taillées par 
I’érosion. ‘On me considére géné- 
ralement comme un spécialiste de la 
formation des cavernes, signale M. 
Ford, et jamais, de toutes les cavernes 
que jai explorées a travers le 
monde, n’en ai-je rencontré une seule 
qui maintienne sur une telle dis- 
tance, des formes et des dimensions 
semblables a celles-ci.”’ 

Il s’agit vraiment de deux ca- 
vernes dont I’une est formée d’une 
série de grands puits et de fissures 
trés abruptes. Au milieu, s’étale une 
fracture. La caverne semble effec- 
tuer des soubresauts. Le décor change 
constamment. Voici les galeries, 
elles sont superbes. Chaque virage 
offre une vue totalement différente 
et tout aussi splendide. Puis, les spé- 
léologues entament la seconde 
grande section des cavernes ou se 
succédent une grande fissure, un 
puits, une paroi verticale, une autre 
grande fissure, un puits, une esca- 
lade, et c’est fini. 

Les cavernes de Castleguard 
ressemblent donc a deux ensembles 


It has cut vertical walls in the cave, 
as it would in a canyon. They are so 
narrow that one is unable to walk 

on their bottoms. 

Progress must then be made by 
using the minuscule protrusions of 
the walls as footholds. Under these 
circumstances, exploration proves 
to be especially difficult. Quite often, 
the slick, sweating walls offer no 
foothold at all. 

The lack of such protrusions 
forces the speleologist to climb or 
descend in order to proceed. He 
braces himself with his feet against 
the wall facing him and with his 
back against the other wall to main- 
tain his balance above the fissure. 
These passages are the most ex- 
hausting in the caves. 


Satisfactions 

Even though Castleguard 
Caves present a large number of dif- 
ficulties, they also provide a great 
deal of satisfaction. They form a fine 
erosional scenery. Dr. Ford, who is 
considered to be a specialist in caves 
and has seen many caves throughout 
the world but never one “‘that fea- 
tures, over such a long distance, 
shapes and dimensions similar to 
those of these caves”’. 

In fact, there are two caves, one 
of which is formed by a series of 
large shafts and very abrupt fissures. 
There is a fracture in the centre. This 
cave seems to have gone through 
many upheavals. The setting changes 
constantly. There are superb gal- 
leries. Each turn offers a totally dif- 


Une image sur le mur. Des bulles 
d’air prises dans la glace. 


Etrange reflet d’un monticule 
de glace. 


Portions of cave walls are 
decorated by air bubbles trapped 


in ice. 


Examining an ice mound on the 
floor of a small chamber. 


trés simples, réunis au centre par 
des galeries d’une architecture hau- 
tement élaborée. 


Un laboratoire unique 

Les cavernes de Castleguard 
ont encore plus d’attraits pour les 
spécialistes: elles constituent un labo- 
ratoire unique ou ils peuvent étu- 
dier dans des conditions hautement 
favorables, le phénoméne de la 
glaciation. Les stalactites et les sta- 
lagmites qu’elles préservent sont 
d’une richesse inestimable pour 
l‘avancement des connaissances dans 
ce domaine. 

Grace aux données que recélent 
ces formations minéralogiques, les 
chercheurs espérent pouvoir établir 
un diagramme de |’évolution de la 
température a la base du champ de 
glace Columbia, I’une des derniéres 
masses de l’ére des glaciations au 
Canada. 

Jusqu’ici, ils ont été plus que 
comblés. Ils ont trouvé dans les 
cavernes de Castleguard une stalag- 
mite vieille de 140,000 ans. Ce sont 
donc de trés vieilles cavernes, au 
moins plus vieilles que les deux der- 
niéres glaciations qui ont recouvert 
le sud de |’Ontario. 

C’est afin de présenter aux Cana- 
diens un document sur ce laboratoire 
unique que fut approuvé a Parcs 
Canada le tournage d'un film sur ces 
cavernes exceptionnelles. Certes, le 
projet présentait beaucoup d’intérét, 
mais il a exigé des spéléologues des 
efforts peu communs. 

La plus grande difficulté fut 


Au bord d’un puits de 30 pieds a 
300 pieds de |’entrée, un homme 
signale le départ de la caméra. 


Filming in the grottoes. 


ferent view, as splendid as the one 
preceding it. The speleologists then 
move on to the second large section 
of the caves where they find, in quick 
succession, a large fissure, a shaft, 

a vertical wall, another large fissure, 
another shaft, and finally, a steep 
slope. 

Therefore, the Castleguard Caves 
resemble two very simple masses. 
united in the centre by a network of 
galleries containing highly orna- 
mented features. 


A Unique Laboratory 

The Castleguard Caves are even 
more attractive to the specialist: they 
constitute a unique laboratory where 
one can study glaciation under highly 
favourable conditions. The stalac- 
tites and stalagmites preserved in 
these caves represent an invaluable 
source of knowledge, in this 
field. 

Thanks to data revealed by these 
mineral formations, researchers 
hope to be able to build up a picture 
of the evolution of the temperature 
at the base of the Columbia icefield, 
one of the last masses dating back 
to the Ice Age in Canada. 

Until now they have been more 
than satisfied. They found, in the 
Castleguard Caves, a stalagmite that 
is 140,000 years old, older than the 
last two big glaciations that came 
down and buried Southern Ontario. 

/n order to present a document 
concerning this unique laboratory 
to Canadians, Parks Canada approved 
the making of a film on these excep- 


Tournage d'une escalade en 
encoignure. 


Filming within the confines of 
the cave posed a whole new set 
of problems for the film crew. 


l’éclairage de ces dédales tout a fait 
impraticables. Pour résoudre cet 
important probleme technique, il a 
fallu transporter dans les moindres 
recoins des cavernes de Castle- 
guard 27 batteries de motoneiges, 
de 12 volts chacune. Cette opéra- 
tion a mobilisé une trentaine de per- 
sonnes bien que seuls cing spé- 
léologues apparaissent a |’écran. 

Est-il nécessaire d’ajouter que 
le tournage s’est déroulé en deux 
périodes de neuf jours, espacées 
d’‘une période de trois jours? Au cours 
de la premiére étape, les spéléo- 
logues ont quitté chaque jour leur 
Camp de base pour se rendre sur 
le plateau, a l’intérieur des cavernes. 
Cette opération était quelque peu 
exténuante a la longue. 

Pour la seconde étape, tout le 
matériel nécessaire fut transporté 
au point le plus éloigné de |’entrée, 
soit a six kilométres (4 milles) a 
l’intérieur. C’est en travaillant a re- 
bours, systématiquement, chaque 
jour, pendant 10, 14, 16, 18 et méme 
20 heures par jour, que |’équipe a 
filmé les séquences les plus belles, 
mais aussi les plus difficiles: les 
grottes et les fissures. 

Dans cette optique, Les cavernes 
de Castleguard constitue un docu- 
mentaire particuliérement intéressant 
qui pourrait sans doute remporter 
la palme parmi les films réalisés sur 
les emplacements et dans les con- 
ditions les plus difficiles. 


Jacques Fleury est agent 
d'information a Parcs Canada. 


tional caves. True, the project proved 
to be very interesting, but it required 
very great efforts on the part of the 
speleologists. 

Lighting these entirely inacces- 
sible labyrinths proved. to be the 
greatest difficulty. In order to solve 
this important technical problem, 

27 snowmobile batteries, at 12 volts 
each, had to be carried into every 
corner of the Castleguard Caves. This 
operation required some thirty per- 
sons, even though only five speleolo- 
gists appeared on the screen. 

The film was shot in two nine- 
day periods each with a three-day 
interval. During the first phase, the 
speleologists left their base camp 
every day to go inside the caves. At 
the end, this operation proved to be 
somewhat exhausting. 

During the second phase, all 
the equipment was transported to the 
point farthest removed from the 
entrance, 4 miles (6 kilometers) 
inside the caves. Systematically 
backtracking, working 10-hour, 14- 
hour, 76-hour, 18-hour and even 
20-hour days, the team filmed the 
most beautiful but also the most 
difficult sequences: the grottoes and 
the fissures. 

It was incredibly hard work for 
the 30 participants, under the worst 
possible conditions for film making 
but the results were gratifying from 
both scientific and aesthetic points 
of view. 


Jacques Fleury is an Information 
Officer with Parks Canada. 


Stalactites et stalagmites sortent 
un instant et a jamais de leur nuit 
plusieurs fois millénaire. 
Stalactites d’une variété dont 
M. Ford, qui a visité quelque 
800 cavernes, ne prévoyait pas 
la présence. 


The variety of calcite and ice 
formations in Castleguard cave 
are astonishing even to 
speleologists. 


Take an enormous Curiosity 


Une grande curiosité 


18 


Add plenty of friendly motivation 


Quelques indications judicieuses 


At Fort Wellington, 
It's Time for Kids 


Photo story by Joan Sadkowski 


Kids have been coming to Fort Wel- 
lington National Historic Park in 
Prescott, Ontario for years — to play 
soldiers in an authentic atmosphere; 
with school groups as part of a history 
curriculum and sometimes with their 
parents on hot summer days to stroll 
beautifully manicured lawns. 

Last summer, for the first time, 
a special program was designed and 
conducted by the guiding staff of 
Fort Wellington for their youngest 
visitors. 

Using photographs, artifacts 
and audio-visual presentations, the 
children discovered why the fort 
is in their town and what it was like 
to live there as a soldier in the nine- 
teenth century. 

On a once-a-week basis over 
four consecutive weeks, the children 
learned about the life of a British 
soldier, The Battle of the Windmill, 
fortifications and through an artifact 
hunt, the nitty-gritty differences a 
century makes on our lives. 

Highlighting the sessions was 
the DOING! singing, marching, 
making beds in short, learning. 


Gestes d’hier pour 
apprendre aujourd ‘hui 


Idées et photos de Joan Sadkowski 


Le fort Wellington est pour les gens 
de Prescott et des alentours de cette 
ville ontarienne, une présence fami- 
liére, avec ses remparts, ses meur- 
triéres, ses buttes verdoyantes |’été. 
Pour les enfants, c’est un lieu de 
promenade le dimanche, |’endroit révé 
pour jouer au soldat ou I’occasion 
d‘un cours d’histoire avec la classe. 

Mais qu’est-ce que ca pouvait 
6tre au juste que d’y 6tre cantonné au 
siécle dernier comme soldat de Sa 
Majesté britannique? Voila qui nest 
pas si simple. 

Les guides du fort ont pensé 
l’été dernier amener les jeunes a 
mieux imaginer la vie qu’on y menait. 
Une fois la semaine pendant un mois 
ils les ont invités a reprendre les 
gestes de ceux qui ont vécu au fort: 
faire les lits a la maniére d‘alors, 
chanter et battre le marche comme 
a l’époque. Photos, diapositives 
et recherches sur le terrain, autant de 
moyens du vingtiéme siécle pour 
mieux pénétrer le dix-neuviéme. 

Observer les outils, objets et 
usages d’un temps révolu, c’est toute 
une découverte. Voyez ces visages. 


Result... rapt attention 


L’intérét est a son comble 


20 


le parc national Elk Island 


Marc Trudel is a naturalist at Elk 


Island National Park, a rolling aspen 
and spruce forest amidst the flat 
farmlands near Edmonton, Alberta. 

He traces the evolution of the 
park from an extensive burn in the 
1880's through its stages of grass to 
aspen to the present preponderence 
of spruce. 

Once it was the home of buffalo 
and beaver (both hunted to the point 
of near-extinction), grizzley, black 
bear, wolf and cougar. All became 
sadly diminished due to extensive 
farming until only the elk remained as 
a target for sportsmen. In 1913 a 
small group of people concerned 
about the fate of the elk, worked to 
establish a 16 square-mile area as 
a sanctuary. Grown to its present 75 


Lieu mouvant, jamais pareil a lui-méme 


par Marc Trudel 


square miles, Elk Island National 
Park today is so well populated with 
elk, beaver and buffalo that yearly 
culls must be made to keep the animal 
populations within manageable | 
proportions. Protection of the beaver 
has contributed greatly to the rees- 
tablishment of the exquisite marshes - 
of the park while sales to ranches of | 
buffalo to be integrated into domestic 
herds has been very successful. 

The park is open year-round and | 
snowshoeing and cross-country skiing 
are favorite winter pastimes. A | 
complete interpretive program is 
offered to all park visitors and 
during the school year, an extensive 
educational program is carried 
on inthe elementary schoolsinthe — 
vicinity. | 


S amaimier 


llot de vie sauvage entouré d'un océan 
d‘orge et de blé, le parc national 

Elk Island conserve a |’intérieur de 
ses petites frontiéres un milieu 
naturel dont le dynamisme est pro- 
messe de longue vie. Dynamisme 

de sa flore, trés instable, en constante 
recherche de son équilibre. Dyna- 
misme de sa faune, qui est revenue 
pleine de vigueur de sa quasi- 
extinction. Dynamisme aussi de son 
role éducatif auprés d’un public 
voyageur grossi d’un public régional 
imposant, provenant d’une capitale, 
Edmonton, a moins de trente milles. 


Régnes éphéméres 

Une des caractéristiques du parc 
qui me vient tout de suite a |’esprit 
est le caractére changeant et mouvant 
de sa végétation. Sous cet aspect, 
le parc est champion de I|'instabilité. 
L’histoire commence avec la dis- 
parition dramatique de son couvert 
forestier a la fin des années 1880: 
des feux répétés, causés en partie par 
l‘insouciance des fermiers nouvel- 
lement arrivés, balaient la forét 
boréale mixte, formée d’épinettes, 
de trembles baumiers et de bou- 
leaux, qui constituaient le couvert 
climatique de la région des Beaver 
Hills. Y fait place un paysage de 
collines herbeuses. Seuls quelques 
secteurs humides sont épargnés, 
ainsi que les nombreuses fles du lac 
Astotin qui se tiennent encore au 
garde-a-vous comme les sentinelles 
d‘un royaume qui n’est plus. 

Mais la blonde victoire des 
herbes folles est de courte durée. 


Le bison des plaines revit a Elk 
Island, lui qui était menacé 
d’extinction. 


Plains bison have made a fine 
comeback in Elk Island. 


Bientdot apparaissent de nouveaux 
envahisseurs: les trembles. Ces 
arbres ont le don de se reproduire 
par leurs racines, ce qui leur donne 
une large avance sur les épinettes 
qui doivent attendre la lente germi- 
nation de leurs graines. La nou- 
velle robe du parc est maintenant 
tissée: une vaste tremblaie qui 
complote toute la journée avec le 
vent, se préparant peut-étre a 
étouffer les derniéres clairiéres ... 
Mais elle devra faire vite, car |’épi- 
nette fait partie du tournoi et réclame 
sa revanche: de ses cones éclate la 
promesse d’une imposante postérité. 
La forét mixte saura renaitre de ses 
cendres. 

Sous le couvert ombragé de la 
tremblaie, le petit monde des rosiers 
sauvages, des buissons et des que- 
nouilles poursuit lui aussi ses 
guerres. Les étangs foisonnent de vie 
animale et végétale qui charge le 
fond de leurs minces cuvettes d’‘ac- 
Cumulations successives de dépéts 
Organiques de toutes sortes. Bientdt 
les quenouilles entourent |’étang, 
l‘assiegent et resserrent chaque an- 
née leur étreinte, suivies de prés 
par une colonie de laiches qui fixent 
les premiers amarrages d’une végé- 
tation maintenant terrestre. Se succé- 
deront ensuite des saules, des aulnes 
et des bouleaux. Ou bien le marais 
évoluera en un milieu acide ou la 
sphaigne et |’épinette noire domine- 
ront. Naturellement, tous ces 
efforts s’étendent sur des dizaines 
d‘années, et il suffira d’un bar- 
rage de castors pour faire renaitre 


Griffiths 


Dre 


la neige. 


l"étang et renouveler le cycle... 
Ces nombreuses transformations 
qui prennent place dans la nature 
illustrent bien le caractére éphémére 
des diverses communautés végétales 
que nous avons I’habitude de re- 
garder comme immobiles dans le 
temps. Tout est mouvant sous cette 
apparente permanence. Et c’est de 
ce mouvement que nait un habitat re- 
nouvelé, prét a accueillir une grande 
diversité de nouveaux locataires. 


Un retour de loin 

Sur |‘histoire mouvementée de 
la vie végétale du parc se calque 
I‘histoire tout aussi troublée d'une 
partie de sa faune. Comme dans la 
premiere, c’est |‘homme blanc qui 
ouvre le tournoi. 

Peu de temps aprés l|’arrivée des 
premiers colons et trappeurs, a la fin 
du siécle dernier, le bison et le castor 
étaient éliminés des Beaver Hills. 
Ces deux espéces, dont des millions 
d'individus cent ans plus tot cou- 
vraient |’Amérique du Nord, faisaient 
face a |’extinction. Furent ensuite 
persécutées les espéces qui présen- 
taient un obstacle a |l’agriculture et a 
|’élevage. C'est ainsi que disparu- 
rent, sans protester, le grizzly des 
plaines, l’ours noir, le loup et le cou- 
gar. Quant au wapiti (de la famille 
du chevreuil; e/k en anglais, d’ou le 
nom du parc), il devient vite un gibier 
de choix en |’absence du bison et 
frdle a son tour I’extermination. C’est 
a ce moment qu’‘un groupe d’‘Alber- 
tains obtient du gouvernement du 
pays la création d'une réserve close 


Le lac Astotin fin d’automne. 
Sous un soleil géné, le matin sent 


Autumn sunrise on Astotin Lake. 


754 


de 16 milles carrés pour protéger 


les derniers représentants de |’espéce. 


La superficie de cette réserve sera 
portée par la suite a 75 milles carrés 
et le lieu deviendra un parc national 
en 1913. 

Ici encore la nature a montré sa 
grande force de récupération. Le 
wapiti s‘est trés vite remis de ses 
miséres et des vingt bétes originelle- 
ment capturées pour la réserve est 
issue la colonie actuelle de trois cent 
cinquante environ. Le dynamisme du 
troupeau dépasse méme la capacité 
de charge du parc et, en I’absence 
de prédateurs sérieux, les gardiens du 
parc doivent réguliérement procéder 
a un abattage sélectif. Méme retour 
prolifique du castor qui, réintroduit en 
1942, atteint aujourd’hui une popu- 
lation de quelque mille sept cents. 

Quant au bison, on pourrait le 
qualifier de pensionnaire clandestin: 
de 1907 a 1909, un troupeau de 
quatre cents bisons des plaines sé- 
journe dans le parc en attendant que 
soit terminé son propre enclos, a 
Wainright, aussi en Alberta. Lors du 
rassemblement des bétes, quarante- 
huit demeurent introuvables. Ces 
hdtes imprévus ont vite atteint le nom- 
bre d’environ quatre cents, nombre 
que le parc peut supporter. Aux abat- 
tages périodiques des premiéres 
années a succédé un programme plus 
constructif de vente pour |’élevage. 
Les succés obtenus jusqu’ici par les 
éleveurs Ouvre un nouvel espoir pour 
le retour du bison dans les grandes 
plaines. Le parc compte aussi un 
troupeau d’environ cent bisons des 


L’étang est assiégé et conquis 
petit a petit par les quenouilles 


et les laiches. 


Primarily the work of the beaver 
which is making a comeback in 
Elk Island, the marshes are a 
special feature of this National 


Park. 


22 


bois, rares descendants au sang pur 
de cette race qui en majorité s’est 
confondue par hybridation avec celle 
du bison des plaines. Ils sont sévére- 
ment cloitrés dans le secteur sud 

du parc, depuis leur transport du parc 
national Wood Buffalo en 1965. Ils 
sont l'objet d’observations méthodi- 
ques de la part de chercheurs du 
Service canadien de la faune. 

Ainsi |‘homme a-t-il réparé 
quelques-unes de ses erreurs passées 
en secourant certaines espeéces me- 
nacées. Pourtant il n’en est qu’au 
début de son effort: les réalisations 
présentes sont infimes par rapport au 
défi qu’il devra relever a l'avenir. 

Son succés dépendra de sa capacité 
de sensibiliser a temps la masse 
des «non-croyants». 


Savoir regarder, écouter 

Pouvoir lire et comprendre les 
événements successifs du rythme de 
la nature est a la portée de tous. Tous 
les chapitres de cette grande histoire 
sont la devant nous. II suffit de pren- 
dre le temps, de s’arréter, d’écouter, 
de regarder tout pres du sol ce que 
nous Cache souvent notre myopie de 
gens pressés. II suffit de pénétrer 
sur la pointe des pieds dans le pays 
de Lilliput, d’y observer |’infiniment 
petit, d’'y admirer une fleur qui a gran- 
di sans craindre les ciseaux. Faire 
les liens entre les indices que nous 
laisse la nature, devenir détective, 
chercher les causes: il y a toujours 
une Cause et, a Elk Island, il y aura 
toujours un naturaliste pour vous 
aider a connaitre ce petit monde. 


Marc Trudel 


Le programme d’interprétation 
de la nature du parc évolue lui aussi 
et doit garder un vif dynamisme pour 
s'adapter a notre société changeante 
et transmettre, dans le langage de 
|‘heure, les valeurs fondamentales du 
parc. Le fait que le parc soit situé 
tout prés d‘un grand centre urbain 
ouvre un vaste horizon a la communi- 
cation de ces valeurs. 

C'est |’été que le programme 
atteint le plus de visiteurs. Dans tous 
les cas, les activités du naturaliste 
s'éloignent de plus en plus de |’ap- 
proche magistrale ou |’on pointerait 
les choses du doigt: |’accent porte 
sur la participation et l’implication 
des visiteurs dans leur immersion tant 
physique que psychique dans le mi- 
lieu, immersion suivie d’une réflexion 
commune et d’un échange d’idées. 

La popularité de la raquette et du 
ski de fond a ouvert des possibilités 
toutes neuves a |’observation de la 
nature. Le parc ne connait plus de sai- 
son morte. L’équipe d’‘interprétation 
a ajusté son horaire a ces goats nou- 
veaux et depuis quatre ans offre 
ses services a longueur d’année. Le 
silence de telles promenades permet 
de pénétrer profondément | ‘habitat 
des bétes sauvages et de les appro- 
cher sans les effrayer. Les tiges cou- 
pées, les branches cassées, les pistes 
sur la neige, autant d’histoires se- 
crétes qui racontent les peines et les 
joies des poursuivis et des pour- 
suivants. 

Il n’est pas étonnant que le pro- 
gramme d’interprétation, ayant tant 
a offrir, s‘ouvre a un nouvel auditoire, 


Mara Trudeal 


La conservation du wapiti (elk 
en anglais, mot d'origine 
mmdienne) fut la cause majeure 
de la fondation du parc. En voici 
queiques-uns dans une clairiére. 


A small herd of elk for which the 
park was named, captured in 
the late afternoon light of a 
forest glade. 


celui des écoliers. La région entou- 
rant immédiatement le parc compte 
plus de 50,000 éléves de niveau 
élémentaire. Le personnel du parc ne 
pouvait absorber une telle marée. 
Aprés une période d’ajustements, de 
1966 a 1972. le programme pour 
écoliers s’est vraiment structuré en 
1973. 1| comporte une période de 
formation pour les professeurs im- 
pliqués et un systéme d’inscriptions 

a l’‘avance pour les groupes. Au 
Printemps 1975, prés de 6,000 jeunes 
en ont béneficié. Il a permis d’ac- 
Croitre la préparation des éléves a leur 
visite et de susciter ainsi leur intérét. 
On peut ensuite les regrouper et les 
Giriger vers leur centre d‘intérét par- 
ticulier. De plus, les sentiers sont 
maintenant mieux dégagés. Le pro- 


gramme d’automne et d’hiver est 
moins couru et les naturalistes peu- 
vent alors consacrer plus de temps 
aux professeurs et aux éléves qui 
désirent venir au parc. 

Grace a leur préparation sé- 
rieuse, a la clarté de leurs objectifs 
et a leur bonne organisation, ces visi- 
tes laisseront leur marque chez ces 
écoliers. Peut-étre apprendront-ils 
que la nature, si dynamique soit-elle, 
devra affronter |‘épuisement si une 
vague nouvelle de disciples ne vient 
vite |’épauler. C’est, aprés tout, a 
cette génération et a celle qui suivra 
qu’il revient de décider de son succés 
ou de son échec. 

La vaste tremblaie est mainte- 
nant silencieuse. Les feuilles n’ap- 
plaudissent plus a la caresse du vent. 


ine) 
Ww 


Quenouilles dans le vent 
d’automne. 


Cattails under a setting sun in 
Elk Island National Park. 


Marc Trudel 


Dans les étangs, jadis si bavards, 
seules les quenouilles, figées dans la 
glace noire, murmurent tristement 
comme une vieille harpe oubliée dans 
le courant d’air d'un grenier. Le 
rideau est tombé. Les loges se vident. 
Les derniers migrateurs fuient devant 
|‘odeur de la neige. Parfois, je me 
demande combien de fois encore ils 
reviendront a Elk Island. 


Marc Trudel, qui nous parle avec tant 
de chaleur du lieu de son travail, 

est naturaliste a Elk Island, parc situé 
en Alberta. 


24 


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26 


Les chercheurs d’or meurent pauvres, 
c’est classique. Alex McDonald ne 
devait pas échapper a /a régle. || avait 
pourtant fait fortune grace a sa con- 
cession au Klondike le long d‘un ruis- 
seau au nom fabuleux, I’Eldorado. 

L’appétit vient en mangeant. I] 
eut l‘idée de vendre de I’eau aux 
autres chercheurs a sept ou huit dol- 
lars l‘heure. C’était trés important 
de laver le minerai a grand eau pour 
que l’or sen dégage. Ainsi une pompe 
a vapeur fabriquée a Chicago en 
1903 amenait ala montagne I’eau du 
ruisseau Hunker. Déposée sur un lit 
rugueux, en pente, contenu entre des 
parois, la terre tamisée au passage 
de I’eau /aissait prisonniéres au fond 
pépites et poussiéres précieuses. 

Les chercheurs étaient-ils trop 
nombreux, le minerai moins riche 
qu’on I’espérait? Le prix de l’eau ne 
convint pas aux mineurs et McDonald 
en fut quitte pour ses frais. 

Et voila que la pompe acquit 
une valeur nouvelle. Les responsables 
de /a restauration de Dawson Ssa- 
vaient qu'elle pourrait illustrer a mer- 
veille les méthodes d’extraction 
utilisées lors de la ruée vers I’or. On 
finit par la découvrir toute couverte 
de rouille sous la poussiére et les dé- 
chets de travaux miniers opérés dans 
la région depuis son installation et 
sa mise au rancart. 

Ses proportions étaient respec- 
tables, surtout celles des bouilloires 
pres de Ja rive qui servai/ent a pro- 
pulser I’eau du ruisseau vers la mon- 
tagne. || fallait la déménager a Bear 
Creek ou I’on aménage un centre 


Sluicing out fifty years of ac- 
cumulated earth prior to 
dismantling the pump. 


Avant de démanteler la pompe, 
il faut la débarrasser par un vio- 
lent jet d’eau de la terre qui s’est 
accumulée sur elle en plus d’un 
demi-siécle d’abandon. 


d‘interprétation non loin de Dawson. 
Apres l’avoir soigneusement déman- 
telée selon les avis d’un expert, on en 
hissa les piéces sur des autochenilles 
et des camions. C’était l’été dernier. 
Si l'idée d’Alex McDonald ne 
fit que précipiter sa ruine, au moins le 
fera-t-elle passer a l'histoire. 


The Klondike goldfields in the Yukon 
are still yielding treasure to those 
with the desire to dig it out. 

With its future development of 
the goldfields and Dawson City in 
mind, Parks Canada employed a crew 
to spend the summer working the 
land of Hunker Creek. But it wasn’t 
the gold they sought, to paraphrase 
the famous Yukon poet, it was Big 
Alex's water pump. 

Big Alex McDonald struck it rich 
in ‘98 when he bought half of Claim 
#30 on Eldorado Creek for a sack of 
flour and a side of bacon. With his 
paystreak on ‘Thirty’, MGDonald 
bought more claims and prospered, 
investing in ventures he thought 
might turn a profit... like the water 
pump. 

Big Alex had the Reidler Pump- 
ing Engine built for him by the Alis 
Chalmers Co. of Chicago in 1903. He 
had it brought into the Klondike by 
sternwheeler and hauled to Hunker 
Creek by horse and wagon. 

His idea was to pump the water 
of Hunker Creek up into the sur- 
rounding hills and sell it to the miners 
sluicing their claims. Sluicing, the 
washing of ore-laden earth through 
a seive to retrieve gold dust and 


nuggets is resorted to only after the 
main lode has been worked out. 
Hence the miners struggling for the 
lower-grade ore were unable to afford 
the seven to eight dollars per hour 
Big Alex demanded for.his water. 

The water pump on Hunker 
Creek was an expensive and unsuc- 
cessful venture and one of the many 
reasons that McDonald — said to 
be worth seven million at one time — 
died penniless on Slough Creek, just 
15 years after the gold rush. 

The pump however, remained 
where it was placed, unused and 
rusting, it was gradually buried by 
earth, bushes and piles of tailings 
from on-going mining operations. The 
land on which the pump stood was 
purchased in 1971 by the Miben 
Mining Company and the pump of- 
fered to Parks Canada two years later. 

It was not until 1975 when Parks 
Canada acquired the Bear Creek 
Mining Complex near Dawson and 
decided to turn it into an inter- 
pretation centre featuring the mining 
methods of the gold rush that Big 
Alex’s turn of the century pump came 
into its own. 

When Parks Canada was in- 
formed in early July of 1975 that the 
pump was in danger of becoming 
completely covered by Miben tailings, 
it was decided to rescue the relic 
and move it to Bear Creek. 

A five person crew began work 
on July 5th, 1975. With temperatures 
soaring to 36°C., they shovelled and 
sluiced away six to eight feet of rocks, 
gravel and earth to expose the pump 


20 


and its two huge boilers. As the exca- 
vation proceeded into the second 
week of July, the size of the emerging 
pump and boilers began to astound 
even the experts. The flywheel of the 
pump is ten feet in diameter. A rough 
measurement taken from the top of 
the pressure tanks down into the exca- 
vation site put the height of the 
pumping engine at 13 feet, the boil- 
ers, 18 feet long and 12 feet high. 
Discovery of the pump’s immense 
size increased the difficulty of its 
move to Bear Creek. Superintendent 
Frank McGill of Dawson contacted 
Parks Canada in Ottawa for assis- 
tance and they sent out Marine Engi- 
neer, Alex Barbour to supervise the 
move. The 5’8"’ Barbour, was imme- 
diately dubbed ‘’wee Alex”’ on his 
arrival at the pump site and his cal- 
culating eye quickly essessed the 
situation. Within the hour his strong 
Scottish brogue was directing the 
move. 

With two ‘cats’, three dump 
trucks, two flat-bed trucks and two 
front-end loaders at their disposal, 
the plan was to dismantle the pump 
into manageable pieces, lift them 
out and roll the boilers from their 
beds. 

Dawson's entire supply of pen- 
etrating oil — three tins — was 
purchased to release stiff and rusted 
bolts and those that could not be 
loosed were cut with torches. Each 
of the resulting eight pieces weighed 
in the neighbourhood of seven tons. 
Chains were wrapped about each 
piece and hooked to the loaders of 


28 


the big cats. Working together, 

they lifted each piece out and swung 
it gently aside. Within two days the 
dismantled pump was sitting primly 
by the side of the Hunker Road 

ready for shipment to Bear Creek. All 
that now remained at the original 

site were the two seven and a half ton 
boilers. 

Under Barbour’s direction, the 
back hoe dug a trench all around the 
boilers to drain the site and expose 
the boiler walls. Because the man- 
hole cover had been removed when 
the boiler was last used, the left 
front boiler was full of sand. This 
sand had to be sluiced out of the shell 
and al! 58 fire tubes in the boiler to 
reduce the weight. 

Once the sand was sluiced out, 
some fill was dumped into the site 
to give the Cats good footing near the 
boilers. The brick wall on the side 
of the front boiler was carefully taken 
apart and all the bricks were saved. 
The plan for the boilers was to simply 
roll them out of their bed. In prepa- 
ration, the boiler tie rods were cut and 
the far boiler was supported by two 
timbers butted up against one of the 
Cats. This was to prevent the left 
boiler rolling backwards into the 
trench when the right front boiler was 
rolled away. 

Two eight by eight timbers were 
driven under the right front boiler and 
chains were shackled to the back 
boiler feet and hooked on the loader 
of one of the Cats. The Cat strained 
against the chains and, according 
to plan, the right front boiler rolled 


from its bed. The left boiler followed 
easily and both were loaded directly 
onto a flat-bed truck and transported 
to Bear Creek. 

Big Alex’s pump was but one of 
the many techniques employed by 
miners determined to win the Klon- 
dike’s gold. The Bear Creek site 
will feature a sequential interpretive 
display where visitors can not only 
see the methods, tools and techniques 
actually used by the gold-seekers 
but also experience the development 
of mining in the Yukon. 


Some of the artifacts unearthed 
during the reclaimation of 
the pump. 


Quelques objets trouvés pendant 
la récupération de la pompe. 


The two cats worked well in 
unison maneuvering the very 
heart of the pump to a safe rest- 
ing space ‘above ground’. 


Les conducteurs des auto- 
chenilles gardent soigneusement 
la méme vitesse pour amener 

en lieu sar la piéce maitresse de 
la pompe. 


30 


EtcEtcEttcEtcEtc 


The Complete Beginner’s Guide 
to Backpacking 

Richard B. Lyttle 

Doubleday & Co. Enc., 

Garden City, New York. 1975. 


Judging by the marked increase in 
popularity of backpacking in our pro- 
vincial and national parks, a book 
such as The Complete Beginner’s 
Guide to Backpacking has arrived 


none too soon, if not already a bit late. 


Although one may find a variety of 
books on hiking and packpacking on 
outdoor bookshelves (the most re- 
nowned being Colin Fletcher’s The 
Complete Walker), this is possibly the 
only one that is addressed specifi- 
cally to beginners. 

Mir. Lyttle sensibly suggests to 
all prospective backpackers that they 
first realistically assess their capa- 
bilities and desires before attempting 
ambitious routes and purchasing 
expensive equipment. By moderately 
easing into this activity, one is more 
likely to develop a lasting relationship 
with the outdoors, and less likely to 
go broke doing it. 

The last statement is not an 
exaggeration. Like much of the equip- 
ment for the currently popular out- 
door activities, backpacking gear has 
also changed in style and function. 
Since backpacking equipment is now 
more often found in specialty shops 
than in army surplus stores, prices 
have risen correspondingly. Mr. Lyttle 
thoroughly reviews all categories of 
backpacking equipment and gives 
sound financial advice in selecting 


boots, packframes, sleeping bags and 
clothing. In most cases both the 
expensive and inexpensive options 
are considered. The prices quoted in 
this volume are based on California 
and Colorado stores, and | suspect 
were dated by the time this book was 
printed. They are of little use to 
Canadian readers. 

Particular attention is paid to the 
selection and maintenance of hiking 
boots, probably the backpacker’s most 
Critical piece of equipment. There 
is some good consumer advice here 
for both the beginner buying his 
first pair and the veteran who may be 
replacing old ones. 

Clothing, cooking and shelter in 
backpacking are much the same as in 
other outdoor activities, only lighter. 
There are some great hints on how 
to lighten your load and make house- 
keeping on the trail less of a chore, 
and even fun. 

The modern contour backframe 
and backpack cut to fit, is probably 
the most important development in 
backpacking in the last twenty years. 
It has significantly increased the 
load that a hiker can carry, thereby 
allowing backpackers to go further 
into the wilderness for longer periods 
of time. The prototype ‘’Kelty’’ mag- 


nesium-alloy backframe manufactured 


in California in the early 1950's has 


| 


had several innovations and improve- — 


ments made to it by its competitors. 
Now there are packframes that can 
be “tuned” like a stereo, to precisely 
fit the contour of the backpacker’s 
back. Mr. Lyttle gives good advice on 


, 


—— 


what to look for when buying this 
costly piece of equipment. 

Once outfitted, the backpacker 
may take to the trail, only to find that 
there are many more things to learn. 
To the uninitiated, hiking may not 
seem to be much more than succes- 
sively placing one foot in front of 
the other; however, if one does it all 
day, for several days, over varying 
terrain, it becomes evident that there 
is an element of technique to be 
learned. And once you've mastered 
the basic technique of hiking, there 
are refinements such as trail etiquette 
and group psychology that must be 
mastered. All this and more is enter- 
tainingly described in this primer 
to backcountry hiking. 


Priidu Juurand, ARC Branch, 
Parks Canada. 


Dialogues avec un sauvage 

La Hontan 

Editions Sociales Editions Leméac 
Paris/ Montréal 1974 


Ce livre sera une révélation pour ceux 
qui s‘interrogent sur les raisons de 
notre inconscience a |’égard des pre- 
miers habitants de |’Amérique. Il a 
pres de trois siécles et a exercé une 
influence mal reconnue, mais bien 
réelle sur I‘histoire européenne et 

la notre. 

Rédigé par un «ami» des Indiens, 
un Francais anticonformiste, libre- 
penseur, finalement exilé de son 
propre pays, le livre n’en charrie pas 


moins les mythes qui devaient favori- 
ser la persécution des «Américains», 
ainsi qu'il les désigne. 

La lecture n’en est pas moins 
fascinante, car ce Francais, délégué a 
la colonie a |’age de dix-sept ans, 
comme officier, avec trois compa- 
gnies, pour exterminer les Iroquois, a 
vécu dans nos parages de 1683 a 
1694. Le «sauvage» auquel il s’adres- 
se, Adario, n’est pas une pure fiction 
puisque La Hontan apprit |’algonquin 
et sut godter I|’esprit d‘'un Huron 
surnommeé le Rat dont I’existence est 
attestée. 

Mais |’auteur se sert de cet 
interlocuteur pour présenter |‘image 
chére a son 6poque de I'Indien non 
contaminé par la civilisation, rationa- 
liste, image ou se refléte la nostalgie 
d'un paradis perdu et sur laquelle 
Rousseau fondera sa philosophie du 
retour a la nature. 

Les découvertes faites depuis 
nous permettent de savoir que |’Euro- 
péen, face a une Civilisation autre 
que la sienne, ne sut tout simplement 
pas la reconnaitre, quelle que fit 
son amitié. Les bons sentiments ne 
suffisent pas. 

Ainsi, dans le premier dialogue 
sur la religion, Adario affirme sa foi 
en un Dieu unique, mais ce Dieu vu 
par La Hontan, c’est le Dieu dont 
parlera bientét Voltaire: un Dieu me- 
canicien plein de bon sens, prélude 
de la déesse Raison de la révolution 
francaise. 

Si pour beaucoup de chrétiens 
de |’époque, les Indiens n‘étaient que 
des paiens dont il fallait assurer la 


>< 


conversion, pour des libres-penseurs 
comme La Hontan, ils étaient des 
hommes de la nature, alors que le 
propre de |‘homme, comme tente de 
le prouver Vercors dans son roman 
«Les animaux dénaturés», c'est juste- 
ment d’échapper a la nature. Paien 
ou homme de la nature, jes deux 
étiquettes valaient peu. 

Dans la longue introduction aux 
«Dialogues» rédigée en France par 
Maurice Roelens pour |’édition ac- 
tuelle, cette simplification opérée 
dans la vie spirituelle de |’Indien est 
notée. Si la croyance indienne en un 
grand esprit est un fait que nous 
apprenons tous a la petite école, on 
ne peut maintenant que regretter que 
nul n‘ait paru reconnaitre la longueur, 
la largeur et la profondeur des im- 
plications d'une telle croyance. 

Ces réserves étant faites, les 
«Dialogues» constituent quand méme 
une lecture passionnante, car l’auteur 
fait fleche de tout bois pour ridicu- 
liser les moeurs et les institutions 
européennes. Comme |’indique M. 
Roelens, ils constituent un pamphlet 
contre la propriété individuelle et 
l’autorité politique. Si le premier dia- 
logue porte sur la religion, les autres 
ont pour sujet les lois, le bonheur, 
la médecine, |’amour et le mariage. 

L’introduction, trés fouillée et 
annotée, requiert quelque patience et 
beaucoup de curiosité. Mais elle 
campe dans son époque un person- 
nage trés discuté, La Hontan, et elle 
montre d’une maniére lumineuse 
|‘influence subtile des oeuvres de cet 
homme sur son siecle. M.D. 


31 


iv 


Indian and Affaires indiennes 
Northern Affairs et du Nord 


Parks Canada Parcs Canada 


Ottawa, K1A OH4, Canada 


iv 


Canada Postes 
Post Canada 
Postage paid Port payé 


Third Troisieéme 


class classe 
K1A 0S7 


OTTAWA 


Conservation 
Corada 


PAI ZA 
pare 5 | 


= 
i 


Cette revue parait en anglais et en fran- 


cais. Pour la version francaise, voir au 


verso de la publication. 


A te Indian and 
Northern Affairs 


Parks Canada 


Volume 2, No. 2, 1976 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Parcs Canada 


Table of Contents 


3 Who Needs National Parks? 


8 Norman Bethune Memorial House 


10 Where the Mountains Meet the Sea 


14 At Fort St. James, A Taste of 
Yesterday 


cover: Daisies on North Mountain, Cape 
Breton Highlands National Park. 


Published by Parks Canada under the 
authority of 

the Hon. Judd Buchanan, PC, MP, 
Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1976 

QS-7021-020-BB-A1 


Editor: Sheila Crutchlow 
Production: Barry P. Boucher 
Design: Eiko Emori 


Photo credits: cover, S. Homer; pages 11 
to 13 inclusive, K. Sonenburg, S. Homer, 
S. Lunn 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit 
line. Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of 
Indian and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, 
Ontario K1A 0H4. 


© Minister of Supply and Services 


Canada 1976 


A scene in Revelstoke National Park is 
typical of the beauty preserved in Canada’s 
mountain parks. 


“The National Parks of Canada belong 
to all Canadians for all time. 

“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Ca- 
nadians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 

Hon. Judd Buchanan, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, 

the Minister responsible 

for Parks Canada 


A national park is an area of unusual 

beauty that has been set aside to pre- 
serve, for public use, the land and its 
wildlife in their original forms. 


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In a country as immense and complex 
as Canada, it would be impossible to 
represent all the natural characteristics 
in asingle park, no matter how large. 
Canada’s national parks system seeks to 
set aside outstanding examples of each 
of our natural regions in order to pre- 
serve areas that represent the whole of 
the national landscape. 

Our national parks are administered 
for the people of Canada by Parks Can- 
ada, part of the Department of Indian and 
Northern Affairs. 


Garbage is not only ugly, it destroys vital and 
fragile elements of the natural landscape. 


About 50,000 square miles of our rich 
natural heritage is now preserved ina 
he seas surroundi system of 28 national parks that include 
term obje ej 4S areas in every province and territory. 
One nation ie Almost every type of Canadian landscape 
is represented in this system; the rugged 
mountains of the far west, the forests 
and grasslands of the prairies, central 
Canada’s lake-dotted woodlands, the 
coastal beauty of the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans and the majestic north. However, 
some elements are missing. Most con- 
spicuously absent are the natural regions 
of the Arctic and the intriguing sea- 
scapes lying beneath all three of our 
surrounding oceans. 

Conversely, some of Canada’s natural 
regions are relatively over-represented, 
as in the case of the six mountain parks, 


each magnificent and unique in its own 
way but representing basically the same 
natural regions. 

Canada’s first national park sprang 
from the construction of the first con- 
tinental railway. Among the towering 
peaks of the Rockies, the railway builders 
discovered mineral hot springs flowing 
from the mountainside. Faced with the 
conflicting claims of discovery and own- 
ership, the government of Canada in 
1885, reserved a 10-square mile area 
around the springs as a national posses- 
sion. It became Banff National Park. 

As exploration and development of the 
west continued, other national parks 


Logs washed ashore at Pacific Rim National 
Park, British Columbia. 


were established in the Rocky and Sel- 
kirk mountains — Jasper, Kootenay, Yoho, 
Glacier, Mount Revelstoke and Water- 
ton Lakes — each provides scenes of 
never-to-be-forgotten beauty. 

Elsewhere in Canada, national parks 
were created for a variety of reasons, 
Wood Buffalo in the Northwest Territo- 
ries as a haven for the largest remaining 
herd of bison in North America, Elk 
Island, Alberta as a preserve for the 
wapiti (elk) —almost hunted out in 1906-— 
Point Pelee in southernmost Ontario 
is a bird sanctuary renowned throughout 
the world. 

As the national parks system grew, so 
did interest in visiting these special 
places. By the mid-1950’s it became clear 
that many more parks would be required 
to keep pace with the growing public 
interest. In 1960, five million people vis- 
ited the 19 national parks. In 1975, 28 
national parks attracted more than 18 mil- 
lion visitors. With increasing leisure time 
and increasingly crowded cities, it seems 
likely that the influx of park visitors will 
continue. 

Parks Canada’s mandate is not only to 
preserve outstanding examples of the 
Canadian landscape for the enjoyment 
of a pleasure-seeking public. It is also 
charged with the responsibility of ensur- 
ing that what is set aside is preserved 
for future generations. The National 
Parks Act, approved by Parliament spe- 
cifies that: 

“The National Parks of Canada are 

hereby dedicated to the people of 

Canada for their benefit, education and 

enjoyment ...the National Parks shall 

be maintained and made use of so as 
to leave them unimpaired for the enjoy- 
ment of future generations.” 

In developing a system of national 
parks incorporating both recreation 
and conservation objectives, Parks Can- 
ada undertook a study of Canada unlike 
any previous study, the definition of the 
national landscape, as a basis for the se- 
lection of representative national parks. 

The definition of a national landscape 
began with the eight basic geophysical 
regions of Canada. If you think back to 
your high school geography, you'll recall 
them as western mountains, interior 
plains, Hudson’s Bay lowlands, Canadian 
shield, St. Lawrence lowlands, Appa- 
lachians, arctic lowlands and high arctic 
islands. Each of the eight main regions 
is sub-divided into its basic biophysical 
components, i.e. mountain ranges, 
grasslands, plateaux, etc. It is these 
biophysical sub-regions that provide the 


Bighorn rams and other wildlife live without 
fear of man in Canada’s national parks. 


basis for the 48 ‘“‘natural regions” which 
_ taken together form the national land- 
| scape. 

In examining each of the sub-regions, 
three natural history themes served as 
guides: land forms, geological history 
_and eco-systems. A systematic study of 
_ each natural region leads to the iden- 
tification of natural areas of national 
_ significance. From these come proposals 
-for-national parks. 

Meeting these objectives has been, 
and will continue to be, a complex task. 
And every day we are asked why? — 

and for whom? Who needs national 
parks? 

We need national parks for the same 

_ reason that the sea needs a shore. One 

_ defines the other — national parks remind 
_ us of who we are and where we came 

_ from-our stock, our heritage, our history. 
_ We need national parks to remind 

_ ourselves to protect our environment, to 
_ provide relief from the incredible de- 

_ struction of pollution, urban sprawl, un- 
drinkable rivers, industrial waste and 

_ the scars left by logging and mining. Itis 
costly, humiliating and difficult to ac- 
knowledge this destruction, to stop it and 
_ begin again. It would be far more costly 

_ not to recognize these dangers. 

_ Even Canada, a country famed for the 
_ extent and beauty of its wilderness, suf- 

_ fers from the deterioration of the natural 
_ environment caused by the increasing 

| demands of industrial and urban devel- 

| opment. If this trend continues, our 

_ grandchildren may have only faded pho- 
| tographs to remind them of the wilder- 

_ hess beauty that once was Canada. 

_ National parks are a form of insurance, 
' aguarantee that Canadians today and 

_ tomorrow will have special places for 
peaceful enjoyment of their natural en- 
vironment. 

Who needs national parks? 

We all do. 


Norman Bethune 
Memorial House 


Although Doctor Norman Bethune is 
probably best known for his work in 
Spain and China, his innovations in the 
field of medicine are in themselves, 
worthy of recognition. Surgeon, inventor 
and advocate of socialized medicine, 
Norman Bethune was born March 4, 
1890, in Gravenhurst, Ontario, the son 
of a Presbyterian minister. 

Bethune received his medical degree 
from the University of Toronto. After 
graduating, he enlisted as a surgeon in 
the Royal Navy and at the end of the 
First World War, remained in England 
to pursue post-graduate studies. In 
1924 he moved to Detroit where he estab- 
lished a successful medical practice. 

In 1926 Doctor Bethune contracted 
tuberculosis and was admitted to Tru- 
deau Sanatorium at Saranac Lake, 

New York. While there, he learned of a 


little Known method of treating tuber- 
culosis which involved collapsing the 
affected lung. At his insistence the 
operation was performed. His condition 
improved steadily and he was released 
from the sanatorium. 

From 1928 to 1936 Bethune worked 
as a chest surgeon in Montreal, where 
he gained recognition by developing 
more efficient operating instruments. In 
fact one complete page of a 1932 
American catalogue of medical supplies 
was devoted to Bethune’s inventions. 

Disillusioned by the repeated refusal 
of both the government and the medical 
profession to adopt a policy of social- 
ized medicine in Canada, Bethune left 
to join the republican forces in the 
Spanish Civil War. Alarmed by the num- 
ber of men who bled to death unnec- 
essarily on the battlefield, he set up the 
first mobile blood transfusion service 
So soldiers could be treated where they 
fell. 


In the summer of 1937 Bethune re- 
turned to North America on a fund rais- 
ing tour. After completing the tour he 
decided not to return to Spain and in 
January 1938 sailed to China where, 
until his death of blood-poisoning 
22 months later, he worked alongside 
the Communist Chinese troops fight- 
ing the Japanese Imperial Army. He 
Organized a medical service for the Chi- 
nese Army and because of his unselfish 
service and his dedication to the cause 
of the Chinese he has become a national 
legend in the People’s Republic of 
China. 

To the Chinese, Bethune’s birthplace 
is of special importance, and, soon 
after Canada officially recognized the 
People’s Republic of China, delega- 
tions of Chinese arriving in Canada 
expressed an interest in visiting the 
house where Bethune was born. 


' left: Dr. Norman Bethune’s birthplace in 


Gravenhurst, Ontario. 

below: His dedicated service to communist 
soldiers have made Dr. Bethune a legendary 
hero in China. 


Although Norman Bethune spent only 


_ the first three years of his life in the 


house at Gravenhurst, its significance 
as his birthplace led the Federal Gov- 
ernment, in 1973, to buy the house from 
the United Church of Canada and to 
restore it as a memorial to this famous 
Canadian doctor. 

Since that time much work has gone 
into the restoration and refurnishing 
of the house for its opening in mid- 


( 


August 1976. Curators, historians, con- 
servators, interpretive planners, res- 
toration architects, cabinet makers and 
designers are among those who have 
applied their special knowledge to the 
restoration of Bethune’s birthplace. 

The house, originally built in 1880, 
had been somewhat modified and 
modernized. The examination of old 
records and photos, interviews with 
former manse residents and architectural 
and archaeological investigations have 
provided Parks Canada with the informa- 
tion necessary for the restoration. Both 


the interior and the exterior of the house 
have been remodeled according to the 
details obtained. 

Five rooms in the house are being 
refurnished: the dining room, parlor, 
kitchen, study and the upstairs bed- 
room where Norman Bethune is believed 
to have been born. 

Curators have been able to locate 
and place in the house, a few articles 
known to have belonged to the Bethune 
family. Other furnishings such as car- 
pets, tables and stoves, although they 
did not actually belong to the Bethunes, 
are typical of furnishings found in 
middle class homes of that era. 

Of particular interest is a bookcase 
which belonged to the family and an 
exact replica of a small table also be- 
longing to the Bethunes. The table 
is now owned by Bethune’s niece from 
whom the specifications for the replica 
were obtained. 

On the second floor of Bethune Me- 
morial House an interpretive display has 
been set up. The display, outlines life 
in Gravenhurst at the time of Bethune’s 
birth, Bethune’s early life as well as 
his work as a doctor in Canada, Spain 
and China. Photographs, quotes by 
people who knew him, including a text 
by Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, anda 
display of surgical instruments invented 
by Bethune are some of the elements 
included in the display. 

Independent of the decision to restore 
the house where Bethune was born, 
the Historic Sites and Monuments Board 
of Canada, the body responsible for 
identifying people, places and events of 
national historic importance, recom- 
mended in 1972 that a plaque honouring 
Bethune and his achievements, be 
erected. The recommendation was 
approved and the plaque will be erected 
in the town of Gravenhurst. 

The story of Norman Bethune’s life is 
becoming increasingly familiar to many 
Canadians. The restoration and open- 
ing to the public of Bethune House in 
Gravenhurst, Ontario this summer will 
contribute to a greater understanding 
of the man, his life and the age in which 
he lived. 


Where the Mountains 


Cape Breton Highlands National Park 
sits on both the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the north Atlantic Ocean. Its coastline, 
rugged and picturesque, is broken 
by bays and inlets which offer shelter to 
small sea-going craft. Rising abruptly 
from the sea are rocky hills and moun- 
tains which sweep back, particularly 
in the north and west, to form a broad 
plateau. Magnificent views from the 
ocean — panoramas of hillside, cliff, bay 
and valley compete with equally beau- 
tiful vistas from the land — sandy cove, 
rocky cape and jagged tide-worn rocks 
against the blue background of the 
ocean or gulf. 

The waters of the park are consid- 
ered the most treacherous in the North 
Atlantic. Hundreds of ships have been 


wrecked on the rocks of the Cabot Strait. 


Perhaps the most disastrous was the 
wreck of the Royal Sovereign, a British 
transport ship carrying 800 troops 

plus women and children to England. 


10 


Meet the Sea 


After striking St. Paul’s Island, the 
shores were littered with hundreds of 
bodies. Some, were taken by the cur- 
rent and found on beaches as far away as 
Sydney, more than 50 miles to the south. 

So common were shipwrecks on 
the western shore that Pleasant Bay was 
Originally known by sailors as Limbo 
Cove. As late as the 1820’s shipwrecked 
bodies were washed ashore to be buried 
above the waterline. Such gruesome 
incidents were commonplace and stories 
are still told by residents in the area 
surrounding the park. 

Technology has taken much of the 
guesswork out of navigation and visitors 
to Cape Breton Highlands National Park 
may never find the remains of shipwrecks 


or treasure left by pirates. But they 
will experience the powerful motion of 
the sea as it pounds relentlessly on 
the mountain shores. 

Cape Breton Highlands National Park 
is 40 years old this summer. Established 
in 1936, the park was officially opened 
five years later... 

The day was marked with celebra- 
tions. Pipe bands performed while high- 
land games and eloquent speeches 
were seen and heard by everyone. The 
Cabot Trail had been reconstructed 
and offered a gravelled road witha 
width of 22 feet — never had the future 
of the region looked so bright. The 
date was July 1, 1941 and the first na- 
tional park in the Maritimes was offi- 
cially opened to visitors. 

“Casey” Baldwin must have been 
proud on that day. Since 1933 he had 


left: The Cabot Trail offers spectacular scenes 


_ of mountains and sea as it winds towards 
Cheticamp. 

_ below: The harmony of nature is evident at 
_ Cape Breton Highlands. 


advocated a national park in Nova 
_ Scotia. His motions in the provincial 
_ legislature were supported by fish 
| and game associations and nearly all 
_ Nova Scotians including Professor 
_ Donald Sutherland MacIntosh who, 
_ upon his death in 1934, bequeathed 100 
' acres of his ancestoral homestead to 
_ form the nucleus of a national park on 
' Cape Breton Island. 
' Asamemorial to the man who’s gift 
| of land provided the impetus for the 
, creation of the park, the “Lone Sheiling”’ 
was constructed. Modelled after the 
crofter’s cottages, common in the high- 
| lands, it was built, in 1942, of stone 
and thatch as a visible link between 


Cape Breton and the ancestoral homes 
of the areas first settlers. An excerpt 
from D. M. Moirs “‘Canadian Boat Song’”’ 
is inscribed on the site: 
“From the lone sheiling of the misty 
island 
Mountains divide us and the waste 
of seas 
Yet still the blood is strong and the 
heart is Highland 
And we in dreams behold the 
Hebrides” 


At Green Cove, crowberries and fox- 
berries abound and twisted white spruce 
are the only trees to survive in the harsh 
environment of a coastal headland. 

Inland, the visitor can experience an 
upland plateau cut deeply by valleys 
of rivers and brooks. Here, animals such 
as lynx, black bear and deer are com- 
mon. Caribou which originally inhabited 
much of eastern Canada had been 
reduced to zero population by 1920. A 
restocking program initiated in 1968 
with the introduction of 51 animals was 
not successful. By 1973 the herd had 
once again disappeared. 

The reintroduction of moose met with 
more favourable results. Uncontrolled 
hunting had eradicated the formerly 


above: The American Bittern is a resident of 
Clyburn Marsh. 

below: Acolumn of gnarled rock called asea 
stack, rises from the sea at Presqu ‘ile. 


abundant animal by 1900 and it was ex- 
tinct on Cape Breton. In 1947-48, eigh- 
teen moose were shipped from Elk Island 
National Park in Alberta and under 

the park’s protection have steadily in- 
creased in number and today a healthy 
population exists in the park and is 
spreading throughout the island. 

More than 180 species of birds have 
been identified in the park. Sea birds 
are common and the valleys are alive 
with the songs of numerous warblers. 
Especially rewarding is the sight of 
the bald eagle which has thrived in the 
pollution-free environment of the park. 

Balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce 
and white birch are predominant in the 
Acadian Forests region wnich engulfs 
the park area. Inland bogs and barrens 


i 
| 
| 


1 Bog Laurel is a spot of colour in damp 
places. 
2 A baby snowshoe hare in summer coat. 


which account for a large percentage of 
land area, shelter primitive insectivo- 
rous plants such as the Sundew and 
Pitcher Plant. The forests harbour mag- 
nificent Indian Pipe and the intricate 
Lady’s Slipper can be found around 
Warren’s Lake. 

Development of the park since 1936 
has reflected the needs of visitors from 


around the world. Major campgrounds 


exist at Ingonish Beach, Broad Cove, 
Black Brook and Cheticamp. Picnic 
areas are found along the Cabot Trail 
and one of the finest golf courses in 
Canada follows the beautiful Clyburn 
Valley. 

Cape Breton Highlands at 40 grows 
more beautiful each day. 


3  Cheticamp River. 


At Fort St. James, a Taste 
of Yesterday 


above: Today, Fort St. James in the process 
of recreating the past. 
below: Fort St. James in 1890. 


Visitors to north central British Columbia 
this summer will have the chance to 
taste a little bit of the past in the form 

of Fort St. James, Parks Canada’s 
re-creation of an 1890’s fur trading post. 


In the history of Canada, it is the 
events in the unfolding and development 
of the west that capture and hold 
the imagination of most Canadians. Few 
people do not know at least one story 
of the Klondike gold rush or of fur trading 
on the Pacific coast. 


Fort St. James recalls much of the 
excitement and adventure of the fur 
trade. It was established in 1806 by 
Simon Fraser as a fur trading post of the 
North West Company. When the two 
great fur trading companies merged in 


1821, Fort St. James passed to the 
Hudson’s Bay Co. who used the post 
until the late 1940’s. Their interest as well 
as that of the local historical society and 
federal and provincial governments 
insured that the old post did not fall into 
ruins. 

Five of the original 12 buildings, on the 
site in 1890, still remain intact. All are 
superb examples of Red River frame 
architecture — a style widely used in the 
period. It is one of the reasons why 
the Historic Sites and Monuments Board 
of Canada did not hesitate to identify 
the importance of the buildings as his- 
toric treasures. 


Restoration 

June 25, 1976, will mark an important 
date in the annals of Fort St. James, the 
date of its official inauguration and 
opening to the public. Three buildings 
complete the first stage of restoration 

— the general warehouse and fur loft, the 
fish cache and the men’s house. The 
second stage which will follow shortly 
will include the Officer's house and 

the dairy. 

Four more buildings which were de- 
molished or burnt, will be reconstructed. 
The trade shop and office is complete 
now and the interpreter’s house, the 
carpentry shop and forge and the 
Graham warehouse will be reconstructed 
over the next few years. 

Future visitors to Fort St. James will 
be able to step into the past and expe- 
rience the fort as it existed in 1890. 


Human Habitation 

Fort St. James was the first trading 
post in the land of the Carriers, a native 
people not as well known perhaps as 
others of British Columbia, the Haida, 
Kwakiutl and Nootka. 

The culture of the Carriers, members 
of the Athabaskan family, was com- 
paratively rich for the British Columbia 
interior because of the adoption of 
ceremonial features from their northwest 
coast neighbours. They take their name 
from one of their funeral rites. Long 
ago, widows of Carrier warriors were 
required to retrieve the charred bones 
of their dead from the funeral pyre 
and carry them in a leather pouch on 
their backs until their relatives could 
amass enough wealth to give a commem- 
Orative potlatch. 


Life at the fort 

Dried salmon was the basic food for 
both Carriers and fort residents alike. 
The land surrounding the fort was far 
from fertile and there was not enough 
game in the vicinity to feed the whole 
population. 

Assignment to New Caledonia was 
looked upon as punishment and the 
region was commonly called “the Siberia 
of the Fur Trade’. This was due to its 
abysmal diet. After months of nothing but 
salmon, traders, desperate for a change 
often killed dogs for food. This incurred 
the wrath of the commanding officer 
as the dogs were essential to transpor- 
tation, and he would have offenders 
whipped. Nevertheless, the need to vary 
their diets was a strong motive and 
whippings were frequent. 

Until 1860, Fort St. James played a 
major role in the administration of the 
Hudson’s Bay Company. Its geographical 
location made it ideal as the adminis- 
tration and supply centre of New 
Caledonia managing eight forts and 
trade over a 90,000 square mile area. 

After 1860, settlement and new trans- 
portation lines led to the growth of 
new business centres but Fort St. James 
continued to be transshipment point 
of supplies for several posts. 

The increase in volume of imported 
goods raised the quality of life at the fort 
along with increased demands for 
manual labour. In order to facilitate the 
handling of goods and reduce expenses, 
a tramway was constructed over the 
winter of 1894-1895. It consisted of a 
track on which small, wheeled wagons 
could be pushed up to the general 
warehouse. The track and wharf is 
scheduled to be reconstructed during 
the second phase of restoration at Fort 
St. James. 

Six hundred miles north of Vancouver 
and almost the same distance west of 
Edmonton and Calgary, Fort St. James 
is indeed off the beaten track. But it 
was an important link in the saga of the 
fur trade and the development of the 
west. Parks Canada invites you to dis- 
cover it for yourself. 


15 


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Cette revue parait en anglais et en fran- 


cais. Pour la version frangaise, voir au 


verso de la publication. 


Indian and 
Northern Affairs 


iv 


Parks Canada 


Volume 2, No. 3, 1976 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Parcs Canada 


Table of Contents 


Gan 


3  Louisbourg Lives Again 
by John Fortier 


8 Putting the Parks In Perspective 


11. Point Pelee Is For the Birds 


14 The Land That Never Melts 


cover: A skein of Canada geese flies south 
over Point Pelee. 


Published by Parks Canada under the 
authority of 

the Hon. Judd Buchanan, PC, MP, 
Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1976 

QS-7021-030-BB-A1 

Editor: James D. Georgiles 
Production: Barry P. Boucher 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo credits: Maxime St-Amour, 

P. McCloskey, Brian Morin and James 
D. Georgiles 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit 
line. Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of 
Indian and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, 
Ontario K1A 0H4. 


© Minister of Supply and Services 
Canada 1976 
Danforth Marketing Services 
Contract No. 0O2KX A0767-6-6005 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help 

Canadians everywhere to enjoy the vast. | 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


L_Oulsbourg 
Lives Again 


By John Fortier 


ENS, a a ER 


“lL ouisbourg was the grandiose expres- 
sion of the pride, the military strength and 
the engineering genius of Louis XIV.” 
Donald Creighton, 
Canada: The Heroic Beginnings 


The Fortress of Louisbourg stands today 
as amonument to man’s ability to restore 
what time and previous generations de- 
stroyed. It also shows what heritage pre- 
servation can mean to acommunity, a 
region and acountry. 

John Fortier, Superintendent of the 
Fortress of Louisbourg, describes some 
of the problems encountered and some 
of the benefits derived from the recon- 
struction. 


Louisbourg was designated a National 
Historic Site in 1928, and a National 
Historic Park in 1940. During the 1930’s 
some of its ruined buildings were out- 
lined onthe site, and amuseum was built. 
There it all remained — a ruined fortress 
twice besieged and captured, a deserted 
town once the capital of a colony and 
home to over 5,000 fishermen, soldiers, 
merchants, artisans, shopkeepers, 
bureaucrats and their families; an 


archaeological townsite whose signifi- 
cance and potential for interpretation 
were unsurpassed in North America. 
The initial reason for the reconstruc- 
tion at Louisbourg was economic — the 
lessening demand for Cape Breton coal 
and threatening unemployment. A Royal 
Commission headed by the Hon. E. C. 
Rand investigated the matter and made 
some far-reaching recommendations, 
one of which was the development of 
tourism: 
“A single extractive industry, by its na- 
ture, is not a desirable economic base 
foracommunity ...for the Sydney-Glace 
Bay-Louisbourg District, alternative and 
supporting economic and cultural activ- 
ities must be considered, a scheme ade- 
quate to introduce new wealth into Cape 
Breton and bring fresh and heightened 
scenes and an elevation of mind and 
spirit to its people.” 


Tourism meant among other things 
doing something with the fortress of 
Louisbourg. In 1960 the Federal Govern- 
ment authorized the beginning of a 
25 million-dollar program to reconstruct 
one-fifth of the fortress and town and re- 
create an historical cross-section of 
military, maritime, commercial, adminis- 
trative and domestic pursuits as they 
originally existed in Louisbourg. 


= “What could be more stimulating to 
‘the imagination or instructive to the — 
mind,” the Rand report concluded, “than 
“areconstruction that would give acom- 


d eolrural forms set up in a strange 
land in’ ‘iting settlement.” 
a n haope and oe solution 


alties has increased as re- 
on has been followed by 
nimation, maintenance and 


As a mainstay of the tourist business, 
in which historic and cultural attractions 
account for nearly 30 percent of reve- 
nues, Louisbourg will repay its cost many 
times over. And it will do soin an area 
which still has few alternatives to heavy 
industry. 

Those benefits are only the beginning. 
What about conservation? 

Louisbourg brings to the National 
Parks System a variety of natural and 
historic features which deserve pre- 
sentation. Its 23 square miles include 
Atlantic coastline, salt marshes, and 
nesting places for numerous aquatic 
birds. Black Rock, a siege position which 
shows the remains of French attempts 
to demolish it, is also the most visible 
element of a geological sequence which 
extends back 500 million years, to the 
area’ s volcanic Origin. 


The marshy plain of Gabarus, which 
protected much of the landward front of 
the fortress, is shelter for deer and foxes 
as well as being a major example of bog 
vegetation. Kennington Cove, where the 
British fought their way ashore in an 
amphibious landing in 1758, has an ex- 
cellent sandy beach and a small island 
which is a gathering place for seals. 

Freshwater Brook, which marks a 
line of British regimental campsites, 
houses a colony of beavers. The tall- 
stalked angelica, found only in the Louis- 
bourg area, was introduced from Europe 
and descends from herbs once grown 
in the fortress. 

As reconstruction nears its conclusion 
at Louisbourg there is growing acknow- 
ledgement of the park role. The natural 
setting reduces modern intrusions and 
allows the maintenance of an historic 
environment. Visitors in the 1980’s will 


~ enjoy many of the more usual park ex- 


periences as the interpretation grows to 
include natural as well as historic 
resources. 

It is an oversimplification to claim, as 
some critics have, that the reconstruc- 
tions represent a 25 million-dollar loss 
to the preservation of historic properties. 
It is as valid to claim that Louisbourg, 


une V niaaaaianaiied " 


through its effort to interpret the past, 
will encourage support for preservation 
elsewhere. In any case, such an outlook 
is symptomatic of a preoccupation with 
structures which has coloured attitudes 
toward Louisbourg for far too long. 


Ultimately, the buildings at Louisbourg | 


are synthetic — the same kind of facsimile — 


historical district that the Europeans 
rebuilt in their ruined cities after World 
War Il: and for the same reason — to re- 
capture and preserve the spirit of the 
past. 

For such a purpose the buildings them- 
selves, while they must be as accurate 
as possible, faithful in ‘‘line, level and 
fabric” to historic sites policy, are pri- 
marily a point of departure, a physical 
setting in which to explain and encour- 
age understanding of an earlier way of 
life. And that’s conservation too, ona 
scale and in astyle that some preserva- 
tionists have yet to acknowledge. 

If it is valid and necessary to safeguard 
the wildlife or natural features in Can- 
ada’s parks for our benefit, education 
and enjoyment, or “‘just so they will be 
there’, then so is it worthwhile to have 
in a few well-chosen places a similar 
kind of cultural preservation. The need 
exists. 

In describing contemporary life, such 
writers as Alvin Toffler have predicted 
that enclaves of the past will provide a 
psychological refuge. 


f 


In the United States, where the effects 
of change have been more devastating 
and of longer duration, outdoor museums 
and restored — or reconstructed — his- 
toric villages are increasingly seen as 
surrogate home towns which contain 
something familiar and unchanging for 
people whose points of reference on 
the landscape have been altered beyond 
recognition. 

Since reconstruction began, our 
view of Louisbourg’s significance has 
changed considerably. It is no longer 
important mainly as a place where sieges 
were laid, or as a military installation 
whose defeat contributed to the con- 
quest of Canada. 

Louisbourg is interesting as a more 
European, and possibly more sophisti- 
cated, colony than Quebec; as a maritime 
and commercial centre whose fisheries 
far outweighed the fur trade in value; and 
as a culture increasingly distinct from 
that of the French hinterland. 

The staff at Louisbourg are re-learning 
and demonstrating the trades, skills, 
attitudes, social customs and values of 
an earlier and quite different culture. 
Those who visit Louisbourg seldom go 
away without an appreciation of the 
intangible elements in their heritage. 

Louisbourg offers that kind of cultural 
set-piece. It is amoment in time, and in 
its interpretation we are trying — and gen- 
rally succeeding, we hope, — to make 
ita valid experience for visitors and a 
benchmark in Canada’s heritage. 


3 Dressed in the garb of yesteryear an 
animator stands guard at Louisbourg 

4 Building a fortress of his own: this young 
boy bridges the centuries 


5 ...once the capital of a colony and 
home for 5,000... 
6 ...one of whom was this soldier of the 


Compagnie Franche de la Marine, circa 
1726 


The use of costumed animators is im- 
portant; not because it is a “crowd 
pleaser” and an inducement to visit the 
site. Animation at Louisbourg aims not 
at demonstrating familiar frontier crafts, 
or firing guns, but at portraying the 
everyday life of acommunity. 

This kind of activity goes far beyond 
theatrics and endeavours to sustain 
itself by its own authenticity and vitality. 
It seeks not merely to entertain, but also 
to be educational. As heritage conserva- 
tion, iteven goes beyond that. In the 
words of the historian, Julian Boyd: 
“Our historic shrines, our parks, our res- 
torations, our pageants and our monu- 
ments constitute a vast textbook across 
the land, wherein millions of people may 
deepen their experience, renew their 
acquaintance with the roots of their insti- 
tutions, and occasionally encounter 
those rare moments of understanding 
and insight that regenerate our 
strength.” 

Louisbourg continues to be Parks 
Canada’s most ambitious attempt to de- 
velop its historic resources. Along with 
the conservation and interpretation of 
some unique and significant aspects of 
Canada’s physical heritage, it is pre- 
serving a vanquished culture and con- 
tributing to that ‘elevation of mind and 
spirit’ envisioned by the Rand Report, 
not only for the people of Cape Breton 
but for all Canadians. 


A courtyard, once a scene of activity now 
lies deserted 

A clock marks the hours in a place 

where time stands still 

Windows to another world 


Ny tee 


oa) 5 Foes 


a ae, 


Putting the Parks 
In Perspective 


“Summer holidays are here again and it 
seems as if everyone is running about 
from place to place trying to see every- 
thing at once. This is fine if all you want 
to do is to name the places where you 
have been; il will pass the time. But if you 
really want to see what you are looking 
at, then running about does not make 
much sense. Places and things seen ina 
hurry tend to look alike. One rushing 
stream looks like another. So a person 
who travels headlong about the world 
will hardly be any richer when he or she 
returns.” 

Alain (1906) 


This 70-year old excerpt from Alain’s 
Propos sur le Bonheur (on the subject of 
happiness) is still true today. Many peo- 
ple visit National Parks or other pictur- 
esque places without really taking the 
time to enjoy them. 

Fortunately, most visitors who are 
attracted to the parks do stop and ob- 
serve the beauty around them. Those 
who really appreciate the natural won- 
ders around them will profit from the 
knowledge of the park naturalists, who 
can provide visitors with an entirely 
new perspective on the world around 
them. 

The untrained eye sees readily the 
elements of nature that are of particular 
interest in themselves: animals, insects, 
birds, plants and landscape. The natu- 
ralists sees deeper and puts all these 
elements in their proper perspective to 
provide an overall understanding of 
the forces that shape nature and the 
environment in which we live. Quite an 
entirely new dimension! 


To Smell, to Touch, to Taste 
To make us more aware of the living 
world around us, naturalists attempt to 
awaken our senses to nature. Through 
touch, taste and smell we gain impres- 
sions that will be vividly remembered. 
Walking barefoot in a group through a 
salt marsh can be an enlightening expe- 
rience for anyone. Some claim that the 
experience brings back moments from 
childhood. ‘‘We realize how much 
modern living had numbed our senses.” 


* Originally written in French by Diane 
Turcotte, formerly a park naturalist at Forillon 
National Park. 


8 


10 On the trail of a bullfrog 

11 Pickerel weed casts its reflection 
onalake 

12 Life and death in a tidal pool: anemone 
eating fish 


“People no longer take the time to enjoy 
exploring like this.” ‘‘When you think of 
it, these are things we no longer do once 
we become adults.” 

Once we reawaken our senses we 
discover our intimate relationship with 
nature. Walking along a forest trail, 
hikers are shown plants that bear edible 
fruits. For centuries, these fruits and 
berries were an important food supply, 
as were the plants used for making 
herbal teas. Hikers sample these on 
some of the guided excursions. 


The Balance of Nature 

A hiking trip will feature a particular 
habitat, amarsh, amaple grove orasea 
water basin. The enthusiastic hiker will 
discover a world that is much more com- 
plex than first imagined. 

In a pond, visitors learn how under- 
water plants, fish, insects and other life- 
forms live together as part of a balanced 
ecosystem, adapting to their environ- 
ment. The fascinating balance of nature, 
with its well-organized and totally effi- 
cient recycling system, is revealed to the 
attentive park visitor. 

Park excursions also provide a unique 
opportunity to reflect on our civilization 
and the problems of pollution, overpopu- 
lation and dwindling resources. Nature 
has evolved over millions of years and 
has much to teach us. Perhaps the best 
time to learn is during the summer 
holidays beside a pond in one of our 
National Parks. 


Foolishness or Wisdom? 

Park naturalists are not merely lovers of 
flowers, butterflies and birds. What they 
have to teach us is an awareness that 
goes far beyond the borders of our every- 
day world. 

Consider the remarkable skills of 
insects. We tend to equate small size 
with insignificance, yet what a surprise 
to discover how sophisticated and in- 
volved these small creatures are. Many 
species live in societies perhaps more 
highly developed than our own. They 
have been on earth for more than three 
hundred million years, long before the 
appearance of man two million years 
ago. 


What about wild plants? We enjoy 
their beauty and charm, but eat only 
those fruits and vegetables grown by our 
western civilization, when all the time, 
right under our noses, nature is pro- 
ducing leaves and fruit containing 
twenty-five times the amount of vitamins 
and minerals in conventional fruits and 
vegetables. 

Even in this space age, science is 
unable to explain how birds navigate 
from one end of the world to the other. 


Gigantic Forces 

Visitors who come to our National Parks 
are soon enthralled by landscapes 
offering the observer a wide variety of 
rock formations. In interpreting geology, 
naturalists describe the gigantic forces 
that have slowly shaped and conti- 
nuously changed our planet for millions 
of years. 


13. In addition to being beautiful these plants 
offer their nectar to bees and butterflies 

14 Akatydid perched ona leaf displays its 
symmetry 

15 ...right under our noses nature pro- 
duces fruits for us to taste; in this case 
bearberries 


In Canada’s National Parks the dimen- 
sion of time extends to its farthest 
reaches, leaving signs of the eternal 
cycle of building and erosion. Seeing 
this awesome panorama, we realize 
how recent our presence on this earth 
is when compared to the long geological 
history of our continent. 


To Know is to Respect 

The role of the park naturalist is to 
educate the public by broadening its 
horizons in time and space. Naturalists 
give park visitors an idea of the basic 
laws that govern our natural environ- 
ment. To learn, to better understand, 
appreciate and respect... to change our 
way of thinking and to apply these basic 
principles to our own lives and to all 
living things around us — this is what 
conservation is all about. 


Point Pelee 
IS For the Birds 


Point Pelee National Park, in southern 
Ontario 25 miles south-east of Windsor, 
is one of Canada’s very special places. 
A combination of landforms, wind and 
weather, brings thousands of birds 
through the park each spring and fall, 
and the birds bring their own followers. 

The autumn migration, from mid- 
August to mid-November, attracts bird 
watchers and ornithologists from around 
the world to this narrow spit of land, 
only six square miles, jutting out into 
Lake Erie. 

At Point Pelee a bird watcher may see 
in one day more different kinds of birds 
than could be seen all year in another 
location. Three hundred and thirty-six 
species have been recorded in the park, 
which is approximately 60 per cent of 
all the species known in Canada. 

During the peak of the migration pe- 
riod a single observer, in one day, has 
been known to compile a list of up to 125 


different species. 
11 


Point Pelee offers volume as well as 
variety. During the migration season, 
from ten to twenty thousand birds of one 
species have been observed in the park 
at one time — an impressive sight even to 
an untrained eye. 

The diversity of habitats within the 
park is an important reason why Point 
Pelee attracts so many different mi- 
grating species. Marsh, forest and beach 
environments satisfy the habitat pre- 
ferences of a great variety of birds. 

The possibility of seeing rare birds is 
another feature which attracts bird 
watchers and ornithologists to the park 
year after year. During the spring mi- 
gration this year, a glossy ibis, a very 
infrequent visitor, spent four weeks in the 
park area. 


12 


Observing and identifying different 
species of birds is a challenging and 
rewarding experience for the amateur or 
professional birder. For the true profes- 
sional, day begins before sunrise and 
breakfast is postponed until midmorning 
when the birds’ activities subside. 

A trip to Point Pelee National Park 
during the migration period should begin 
with a visit to the park’s Interpretive 
Centre where there are displays and 
special presentations about birds and 
bird migrations. Bird checklists and 
records of the species which have been 
observed in the park are also available. 
Naturalists conduct guided walks and 
help visitors identify the different species 
of birds. 


The three most popular observation 
spots in the park are: the tip of the Point, 
the Woodland Nature Trail and the 
Marsh Boardwalk. 

The tip of Point Pelee peninsula 
(the southernmost point of the Cana- 
dian mainland) is the ideal spot to view 
gulls, terns and shorebirds. During the 
fall migration it is a taking-off point for 
birds flying south across Lake Erie. 
Larger birds such as hawks, red-winged 
blackbirds, grackles, blue jays and 
robins normally cross the lake without 
stopping; but small birds, such as war- 
blers, use the chain of islands as a 
natural pathway from Point Pelee to the 
Ohio shore, 35 miles away. 


| 


16 Shorebirds, like this killdeer feed on tiny 
organisms 

17 A flock of gulls flying over the tip of 
Point Pelee 

18 A mallard introduces her young to the 
water 


A saw-whet owl dozes in the fork of a tree 


20 The eastern kingbird feasts on flies 
21 Small birds such as this warbler leave 


the Point via a chain of islands 


The Woodland Nature Trail starts at 
the National Park Interpretive Centre 
and winds through a variety of habitats. 
The shrubby areas shelter birds such as 
wrens, sparrows and warblers. War- 
blers present a particular challenge to 
the most experienced of birders. The 
similarity of their markings and their 
rapid movements make identification 
difficult. Last autumn, 36 different types 
of warblers were recorded. 

In the wooded areas along the trail, 
birders can see such colourful species 
as cardinals, woodpeckers and indigo 
buntings. 


The Boardwalk is an interesting mile- 
long walk through the park’s cattail 
marsh area. Red-winged blackbirds, 
hawks, swallows, blue jays, herons and 
bitterns prefer this location. A red- 
winged blackbird perched precariously 
atop a cattail loudly warning intruders 
not to approach too closely is acommon 
sight. 

Observing birds is only one of the 
pleasures of a visit to Point Pelee Na- 
tional Park. Hearing them is another. 
Stop for amoment and listen — you will 
be rewarded with a delightful melody of 
songs. Stopping to listen to the birds’ 
songs is also an opportunity to develop 
the skill of identifying birds by sound 
rather than by sight. 


Point Pelee National Park is a truly 
unique aspect of Canada’s natural heri- 
tage. A pair of binoculars and a field 
guide for identifying birds can make a 
visit to Point Pelee a fascinating and 
memorable experience. 


13 


Auyuittug National Park on Baffin Island 
is Canada’s first National Park within 
the Arctic Circle. 

“Auyuittuq”’ (Inuit for ‘the place which 
does not melt’), is the subject of anew 
book published by Parks Canada, 
Quebec region. The Land That Never 
Melts: Auyuittuq National Park, brings 
together contributions by specialists in 
such fields as archaeology, geology, 
climate and ice-age history and ecology. 

The text is lavishly illustrated and 
adorned by aseries of arctic birds 
painted by Jean-Luc Grondin. The fol- 
lowing is an excerpt from Chapter II: 
History of Human Occupation, by Peter 
Schledermann. 


Explanatory Note: 

Evidence from archaeological research 
in eastern Baffin Island suggests the 
arrival of the Thule (pronounced too’ lee) 
culture in the area took place around 
1200 A.D. A number of old Thule sites 
were located in the vicinity of the park 
mainly in Cumberland Sound, and 
several middens (refuse pits) and dwell- 
ing structures were excavated. 

... The early Thule winter houses were 
built of sod, stone and whalebone sec- 
tions with the roof supported by whale 
ribs covered by skin and sod. The 
dwellings were usually constructed par- 
tially below ground with an entrance 
tunnel leading into the house slightly 
below the level of the central floor. A 
sleeping platform was raised in the rear 
half of the dwelling with small storage 
compartments underneath. One or two 
side platforms supported seal-oil lamps 
and provided an area for cooking and 
garment drying. 

Caribou were hunted extensively in the 
fall when the skins were best suited to 
making cloth. 

Fishing was important during the char 
run of the summer months. In early 
spring, ice-fishing on the lakes provided 
an important addition to the food supply 
as did the abundance of waterfowl! which 
passed through the area in late spring 
and fall. 

Seal hunting was carried on through- 
out the year, at the breathing holes on 
the fast-ice, along open leads and from 
kayaks in the open water. The ringed 
seal provided the greatest proportion of 
the food intake. 


Large baleen whales migrated through 
the area and a “‘catch”’ of one of these 
huge animals provided great quantities 
of food and fuel.” 

We know from the paleo-climatologi- 
cal records that a cold climatic episode 
began as early as 750 years ago. This 
trend intensified greatly about 350 years 
ago, ending about 1850. This last period 
is often referred to as the little ice age. 

Increasing masses of pack-ice may 
have forced the large whales too far from 
the coast beyond the reach of the Inuit 
hunters. During this period, the snow 
cover on land was greater than during 
the preceding 6,000 years and the overall 
Carrying capacity of the region was 
sharply reduced. 

In order to survive this environmental 
shift, the people were forced to disperse. 
Some groups probably headed inland 
to the vicinities of Amadjuak and Net- 
tilling Lakes where hunting, fishing and 
some seal-hunting could support a 
number of families on a year-round basis. 
Others may have chosen to live in small 
nomadic groups which were scattered 
along the coast. 


“The Land That Never Melts’, published 
by Peter Martin and Associates, sells for 
$15 in hard cover and $5.95 in paper- 
back. 

Available by mail from Printing and 
Publishing, Supply and Services Canada, 
Ottawa K1A OS39, or through your 
bookseller. 

*Note: When ordering by mail, make 
cheque or money order payable to the 
Receiver General of Canada. 


Autumn 
In the National 
Parks 


Summer is the most popular season for 
visiting Canada’s National Parks; but for 
many people autumn is the most en- 
joyable. 

The beauty of majestic mountains and 
clear streams holds special meaning 
when it can be enjoyed quietly and with- 
out hurry. 


A Vagabond Song 


There is something in the autumn 
that is native to my blood — 
Touch of manner, hint of mood; 
And my heartis like a rhyme, 
With the yellow and the purple 
and the crimson keeping time 


The scarlet of the maples 
can shake me like a cry 
Of bugles going by. 
And my lonely spirit thrills 
To see the frosty asters 
like a smoke upon the hills 


There is something in October 
sets the gypsy blood astir 
We must rise and follow her, 
When from every hill of flame 
She calls and calls 
each vagabond by name. 


Bliss Carman (1896) 


Centre spread: Autumn tranquillity — Pukaskwa 
National Park 
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Cette revue parait en anglais et en fran- 
cais. Pour la version francaise, voir au 
verso de la publication. 


a ve indian and Affaires indiennes 
Northern Affairs | et du Nord 


Parks Canada Parcs Canada 


Volume 2, No. 4, 1976 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help 
Canadians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Table of Contents 


3 Winter In Canada’s National Parks 
by Rita Scagnetti 


9 The Rideau Canal-—A Year-Round 
Pleasure Route 
by James D. Georgiles 


11 Presenting the Past As It Really Was 
by Colleen McCluskey 


14 Lower Fort Garry — No Hibernation 
Here 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. Warren Allmand, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, 
Ottawa, 1976. 

QS-7021-040-BB-A1 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production: Barry P. Boucher 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo credits: Cover, George R. Sranko; 
Winter in Canada’s National Parks 1, 5 & 7, 
K. Henrik Deichmann; The Rideau Canal — 
A Year-Round Pleasure Route 1, 3, 4 & 5, 
W. Arnold Current; 2, Malak; Centre spread, 
Peter McGuire 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit 
line. Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of Indian 
and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 

K1A 0H4. 


©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1976 


Danforth Marketing Services 
Contract No. 0O2KX A0767-6-6005 


Cover: Snowshoeing in Kootenay National 
Park 

Centre spread: Breaking trail, 

Banff National Park 


~~“ by Rita Scagnetti 


The frost that stings like fire upon my cheek, 

The loneliness of this forsaken ground, 

The long white drift upon whose powdered 

peak 

| sit in the great silence as one bound; 

The rippled sheet of snow where the wind 

blows 

Across the open fields for miles ahead; 

The far-off city towered and roofed in blue 

A tender line upon the western red; 

The stars that singly, then in flocks appear, 

Like jets of silver from the violet dome, 

So wonderful, so many and so near, 

And then the golden moon to light me home; 

The crunching snowshoes and the stinging 

air, 

and silence, frost, and beauty everywhere. 
(Winter Uplands, Archibald Lampman, 1900) 


In the language of the Inuit there are 
at least a dozen common expressions, 
and numerous specialized ones for the 
word “‘snow”’. Although most Canadians 
probably consider one word sufficient, 
words fail them when the time comes to 
describe these incredible crystals. 

It is not easy to describe that magic 
white powder that makes Canadian 
winters so breathtakingly beautiful. 

In Canada’s national parks, winter is 
simply — spectacular. Snow transforms 
already picturesque parklands into 
dazzling worlds of white. Silence fills the 
wilderness, giving the impression of 
impenetrable serenity. This atmosphere 
of calm is deceiving. Beneath the thick 
layer of quiet there is much activity: 
squirrels scurry back and forth from their 
food reserves, black bears nurse newly- 
born cubs, and burrowed beneath the 
snow, mice and woodchucks hibernate. 

Although it is commonly accepted 
that the Canadian winter is long and 
sometimes cruel, it doesn’t follow that 
animals and birds suffer from it the 
same way some humans say they do. “‘In 
fact,” says Henrik Deichmann of Fundy 
National Park,” winter is kind to many 
animals and serves as their protector.” 

Snow offers safety and comfort to ani- 
mals and birds. The grouse burrows in 
the snow, where it is warm and protected 
from predators. The Ruffed Grouse 
travels the winter miles on snowshoes, 
or at least on equipment comparable to 
snowshoes. In the winter, the scales 
on its toes grow out laterally, forming 
fringes which act like snowshoes. 

In November, the chipmunk disap- 
pears below the ground and begins its 
long winter sleep. It is not a true hiberna- 


Rita Scagnetti is a Carleton University jour- 
nalism student who worked this summer in 
the Parks Canada Information Division. 


four 


1 Lynx tracks in the snow, Fundy National 
Park 


tor, because it awakens occasionally 

to nibble on the cache of seeds it has 
stored. Stock-piling of seeds begins in 
late July, and by October, one chipmunk 
will have accumulated about a half litre 
of seeds. 

Like the chipmunk, the black bear is 
not a true hibernator. Its body tempera- 
ture remains almost normal and its rate 
of metabolism is only slightly reduced. In 
true hibernators, like the dormouse and 
the woodchuck, body temperatures fall 
until they are almost equal to that of 
the surrounding atmosphere. 


2 Snowdrift formations, Prince Albert 
National Park 

3  Winter’s snowy mantle, Kejimkujik 
National Park 


Unlike the industrious little chipmunk, 
the black bear does not store food. In 
late autumn, it gorges itself with a variety 
of wild fruit and berries, fish and car- 
rion. When the temperature drops below 
freezing, the bear retires to a rocky den 
or cave to while away the winter. 

Occasionally, particularly if the 
weather warms up unexpectedly, the 
bear awakens. It may search for food 
and drink, or merely roll over and go 
back to sleep. During the winter, the 
female bear gives birth to twin cubs, 
each about the size of a squirrel. 


4 Snowshoeing into a winter sunset, Prince 
Albert National Park 


Human beings are not the only ones 
who don new coats for the winter sea- 
son. The snowshoe hare and the collared 
lemming of the Arctic change their 
coats to suit the season. The ermine 
sports snow-white attire in the winter, 
and wears a duller, brown coat in the 
summer. 

Changing colours is nature’s camou- 
flage for animals. However, this camou- 
flage alone is not enough to ensure 
protection. 


Snowshoe hares leave tell-tale tracks 
in the snow, making hunting easy for 
its most-feared predator, the lynx. 

The lynx depends so heavily on the 
hare for food that its numbers follow that 
of the hare population very closely. 
When the woods are full of “rabbit” 
tracks, the lynx eats well — as many as 
200 hares a year. When tracks are 
scarce, the lynx goes hungry and its 
numbers diminish. 

The moose also varies in colour from 
season to season. In winter, its coat is 
usually chocolate brown or grey-brown. 


30 warmer months, it has shorter, redder 
air. 

The moose moves about with ease in 
the winter, wading through deep snow 
on its long legs and cloven hooves. It 
feeds on twigs from shrubs and trees, 
and in a day, one adult consumes from 
18 to 21 kg of twigs. 

White-tailed deer are magnificent in 
winter, plump with stored fat and sleek 
in their glossy winter fur. Deer concen- 
trate in areas that provide adequate 
food and shelter from storms and deep 
snow. Deep snow makes movement 
difficult, but snow that packs and settles 
gives the deer extra height, enabling 
them to reach high into trees for food. 

Several factors combine to create a 
winter that is good for wildlife. Generally 
soft, deep snow is best, and it must last. 
Animals suffer if there is inadequate 
snowfall, because they are unable to 
burrow beneath its protective blanket. 
Frozen rain forms a crust on the surface, 
preventing animals from seeking food 
beneath. 

Even under ideal weather conditions 
food for deer, as well as for other ani- 
mals and birds, can be scarce. Despite 
occasional food shortages, Parks Can- 
ada staff allows nature to run its course. 
Human interference in the life-cycle of 
the parks’ flora and fauna is kept toa 
minimum. 

Introducing foreign food sources into 
the environment often does more harm 
than good. It may create a concentration 
of animals in one area. Thus, a herd of 
deer can become easy prey for the 
stealthy cougar. In addition, feeding 
weak animals food which is unnatural to 
their diet can make them weaker still. 

While animals in the parks prepare for 
winter, park interpreters are busy pre- 
paring for winter visitors. Attendance at 
Canada’s national parks during the 
winter months has been boosted by the 
rising popularity of winter sports, espe- 
cially cross-country skiing. Last winter, 
between December 1 and March 31, 
there were nearly two million visitors to 
the national parks of Canada. 

In the winter, visitors to parks can 
enjoy a variety of recreational activities, 
including skating, toboganning, snow- 
mobiling, skiing — and even outdoor 
camping. 

While most campers store their gear 
once the mercury dips, there are some 
whose enthusiasm is not dampened — or 
chilled — by the arrival of winter. 


five 


5 Shadows on the snow, Wolfe Lake, 
Fundy National Park 
6 Ice hummocks, Terra Nova National Park 


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7 Chasing the chill, Fundy National Park 8 Winter reflections, Kejimkujik National 
Park 


Jacques Saquet of Riding Mountain 
National Park says that the popularity 
of the outdoor camping program, started 
in 1973, has increased rapidly. 

This park offers three weekend trips, 
usually in January, February and March. 
Registration for the excursions takes 
place at the local fall fair, where inter- 
ested persons have an opportunity to 
discuss the program with qualified park 
personnel. Only those with previous 
outdoor experience are encouraged to 
apply. 

Orientation meetings are held before 
the excursions. At the meetings park 
officials show prospective participants 
the type of equipment they’ll need. 
Winter camping procedures are re- 
viewed with slides, films and general 
discussion. 

Winter campers explore the outdoors 
on skis or snowshoes, carrying a back- 
pack weighing 13 to 18 kg, filled with 
high-energy food, a mess kit and warm 

clothing. A high-quality sleeping bag, 
with foam or ensolite pads to keep it 
dry, serves as a warm bed. 

Another essential part of winter-camp- 
ing gear is.a light shovel, used to build 
a ‘“‘quin-zhee’’, a snow-cave that pro- 
vides overnight shelter. A quin-zhee is 
comparable to an igloo and is built by 

hollowing out the centre of a frozen 
mound of snow. 

The walls of the shelter provide ex- 
cellent protection from the elements. 
Using only candle heat, the inside of a 
quin-zhee can be kept surprisingly 
warm, up to 10°C, although 2°C is the 
average. 

Some national parks, like Banff, have 
unserviced winter campsites, located 
on remote trails. For public safety, winter 
visitors who are camping or touring 
must register before and after each trip. 

Most national parks have areas spe- 
cially designated for winter activities. 

Snowmobile trails, for example, are 

separate from toboganning or cross- 
country ski trails. This separation en- 

sures not only visitors’ enjoyment, but 

their safety as well. 

~ Outdoor swimming does not come to a 

standstill everywhere because there is 

| snow on the ground. In Kootenay Nation- 

al Park, both outdoor pools — hot and 

cold — of the Radium Hot Springs are 
open all year. 


i 


seven 


Satie ee 


There is also fishing during winter 
months, in parks like Prince Albert Na- 
tional Park, where visitors ice-fish for 
northern pike, lake trout and walleye. 

By far the most popular winter sport 
enjoyed in Canada’s national parks is 
skiing. Down-hill and cross-country ski- 
ing facilities attract enthusiasts from 
all over Canada and the United States. 
At the season’s peak up to 2,500 visitors 
may be found on the slopes of Sunshine 
Village in Banff. 

Cross-country skiing doesn’t attract 
the same crowds to a single location; but 
the number of skiers who enjoy the 
parks this way is growing steadily. In 
Quebec, where cross-country skiing has 


eight 


become very popular, the number of 
visitors to the national parks last winter 
increased by 254 percent. 

In some northern parks, like Auyuittuq, 
on Baffin Island, winter activities are 
best in April, May or early June. During 
these months, when the temperature 
is rising slowly, the surface of the snow 
is still hard enough for snowshoeing or 
cross-country skiing. 

One of the purposes of operating a 
national parks system in Canada is to 
educate Canadians about their natural 
environment. Parks Canada offers 
school programs year-round, providing 
interested groups with an opportunity 
to visit interpretation centres in the 
parks, and to appreciate the wonders of 
nature first-hand. 

Park interpreters also speak to stu- 
dents, in class or in the park itself. Slide- 
tape shows and exhibits used in these 
presentations describe the interrelation 
between people, climate, land forms, 
plants and animals. 


Winter visitors to Canada’s national 
parks can arrange in advance for special 
talks or tours. Several parks have pre- 
pared slide-shows on cross-country 
skiing and winter ecology. 

In providing facilities for winter activ- 
ities, Parks Canada is helping Cana- 
dians enjoy the natural beauty of our 
parklands — all year round. 


A hundred and fifty years after its con- 
struction began, the Rideau Canal is 
more active than ever. Seven thousand 
boats passed through its locks this 
summer and nearly a million skate blades 
will carve its frozen floor this winter. 

The canal, constructed primarily for 
military reasons, opened up the Rideau 
Valley to navigation and provided a 
valuable commercial transportation 
route. Today the commercial value of 
the Canal has virtually disappeared; but 
its value as a pleasure route increases 
each year. 

The Rideau Canal begins in a narrow 
gorge by the side of the Parliament 
Buildings in Ottawa. It rises through a 
flight of eight locks to a height of 24.08 m. 
Crossing under busy Rideau Street by 
the side of the old Union Station, now the 


The Rideau Canal — 


A Year-Round 
Pleasure Route 


Conference Centre, the canal passes 
between the University of Ottawa on its 
east bank and the National Arts Centre 
on the west. Bounded on each side by 
scenic driveways and boulevards, it 
eventually arrives at man-made Dow’s 
Lake with its marina and sail boats. 

The next locks are Hartwell Locks 
opposite Carleton University and facing 
the Central Experimental Farm. The 
waterway continues parallel with the 
Rideau River which it enters at Hogs 
Back Locks just above the Prince of 
Wales Falls. These falls are the result of 
a geological fault that has heaved the 
terrain in a spectacular fashion to ex- 
pose rock formations and strata buried 
for aeons. 

Just above Hogs Back lies Mooneys 
Bay with its wide sandy beach, bathing 
facilities and sports complex. This resort 
is one of the main recreational areas 
for the City of Ottawa and on hot summer 
days abounds with swimmers and sun- 
bathers escaping from their daily rou- 


by James D. Georgiles 


ft , eh 
ey hany ‘ ! 
{ j A ley, 


tines. Farther out in mid-stream the 


water-skiers skim the surface of the 
water sending up their fountains of 
spray. 

The meandering route of the river, 
controlled by several locks, finally 
reaches its maximum height in the Upper 
Rideau Lake. From here it is conducted 
through a cutting into Newboro Lake 
and, via the Cataraqui River, finally emp- 
ties into Lake Ontario. 

The entire length of the Rideau Canal 
is 198 km, of which only 19 km are 
man-cut channels. Fourteen locks are 
required to lift vessels 49.38 m from 
the level of Lake Ontario to the highest 
point in the system. Thirty-three more 
locks lower them 84.43 m to the level of 
the Ottawa River. 


nine 


1 Entering the lock 
2 Askater’s paradise 


Vessels using the canal are restricted 
to a length of 34.14 m anda9.14m 
beam; maximum clearance is 6.71 m. 
Vessels drawing 168 cm may normally 
pass all sections of the canal; however, 
the official draught is 152 centimetres. 

Several channels branch off from the 
Rideau Lakes. The most important being 
the Tay Canal, which has two locks and 
extends 11.27 km from the north end 
of Lower Rideau Lake to Perth. 

The Rideau Canal never saw military 
use and its strategic value dwindled 
with the 19th century. But fortune had not 
ignored the canal, for gradually hotels 
and recreational facilities sprang along 


ten 


3 A family trip 
4 Waiting for a bite 
5 Ahelping hand 


the quiet and picturesque reaches of 
the system. When the long anticipated 
American invasion materialized, it was 
a peaceful one, in the form of tourists 
eager to enjoy Canada’s unspoiled 
beauties. 

The Rideau Canal has become a major 
historical tourist attraction and through- 
out the summer vibrates with activity. 
All types of pleasure boats from palatial 
cruisers, yachts and houseboats down 
to canoes and rowboats ply its peaceful 
waters. 

Modernization has not tainted the 
historic atmosphere of the Rideau, for 


most of the locks are still hand-operated. 


The massive wooden gates and hewn 


stone walls have been retained and 
tourists can still become acquainted with 
the canal’s military history by visiting 
the blockhouses and stone lockmasters- 
houses, originally designed as fortifica- 
tions. The story of this historic route is 
told in a new film, “‘The Rideau Canal — 
Colonel By’s Peaceable Waterway”, 
which can be borrowed from regional 
offices of Parks Canada or the National 
Film Board. 

The passing of summer does not ring 
down the curtain on canal activities to 
induce the somnolence that once 
pervaded the winter scene. With the 
coming of winter, Parks Canada puts its 
boats away and turns to the work of 
repairing locks and walls. 

For most of its length, the Rideau 
Canal is under a protective blanket of 
snow; but over an eight-km distance in th 
City of Ottawa, the National Capital 
Commission operates the world’s long- 
est skating rink. The canal is drained 
to a low level and when frozen, becomes — 
a rendezvous for skaters of all ages. 

In the shadow of the National Arts 
Centre, the scene becomes a winter 
wonderland of coloured lanterns and soft 
music. As many as 50,000 skaters have 
been seen on a Sunday afternoon. 

At Dow’s Lake motorcycle races are 
held on the ice and avid anglers fish 
through the ice for the one that got away 
last summer. Further up stream snow- 
shoers and cross country skiers weave 
their criss-cross trails as they enjoy the _ 
bounties of the Rideau Canal in winter. 

| 


Presenting the Past 
As It Really Was 


“Trifles make perfection, and perfec- 
tion is no trifle. 
Michelangelo 1475-1564 


A trip to Toronto’s Chinatown led Ted 
Boulerice, a curator working for Parks 
Canada, to a piece of grass matting 
which he had been trying to find for 
several months. The grass matting, a 
type used in the 18th century to protect 
tea chests on their long journey from 
the East, was needed to wrap tea chests 
in the fur loft at Lower Fort Garry. Ted 


Colleen McCluskey is an information officer 
with Parks Canada. 


saw it covering baskets of ginger root 

in amerchant’s shop and asked where it 
came from. The Kam-chi-hong Matting 
Company of Hong Kong is now producing 
a supply for Parks Canada. 

This attention to detail is the differ- 
ence between filling a house with period 
furniture and interpreting the lifestyle of 
the people who lived there. 

“The first step in restoring an historic 
site is to study the people who made it 
significant’, says Lieutenant-Colonel 
Malcolm Ferguson, Assistant Chief of 
Period Restoration for Parks Canada. 

How did they live? What kind of 
furniture did they have? What did they 


by Colleen McCluskey 


read? What commodities were a part of 
their everyday life? These questions 
must be answered before a curator can 
look for furnishings. 

Parks Canada historians examine old 
records, paintings and photographs and 
interview descendants or others familiar 
with specific areas, to get an accurate 
picture of daily life in an historical 
period. 

Once the historical research is com- 
pleted, a curator begins the search for 
appropriate furnishings. Using a knowl- 
edge of building- and packing-materials, 
containers, furniture, lighting fixtures, 
military uniforms and a thousand other 

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awson City 


from Mexico, the United States, England, 
Germany, Holland and France. 

Furnishing an historic site leads to 
a number of unique challenges. One of 
the current problems is how to cap the 
tops of bottles with lead foil as it was 
done in the last century. A company 
capable of furnishing the lead foil caps 
has been found, but they demand a 
minimum order of 25,000 caps, which is 
slightly more than the number Parks 
Canada needs to cap a dozen bottles for 
an historic site. Needless to say, the 
search for lead foil caps continues. 

Certain items such as paper bags 
from the beginning of the century and 
original wrapping paper are almost im- 
possible to acquire. 

Help and advice come from many 
sources. Recenily the Period Restoration 
Division was having problems getting 
labels to stick to bottles. Many different 
types of glue were tried without success. — 
Kraft Foods Ltd. provided the eventual ~ 
solution with a sample of the glue used 
on its jars. 

Old stores oritrading posts area 
special assignment. Early trading posts 
were often the only source of supplies 
for many miles and the owner had to 
stock all the provisions that fur traders 
and local settlers required. 

By patiently searching through old 
records itis possible to find the shipping 
lists which recorded the brand of 
materials ordered by the storekeeper. 

Given the brand, the next and most 
important step is to find out what the 
product actually was. Imagine sending 
a friend to a supermarket with a shopping 
list which gives only the brand of the 
articles wanted. 

Once it has been confirmed that ‘‘one 
case of chow chow” refers to pickles, 
the curator must determine what size 
containers they came in, whether pint, 
guart or gallon, and what kind of label 
they bore. Even when all these questions 
are answered, the curator’s work is still 
not finished. A store or trading post 
would have the boxes, bags or cartons 
the items were shipped in. The curator 
must now go back over the list and find 
out how each item was sent. 

Refurnishing an historic site is an 
ongoing process and Parks Canada 
curators are constantly working to im- 
prove the furnishings. The accuracy of 
the restoration becomes a matter of 
personal pride. For the curator, the task 
of refurnishing an historic site exactly 
as it was is the challenge, and the look of © 
enchantment on the face of a visitor who 
has stepped back in time is the reward. 


Lower Fort Garry — 


High above the waters of the Red River, 
below the St. Andrew’s Rapids, 20 miles 
north of Winnipeg, Lower Fort Garry 
offers a call to step back in time, toa 
period more than acentury ago. A 
National Historic Park, Lower Fort Garry 
has been restored to the days in the mid 
1800’s when it served as one of the pro- 
visioning and industrial centres of the 
fur trade empire of the Hudson’s Bay 
Company. 


fourteen 


No Hibernation Here 


Winter visitors to Lower Fort Garry 
National Historic Park can relive the 
different life styles of the fur trader and 
the Red River farmer. 

The fur trade was a hard life, partic- 
ularly during the long winter months. 
From the first snow to early spring, Indian 
and mixed-blood trappers, the back- 


bone of the fur trade, with their dog- 
teams, snowshoes and traps went into 
the bush for months at a time. Their 
traplines brought in the best, most 
luxuriant furs. 

The Company’s servants at the posts 
were occupied with the less arduous 
work of grading and baling the furs 
that were obtained from the trappers. 
In the spring these were transported to 
York Factory for shipment to England. 


1 The spinners 
2 Snow on the roof, but fire inside 
3 The young carder 


Many of the Company’s servants em- 
ployed at Lower Fort Garry lived with 
their families and relatives south of the 


Fort along the west bank of the Red River 
in long narrow river lots. A great number 


of these people had small farms and 
spent the long winters preparing for 
spring, weaving cloth, as well as under- 
taking more general housekeeping 
chores. 

By arrangement with the park’s inter- 


pretive officer, school groups visit Lower 
Fort Garry to take part in activities which 


recall life on the Red River more than a 
hundred years ago. 

Open-Hearth Cooking: Participants 
prepare and cook simple items such as 
bannock and scones on open fires and 
in bake ovens. Butter churning is in- 
cluded. 

Candles and Lye Soap: Visitors make 
tallow candles in tin moulds, they also 
make lye soap, and discuss the various 
uses of tallow in providing the necessi- 
ties of pioneer life. 

Wool Processing: The group leader 
demonstrates the basics of producing 
yarn from raw wool, including teasing, 
carding and the operation of a spinning 
wheel. 


In the wool dyeing activity, participants 


are involved in scouring the wool, 
placing it ina mordant, and then into a 
dye bath made from natural dye mate- 
rials. 
Weaving: A leader instructs the group 
in the operation of aloom. Children 
make a simple loom on their own, and 
use it to learn the basic methods of 
weaving. 

A separate program recalls the work 
of the fur trade. 
Clerk’s Work: The group examines the 
importance of the clerk in the Hudson’s 
Bay Company’s operation, and the 
variety of functions he performed. Letter 
writing with quill pens is practised, so 
is letter copying with an authentic book 
press. The various types of furs and how 
their quality was determined are shown. 
Fur baling for shipment is done in the 
fur loft with an authentic fur press. 
Snowshoeing and Trapping: How to set 
basic snares and traps is taught and 
during periods of snow cover, the “trap 
line” is visited on snowshoes. 
Skinning and Hide Stretching: The 
skinning process is seen in a slide 
show, but visitors handle the final pelts 
and see different methods of stretching 
hides. Group members are also involved 
in the process of fur baling. 


P| 


z 


By actually trying these chores and 
skills as they were performed a hundred 
years ago, and relating their own life- 
style to that of the early settlers and 
Company employees, groups will per- 
haps gain an insight into some of the 
hopes, values and hardships that were 
part of the lives of western Canadians. 

The winter visitor program treats 
only one aspect of 19th century life at 
Lower Fort Garry, and time limitations 
do not allow sufficient opportunity to 
relate the various activities and crafts to 
the overall function and history of either 
the Fort or the Red River Settlement. 

With this in mind, visitors are en- 
couraged to visit the Fort in the spring 
when staff is available to conduct 
visitors on interpretive historical tours 
of the Fort and its outlying buildings, 
relating them to each other and to the 


history of the fur trade and the settle- 
ment of the area. 

Combining the winter interpretive 
program with a more detailed inter- 
pretive spring tour, Parks Canada offers 
visitors to Lower Fort Garry a well- 
rounded experience and appreciation for 
the cultural heritage of Canada. 

Enquiries about the winter interpretive 
program should be addressed to the 
Superintendent, Lower Fort Garry 
National Historic Park, Box 7, Group 342, 
R.R. #3, Selkirk, Manitoba R1A 2A8. 


Text prepared by the staff of Lower Fort Garry. 


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Cette revue parait en anglais et en fran- 
¢ais. Pour la version frangaise, voir au 
verso de la publication. 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Indian and 
Northern Affairs 


iw 


Parks Canada Parcs Canada 


Volume 3, No. 1, 1977 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Cana- 
dians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Table of Contents 


3 The National Parks: Islands in 
Space and Time 
by Dr. lan McTaggart-Cowan 


10 Land of Thundering Snow 
by John G. Woods 


14 The Earl of Dufferin 
Saved These Walls 


Cover: The sun breaks through, Gros Morne 
National Park. 

Centre spread: Canoeing on Lake Louise, 
Banff National Park. (Photo, Ted Grant). 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. Warren Allmand, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, 
Ottawa, 1977. 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production: Barry P. Boucher 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo credits: National Parks: Islands in 
Space and Time 

4, Tom Hall; all others, Ted Grant. 

Land of Thundering Snow 

1, R. Gregell; 2, 5 and 6, Barbara J. Chapman; 
4, Rod Wallace. 

Quebec Walls; Johann Krieber. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 
Address inquiries to The Editor, 

Conservation Canada, Department of Indian 
and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 

K1A 0H4. 


©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1977 


Danforth Marketing Services 
Contract No. 02KX A0767-6-6005 


by Dr. lan MgTaggart-Cowan , 


see Pc 


* 


Dr. lan McTaggart-Cowan’s association 
with the National Parks of Canada 
began when, fresh out of university, he 
was invited to undertake, for the first 
time, aresearch survey of the Jarge 
game species of the Rocky Mountain 
parks. In the following text, based on an 
address to a National Conference of 
Parks Canada Superintendents, Dr. 
McTaggart-Cowan recalls his introduc- 
tion to the National Parks and describes 
some of today’s new challenges. 


In 1943 some influential Alberta sports- 
_ men accused the National Parks of 
___ Canada of serving as a reservoir and 
__ breeding ground for predatory ani- 
_ mals which spilled on to the ranges of 
__ Alberta to destroy its big game and live- 
_ stock. The moving spirit in the attack 
ete: claimed to have seen, as | recall it, 20 
_. cougars along the roadside in Banff Park 
. during one drive from Calgary to Lake 
“Louise. — 
_ These accusations led the Parks Ad- 
-Ministration to seek a more objective 
knowledge of the large-mammal pop- 
ulations in the parks. Preliminary studies 
were done by R. M. Anderson in 1938 
and 1939 and.C. H. D. Clarke in 1939 
- and 1941. Then | was asked to under- 


This was my introduction to the maj 
tasks of the National Parks, and itwas 
really the making ofmy career. 

The opportunity to really steep myse 
in a major wildlife environment which 
was unspoiled, in company with some of 
the most interesting characters that the 
mountains produced at that time, was — 
one that | will never forget. It really set 
me up for a lifetime of applying zor 
to the affairs of the national park: 
ticularly the park wildlife. 

| regard the park idea as of th 
great inventions of the 20th centur 
started certainly in the end of th 
century, but it was polished, f 0! 
and perfected, and it is still evolving 

one of the great ideas of our century. 


landscapes and animals in trust for our 
descendants is a very important one. 
Every major nation — and a lot of very 
minor nations — have their national 
parks. Though we Canadians didn’t 
invent the idea, it is very largely a North 
American concept. 
Nonetheless, we’ve got to be conti- 
nuously careful that we don’t subvert the 
_ park ideals by linking them too essen- 
tially with the commercial attributes that 


four 


__ take amore comprehensive inventory. __ 


to a very large extent motivate much of 
what our society does. You will recall 
that very early in the day there was an 
unholy alliance between Ba the 
C.P.R. In fact, it was 
created to stimula’ ite 


policy stateme 
the National 
for all time, 


preserve from i impai 
objects and features of nature i in the 
parks.” Let's not forget that. 

Another quote, “It is part of our Na- 
tional Park purpose to maintain the qual- 
ity and beauty of wildlife”, and beauty 
there is not meant only in the visual 
sense. It is meant in the same sense that 
a mathematician uses it to describe a 
terse, elegant solution to a mathematical 
problem. 

However, none of this has ever been 
conceived as locking parks up. Let me 
quote Aldo Leopold, “This vision in- 
volves no deep-freeze areas from which 
man is excluded entirely. It is not land 
and life in a museum cabinet. It is, rather, 
an asset to be enjoyed by many forms of 
use that leave no legacy of alteration.” 


And let's double-underline that! 


‘One of the well-known American con- 


_tributors to the wilderness concept, S.H. 


Spurr, says “Each of us wants the knowl- 
edge that whether we use it or not 


_ whether we visit it or not, there exists, 


lable to us, a refuge from the sights 
nds and smells of man.” But 
Spurr was a realist also and he accepted 
that there were no landscapes which 
aven't in some way been altered by the 
e of man, be it only from atomic 


- There is DDTin the fat of the penguins 
Of remotest Antarctica, and in the seals 


____ Of the highest parts of our Arctic. Louise 
The idea that we as a generation hold 


Crisler. one of the American writers, 
Says “Remoteness cannot be imitated in 
cheap materials; and wilderness with- 
out animals is mere scenery”, again 
emphasizing the totality of our park 
concept. 


René Dubos, well known as a writer 
on the human environment, refers to a 
creative relationship between man and 
landscape, which implies that the con- 
sequences of human presence need not 
always be incompatible. 


Pees 
pet if 


1 Abbot Ridge Trail, Glacier National Park 
2 Canoeing on Emerald Lake, Yoho National 
Park 


Dubos, | think, was referring to the 
beauties of really manicured farm- 
scapes, such as the Southdowns, the 
Cotswolds, or the south counties of 
England. These are magnificent repre- 
sentations of what man’s relationship 
to landscapes can be. 

Forty years ago, park management 
appeared uncomplicated. Protect from 
fire, chase out the poacher, build what 
roads, trails and other facilities you 
could afford. Wildlife management was 
not yet invented. The warden was the 
final arbiter. Nobody had ever heard of 
an Environment Impact Assessment. 
(Some of you may say, “Praise Allah!’’) 


Six 


3 Moose and calf, Jasper National Park 

4 Cougar on the prowl in Kootenay National 
Park 

5 Astag pauses majestically in Jasper 
National Park 

6 Mountain goats, Jasper National Park 


But that’s a day gone by. The chal- 
lenges of today are quite different; but 
they’re no less real. 

The challenge today is the wilderness 
type park as it offers to nature-oriented 
people opportunities that rekindle the 
joy of achievement, where man is inter- 
acting with primitive challenges. It may 
be a species to be photographed, a fear 
to be surmounted, because people can 
experience genuine fear in a mountain 
environment. It might be a route to be 
run, a peak achieved, a physical contact 
with danger to be survived. Your first 
confrontation with a grizzly bear close 
in, ifitisn’t your last, is an interesting and 
stimulating achievement. All these are 
very important. They are high points in 


a 


iy ow 
AGN fey 


the lives of people which are otherwise 
sometimes humdrum. 

Every life is better for its peaks, they 
make the depressions more tolerable. 
And to many people the great National 
Parks particularly of the West and the 
North are the places where these expe- 
riences are available to them. Let’s keep 
it that way. 

| want to turn next to parks as refuges. 
Parks are more and more becoming 
islands surrounded by a sea of man- 
altered landscape. One of the major roles 
of National Parks around the world is to 
maintain the rich diversity with which 
this world is endowed. 

Our goal as conservationists is not to 
stop the world ata point in time, but to 


8 


7 Tending their fire -campers in Banff 
National Park 

8 Pedalling past Mount Eisenhower, Banff 
National Park 

9 Waiting for a bite, Vermilion Lake, 
Kootenay National Park 

10 Recreating the past at the Fortress of 

Louisbourg 


play along with evolution so that the rate 
of species loss doesn’t get too far out of 
step with the potential for species gain. 
In many parts of the world, and even in 
some parts of Canada we are approach- 
ing astate where many species survive 
largely in the insular refuges provided 
by parks and reserves. 

One of the interesting things about 
“island’’ systems is that they lose their 
fauna, steadily at a predictable rate. The 
rate of species loss depends upon the 
area of the “island”. The larger enclaves 
lose them more slowly but they all lose 
them. There are lessons in this for all 
who support the National Park idea. 

The first conclusion we must accept 
is that the larger and more diversified 


the area within a park, the more likely it 
is to keep its ecosystem of plants and 
animals intact. 

The second thing that we learn is that 
those responsible for the management 
of a park cannot close their eyes at the 
boundary lines. You must be aware of 
what is going onin the area around you, 
because, like it or not, it is influencing 
the area for which you have responsi- 
bility. Certain species are much more 
extinction prone than others. Among 
these are the large carnivores, with their 
requirement for extensive home ranges, 
consequent low density and low repro- 
ductive rate. 

There are a number of species in west- 
ern and northern Canada that are living 


10 


11. Rogers Pass area, Glacier National Park 


very close to the edge of survival. 
Mountain goats and the arctic and moun- 
tain caribou are among these. In each 
species the population balance is very 
easily altered, sending the animals into 
crash declines that may lead to local 
extinction. When a species is widely 
distributed, the area of loss will, in time, 
be recolonized, but isolated populations 
may be gone for ever. 

The automobile has added to the 
hazards that animals face. You would be 
amazed at the number of animals that 
die on the highway. 

The special cases of extinction-prone 
species are the grizzly bear, timber wolf, 
cougar and wolverine on the Canadian 


scene. These are the species most 
threatened. 2 

My topic so far has been ‘Islands in 
Space’’. I'd like now to discuss “Islands 
in Time’, because this is really what 
our historic parks are, aren’t they? 

| haven’t visited many, but those I’ve 
been to I’ve thoroughly enjoyed. | like 
to feel that | am looking at something 
that gives me. an insight into how Early 
Canadians lived. You can recreate the 
physical situation, you can reconstruct 
the buildings and find the plows, but I’m 
a biologist. What have you done to re- 
create the biological situation? Are the 
plants that you plant the ones that the 
old Cornishmen brought from southern 
England? They could be! 

What animals did they have? Their 
cows and goats and sheep were not the 
types we are used to today. It would be 
fascinating to determine what plants 
and animals the first Europeans on this 
continent brought with them and to find 


eight 


them or recreate them through special 
breeding programs. Few visitors ever 
think of man as an evolutionary force 
and find it fascinating to realize how 
much we have altered both plants and 
animals to better serve our purposes. 
It’s an interesting challenge. 

The National Parks, the great natural | 
parks, have a tremendous history which 
is still to be explored. | know very many 
people share the excitement that comes 
from following the routes of those who 
first penetrated the remote parts of 
Canada. | found it fascinating to climb 
the slopes of Mount Southesk and sit 
there with a copy of the Earl of South- 
esk’s journal written a century earlier, 


when he rode from Winnipeg on a sheep 
hunt. He entered through the pass | en- 
tered, he climbed the slopel climbed, _ 
he sat where I’d been sitting, he counted 
the sheep and described their horn form. 
The total scene he described lay before 
me. You simply couldn’t have told the 
difference in a century. 

I'd like to turn next to the question of 
disturbance because it again is another 
impact of people on parks. 

We’re finding more and more how im- 
portant disturbance is, particularly in 
northern species. Northern species par- 
ticularly in the winter time are frequently 
living with very delicately balanced 
energy reserves. 

One snowmobile party attempting to 
get close enough to a group of sheep or 
a herd of deer or elk to get photographs 
_ is sometimes sufficient to ensure those 
| animals don’t live. That is one effect of 
| disturbance. 
| Then there’s wilderness wildlife. What . 

is it about wilderness conditions thatis — 

essential to some of these species? | We 

simply don’t know. We speak glibly ae 
_ wilderness wildlife and affirm that it” 
_ must have wilderness to be there. 


But we don’t know what we mean 
when we say it. We should be finding 
out. With increasing pressure for wilder- 
ness use we must know what the impact 
of people doing various things, in various 


_ places, at various times has upon the 


creatures which we hold in trust. 

The grizzly is a problem animal. Ina 
very real sense it is a symbol of wilder- 
ness. It is at the pinnacle of the food 
pyramid in its ecosystem, recognizing 
no important enemies but man. When the 


fear relationship with man goes as a 


result of increasing positive contact, 


_ the bear frequently recognizes man as 
creature to be displaced (as it would 
another bear), or as a source of food. It 


becomes a hazard to human safety. 

There’s a rising tide of feeling in the 
U.S. that there is no place for grizzlies 
in people places. Fortunately the parks 
in the U.S. have been able to resist this. 
But this summer as you know there have 
been some very unfortunate attacks, 
not all of them in parks. We must realize 
that the situation demands some of our 
most imaginative attention. 

We must learn more about the behav- 


jour and sensory physiology of bears and 


€ nature of the stimulus to attack. | 
am confident that given sufficient infor- 


mation and the application of ingenuity 


we can learn how to turn off attacks and 
ow to pceyete the relationship be- 


anandbearsothatbothcan 
o use the quiet places of our 
wilderness parks. 
Here are my views as to the goals of 
the National Parks of Canadain terms of 
the last quarter of the 20th century. 
1. To maintain foralltime intact eco- 
systems as important resources wherein _ 
we can develop our understanding of 
the functioning of living systems, plants, 
animals and man jointly using natural 
landscapes. 
2. To maintain the genetic diversity we 
inherited in our land by preserving intact 
examples of the rich variety of living 
forms in the full diversity of Canadian 
natural landscapes. 
3. To foster man’s reverential awe for 
the beauty and greatness of a “creation” 
larger and more intricate than himself. 
4. To provide novel natural obstacles, 
the mastery of which rekindles the joys 
of attainment. 
5. To provide an antidote for the crowd- 
ing that shuts each of us ever more 
within ourselves. 
6. To make available the aesthetic and 
inspirational values of wildlife and wild 
landscapes to people of differing phy- 
sical and intellectual competence — 
keeping in mind that true appreciation 
comes only with understanding. 
7. To vitalize facets of our history so 
that those present will understand some- 
thing of the lives and challenges of those 
we follow, the routes we have travelled, 
our gains and losses along the way and 
some of the consequences of our 
passing. 

To do this would be no small achieve- 
ment. 
nine 


Land of 


Thundering snow 


Avalanches are a matter of life and death 
in Glacier National Park. Since the 
Columbia Mountains as we know them 
were formed, the interplay of terrain and 
climate has sent countless snowslides 
cascading down the mountain slopes. 
These avalanches have destroyed large 
areas of forest and in their tracks have 
created conditions which favour the 
development of specialized communities 
of plants and animals. 

No one knows how many avalanches 
break our winter silence each year. 
Glacier National Park is a rugged wil- 
derness; few people venture far from 
their cars here, and most avalanches 
thunder down the mountains unseen 
and unheard by human ears. In the 
Rogers Pass area alone there are more 
than one hundred avalanche tracks, and 
aerial photographs reveal hundreds 
more in the remote valleys of the park. 
The yearly count of snowslides is likely 
in the thousands. 

What causes large masses of snow to 
rip down mountain slopes in sudden 
avalanches? The key ingredients for 
producing avalanches are steep slopes 
and heavy snowfall. The Columbias are 
made of ancient metamorphic and grani- 
tic rocks which weather to form steep 
walls and narrow valleys. These moun- 


John G. Woods is Chief Park Naturalist at 
Glacier National Park. 


tains are also a barrier to moist, warm 
air masses from the Pacific Ocean. This 
air is forced to rise in its passage over 
the mountains. Rising causes cooling, 
which in turn forces the air to drop its 
load of moisture as rain and snow. 
Snowfall statistics for the park are 
impressive. At Glacier Station (elevation 
1 250 m) an average of nine metres of 
snow falls each year. Higher up in the 
mountains at the Mount Fidelity weather 
station (elevation 1 870 m) the average 
is 17 metres. In many areas of the park 
it is not unusual to have snow on the 
ground more than three metres deep. 
When snow rests on mountain slopes 
it is continually pulled downward by 
gravity. This force may cause it to creep 
down the incline slowly or to break loose 
in the sudden and terrifying rush of snow 
and wind which characterizes an 
avalanche. 
Unless you have seen an avalanche or 
its effects, you will have difficulty imag- 
ining its power. Snowslides rank with 


rent. Even the winds generated in front 


by John G. Woods 


earthquakes, tidal waves and tornadoes 
among the great natural forces on earth. 
You can see evidence of this power 
throughout the park: tree trunks snapped 
like matchsticks and huge boulders 
carried like pebbles in the snowy tor- 


of the sliding snow have enough strength 
to trim a forest as if it were a hedge. 
Avalanches have historically chal- 

lenged human attempts to move people 
and goods through the Columbias. Out 
of necessity avalanches have been the 
subject of intensive research sincethe — 
railway was first forced across these 
mountains in the 1880’s. Research orien: 
ted towards forecasting and controllin 
avalanches continues to this day along 
the highway and railroad corridors 


‘An avalanche thunders down the mountain 
side, Glacier National Park 


hrough the park. Although this research 
mas produced a wealth of information 
nthe physical characteristics of ava- 
_lanches over the years, scant attention 
_has been paid to the role of avalanches 

_ inthe ecology of Glacier National Park. 
Avalanches are natural phenomena 

_ which exert firm control over the devel- 
opment of plant and animal communities 
_over large areas of the park. Anyone 
who has travelled through these moun- 


tains will have noticed the narrow tree- 
less tracks which plummet down the 
valley slopes. Here snowslides have bull- 
dozed the trees and created new open 
areas which favour the development of > * 
new plant and animal communities. ““*" 
In May and June some of the most. *—~ 
colourful areas in the park are avaee'm. 
lanche. slopes covered in mats of yéllo ms” 


eleven 


nti Met phat: 


; 


2 Avalanche tracks down a valley wall, 
Glacier National Park 

3 Slide path in summer, Glacier National 
Park 

4 Grizzly digging for mice, Glacier National 
Park 


5 Acarpet of Spring Beauties on an 


avalanche track, Glacier National Park 
6 Avalanche Lilies and Spring Beauties, 
Glacier National Park 


Avalanche or Glacier-Lilies (Erythronium 
grandiflorum) and white Spring Beauties 


_(Claytonia lanceolata). These flowers, 


along with many others, can only sur- 
vive in profusion on these low slopes 
because of the openings created by 
avalanches. 

In the Columbias, Mountain Alder 
(Alnus tenuifolia Nutt) frequently grows 
in impenetrable thickets on avalanche 
slopes. The stem of this alder is flexible 
and bends rather than breaking under 


the weight of winter snows. When the 
snow is gone from the slopes it can 
spring back and resume its growth. 
The effect of avalanches on wildlife 
in the park is less obvious. Bird com- 
munities on slide paths are dissimilar 
from those in the forested areas only a 
few metres away. Species such as Mac- 
Gillivray’s Warbler (Oporornis to/mie/) 
would be rare in Glacier National Park 
were it not for the extensive areas of 
shrubs created by snowslides. 
Avalanches may also be very impor- 
tant in supporting the dense bear popu- 
lation in the park. Both Grizzly Bears 
(Ursus arctos) and Black Bears (Ursus 
americanus) frequent slide paths in 
early spring. Avalanche tracks are free 
of snow earlier in the spring than most 
other areas of the park and bears are 
attracted by the plentiful growth of new 
vegetation. Both the Avalanche Lily and 
Spring Beauty have bulbs which form 


an important early spring food source 
to the bears. 

As the snow retreats up the mountain 
slopes and from the forest floor the bears 
disperse. Grizzlies follow the snowline 
upward and black bears spend their 
summers in the lower forests. In autumn 
the slide paths again become focal 
points of bear activity — this time they 
are attracted by berry-laden shrubs such 
as Mountain Ash (Sorbus sitchensis). \t 
is doubtful if Glacier National Park could 
support as many bears as it does without 
the favourable habitat created by 
avalanches. 

Grizzly bears, glaciers, rugged moun- 
tains and wild streams are all well known 
symbols of wilderness in the Columbia 
Mountains. To this list we must add the 
avalanche, a natural force which deals 
life and death in Glacier National Park. 


thirteen 


St. Louis Gate, Walls of Quebec City. 


The idea that the Quebec fortifications 
are an important part of the Canadian 
heritage is an old one. Indeed, the Battle 
of the Plains of Abraham had quickly 
captured the imagination of artists and 
writers. 

However, while artists glorified 
the fortifications and called the city “the 
Gibraltar of America’, others, particu- 
larly military engineers, constantly com- 
plained of its defensive weaknesses. 

For most Quebec City residents, the 
fortifications were above all a hindrance 
to physical expansion, commercial 
development and urban traffic. 

In 1871 all opinions were polarized 
around a particular event: the departure 
of the British garrison from Quebec. 
Maintenance of the fortifications passed 
into the hands of the federal Department 
of Militia and Defence, which, regarding 
the fortifications as archaic, did not want 
to keep them up. 

The government received an avalanche 
of petitions and requests asking for the 
demolition of the walls and gates, and 
the opening of new streets. 

There was little concern for the his- 
torical importance of the walls. As The 
Morning Chronicle said: ‘‘Historical glory 
is all very well... but neither historical 
glory nor quaintness will give life to our 
trade.” 

At the request of the municipality, the 
Prescott, Hope, St. Louis and Palace 
gates and their guardhouses were torn 
down. At the same time, the ramparts 
between the Cote du Palais and St. 
George Street were lowered to chest 
height. 

The fortifications of Quebec appeared 
doomed to oblivion. However, this appar- 
ently inevitable fate was to be changed 
by the new Governor-General of Canada, 
Frederick Temple Blackwood, Ear! of 
Dufferin. His efforts mark one of the first 
attempts to preserve a Canadian historic 
monument. 

Dufferin was delighted by the old world 
appearance of the city, but shocked by 
the attitude of the residents and the 
municipality and by the Federal Govern- 
ment’s lack of interest. He conceived 
a plan to preserve the old walls while 
beautifying the city. 


Dufferin’s proposal included putting 
a boulevard around the city ramparts. 
Where the streets cut through the walls, 
the Governor-General proposed the 
building of bridges or gates of Norman 
or mediaeval architecture with towers 
and tourelles. 

To break the monotony of the north 
ramparts, Dufferin planned to build 
a dozen Norman tourelles. He even ac- 
cepted the idea of tearing down St. John’s 
Gate, which had been built as recently 
as 1868, and replacing it with a Norman 
gate or a bridge with tourelles. 

At the Citadel he suggested a new 
Chateau St. Louis, which would be his 
residence in Quebec City. This castle, 
never built, seems to have been his 
greatest ambition. 

Dufferin moved quickly to adapt his 
plans to the demolition work already 
done by the city. The City Engineer, 
Charles Baillairgé, agreed to have Duf- 
ferin’s bridges built at the St. Louis 
Gate, at the St. John’s Gate, and at the 
Dauphine Street opening in the walls. 

Unshakeable in his determination, 
Dufferin pressured the provincial and 
federal governments and waged a propa- 
ganda war in the press. He even obtained 
the co-operation of the British Govern- 
ment and press. At last, the Federal 
Government agreed to underwrite much 
of the repair work for the walls, which 
were federal property. 

In 1875, W. H. Lynn, architect, came to 
Canada at Dufferin’s invitation to prepare 
the plans and specifications. The prob- 
lem of financing remained. A gift from 
the British Army got it under way. The 
city council and the provincial legislature 
voted funds for the new gates and for 
the extension of the Durham Terrace. 
Most of the expenditures fell to the 
Government of Canada. Dufferin even 
received a contribution from Queen Vic- 
toria for the construction of the Kent 
Gate. However. the Federal Government 
refused to spend $100,000 for the con- 
struction of the new Chateau St. Louis at 
the Citadel. . 

During his stay in Quebec, Dufferin 
supervised the work closely. The City 
Engineer, Charles Baillairgé, complained 
that he could do nothing without the 
Governor-General’s consent. 

The original project was only partially 
completed, despite the Governor- 
General’s personal expenditures. The 
project was to continue long after Duf- 
ferin’s departure, and his plans inspired 


the work done on the fortifications up 
to the time when the St. John’s Gate was 
built in 1939. 

When the project was first submitted, 
its stated objective was to improve the city 
by preserving its historic, picturesque 
character, without impeding urban 
development. 

It would be easy to belittle the motives, 
the basic principles and the results of 
Dufferin’s plans. The Governor-General 
was above alla romantic. His Chateau St. 
Louis bears witness to this; moreover, 
his vision of history, his approach to pre- 
servation and even the planning of his 
project are marked by this romanticism. 

The restoration work at Carcassone, 
during the period from 1875 to 1880, was 
a subject of great discussion in Europe 
at that time. Unfortunately, Dufferin’s 
restoration plans were not researched in 
such depth. It was inexcusable, even in 
the Quebec of 1875, that there was no 
attempt to go back to the original plans. 

What is more serious, the Governor- 
General’s romantic turn of mind made his 
project anachronistic, for he gave the 
monument an older architectural style 
and paid little attention to the matter of 
historical authenticity. However, the 
St. Louis and Kent Gates are now part of 
our architectural heritage, so Dufferin’s 
contribution cannot be brushed aside. 

The fact remains that the Governor- 
General was responsible for preserving 
Quebec’s fortifications when they seemed 
doomed to disappear. Under the circum- 
stances, his bold proposal and the sub- 
sequent about-face of the civic authori- 
ties and of public opinion, to say nothing 
of the actual construction, were remark- 
able achievements indeed. 


Adapted from an article written in French by 
Marc Lafrance, a Parks Canada historian in 
Quebec City. 


_—_—$?$—_$— $$$ ———$——————————————————————— 
Lake Louise, 75th Anniversary 1902-1977 


Lake Louise, one of Nature’s jewels, added to 
Banff National Park by Act of Parliament 
in 1902. 


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Cette revue parait en anglais et en fran- 
cais. Pour la version frangaise, voir au 
verso de la publication. 


Affaires indiennes 
et du Nord 


Indian and 
Northern Affairs 


iv 


Parks Canada Parcs Canada 


Volume 3, No. 2, 1977 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help 
Canadians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Table of Contents 


3 The Norse in Newfoundland 
by Birgitta Wallace 


8 Dawson Jubilee 
by Margaret Carter 


10 Rare Plants of Forilion 


13. “My Name is Grey Owl” 
by Colleen McCluskey 


Cover: Bathing at sunset, Clear Lake, Riding 
Mountain National Park, Manitoba. (Photo: 
W. J. Oliver) 

Centre spread: Grey Owl, among the jack 
pines in Prince Albert National Park, 
Saskatchewan. (Photo: W. J. Oliver) 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. Warren Allmand, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1977. 

QS-7044-020-BB-A1 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 
Production: Barry P. Boucher 
Design: Eiko Emori 


Photo credits: The Norse in Newfoundland, 
1, Birgitta Wallace; 2, 3 and 4, B. Schonback; 
5, C. Lindsay; 6, G. Vanderviugt; 7, R. Fer 
cguson. Dawson Jubilee, 1 to 6, S. Mackenzie: 
Rare Plants of Forillon, 1,2, 5, 6, 7, 

M. St-Amour; 3, 4, P. Morisset; 

“My Name is Grey Ow!”, 1 to 4, W. J. Oliver. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit 
line. Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of 
Indian and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, 
Ontario K1A OH4. 


© Minister of Supply and Services 
Canada 1977 


mee 


The Norse. 


in Newfoundland 


by Birgitta Wallace 


Near the top of Newfoundland’s Western 
Peninsula, 240 km northwest of St. 
John’s, is L’Anse aux Meadows, site of 
. the oldest known European settlement 
in the New World and Canada’s newest 
National Historic Park. For the past 
ir summers, Parks Canada’ has con- 


f the site was first excavated 

n 1961 and 1968 by a Norwegian 

ed by Helge and Anne Stine 

tad, who discovered the site while 
F inland, the first Viking 

lorth America. 


2 of the legendary 


howaver, only one | 
rf 9 lived, on the site. 


iS) uated on the eastern shore of the 

trait of Belle Isle, at the northernmost 
tip of the Great Northern Peninsula, 
_ the site lacks sheltering mountains and 
forests except to the south where a low 
-- ridge rises to a height of 15 m above 
‘sea level. Cold western, northern, and 
_ eastern winds have free play over the 

- area. Today, the forest line lies 10 km to 
the south, and the only trees now pre- 
_ sent at L’Anse aux Meadows are dwarf 

- species, mostly balsam fir Abies bal- 
- samea (L) Mill, tamarack Larix laricina 
(Du Roi) K. Koch, birch, Betula sp. and 
-- willow Salix sp. It is not known if the 
_ area was always as open and exposed 
as it is now. Local people tell of sizeable 
trees that grew on or near the site a 
couple of generations ago. In fact much 
of coastal Newfoundland that is bare 
now, was wooded when settlements 
were established in the 17th and 18th 
centuries. The need for lumber led to the 
stripping of the woods. Research now 


four 


ably fromthe 11th 


underway may establish whether large 
trees existed at the time of the Norse. 
The climate at L’Anse aux Meadows 
is cool and moist. The mean July tem- 
perature is only 15°C, and the January 
average is —12°C. The yearly precipita- 


-tion is about 750 mm. 


The Archaic and Dorset settlements 
at L’Anse aux Meadows were chiefly on 
the southern shore of Epaves Bay. 

The Norse settlement is on the east- 
ern shore of Epaves Bay, a little inland, 
on two former beach terraces which 
together almost encircle a peat bog. A 
small brook, Black Duck Brook, runs 
along the southern and western edges 
of the bog and issues into the bay. 

The Norse remains consist of eight 
sod buildings. All but one, a smithy, are 
on the terrace east of the bog. Three 
are large dwellings, the rest small build- 
ings which may have been workshops 
or had other, special functions. 

The northernmost dwelling is the 
largest. Termed House F by the original 
excavators, it contained six rooms ar- 
ranged in three parallel rows, with three 
rooms in the centre row. The combined 
inner length of this central row. was 
about eighteen metres. 


1 Remains of an 11th century Icelandic 


sod-house, similar to those at L’Anse aux 
Meadows 


2 House F, reconstructed after excavation 


The southernmost building, House A, 
was even longer, with an interior length 
of nearly 25 m. It is about 90 m from 
House F, and contains four rooms, all in. 
one row. House D, which is situated 
between Houses F and A has an interior 
length of about 9 m. It has two rooms in 
a row and one room on its western side. 

All the buildings had sod walls and 
roofs. However. because of sod’s poor 
structural strength, heavy roofs were 
supported on the inside by one or more 
rows Of posts. 

The main purpose of the sod was to 
provide insulation, so the walls were 
wide, up to 2 m in places, and for stabil- 
ity, they were wider at the base than 
at the top. To reduce the amount of sod 
needed, most walls had only a shell or 
facing of sod and a centre core of 
gravel. The gravel was good insulating 
material; it was plentiful and easily 
procured.The gravel also provided drain- 
age for run-off from the roofs, which 
were not overhanging but set back, with 
the edges touching the middle of the 
walls. . 

The roofs were made of two or more 
layers of sod, resting on a framework 
of wood, either planking or lattice of 
branches. The bottom layer of the sod 
had its grassy side down, the upper 
layer the grassy side up. Floors were 
of tamped earth. 


NE ——OOOOOOoeOOOOoOEEeeEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEeEE——EEeeE 


3 House A, showing reconstructed walls 
4 House D, reconstructed 


The only interior features that remain 
are stone hearths, used for heating, 
lighting, and food preparation; and fire- 
pits for slow roasting. 

In some of the buildings are small 
square boxes made of slate pieces set 
on edge. The Dorset people used 
identical slate boxes for heating and 


‘cooking; but the boxes at L’Anse aux 


Meadows appear to be integral parts of 


the Norse buildings, and were probably 


used for storing embers. 

More than 2 400 items have been 
found. Almost 1 500 of these are of 
wood and were found in the bog. The 
oldest artifacts are generally those that 
were found farthest out in the bog and 
at the greatest depths, but the stratig- 
raphy is confusing so there is no easy 
way to determine their age and origin. 
Radiocarbon dating is not conclusive, 
for artifacts made from driftwood will 
appear older than their date of manu- 
facture. Parks Canada is now working 
to establish which artifacts or wood 
pieces are of driftwood. 

One of the more exciting discoveries 


_ at L’Anse aux Meadows was the dis- 
| covery by the Ingstads of iron slag in 


close association with charcoal that 


| has been radiocarbon dated to between 
A.D. 860-890 and A.D. 1060-1070. 


The Ingstads also found 85 arti- 
facts associated with the Norse occupa- 
tion; Parks Canada has uncovered 
another forty-five. This is hardly an im- 
pressive number but in terms of West 
Norse building sites, the result is quite 
fruitful. At the site of Hvitarholt in Ice- 
land, which had about the same number 
and types of buildings as those at 
L’Anse aux Meadows but where three 
building stages were found on top of 
each other, only about 88 artifacts were 
retrieved. 

At both L’Anse aux Meadows and 
Hvitarholt, most by far of the artifacts 
are iron nails or rivets and unidenti- 
fiable iron fragments. One soapstone 
spindle whorl was found. Spinning 
was a feminine occupation in Norse 
society, so we can infer that women — 
were present at L’Anse aux Meadows. 

A bronze pin found in one of the cook- 
ing pits in House A could have belonged 
to aman or a woman. The same is true 
for a glass bead and a bone pin with 

a flat, triangular head with a drilled hole 
in the centre, both found in House D. 
Another ornament, a small piece of brass 
with a striated decoration was also 
found in House D. A couple of whet- 
stones and a plain stone lamp are me- 
mentos of ordinary household activities. 

Most of the objects found by Parks 
Canada are wooden and were found 
in the bog below the terrace but close 


to the buildings. One was a small sewn 
container of birch bark which, filled 

with stone, might have been a netsinker — 
ofa kind that has been found on late 


Viking Period and early Mediaeval sites. ae 


in Sweden. Another seems to be part 


_ of a floorboard of a Norse boat. Close to. 


it was a bundle of coiled roots, pronaely: 

for lashing, and a large iron nail: hate 3 

Norse type. 
One of the most interesting pieces iss 

a decorative finial. Similar in ap- i 


pearance and size to a bedknob (which 


it isn’t), it was carved, not turned, and f 
flat on one side so as to fiton a backing. 

The Parks Canada excavations were 
undertaken to answer a number of spe- * 
cific questions concerning the. nature vu 
of the settlement. Was it a lengthy occu- “yt 
pation, and if so, was the site inhabited 
continuously? What was the economic 
basis of the settlement? Were lumber, 
pastures or iron the chief drawing 
points, or were there other reasons for 
the Norse to settle here? What was the 
relationship of the Norse to the native 
people, whom they called Skraelings? 
Were they on the site at the same time, 
and if so, were they Indians or Eskimos 
or both? 


5 Part of floorboard from Norse boat. 
in situ in bog 
6 Bronze pin found at the site 


Bi e ‘em remained untouched We: so 
it was believed). It was later found that 

- much had been disturbed by drainage- 

~ and construction-trenches for shelters 

erected over the excavated remains in 


a 1962. Nor had the Ingstad excavations 


touched the bog which obviously had a 


~ rich archaeological potential. 


The Parks Canada excavations have 

_ established that there were probably 
native people on the site at the time of - 
the Norse and that these people were 
Archaic Indians, not Eskimos. There is 
no trace of Dorset people on the site 
after the 9th century A.D. 

As for the Norse, various criteria 
indicate the duration of settlement. One 
is the number of repairs or rebuilding 
stages that can be observed in the build- 
ings. A Norse sod building has been 
found to have an average life of about 
25 years. After this, it usually needs 
complete rebuilding. 

Two or more of the buildings at 
L’Anse aux Meadows appear to have 
been abandoned and burned, but there 
are no signs of rebuilding; although 
it is possible that one room in House A 
was added later than the others. Thus, 
none of the buildings was inhabited 
for more than about a quarter of a cen- 

_ tury. Most Greenland and Icelandic 
sod buildings have foundations of stone. 


six 


At L’Anse aux Meadows there are no 


stone foundations even though excellent 


building material was available on the 


sandstone ridge on the southern edge of 


the site. One small outcrop of sand- 
stone lies only a stone’s throw from 
House F. This absence of stone in the 
building foundations is significant. In 
Greenland and Iceland it was primarily 
temporary buildings which lacked stone 
foundations. Thus we are tempted to 
conclude that the same buildings at 
L’Anse aux Meadows were not erected 
with any anticipation of permanence. 

As for the number of people, the 
settlement surely was small. From what 
is Known about Norse households, the 
maximum number of people that could 
be housed in any of the dwellings was 
about thirty. More likely it was not more 
than twenty. If all dwellings were oc- 
cupied at the same time — which is not 
certain — the: maximum number of 
people in the settlement was possibly 
90, but probably less than sixty. 

One of the characteristics of a long- 
term settlement is the presence of large 
middens. These middens consist chiefly 


of food remains in the form of bones, 
along with ash, charcoal, and fire- 
cracked stones from firepits, as well as 
broken tools and utensils. 

The only middens of any note at 
L’Anse aux Meadows have been found 
on the terrace slope toward the bog 
and are now buried under 10 to 60 cm 
of peat. These dumps are composed 
mainly of broken wooden artifacts and 
chips and slivers resulting from log 
trimming. 

Not all the cut wood or all the arti- 
facts are Norse. Some layers predate the 
Norse, others are later: The wood debris | 
occurs in especially heavy concentra- | 
tions on the slope below House D and 
between Houses E and F. They areno | 
doubt middens but the portions believed | 
to have Norse content could easily i 
have accumulated in a short time, during) 
the construction of the buildings. The 
presence of ash and bone would have 
been a better clue, but the acidity of 
the peat dissolves these materials. They | 
may, however, be traceable chemically, 
and the Newfoundland Forest Research 
Centre is performing analyses for ash 
or bone. If the results of these tests | 
are negative, we can conclude that 
the Norse settlement at L’Anse aux 
Meadows was short-lived, lasting only 
a few years. 


f 7 Bog excavations, facing north, 1976 


indicates that spinning took place: but 
there are no signs of sheep. Fibres 
other than wool could have been spun or 


One wonders what caused the Norse 
to settle at L’Anse aux Meadows which, 
although scenic, is not a hospitable 
spot. It may have been owing to winds 
and currents. A ship, left to the mercy 
of the elements in the seas southwest of 
Greenland, almost invariably ends up in 
the Strait of Belle Isle because of the 
powerful Labrador current. Once in the 
vicinity of the Strait of Belle Isle, L’Anse 
aux Meadows is likely to attract at- 
tention because of the exposed location 
on the tip of the Great Northern Pen- 
insula. L’Anse aux Meadows, at least as 
it appears now, also bears a striking 
resemblance to Iceland and south- 
western Greenland, areas to which the 
Norse were particularly well adapted. 

A number of resources must, how- 
ever, have been attractive to the Norse. 
The proximity of timber would have 
been vital to the Greenlanders who 
otherwise have had to rely on driftwood 
or timber imported from Europe. The 
L’Anse aux Meadows area also offered 
seal, walrus, whale, codfish, salmon, 
caribou (now extinct), and fox, all 
desirable commodities. 

Before elephant ivory became com- 
mon on the European market in the late 
Middle Ages, Greenlanders provided 
much of Europe’s ivory in the form of 
walrus tusks. Leather, especially ropes 
made from walrus hides, is mentioned 
in mediaeval sources. 


After conversion to Christianity, the 
Norse discovered that dried fish, es- 
pecially codfish was a highly saleable 
item on the European market and they 


_increased their fishing beyond house- 


hold needs. The birch bark net sinker at 
L’Anse aux Meadows might be an indi- 
cation of such commercial fishing, 
although the rich cod grounds of New- 
foundland are not mentioned in the 
Norse sagas. 

Traditionally, because of the northern 
climate, poor soils, and short growing 
seasons, the West Norse practised little 
or no agriculture. Their primary staples 
were meat and dairy products and good 
pastures were the overriding consid- 
eration in the selection of areas for 


settlement. 


L’Anse aux Meadows with its vast 
expanses of heath compares favourably 
to Iceland and Greenland, and one 
wonders if the Norse brought cattle or 
other domestic animals with them. 

Two pig bones were found in House A, 
but it is not known if they are from the 
Norse occupation or later. No portions 
of the buildings are obviously barns. The 
lack of faunal evidence could be attri- 
buted to the high acidity of the bog and 
soils of the terraces. The spindle whorl 


wool could have been brought over in 
bales rather than on the backs of sheep. 
Iron was worked on the site and one 
could suspect that iron was one of its 
major attractions. Conditions for iron 
production are favourable: substantial 
bog iron deposits along the brook, and 
plentiful fuel for smelting and forging. 
Smelting sites are generally traceable 


through large slag heaps. As previous!y 


mentioned, iron slag has been found 
at L’Anse aux Meadows, but only in. 


small quantities, a maximum of 15 kg. 
of which 10 kg were collected. The 


ratio of iron produced to the quantity of 
slag, was about 1:4 or 1:3, which means 
that at the most, a total of 5 kg of iron 


was produced at L’Anse aux Meadows 


(that is, provided all the slag is smelt- 
ing slag and not from forging, a question 
not yet resolved). This is not a suffi- 
cient amount of iron to have been the 
economic mainstay of the settlement. 

It is more like a one-time operation to 
meet an immediate need. f 

On the available evidence, our con- 
clusion is that the Norse settlement 
at L'Anse aux Meadows was relatively 
small and short-lived. It may not even 
have been intended as a permanent 
settlement but rather as a seasonal re- 
source camp. This conforms well with 
the Vinland sagas. Late Archaic Indians 
may have been on the site at the same 
time as the Norse, and, if so, may have 
been the Skraelings of the sagas. 
Whether L’Anse aux Meadows is the 
long-sought Vinland, or merely a 
previously unrecorded Norse camp, the 
site is unique in the new world. 

Already about 4 000 tourists find their 
way to L’Anse aux Meadows each year, 
and more will come when the road up 
the Great Northern Peninsula has been 
improved. To protect the site and its 
environment, Parks Canada has acquired 
an area of about 95 km? around it. A 
temporary Visitors’ Centre has been 


opened, with displays describing the site 


and the Norse. Future plans for L’Anse 
aux Meadows include permanent dis- 
plays and replicas of one or more of the 
sod buildings where the Norse lived 
500 years before Jacques Cartier’s 
arrival in the new world. 


Birgitta Wallace is a member of Parks 
Canada’s Archaeological Research Division. 


seven 


g 


OI 


} 


a 


Dawson Jubilee 


by Margaret Carter 


It was August 17, 1896 when the Klon- 
dike Gold Rush was sparked by the 
discovery of gold at Bonanza Creek. 
Every year since, August 17 has been 
an occasion for celebration in the 
Yukon. This year, Discovery Day’s 
81st anniversary also marks the 75th 
anniversary of the incorporation of 
Dawson City, that vibrant offspring of 
the Gold Rush. Yukon sourdoughs and 
cheechako tourists alike will be flock- 
ing to Dawson to share in the special 
jubilee hoopla. 

Their coming will swell the quiet town 
until it bustles as it did in the days of 
98. Indeed, an evening in Diamond 
Tooth Gertie’s —- Canada’s only legal- 
ized gambling establishment — does 
much to convince one that neither 
human nature nor Dawson City has 
changed at all. Those who wish to test 
their luck on the wheel of fortune still 
come to Dawson. The ghost of patron 
Arizona Charlie Meadows Iurks in the 
Palace Grand as audiences hiss and boo 
scenes of raucous vaudeville and heart- 
wringing melodrama from the boxes 
where miners once sat. Behind the 
boxes the room of a dance hall girl 
waits wistfully for its long-departed 
occupant to return. 

Today Dawson City is rich in re- 
minders of its history. Many of the 
beautiful buildings constructed after 
Dawsonites decided to remain in the 
north still stand. Outside the business 
section, the streets are lined with resi- 
dences amazingly rich in architectural 
detail for their location on so remote a 
frontier. Robert Service’s cabin stands 
on the hillside welcoming visitors to 
share his view of the land of the mid- 
night sun. Here and there partial thawing 
of the permafrost has had its effect, and 
structures tip dizzily to one side. Had 
it not been stabilized, Strait’s Store on 
the corner of Third Avenue and Harper 
Street would probably have toppled 
over. 

The post office, evidence of Dawson’s 
tenuous tie to the outside world, is open 
for modern day visitors to mail their 
letters, franked by a special cancella- 
tion. The administration building, seat of 
Territorial Government for more than 
40 years, now holds the Dawson City 
Museum. There, relics such as the 
waterless cooker, Klondike Kate’s 
costume, and the birth records of for- 
gotten St. Mary’s Hospital are re- 
minders of both the fantastic and the 
normal in Dawson life. On Front Street 
the Bank of Commerce — built as the 


eight 


Robert Service slept here. Refurbished 
bedroom of the poet’s cabin 

Mailing a letter in the foyer of the old 
post office, Dawson 


a 
bop 


cE 


ome 
5 


ili 


View of old post office with the Palace 
Grand on the right 

Sorted mail awaiting pick-up in the old 
post office 

On the move. The K.T.M. Building being 
relocated to its new site 

Stage of Palace Grand Theatre 


Bank of British North America in 1901 

— still conducts business daily. A gold 
room on its second floor recalls the 
earliest days when the town traded on 
nuggets from miners’ pokes, and the 
later times when its sustenance was tied 
to dredging and the shipment of gold 
bars. 

Next to the bank, the sternwheeler 
Keno is dry-docked. A symbol of the 
river transport system that linked Daw- 
son to the outside world from 1897 to 
the 1950’s, its presence is a reminder 
that Yukon sternwheelers were unique, 
with a design developed for the north. 
The fascinating complexity of the 
Keno’s engine room is evidence of the 
importance of technology in developing 
Canada’s frontier. This theme is 
abundantly illustrated on the nearby 
creeks where visitors can see not only 
the monstrous dredges and the barren 
tailings they created, but also try out 
the early placer techniques by panning 
a little themselves. 

Dawson City has seen many changes 
since Joe Ladue located his sawmill and 
store there in 1896. At the height of the 
Klondike Gold Rush, Dawson supported 
a population of over 30 thousand. By 
1902 when it was incorporated, it was 
on its way to becoming Canada’s most 
modern city. 

The vagaries of time have left their 
mark, but Dawson’s early spirit has 
been kept alive by its citizens, the 
Klondike Visitors Association and Parks 
Canada. This year’s Jubilee celebrations 
will begin on June 13 with the Com- 
missioner’s Ball. Four days of sports 
events between Alaska and the Yukon 
Territory will take place July 1 to 4. 
Discovery Day, of course, will be cele- 
brated on August 17. The Dawson 
Jubilee will conclude with a “Home 
Coming’’, September 2 to 5, when 
expatriate sourdoughs are invited 
“home” to celebrate the 75th anni- 
versary of the incorporation of Canada’s 
oldest city north of the sixtieth parallel. 


*Margaret Carter is a historian with Parks 
Canada. 


nine 


Rare Plants 
of Forillion 


What mysterious laws of nature decree 
that a particular type of flora will grow in 
different geographical locations, far 
removed from one another? Research- 
ers have suggested various answers 

to this question. This text is based on a 
study conducted by biologist Pierre 
Morisset for the Parks Canada, Resource 
Inventory Program. 


The plants discussed prefer high tree- 
less areas facing north. In eastern North 
America there are several areas, such 
as Mount Washington, the summits of 
the Chic-Choc Mountains, and the 
Mingan Islands, which are well-known 
among botanists because of the rare 
plants found there. 


ten 


Another habitat of rare plants is 
Forillon National Park, located on the 
eastern tip of the Gaspé Peninsula. 
These plants are found mainly in the 
southeastern section of the park, es- 
pecially on Forillon Peninsula. 

More than 10 000 years ago, when the 
Wisconsin Glacier had only recently 
retreated from this part of America, the 
plants were probably abundant. Sub- 
sequently, they were forced to take 
refuge in the few areas still not invaded 
by forests. Because such habitats still 
exist in the Forillon Peninsula, it is today 
an area of special interest to biologists. 

Credit for the initial discovery of rare 
plants in Forillon goes to Brother Marie- 
Victorin and his co-workers, who visited 
the shore cliffs of this area and the 
slopes of Mount St. Alban, also located 


1 Sweetvetch (Hedysarum alpinum L.) 
2 Livelong saxifrage (Saxifraga aizoon 
Jacq.) 


in the park, for the first time in 1923. 
They collected arctic-alpine species 
normally found in arctic habitats, as well 
as some species, said to be Cordil- 
leran, which are commonly found in 
western North America, particularly 

in the Rocky Mountains. 

Various theories have been advanced 
to explain why these two plant groups 
are present in some parts of eastern 
North America. The best known of these 
was no doubt the “‘Nunatak theory”, 
which suggested that Cordilleran 
species survived the last ice age in the 
very areas where they are found today, 
and that these areas were not covered 
in ice. 


Today, another theory seems more 
plausible. At the southern extremity of 
the Wisconsin Glacier, which at its 
largest covered most of Canada, there 
was most likely a zone of tundra which 
provided ideal conditions for the pro- 
pagation of Cordilleran species 
preferring open habitats. This zone is 
thought to have extended, in discon- 
tinuous fashion, from the Rocky Moun- 
tains to the Maritime provinces, forming 
a corridor along which these species 
could gradually spread from the west to 
the east of North America. 


3 Cancer root (Orobanche terrae-novae 


Fern.) grows on the north face of Mount 
St. Alban 


4 Yellow mountain saxifrage (Saxifraga 


aizoides L.) on the east cliff of Bon Ami 


According to this theory, the so-called 
arctic-alpine species moved with the 
Wisconsin Glacier as it advanced south- 
ward, and later on spread more exten- 
sively in the tundra zone which 
developed as the glacier retreated. 

It is suggested that arctic-alpine and 
Cordilleran plants, which are pioneer 
species, were progressively eliminated 
from central North America as condi- 
tions became more suited to the growth 
of grassland and forest vegetation. 
Some plant communities did, however, 
survive by taking refuge in the remain- 
ing habitats favourable to them, such as 
talus scree, shore cliffs and mountain 
tops not suited to forest development. 

Therefore, as the Wisconsin Glacier 
retreated to the north 12 500 years ago, 
some of these plants managed to 
survive in the area which is now Forillon 
National Park. Various factors have 


5 Cut-leaved anemone (Anemone multifida 


Poir) 


6 Primrose (Primula sp.) 
7 Northeast side of Forillon peninsula. 


H 
] 
‘| 
4 
; 


contributed to maintaining the open con- 
ditions they prefer, including the slope 
and orientation of rock formations, the 
limestone substratum, and the northeast 
exposure of the cliffs. There are few 
trees and shrubs in such locations and 
herbaceous plants occupy very little of 
the surface area. As long as these 
conditions do not change, the habitat 
will remain suitable for these relict 
species, and they will continue to 
prosper. 

In Forillon National Park, some 20 
plant species that are either very rare or 
of special interest to botanists have 
been located and identified. Except for 
three of these, no species is represented 


eleven 


twelve 


by more than 60 individual plants, and 
there are actually fewer than 10 speci- 
mens of some types. About 30 more 
common arctic-alpine species also 
occur in the park. 

Most of these plants are found in the 
seven.locations now considered to be 
rare plant refuges. The most important 
ones grow on the shore Cliffs of Forillon 
Peninsula, and the slopes of Mount 
St. Alban. 


“The arctic-a pine ts and t oe 
 hebics the legacy of a ‘bygone. ‘ a, ie 
constitute a special kind of resource. ~ 
Care must be taken to ensure that they — 
are not disturbed — their uniqueness 
and fragility make this a a neces for ~ 
their survival. 

This is one of the aims of the Re- 
source’ Inventory Program of Parks 
Canada. By increasing our knowledge 
of the natural resources of our country, _ 
we can ensure their conservation. — 


Originally written in French by Daniel 
LeSauteur, a staff member of Parks Canada, ; 
Natural Resources Division. 


“ily Nannie is Grey Owl” 


by Colleen McCluskey 


“My name is Grey Owl. | come in peace.” 
With these words, Canada’s most 
celebrated conservationist carried a 
message about the world of the beaver 
and the vanishing wilderness to millions 
of people in Canada, Britain and the 
USA. 

But who was this man who attracted 
audiences in ever-increasing numbers 
and who prompted one critic to write 
“Grey Owl is probably one of the finest 
ambassadors of friendship and goodwill 
Canada has ever sent to England?” 

Former Prime Minister John Diefen- 
baker said, ‘‘“Grey Owl was a charlatan 
of the first rank and Canada’s greatest 
conservationist.” 

Why a charlatan? 

Throughout his life Grey Ow! posed 
as an Indian. He claimed that he was 
born near the Rio Grande of an Apache 
mother and a Scottish father. But within 
24 hours of his death on April 13, 1938, 
an article by Greg Clark in the Toronto 
Star revealed that Grey Owl was actually 
Archie Belaney. He was born in Hast- 
ings, England and came to Canada in 
1906, adopting the way of life of the 
Indian people of northeastern Ontario. 

His transformation from Englishman to 
Indian was described by Belaney ina 
letter written in 1934. ‘“‘Nearly everything 
that | have learnt that is now being 


put to use and expressing in writing, 
comes from the Ojibways of Canada 
with whom | have soujourned (sic), on 
and off (mostly on), for nearly thirty 
years and coming under their influence 
whilst yet a youth, learnt their arts and 
language... and consider their tradi- 
tions as my own.” 

The discovery that Grey Owl was not 
born an Indian outraged many who 
had heard his message; but the debate 
over his identity ignored both his con- 
tribution to the preservation of the 
wilderness and his love and concern for 
the beaver. 

Grey Owl’s career as a conservationist 
began in the mid-1920s in Témiscouata 
County, Quebec. For 20 years he had 
been a guide, hunting and trapping. His 
friend and publisher, Lovat Dickson, 
described Grey Owl’s realisation of the 
suffering he had caused. “Things he 
had barely noticed before now stood as 
mute witnesses of the suffering his 
presence in these woods inflicted on 
animal life. When they came upona 
trap and saw the body of an animal 
caught in it, frozen in the shape of the 
last contortion it had made to retain its 
spark of life; when traps set for fur- 
bearing animals revealed, when they 


1 Beaver sleeping on Grey Owl’s shoulder, 


Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba 


2 Anahareo and Grey Owl bring their own 


Jelly Roll to a picnic in Prince Albert 
National Park, Saskatchewan 


came to them, the mute, icy bodies of 
harmless little squirrels and birds, 
caught there accidently, and most of all 
when they came to a trap and found 

not the dead body of an animal but its 
paw, chewed off so that its owner 
might be set free, when these things 
happened as they did nearly every day, 
he was reminded of the sum of suffering 
he had brought to these creatures over 
the years.” 

With the encouragement of his Indian 
wife, Anahareo, Grey Owl decided to 
abandon his trapping and devote his 
energies to saving the beaver from 
possible extinction by establishing a 
beaver colony. Two beavers which they 
had raised from kittens when their 
mother had been caught in one of Grey 
Owl’s traps formed the nucleus of this 
first colony. 

For many months Grey Owl and 
Anahareo devoted all their energies to 
protecting the two beavers, who had 
built a lodge on the lake by the cabin in 
Témiscouata. Grey Owl began to 
write about his beaver friends. In 1929, 
an article he had written was accepted 
for publication in the British magazine, 
Country Life. 

A further series of articles published 
in Forest and Outdoors magazine attrac- 
ted the attention of the National Parks 


thirteen 


Service and a film crew was sent to 
Témiscouata to film Grey Owl and his 
beavers. Five films were made in all and 
they were widely shown in Europe and 
North America. 

Shortly after, the National Park Ser- 
vice began a beaver conservation pro- 
gram. Grey Owl was offered the job of 
caretaker for park animals in Riding 
Mountain National Park. The 1937-1938 
estimates for Prince Albert National 
Park show that provision was made to 
pay $1 320 to A. Belaney (Grey Owl) for 
his duties as caretaker of park animals 
and $200 for special feed for the beaver. 

At first hesitant to relinquish his 
freedom, he accepted the offer to pro- 
vide for the safety of the beaver. “‘If | 
embraced this opportunity with all its 
multitudinous advantages, it would 
seem to mean the absolute surrendering 
of my freedom, might put an end to all 
my wandering in the wilderness... 

Yet | did remain true to what | deemed 
to be my obligations, all thought of 
liberty must be given up. And two things 
stood out compellingly and clear as 
light: my object, which has seemed at 


fourteen 


last so unattainable, was now within my 
grasp, and my two small friends would 
be forever beyond the power of any 
one to harm, free for all time from the 
haunting fear of death, that is the 
inescapable heritage of the beaver folk. 
These were the main issues, all others 
dwarfed beside them.” (Pilgrims of the 
Wild.) 

In the spring of 1931 Grey Owl and 
his two beavers, Jelly Roll and Rawhide, 
moved from Quebec to Riding Mountain 
National Park. By the end of the summer 
it was clear that the location was not 
fit for winter use and another site was 
found on the shore of Ajawaan Lake in 
Prince Albert National Park, Saskat- 
chewan. 

The National Park Service built a 
cabin to Grey Owl’s specifications, with 
a hole in one side where the beaver 
could construct their lodge, with access 
both to the cabin and to the lake. In 
October of 1931, Grey Owl, Anahareo, 
Jelly Roll and Rawhide moved to their 
new home. 

During the next seven years, in 
Prince Albert National Park, Grey Owl 


did most of the writing which made him 
world-famous as a conservationist. 

In his four books, Men of the Last 
Frontier, Pilgrims of the Wild, Tales of 
an Empty Cabin and Sajo and her 
Beaver People, Grey Owl weaves a 
touching and often humorous tale of the 
antics of the beavers and of his and 
Anahareo’s struggle to protect them. 
Grey Owl recalled one young beaver, 
“His whole short life of four months has 
been turned topsy-turvy, inside out, and 
sideways. He had been transported 
hither and thither on trains and wagons, 
carried long distances in a box on his 
owner’s back, and had finally spent two 
entire days in an empty camp stove. For 
a swimming pool he had a dishpan, and 
for food he was fed pancakes... And 
now suddenly, had come the end of a 
very eventful journey, and all was 
peace and quiet and contentment. In the 
creek that feeds the lake | fixed up an 
old beaver house, placed in it a quantity 
of food, and turned him loose. But he 
did not want to run wild. Each night 
before the ice came he was at the camp 
door at dark. And sometimes, as he 


eae 


——— ee = = _ 


3 Moose calves meet the public in Prince 
Albert National Park, Saskatchewan 

4 Young pelicans, Lavallée Lake, Prince 
Albert National Park, Saskatchewan 


regarded me gravely, sitting there at 
my feet, my heart went out to the little 
waif that did not want to be free, and 
| would pick him up and pass my hand 
over his rich fur, and he would sigh 
contentedly and fall immediately asleep, 
to dream of cool waters and mud, of 
poplar leaves and pancakes.”’ 

Living with beavers in the same 
cabin was not always easy. “They roam 
around the camp and, with no evil 
intent but apparently from just sheer 
joy of living take large slices out of 
table legs and chairs, nice long splinters 
out of the walls, and their progress is 
marked by little piles and strings of 
chips. This in the forepart of the even- 
ing. After ‘lights out’ the more serious 
work commences such as the removal of 
deerskin rugs, the transferring of fire- 
wood from behind the stove into the 
middle of the floor, or the improvement 
of some waterproof footwear by the 
addition of a little openwork in the 
soles.” 

Grey Owl’s concern was not just for 
the beaver but also for the protection 
of the wilderness. In an unpublished 


article written in 1931 he expresses his 
concern for the vanishing wilderness. 
“Why should the last of the Silent Places 
be destroyed ruthlessly whilst we stand 
by in listless apathy, without making an 
effort to save at least a few small areas 
of our forest in a state of nature, to be 
representative of the Canada that was 
during the most interesting period of 
her history... and to provide sanctuary 
for the Spirit of the Wild and for those 
of us, and they are not a few, who love 
to commune with Him and His furred 
and feathered people.” 

Following the publication of ‘Pilgrims 
of the Wild” Grey Owl left for Britain on 
a lecture tour to ‘arouse public sym- 
pathy and understanding with a view 
to toleration of the lesser people (the 
animals of the wild) in order that they 
may be better understood”. 

During a 1937 lecture tour Grey Owl 
was presented to King George VI and 
his young family, including the present 
Queen Elizabeth. Following his final 
lecture at Massey Hall in Toronto, Grey 
Owl returned to his beaver in their 
cabin on Ajawaan Lake. The exhausted 


All photographs for this article and the 
centre-spread poster of Grey Owl were taken 
between 1929 and 1932 by the late W. J. 
Oliver of Calgary for the National Parks 
Branch of the Department of the Interior. 


Grey Owl fell ill with pneumonia and 
died in Prince Albert hospital, April 13, 
1938, only five days after his return. He 
was buried near his cabin on Ajawaan 
Lake. 

The cabin in which Grey Owl lived 
and worked for seven years is pre- 
served by Parks Canada as a tribute to 
his contribution to the cause of conser- 
vation. Visitors still come to the camp, 
about 40 km from Waskesiu Townsite. 
The cabin is 15 km from the nearest 
road, and can be reached only on foot or 
by boat. Many visitors spend the night in 
a nearby campground before making the 
return trip. 

At Grey Owl’s grave, a plaque bears 
the inscription, ‘| hope you understand 
me, | am not particularly anxious to be 
known at all; but my place is back in the 
woods, there is my home, and there | 
stay. But in this country of Canada, to 
which | am intensely loyal, and whose 
natural heritage | am trying to interpret 
so that it may be better understood and 
appreciated, here, at least, | want to be 
known for what | am.” 


fifteen 


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Cette revue paraitenanglaiseten _ 
francais. Pour la version fran¢aise, voir 
au verso de la publication. 


ee a Indian and Affaires indiennes 
Ne Northern Affairs | et du Nord 


Parks Canada Parcs Canada 


Volume 3, No. 3, 1977 


P| 


Metric Commission Canada has granted use of the 
National Symbol for Metric Conversion. 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Cana- 
dians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Table of Contents 
3 Inthe Land of the Chasse-galerie 


8 Birthplace of the National Parks 
by W. Fergus Lothian 


11. Marine Parks: A World of 
Submerged Beauty 
by Claude Mondor 


Cover: Diver examines the wheel of the 
sunken vessel Mavoureen. 

Centre spread: Sunrise at Cap des Rosiers, 
Forillon National Park. (Photo: Maxime 

St. Amour) 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. Warren Allmand, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, 
Ottawa, 1977. 

QS-7044-030-BB-A1 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production: Barry P. Boucher 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo Credits: /n the Land of the Chasse- 
galerie, Yves Tessier. Birthplace of the 
National Parks, 1, Canadian Pacific Railway; 
2, W. F. Lothian. Marine Parks: A World of 
Submerged Beauty, 1 and 10, P. McCloskey; 
2, G. E. Tayler; 3, W.L.S.; 6 and 9, 

A. F. Helmsley; 8, P. Matrasou. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 
Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of Indian 
and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 

K1A 0H4. 


©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1977 


Pierre Des Marais Inc. 
Contract No. O9KT. A0767-7-1003 


A Summer Morning’s Dream 
In the Land of the Chasse-galerie 


An August morning, 

clothed in the moist folds 

of a heavy-hanging mist. 
Outside my tent 

the vapour-laden air 

casts over me its comforting warmth. 
The early dawn holds promise 
of an ever-changing perspective 
as the trailing clouds 

retreat over the verdant hills. 

| launch my canoe gently 

on the water’s tranquil surface 
and made my silent way 


through the invisible, all-enveloping veil. 


Like brushstrokes 

on an impressionist canvas, 

the jagged tips of evergreens 
thrust through the leafy branches. 
The mirrored depths 

stretch to infinity, 

rising from the dim horizon 

as though wedded to the visible air. 


A luminous ray 

steals shyly through. 

The curtain is about to rise; 
the shadowed forms 

take on a sharper line. 
Colours cast off 

their milky tint. 

From my soundless paddle 
the ripples dance away, 

and images of the landscape 
break and follow in their train. 


Already the horizon limits earth and sky. 
The treetops stand revealed. 

The sun begins to filter through 

the swirling ribbons of the mist, 
encrusting with a thousand jewels 

the sombre tapestry of night. 


And now the dawn’s first pallid gleam 

gives way to bands of deepening hue. 

In the valleys’ leaf-green depths, 

the last diaphanous strands 

linger a moment, and are gone. 

The landscape comes new-minted into view, 
bathed in the warm and vibrant glow 

of this jewel of August days. 

So fades a midsummer morning’s dream, 

a dream | wish might have no end. 


La chasse-galerie, it’s flying still. An old 
French legend tells of a ‘‘Monsieur 
Galerie” who went hunting during the 
hour of high mass. As punishment he 
was condemned to go hunting through 
the skies each midnight until the end 

of time. His endless journey became 
known as the ‘‘chasse-galerie”’. 

In Canada, the legend was applied to 
coureurs de bois whose canoes had 
been trapped upriver by early winter ice. 
Unable to reach their loved ones by 
river, they made a pact with the devil to 
sail through the air in a phantom canoe, 
at the stroke of midnight when the 
moon was full. 

In the last century, lumberjacks in 
isolated forest camps made their way 
back to their sweethearts along the same 
nocturnal route, taking special care 
not to pass too close to mountain peaks 
or church steeples that might damage 
their slender canoes. 

In the 20th century, skyscrapers, 
television antennae and airport control 
towers have added new perils to the 
pilots of these fragile craft; but on they 
sail— when conditions are right, an 
air service rivalling the flying carpets of 
Araby. 


In the Land of 


The legend of the chasse-galerie is 
little known in scientific circles. Which 
may explain the confusing reports of 
mysterious flying objects, often de- 
scribed as saucer-shaped. Have you 
ever noticed how much a birch-bark 
canoe resembles a saucer when seen in 
profile? 

A detailed description of the phenom- 
enon, with proper footnotes, was first 
prepared by Honoré Beaugrand in 1900. 
His book, La chasse-galerie: Légendes 
canadiennes was reissued in 1970 
by Fides of Montreal. The author of the 
following article, Yves Tessier vows he 
saw signs of the phantom canoes in 
La Mauricie National Park. 


La Mauricie National Park, located about 
24 km north of Shawinigan, Quebec, 
presents an interesting transition be- 
tween two important Canadian 
geographical regions, the St. Lawrence 
Lowlands and the Canadian Shield. 

In this part of the country, the highest 
marine terraces left by the Champlain 
Sea give way to rocky formations from 
the Precambrian era, Millions of years 
separate these great geological works, 
the fashioning of which was interrupted 
by repeated glaciations. 

Similarly, some deciduous species of 
the Lowlands forest reach the northern 


limit of their range in this area, and the - 


: the Chasse-galerie 


boreal forest with its stands of conifers 
gradually takes over on the rising slopes 
of the Laurentian Plateau. 

The land here shows obvious signs of 
glacial action, including rounded hills, 
gently sloping valleys, long, narrow lakes 
with moraine deposits along their 
shores, and drift boulders, as unex- 
pected as they are imposing. 

The various reworkings of the land 
have resulted in the creation of various 
habitats — crystal-clear lakes, swampy 
bogs and bare escarpments — suitable for 
many different types of plant and 
animal life. 

It is in this typical ecological region 
of eastern Canada that the 544 km2 of 
territory making up La Mauricie National 
Park, which has the St. Maurice River as 
part of its eastern boundary, is located. 

Over the years this river has served 


2n the backcountry of The canoe was long the characteristic | nual event, which was first run in 1934, is 
rice Valley and the mode of transportation in the St. Mau- held in early September on a 201.25 km 
r. The Indians in their rice Valley. It was used by the natives, _ route between La Tuque and Trois-Rivié- 
came down from the the explorers, the coureurs de bois and res. The race is divided into three 
the missionaries to travel the many wa- stages, with stops in Saint-Roch-de- 
terways of the region, which often were Mékinac and Shawinigan. 
shallow. Thus it is not surprising that an Canoeists from the St. Maurice Valley 
international canoe race came to be and the United States compete fiercely 
held on the St. Maurice River. This an- for top honours in this race, known for 


the swift rapids and demanding por- 
tages on the route. 

This is competitive canoeing, but there 
are also many opportunities for pleasure 
canoeing in La Mauricie National Park. 
The calm waters of Wapizagonke Lake, 
almost everywhere bordered by sandy 
beaches, are dotted with tiny fir-covered 
islands. 


Faster water is found in the Mattawin 
River, access to which requires difficult 
portages. Simple campsites have been 
set up along the route; however, in order 
to maintain the original character of the 
land, only the most basic of facilities 
have been provided. 

...Onawarm summer night on the 
shore of Caribou lake, at the end of a day 


of canoeing and exhausting portages, 
| saw the spirits gliding past in their 
canoe in the sky. So the legend of the 
chasse-galerie really was true... 


Originally written in French by Yves Tessier, 
Head of the Map Library, University of Laval, 
Quebec City. Yves, who has been a photog- 
rapher for 20 years took these pictures in 

La Mauricie National Park. 


seven 


Birthplace of 


the National Parks 


by W. Fergus Lothian 


Canada’s first national park, Banff in 
Alberta, celebrates its 90th birthday in 
1977. Undimmed by time, Banff is the 
shining jewel in a nationwide system of 
parks and historic sites that extends 
into every province and both territories. 

From L’Anse-aux-Meadows, in New- 
foundland, where Vikings settled 500 
years before Cartier, to Mount Logan, 
Canada’s tallest peak, in arctic Yukon, 
Parks Canada administers 28 national 
parks, 53 historic parks and sites and 
seven heritage canals. Last year an es- 
timated 21 million visitors shared the 
heritage beauty of Parks Canada. More 
than two million of those visitors passed 
through Banff. 

The founding of Canada’s first Na- 
tional Park and the events leading up to 
it are described by Parks Canada 
historian Fergus Lothian. 


eight 


The construction of the first transcon- 
tinental railway had brought hundreds of 
adventurous and ambitious young men 
across the western plains to the Rocky 
Mountains. Here among the towering 
peaks, some of them discovered mineral 
hot springs flowing from the mountain- 
side. 

On acool November day in 1883, 
Frank McCabe, a section foreman, and 
William McCardell discovered what 
are now known as the Cave and Basin 
Hot Springs. The two men had come 
up the newly-laid line by hand car from 
Padmore, and crossed the Bow River 
on a rough raft to examine the foot of 
Terrace (now Sulphur) Mountain. 

They literally stumbled on the basin 
pool, fed by a hot spring, and the cave 
spring, entry to which was gained by a 
hole in the roof of the cavern. 

Knowledge of the hot springs rapidly 
spread among railway construction 
workers. Strangely, McCabe and Mc- 
Cardell expended little effort in protect- 
ing their interest or in attempting 
development until others working in the 
vicinity erected shacks and made use 


of the hot waters at both the lower and 
upper springs. 

Members of Parliament who had 
visited Banff during the summer of 1885 
strongly recommended reservation of 
the springs for the purpose of a public 
park. 

Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, 
on October 16, 1885, sent a note to 
Deputy Minister A. M. Burgess express- 
ing the hope that “‘great care had been 
taken to reserve all the land in or near 
Hot Springs at Banff”. 

On October 23, 1885, Thomas White, 
Minister of the Interior, advised his 
Deputy Minister by letter from Calgary as 
follows: “My dear Burgess: | have just 
returned from a visit to the Hot Springs 
at Banff and have made up my mind that 
it is important to reserve by Order-In- 
Council, the sections on which the 
springs are and those about them. | send 
you amemorandum which Mr. Pearce 
has prepared for me, and | wish you 
would prepare a recommendation to 


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3 The cave and basin, Banff National Park 


National Park Established 
The bill was read for the third time on 
May 6, and the Act, since known as the 
Rocky Mountains Park Act, received 
Royal Assent on June 23, 1887. 

The future concept of the park, its 
scope and purposes were set out in the 
dedication clause of the new Act, ‘“‘The 


ten 


said tract of land is hereby reserved and 
set apart as a public park and pleasure 
ground for the benefit, advantage and 
enjoyment of the people of Canada, 
subject to the provisions of this Act 
and of the regulations hereinafter 
mentioned, and shall be known as the 
Rocky Mountains Park of Canada.” 

In 1887, the Canadian Pacific Railway 
began construction of the first of several 


buildings to be known as the Banff 
Springs Hotel. The site, admirably 
located on a bench above the junction 
of the Bow and Spray Rivers, was 
selected personally by W. C. Van Horne, 
the Vice-President of the Company. 

The handsome five-storey building pro- 
vided the finest accommodation in the 
Park. Adjoining the hotel was a bath- 
house containing two plunge baths 

and ten tubs, all supplied with water from 
the Upper Hot Springs. 


The Lake Louise Reservation 

Although the alpine splendour of Lake 
Louise, situated about 35 km northwest 
of Banff, had been known since its 
discovery in 1882 by Tom Wilson, it was 
not until 1892 that it was reserved, 
within a surrounding area of 132.6 km? 
as a forest park. 

The majestic snow-capped peaks 
surrounding the lake-some of them form- 
ing the continental divide-provided an 
irresistible challenge to mountain clim- 
bers. The Railway Company encouraged 
alpine activity by importing Swiss 
guides, building a special lodge for their 
accommodation at Lake Louise, and 
placing their services, for a fee, at the 
disposal of visitors. In 1902 the area 
surrounding Lake Louise was incorpor- 
ated in Rocky Mountains Park, when 
the boundaries were extended westerly 
to the continental divide. 


There are now 28 National Parks in Can- 
ada, from Newfoundland to Vancouver 
Island, and into the Arctic; but Banff 
National Park continues to draw more 
visitors than any other. As Macdonald 
foresaw, the visitors come not only from 
this continent. In 1976, an estimated 

20 000 Banff visitors came from Japan. 
Ninety years after it was first established, 
Banff’s magnetic beauty still justifies 
the praise of Sir Donald Smith, the man 
who drove the last spike in the first 
transcontinental railway. 

Speaking in support of the National 
Park, Smith told the House of Com- 
mons in 1887, “Anyone who has gone 
to Banff, ... who has looked on the 
reaches of the Bow River, and, on turning 
beheld the mountains towering heaven- 
ward, and not felt himself elevated and 
proud that all this is a part of the Domin- 
ion, cannot be a Canadian.”’ 


Marine parks: A world of 
submerged beauty 


by Claude Mondor 

\ 

’ 1) 
Thalassa ’ 
From times before time, until time’s end, ' \ 


Ceaselessly breathing to a timeless tune, 
Learned minds cannot begin to 

comprehend, 

Leviathan’s untimely ruin, 

And Mankind cannot begin to mend, 

The Tragedy of the final harpoon 


... 100 late comes far too soon. 
Max Finkelstein 


Canada has approximately 241 000 km 
of coastline fronting on three oceans — - 
the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific — 
giving it one of the longest and most 
diversified coastlines on Earth. What 
might be termed our submerged lands, ae 1 
the continental shelf comprises an 0a TE A 
area equal to over 40 per cent of our land th 7 
area, equal in fact to that of both the ,) ; 
Territories combined or to the total area | jae i 
of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. ‘a ; 
It is not surprising, therefore, that | 
Canada’s past and future are inextri- H ia 
cably interwoven with the seas. Since Psil : 
the earliest times, Canadians have 
clustered where the land and sea inter- 
face, in order to harvest the living and : 
non-living resources of the oceans. 
The sea has been a highway for ex- \ 
plorers, merchants and immigrants, an : 
area of importance to sovereignty and 
defence, an inspiration to poets and 
artists, a playground, an element both 
loved and feared. It has been an environ- 
ment that has influenced the general 
development of the Atlantic fishing com- 
munities, the Inuit and the Northwest 
Coast Indians. 


1 Fishing boat at Ucluelet, near Pacific Rim 
National Park 

2 Goose-necked barnacles, Pacific Rim 

National Park 

Seal lions, Pacific Rim National Park 

Hermit crab, Fundy National Park 

Anemones, coral and sea urchin, Pacific 

Rim National Park 


ak wo 


twelve 


Unfortunately, like other maritime 
nations, Canadians have traditionally 
viewed the sea as a bottomless garbage 
can and as alimitless pot of gold. The 
total impact of our activities on the sur- 
rounding seas is impressive and fright- 
ening. The most obvious results of these 
activities being the declining produc- 
tivity of our fisheries, and pollution from 
oil, pesticides and waste disposal. This 
pollution has in turn caused the closure 
of shellfish beds in many parts of the 


6 Herring gull, Prince Edward Island 
National Park 

7 Herring gulls and black-backed gulls, 
Prince Edward Island National Park 

8 Adenizen of the deep, Pacific Rim 
National Park 


Maritimes and the West Coast as a 
source of human food. Perhaps the most 
tragic example of human interference is 
the virtual eradication of the immense 
colonies of seabirds in the Gulf of 

St. Lawrence, exploited for eggs, meat, 
oil, feathers, fish bait, fertilizer and sport. 
For such species as the flightless Great 
Auk on Funk Island, Newfoundland, the 
signing of the Migratory Bird Treaty of 
1916 came too late. 

The extermination of the southernmost 
colonies of Atlantic walruses from the 
Magdalen Islands and Sable Island, is 
also deplorable, as is the reduction of 
whale — and other marine mammal — 
populations to:dangerously low numbers. 

Unlike other countries, most of Can- 
ada’s oceans are still in a relatively 
natural condition. Consequently, we are 
able to set aside and preserve some of 
these unmodified marine environments 
for the enjoyment of present and future 
generations before they are polluted or 
pre-empted for other activities. 

To a great extent in the past, conser- 
vation in Canada has stopped attheedge  . 
of the sea. Although Canada’s first 
National Park was established at Banff 
in 1885, it was more than 50 years later 
before the first coastal national park was 
established in 1937, along the ocean 
beaches of Prince Edward Island. And, 
it was only in 1970 that an area of sea 
was included within the jurisdiction of 
the National Parks Act by the incor- 
poration of the adjacent marine environ- 
ment at Forillon on the Gaspé Penin- 
sula of Quebec and Pacific Rim on 
Vancouver Island in British Columbia. 

The idea of preserving areas of great 
beauty in the sea has been slow to 
develop in Canada, perhaps because 
here it is only in the last decade that man 
has entered the sea with facemask, 
fins, and self-contained underwater 
breathing appartus. It is also only in 
recent years that the public has become 
really aware of the natural beauty, 
importance, diversity and fragility of our 
oceans. Yet much of Canada’s rich 
ocean heritage is largely unknown. The 
Pacific Coast with its nutrient-rich wa- 
ters, its relatively uniform seasonal 
range of temperature and freedom from 
winter icing, has probably the richest 
echinoderm fauna in the world, including 


thirteen 


9 The end of the day, Prince Edward Island 
National Park 


the largest species of starfish, the 
sunstar. The largest species of octopus 
also inhabits this area. 

Canada is one of the few nations in 
the world which have resident popula- 
tions of whales such as the bowhead 
and beluga entirely within their national 
boundaries. In addition part, or all of 
two populations of great whales — the 
blue and the fin whale — summer in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Other features of Canada’s seas not 
found in tropical oceans include ice- 
bergs and kelp forests, individual fronds 
of which can extend 30 m or more and 
grow 60 cm a day. 

Few Canadians are aware that Bona- 
venture Island, Funk Island, Witless Bay 
Island and Prince Leopold Island provide 
refuge for the largest remaining seabird 
colonies in the world. 

So far Canada does not have a marine 
national park, that is, a marine area pro- 


fourteen 


tected by the provisions and regulations 
of the National Parks Act. Fortunately 
encouraging progress has been made 

in marine conservation within the last 
decade. 

Each of the existing coastal national 
parks — Kouchibouguac, Pacific Rim 
and Forillon, incorporates a marine com- 
ponent, a small portion of the adjacent 
sea, within its boundary. 

Among the other coastal national 
parks, Terra Nova, Auyuittug and Gros 
Morne include only the intertidal marine 
communities, for their boundaries ter- 
minate at the ordinary low water mark. 
The boundaries of Prince Edward Island 
and Fundy National Parks end at the 
ordinary high water mark. 

Early efforts to overcome this obvious 
deficiency focused on dividing Canada’s 
ocean environments into marine regions, 
each incorporating relatively similar 
oceanographic and biological charac- 
teristics. Nine of these marine regions 
have already been tentatively identified. 


Each marine region will be studied to 
identify significant seascapes or areas 
worthy of protection. To qualify, a region 
must satisfy at least one of the following 
Criteria: be an outstanding representa- 
tion of an Atlantic, Arctic or Pacific 
ecosystem; be a critical habitat of marine 
mammals or seabirds; have underwater 
seascapes of outstanding beauty and 
inspirational value; or have marine 
environments which permit marine- 
oriented activities such as SCUBA diving 
and the observation of marine mammals 
and seabirds. 

This identification and inventory pro- 
cess has been completed for two marine 
regions — the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the Vancouver Island Inland Sea. Similar 
studies have begun for the Labrador Sea 
and the Atlantic southwest coastal 
regions. Work on the remaining regions 
will be started later this year. 

One of the sites identified in the inven- 


Surf off Long Beach, Pacific Rim National 
Park 


tory phase is currently under study with 
the province concerned for possible 
establishment as Canada’s first marine 
national park. The realization of this 
object would be a formidable Canadian 
contribution to the recently announced 
global marine conservation program, 
“The Seas Must Live”. This program is 
co-sponsored by the World Wildlife 
Fund, and the International Union for the 
Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources. 

Work has also begun on a marine 
resources policy statement to provide 
guidance on the management of marine 
resources in those national parks under 
the jurisdiction of Parks Canada, and for 
those that may be incorporated in the 
future. 

Public awareness of the potential 
riches beneath the seas and the threat 
to the survival of the world’s oceans may 
soon lead to the establishment of Can- 
ada’s first marine national park, a posi- 
tive step towards preserving a world of 
submerged beauty and vitality. 

... Too late comes far too soon! 


Claude Mondor is a parks systems planner 
for Parks Canada. 


11 


11 


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$98] JOAJ9S94 OP INeNBIA Dane JUsIepUeW 
-WO991 G88} 919,| JUePUS JJUeg e SNUSA 

jualeje Inb xneigpej sajndep seq 
‘a|J4njyeu apneyo nea | 
}USSI/1]N 19 ajney sounos e| ap no asseq 
991NOS B| 8p Seid Soueqed Sap jUusAgIa 
OHeUISIOA NP Sunaj|!leaes] Souine.p puenb 
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a|jenbe| ins ja Sujne,| yeyoed inb ay016 
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eile}USWIPN Neaped un INS MOg AJSIAL 
2] 9SIBALI} JUBIEAe Sind ‘a9119] SIOA 
8|JBANOU 9}NO} e| ANS Suls!iesp us aiOW 
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Sepneyod S8djnOs xnap jusIesANODEp 
‘SPseQO| Wei}, ‘UOUBedWOd UOS ja 
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Ud “AIQUISAOU OP Sled} INOf uN y1e}9,5 
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Sula|d ‘xnainjuane ‘saunel sawwoy 
sap ‘sesneyooy sap Spaid xne,.nb 
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OP UO/JONPLJ} BUN JDIOA ‘jJUeg BP UO!} 

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udalJO}sly ‘uelyjJo7] snbsay ‘inajne 7 

‘yyueg sed juales 

-sed Sa/J9 94]U9,P SUOI//IJW XN|ag ‘a4jNe, | 

eB Ue|IO UN,P BA Ind ‘epeueyd soleg ap 

Ne9Ss9/ 8] BsOdWOd as JuOp sanbiojsiy 

Xnal/ €G Sap no xneuoljeu soled gg sap 

94jne,| NO UN, e Ja/UJBP UL,| SBNUSA JUOS 
SQ9UUOSIA AP SUOII/IW LZ 8p SN/q 

‘yesqe pues6 un sinolno} 

8918X9 SASNEyIOoY sap inaoo ne anbsas 

-O}J/ Nal] ad ‘aJJOANODAP eS ap sino! 

XN® BUIWOD ‘sue 06 S/ndap jueuajulew 

a]sixa ‘epeueg ne neases np Jaiweasd 

a] ‘eLiag/y ua jueg /euO/}eU Ded a7 


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Buidweo ap s}juawaoe|dwa seq ‘asselp 
-Jey ap sed juenbuew ou sebeyod sap 
saide nb aipulofes jned au uo,nb SaAlA 
snjd xnea sap a4jjo uIMe}eYy DIAL eT 


"S81aJIUO0D Bp yanbnog un,p 
SO}J109 S}O|],P SeanjoUOd je SasnauuUO|ges 
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enbseaid sawjed xnee sas aje}a ayuob 
-eziden oe| Buo| 97 ‘eouesiejd op abe} 
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aloluney e| 9p jeuoljeu Ded VI ‘JIWWOdS 
a6ejoued 99 & asuoda ua BWWOD 


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$8] JUBWAPNeYD jUayNdSIp as Suleo 
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‘giquiajdes ap jnggp ne ‘sedeja sioi} ua 
9jNOJOP 9S JaNuUe JUBWIAUBAD }99 ‘pEG] 


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94}U8 ‘Wy 10g 8p InaenBuog] aun sns ‘jours 
ap </BUOI}EUIS}U! 9SINOD 9UuN sipueHuae 
ye aB1OuNey Be] anb JueUUO}E Seg 
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Ssasnaiqwiou s9aj 11youes} Nod ‘seujeuUO!S 
-S|WW S98] 18 SIOG SAP $JNBJINOO Sa] ‘SIN|IA 
-Noodasp Sa] ‘S9uo}YOO}Ne saj sed 9si|i}Nn 


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wodsuei} 9p spow un }se JOUR 97 
‘sonbowey!}1y sap sAed np 
99||!219p UOI}dIuOSep 9uN SUuUOP xnajng 
enboer aad 9} ‘1G9| Seq ‘sebueyd9,p ja 
_esseyo ep sabe eA sing] suep ‘psou np 
jUBjNOD Nea,p UIWaYD 9d 9}UNIdWA }UO 
susipulewy Seaj ‘nesjnog ap 9910993,p 
SUOANODSI S}OURD SiNd| ap piog VY 
yUusINe7-JUIeS SAND} 9] Jo BOIUNeY-}UIeES 
_-=yney np shed-asaiue,| o43uU9 enbi0} 
-SIy JOPII09 ap IAJas eB uOIBas a]99 
‘js9,| 2B POUNeY\-JUIeS DIVIAL 
B| 8 assope a1dLUNey| e| Bp |euol}eu 
ued np zWy PHS OP 9110}1119} 9] adnoo 
-9p 9}9 B,Nb uaipeued jsq,| ap enbidA} 
enbibojo99 u0!6ei 93399 aweW e }s9,O 


‘apnusp juagwedieose un e no 
asnebeoaiew 9191GQiNO} uN ke ‘uUl||e]SUO 
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-wi.nb Snasidui issne senbiyesa soojq 
Sas }a Senbiulesiow sjodap ap sapiog 
sabHuojje soe] Sas ‘saionope saajjea 
SOS ‘SOIPUOIE SOUI||OD SO9S DaAe ‘Saulel9 
-e|6 sauawouayd sap shed 9] }sa,9 
‘udUsINe| Nesj}eid np uolsuao 
-se apuesb eB] puaidaijua Soiajiuod ap 
sjuawajdned sas 99Ae 91/e910q }910} Be] NO 
eB] SOJCUOLIJUB}dS Sd}IWI| SUNS] JUBLUBA 
-ISsei6o1d }UsANOI} Sdis19a} Sasseq Sep 
}910} B| ap SNyjjIne}y SuleyaO ‘owWaW 9q 
*segjedai suoljeioe|6 sap sed sou 
-uodej sonbibojoab xnenes} Spuesb sao 
jUdIedasS Sa99guUUe,P SUO!||IWW S8q ‘auUS 
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S8SSe119} Saj ‘SAed ap UlO0D 89 Sueq 
‘ualpeueo 
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sasseq So ‘epeuey np sejueyodu! 
senbiudei6oeb suoibes xnep e1ju9 ajues 
-S919]U! UOI}ISUBJ} OUN 94JJO ‘OAaqenH ne 
‘uebiulmeyus ap piou ne Wy yz enbjenb e 
anys ‘alouney e| ap jeuoleu died ay 


allaje6-esseyo e| | 
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(uoloepes e}) ‘oJOU III 

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‘pueiBneeg 310U0H,,p ebeubiows} 9| 

sasjne 84}Ua 941] jnNed UO ‘JaIUap ajo~aIS 

ne snoieb-sdnoj sap ja aluaje6-asseyo 
B| 9p weld Ua ji,ND 90 4IOAeS INOg 

‘sednoonos sap inod jusuudid 

dnooneeq anb sjuerjoa sj9[qo,p |a!9 

9] suep aduesaid P| Jed saii}sAW jUOS 

Sj! lonbinod jsa,5 ‘aluaje6-asseyo e| uns 
Q}I9A B] JUBSSIEULOD S}JUBARS BP Nddg 

*8]91]U09 OP SINO} Sa] jNO} 

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-9}1016 sa] 49U4N0}UO0D Snjd Ua jUsAIOp 
8|GeIP Np sjualjoO sa} ‘sunof sou aq 

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sap said doi} assed ap juawasnauBbios 

JUR}IAS Ud ‘OI1a]e6-asseyo Jed ‘joueo 

Ud BIW 9}1}9d IND] SIDA JUdIEJOAUA,S 

19 B|QGeIP Np SadiMas xne jUus!einodad 
issne SUOJBYONG Sd] ‘IBIUJOP BjOVIS NY 

"dou} yuaieAnu 

-ua,S S}i.nb ja ulajd UuOS e }1e}9 SuN| 

eB] puenb jinulw 8p dnoo aj uns jnoyns 

‘991099,Pp JOURD UA SJIe SB] SUBP JUDIE] IY 

19 BIQeIP 9] O9Ae 9}9ed UN JUAIeSIE} 

SIBIAU BI ANS JIIIA B] S sayje yus!eAnod 

au JaAIy,| IND Siog ap Sindinod say 


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ebiawe obeshed 07 


JOISS@] SOA, 


*‘snid efap juos A,u saya 
:S99}|1NS} Soa|/eA SOp puoj ne 
9109uU8 JUBpI1e}}e,S 

seueydeip saydew seq 

*9JIOA Ul]eW Np JUaWAassinoURA’,| 
seid ap }UBAINS 

‘uenjusooR s 

senbiyewoiyo saysesjuo0o seq 


‘}INU BUN,p dessi} B]10} e] 

$}B]99 9||IW Op jUue|SsNOU! 

‘@WNIG BP S9}N|OA soa] asalEp 

iN@puol es 94} |1} a11e]OS anbsip a7 
"JUSIANODEN OS Saiqie Sap sabej!e} seq 
‘JulOd ne asiw es }1e} UOZI0U,| efag 


“s9|qnopep sebes(ed so} 
Jesuep ye} 

‘SOSNB!|DUd|IS SUOI}e|NPUO Ses ap 
‘UOIIAR 

‘esne}le] oinied uno} 

}Ua}}INbD sinajnoo seq 
“UOISID9JdWI 4nd] ap 

SOWJO} so] jueaHeHap 
‘QOUOUUL,S NeSPl Np JBA9| 97 
‘e9019d aun anbsil 

XNOUIWN| J9}1} UA 


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‘QIGISIA We] B WeUeW as I.S aWWOD 
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seyoe] Sap jusuUsIAep 
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910} 9p JoukD uOW assi|6 or 
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‘ejuesiejuaiq syIpiwny,4 

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UONCAIBSUOD ‘UOI}OePal e| e JaSSaIpe,sS 
‘s}uUdWaUbIasUdas SEP 11U9}qO INO ‘UdI}eO 
-1]Qnd 93399 ap sajoie Sa] auiInpoOidad yned uO 
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ap saidne inabuojd ‘yoImsunig-nesAnoN ne 
UCUBI\-PUBIDH 2j!,| 9p aHie| ny -asnpIaANoD 


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salaijew sap ajqe 


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Cette revue parait en anglais et en 
francais. Pour la version frangaise, voir 
au verso de la publication. 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Cana- 
dians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Canservattion 


Parks 
Canada 


Parcs 
Canada 


iv 


Volume 3, No. 4 


AMAIA) omarion 


Table of Contents 


3 Winter on the Prairies: Lower Fort 


Garry 1859 
by Roderick Campbell 


8 Shipwreck...the Angry Sea 


10 The Colonel and the Cows: 
Frolics on Citadel Hill 
by Joseph Greenough 


13 Bill Oliver: Footloose in the 
National Parks 


Cover: Lower Fort Garry. 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. J. Hugh Faulkner, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1977. 

QS-7044-040-BB-A1 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production: Barry P. Boucher 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo Credits: Shipwreck ...the Angry Sea, 
Jim Shearon; The Colonel! and the Cows, 
1,3 &5 Ted Grant; 2 & 4 Rudy Van Der Ham: 
Footloose in the National Parks, all photo- 
graphs by Bill Oliver. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 
Address inquiries to The Editor, 

Conservation Canada, Department of Indian 
and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 

K1A 0OH4. 


© Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1977 


Pierre Des Marais Inc. 
Contract No. O9KT. A0767-7-1003 


tna 


a 
* 


Each year more than 100 000 visitors 
explore a colourful part of Canada’s 
past at Lower Fort Garry, at Selkirk, 
Manitoba, 30 km from Winnipeg, on the 
shores of the historic Red River. 

To step through the stone walls into 
the spacious grounds and walk among 
the buildings of this magnificently 
restored fur-trading post is to sense 
something of what life was like on the 
frontiers of civilization 125 years ago. 

The furnishings, costumes and fittings 
of a 19th century Hudson’s Bay Com- 
pany post have been retrieved or 
recreated to evoke the mood of a period 
when the Canadian West was still very 
young and very much unknown. 

The pictures on these pages portray 
scenes of winter life at Lower Fort Garry 
as itmust-have been some 125 years 


four 


BRIS sete re Se 
Spr a - nti 4 


isle enn ues Se 


ago. Costumed guides and other Parks 
Canada employees represent the men 
and women who lived the harsh realities 
of winter on the prairie. 

One of the best descriptions of life 
at Lower Fort Garry will be found in the 
book, “Father of St. Kilda’, by Roderick 
Campbell, published in 1901 by W. R. 
Russell and Co. Ltd., London, England. 

Its subtitle, “Twenty years in isolation 
in the sub-arctic territory of the Hudson’s 
Bay Company’”’, indicates to what 
extent that area was then considered 
remote and undeveloped. The following 
extracts from the book paint a picture 
of everyday life at the Fort. 


‘“‘Lower Fort Garry, as | found it in 1859, 
certainly showed outward signs of future 
prosperity, however misty its past his- 
tory might have been. 

“As | climbed to the top of the high 
river bank | found before me the Stone 
Fort, so called because its houses and 
loopholed wall were actually built of 
stone, and in this were unique in my 
Company’s vast domain. Its buildings 
were shops and stores, with dwelling- 
houses for the Company's officers and 
servants. 

“The whole fort was arranged in the 
form of a parallelogram surrounded 
by a wall twelve feet high. At each of the 


_ four corners was a bastion pierced for 
~ guns,-like the turrets of the old Scottish 
embattled castles. 

“At that time the fort was the station 
_ at which, during the summer, boat 
_ brigades were outfitted for Fort York or 
_ other posts inland. Besides, a very large 
farm had been brought under cultivation 
_ inthe immediate vicinity. The task of 
_ Surveying this farm in acres was my 
_ test service for the Company. 
“The experiment in agriculture proved 
s ‘most encouraging, and the harvest 
was everything that could be desired. 
_ The golden-tinted wheat, the plump 


round barley, the capital potatoes and 


PSE TLE 


turnips, soon showed the fertile capa- 
bilities of the Red River Valley. 

“The residents in the fort formed a 
very lively community by themselves. 
They had regular hours for the dispatch 
of business, and afterwards, to beguile 
the tedium of the long sub-Arctic nights, 
they met together for a few hours’ jol- 
lification, when old Scottish songs were 
sung in voices cracked and sharpened 
by the cold northern blasts. 

“Materially assisted by French co- 
gnac, Scotch whisky and Old Jamaica, 
the fun was kept up merrily till some 


slipped down and retired into a long 
and peaceful slumber, At these carousals 
a pint of liquor per head was the allow- 
ance; and |, a boy of seventeen, was 
included among the ‘heads’. Many a 
prayer | uttered, fighting against a temp- 
tation almost beyond human power to 
resist, so far from home, so young, and 
so alone. 

“On the whole, | soon made up my 
mind that the place was but a bit of the 


five 


ruder civilisation thrown haphazard 
into the wilds. 

“Its population consisted of four prin- 
cipal elements: — first, the descendants 
of the early French traders, or voya- 
geurs, who intermarried with the Indians 
and were the progenitors of the Metis 
or Bois-brilées. These were settled on 
both banks of the river from St. Boniface 
to the United States boundary, and, 
although quite without education, were 
well-mannered and kind and obliging 
to those who treated them as friends. 

“The second element, akin to the first, 
was provided by the descendants of 
the Company’s servants, mostly Scots- 
men from Orkney and the other islands 
who also had married native wives. 
These were the English-speaking half- 
breeds, and lived on the lower banks of 
the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. They 
appeared to me more docile than the 
others, and hospitable to a fault. 

“The third element was the Suther- 
land, Kildonan and Selkirk colony, who 
lived in the parish of that name, and 
were in easy circumstances. The warm, 
hospitable instincts of their race still 
lingered in their Scottish bosoms. 

“The fourth group were the Swampy 
Indians, who had somehow managed to 
make their way up from the Bay, and 
settle between Lower Fort Garry and 


Six 


‘Lake Winnipeg: They-too were polite and ~ 


kind in disposition. 

“lt might have included as a fifth ele- 
ment a native Indian population of two 
or three thousand. There were two 
distinct groups of these, the Ojibway 
and the Salteaux, ruled over by five 
chiefs. They used to meet in summer at 
our forts and bask in the sun for months. 
Their hunting grounds were situated 
on both territories, and they were often 
involved in serious hostilities, and not 
only against each other. 

“To save us all, red and white alike, 
from ourselves, there were no less than 
ten Roman Catholic, eight Church of 
England, and four Presbyterian places 
of worship within the legally defined 
limits of the colony. 

“Our officials, when they wished to 
become Benedicts, often married Indian 
girls. Many, however, did not care to do 
so, and would petition the Company 
to select wives for them and send them 
out by the next boat. Their wishes were, 
as a rule, complied with, and the selec- 
tion was nearly always satisfactory. 
Among the archives of the Company are 
found receipts from factors running 
thus: ‘Received per Lapwing, Jane 
Goody, as per invoice, in good trim’ and 
‘Received per Osprey, Matilda Timpins, 
returned per Lapwing as not being in 


accordance with description COhiaitied 
in invoice.’ se 


‘That the native ladies were as a rule 


attractive, a personal reminiscence 
will abundantly prove. It is a difficult 
thing to say just where boyhood and 
manhood part. There is no strict line of 
demarcation. But in my own case, and 
| fancy in most cases, it is marked by 
the suddenly developed fe 
ence for wom 


eases to be regarded 
Pr essnasé. and the idea of 


woman in its pomp of loveliness and 
purity dawns upon the young mind, 
boyhood has ended for ever, and the 
gravity of manhood, with all its woes 
and cares, and all its self-sufficing and 
self-respecting views and instincts, 
has commenced. 


“| remember the day — 9th November, 


1859 — when this spring was touched 

in my humble self. It was a superb sum- 
mer day, and | was busy behind the 
counter of my little store. 


“By-and-by the door opened, and 


three native ladies came in, They made 
themselves very much at home, coming 
inside the counter as they pleased, the 
better to examine our new stock of 
goods, | myself not escaping their keen 
scrutiny, as part and parcel of the stuff 
imported from another world. Up and 


down stairs they flitted, enjoying them- 
selves immensely, chattering gaily in 
Cree, Salteaux, English, anything. 

“One of the trio, a shade darker in 
skin than the others, but with exquisite 
black eyes and the features of a Grecian 
statue, asked me very politely to go 
upstairs with her, as she had founda 
pair of gloves she would like. 

“Soon amid much innocent laughter 
and gaiety, | was fitting a glove on her 
little hand. Heavens! what a spirit of joy 
radiated from her eyes! She was dressed 
in deep mourning, but there was no 
trace of gloom in her gay explanation, 
‘1am two-thirds Scotch, you know, and 
my grandfather is not long dead’. | must 
have looked my admiration too openly, 
for she blushed suddenly. 

“Evanescent as the colour was, it was 
enough, and | realised that she was a 
woman. | never beheld her face again. 


a , She went to the Canadas and never 


lass 


districts... Forifi 


returned. But she had opened a new 
chapter of existence for me, and life was 
a graver thing thereafter. 

“After some skirmishes between 
autumn and winter, snow and frost laid 
hold of the ground sufficiently to enable 
the annual northern packet to leave 
the fort for the northern districts. The 
first stretch was three hundred and fifty 
miles over the ice on Lake Winnipeg 
to Norway House. 

“The party set out on 10th December, 
and the means of transit were in the first 
place sledges, drawn by splendid dogs, 
and in the second snowshoes. These 
sledges (of Indian design) were drawn 
by four dogs to each, and carried a 
burden of six to seven hundred pounds. 
With such a load they travelled forty 
miles a day. 

“They traversed the frozen lake in 
eight days, running at a quick jogtrot 
from long before daybreak until dusk, 
when a frozen whitefish, about two 
pounds in weight, was thrown to each 
dog. ~~ 
__ AtknguemdeamntS'stage the pace 
Ss overhauled and repacked, one 
the Bay, Hy for the 
) offfMackenzie 
¥.sets of packet- 

, westward = 


a “i> 


bearers travelled. 
and northward. i 


” 


ven 
- Ae 


Shipwreck... 
.. the Angry Sea 


In the last issue of Conservation Canada, 
Claude Mondor described how Canada’s 
past and future are inextricably inter- 
woven with the seas, and he argued in 
favour of the creation of a marine 
national park, dedicated to the preser- 
vation of a world of submerged beauty. 

While planning for a marine national 
park goes on, some of our existing 
national parks contain vivid reminders 
of man’s dependence on, and occa- 
sional subjugation by, the sea. 


At Gros Morne National Park in New- 
foundland, about 40 km north of Corner 
Brook, the rusted hull of a coastal 
steamer lies where it ran.aground almost 
60 years ago, the victim of an angry sea. 
The story of the stricken ship is told on 
a marker at the site, just north of Rocky 
Harbour, not far from the Green Point 
campground. 


ee 


including a baby sent ashore in a mail- 


Shipwreck 

Here during “the worst storm ever’, 
the S.S. Ethie came aground on Decem- 
ber 11, 1919. She was a good ship, 
employed in the Newfoundland coastal 
trade, and driven by both steam and 
sail. However, she could no longer fight 
the raging seas which were whipped 

to. a froth by high winds. Her 92 passen- 
gers and crew feared for their lives, for 
the icy water and rock-lined shore 
threatened. Luckily, all were saved, 


bag. Time has partially eroded her hull 
but the story of the Ethie lives on in 
local folklore. 


i 


Ue iin et te 


The Colonel and the Cows: 
Frolics on Citadel Hill 


by Joseph Greenough 


Not all the great battles of Canadian 
history have been military engagements, 
a point confirmed in reading The Halifax 
Citadel, 1825-1860: A Narrative and 
Structural History, recently published 
as Volume 17 in the series Canadian 
Historic Sites, Occasional Papers in 
Archaeology and History.* 

The report by Parks Canada historian 
Joseph Greenough discusses the build- 
ing of the present Halifax Citadel, the 
background in which the building took 
place and the structure of the fortress 
and its individual components. 

The view from Citadel Hill is one of 
the great enjoyments to be found in 
modern Halifax and thousands of per- 
sons each year find momentary rest and 
contentment on the long, gentle slope 
which military engineers call a glacis. 

The following extract from Joseph 
Greenough’s report deals with the con- 
tinuing battle waged by the Command- 
ing Royal Engineer at Halifax to defend 
the still-developing slopes of the Citadel 
from transient invasion almost 120 


years ago: 


ten 


“Colonel Richard John Nelson, was in 
many ways the most singular Command- 
ing Royal Engineer ever to serve in 
Halifax. He was a specimen of that pecu- 
liarly Victorian type — the insatiably 
Curious amateur scientist. Humourless, 
righteous and pedantic, Nelson none- 
theless had some impressive achieve- 
ments behind him when he came to 
Halifax. He was the author and illustrator 
of the definitive study of Bermudan 
geology. He had produced articles for 
the professional papers of the Royal 
Engineer corps on a variety of topics in 
military and civil engineering, and he 
had been one of the editors of The Aide- 
Memoire to the Military Sciences, the 
standard dictionary on the subject for 
all his fellow military engineers. His 
most recent publication had been a book 
on the study of German which he had 
given the curious title, Lock-speise or 
inducement to the Study of German 

by the Removal of the Last Serious Diffi- 
culty in the Way of a Beginner. 


“His articles on the composition of 
military reports and on the duties of an 
engineer officer reflected his belief 
that there were correct and incorrect 
ways of doing things. This rigidity of 
Opinion coupled with his natural inter- 
est in the minutiae of engineering, made 
him potentially troublesome as a prac- 
tising military engineer. 

“Even in the 1850s, urban development 
had spread as far as North Park Street 
on the north side of the Citadel and 
South Park Street on the south. Since 
the Citadel was squarely in the centre 
of the city, the local citizens were wont 
to treat it as their collective property. 
They took shortcuts across the slopes 
of the hill in getting from one part of town 
to another, took tourists to the crest of 
the glacis to get the best view of the city, 
picnicked there on holidays and (appar- 
ently) caroused there during the sum- 
mer nights — all of which was bound to 
offend Nelson’s sensibilities. Moreover, 
some of the citizens kept livestock on 
the common, and the animals were 
forever straying (Nelson claimed that 
they were purposely allowed to stray) 
onto the glacis, pawing up the turf and 
eating the grass. All this, so far as 
Nelson was concerned, was intolerable. 
Proper respect was not being shown 
for the War Department’s property. What 
was worse, the work being so carefully 


—_ 


Uniform of the period 

2 Theclock tower, Halifax, Nova Scotia 

3 Rugby match on garrison grounds at the 
foot of the glacis 


performed by the engineers was being 
undone by the wanton depredations of 
the populace. Soon after he arrived in 
Halifax, Nelson resolved to do some- 
thing about it. 

“His colleagues first learned of his 
intentions in the spring of 1859. The 
Deputy Commissary General had rou- 
tinely called for tenders for the lease 
of War Department lands in Halifax on 
12 March. The land to be leased out 
included, of course, the Citadel glacis. 
When the tenders were opened on 15 
April, it was found that only one man had 
applied for the glacis, the same Mr. 
Thomas Neville who had rented the land 
the previous year. At this point, Colonel 
Nelson announced that he considered 
it inadvisable to lease the glacis at all. 


3 


‘A few weeks later Nelson wrote sug- 
gesting specific measures which could 
be to taken to protect the glacis. The 
letter has not been located, but it would 
seem to have suggested fairly drastic 
measures to uphold the rights of the 
military. It brought a withering reply from 
Major General Charles Trollope, the 
local commanding officer: 

‘The Major General Commanding does 
not feel disposed upon his own authority 
to meet the Citizens of Halifax with a 
Military array to prevent them from 
trespassing on the Glacis of the Citadel 
for the purpose of walking about, or 
obtaining a view of the Harbour and 
Surrounding country.’ 

“The remainder of the general’s letter 
displayed commendable common sense. 


{bate 


Trollope promised to forward Nelson’s 
complaint to the Secretary of State for 
War and suggested a practical way in 
which cattle could be kept from trespas- 
sing. He gave it as his opinion that ‘the 
posts and ropes erected at the angles 
of the ditch were calculated to attract 
children and Idlers to the Crest of the 
Glacis’ (Nelson annotated this. ‘Not so— 
but ordered to be immediately removed 
this day’). He promised support ‘in any 
measure indispensible to prevent spe- 
cific damage’ but was ‘unwilling to enter 
into any measures which may extend 
contested points with the citizens’. 

“Surprisingly, the Secretary of State 
for War, when informed of the problem, 
dispatched detailed suggestions for 
its alleviation. These were, if anything, 
even sillier than Nelson’s. The secretary 
suggested the construction of formal 
walkways, letting the property (appar- 
ently on the theory that, if it were fenced 
for cattle, the populace would be kept 
off the glacis) and planting trees along 
the east side of the glacis. Trollope 
again defended the existing situation. 
He noted that the slopes were too steep 
to allow walks to be built, that the CRE 
had prevented the leasing of the glacis, 
and that both the walks and the planting 
of trees would interfere with the fortifi- 
cations. He hinted delicately that trees 
presented an additional problem, ‘the 
Glacis is contiguous to an extensive 
locality styled Barrack Street or Top 
Street which contains numerous houses 
the special resort of Sailors from the 
Fleet, opposite to which a plantation of 
Trees would be anything but an advan- 
tage to the Inhabitants who might be 
shocked by scenes not now under their 
observation.’ 

“Throughout the whole business, 
Trollope displayed a good deal of com- 
mon sense which, unfortunately, was 
entirely lost on Nelson’s literal mind. 
The colonel simply paid no attention to 
the general and continued to try to get 
his own way. Having failed to defeat 
Trollope by direct assault he resorted 
to all the strategems available to an 
engineer launching, a long siege. He 
sapped, mined, made surprise attacks 
and patiently waited. 


eleven 


“Nelson’s next approach was through 
the War Department’s solicitor, Mr. J.W. 
Ritchie, Nelson formally requested an 
opinion on the subject of the glacis. 
The violent exaggeration in his letter is 
typical of the man: 

‘The Glacis is legally protected from 
trespass by the post and rail fence all 
arount (sic) it but it affords no physical 
impediment to those who choose to 

get over it at any point. 

‘Such physical impediments as sub- 
stantial palisading, high walls, etc., 
would be prejudicial to the Defence and 
planting Sentries all round would be a 
heavy demand on the Garrison. 

‘If the present system of unrestricted 
trespass is permitted, where will it stop? 
Or how can it be stopped without legal 
proceedings, or point of bayonet?’ 

“All this was for the benefit of the gal- 
lery; Nelson knew that the letter would 
ultimately be forwarded to London. The 
actual question he posed was whether 
or not access to the glacis could be 
granted to the citizens ‘under such re- 
Strictions that they can be excluded 
whenever the interest of the Service 
shall require it’. 


twelve 


4 Visitors to Citadel Hill 
5 Inspection of the guard 


“Nelson was, by now in the unenviable 
position of being at loggerheads with 
the citizens, Trollope and the War De- 
partment all at once. If he went through 
the motions of besieging Trollope, it was 
to no purpose, he was himself under 
siege. 

“Surprisingly, Nelson’s letter to Trol- 
lope enclosing his correspondence with 
Ritchie was relatively restrained. The 
colonel blustered on for a few para- 
graphs, complained that Ritchie's reply 
threw ‘not one fresh ray of light on the 
subject’ and concluded with a few com- 
paratively sensible (if complicated) 
suggestions. 

‘1. To exclude the public altogether 
from the finished portions (of the glacis) 
by means of a light hurdle fencing ... 

2. To putup notices that all found 
within those fences will be certainly 
prosecuted. 

3. To put up notices that the casual 
use of the unfinished portions of the 
Glacis until further warning will be fully 
permitted, but will be withdrawn as 

the work progresses. 

4. Tolegitimise at once the very con- 
venient footpath leading across the N.E. 
of the Glacis ... by wickets, to be closed 
annually with all thoroughfare granted 
on sufferance’. 

“Trollope concurred with the last sug- 
gestion. He recommended against the 
fences suggested in the first, since they 
would lead to ‘no other effect than to 
excite boys to climb and leap on them’. 
He noted that, in his opinion, the citizens 
had done no real damage to the glacis 
and that the newly built portions could 
be easily protected, and recommended 
that glacis be leased immediately for 
sheep pasture. With the last suggestion, 
Nelson strongly disagreed. 

“Nelson resigned on 25 July 1861, 
probably because of ill-health. One 
emerges from his correspondence with 
the feeling that he may have been a 
little mad. Although he muted his com- 
plaints about trespassing after his noisy 
collision with Trollope, he apparently 


_Maintained his rigid convictions right 


to the end of his stay in Halifax. 

“In one of his letters to Mr. Ritchie, 
Nelson tried to get the solicitor to prose- 
cute the owner of a cow he had caught 
trespassing on the glacis. ‘Mr. McCully’s 
cow is an old offender’ he wrote, ‘She 
may be a good ‘fencer’ | have seena 
cow take the railing round the citadel 
at a clean bound-cleverly.’ There is 
no record of Ritchie’s reply. But then, 
what could he have said?”’ 


Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional 
Papers in Archaeology and History is 
published by the National Historic Parks 
and Sites Branch of Parks Canada. The 
series is also issued in French, as Lieux 
historiques canadiens: Cahiers d’ar- 
chéologie et d’histoire. 

Titles may be ordered through your 
local bookseller, or from: 
Printing and Publishing 
Supply and Services Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 
Canada K1A 0H4 


Bill Oliver: 
Footloose in 
the National Parks 


The unchanging appeal and enduring 
beauty of Canada’s National Parks 
highlight a new exhibition of old photo- 
graphs produced by Parks Canada. 
“Footloose in the National Parks”’ 
is an exhibition of the work of W. J. 
“Bill” Oliver, a Calgary photographer 
who died in 1954. 


1 Bill Oliver in Banff National Park, Alberta. 
2 Mt. Lefroy, Banff National Park, Alberta. 


W.J. Oliver was a very young butcher’s 
apprentice in Canterbury, England in 
1908 when he won a camera by gues- 
sing the weight of a block of coal on 
display in a drug store window. 

In 1910, Bill Oliver emigrated to 
Canada hoping to find butcher work in 
Calgary. He found instead a new career 
as a news photographer on the morning 
Albertan. 

Soon after, Oliver encountered Banff 
National Park and began a 30-year 
association with the National Parks 


1 William J. Oliver au parc national Banff 
en Alberta. 

2 Lemont Lefroy al’arriére-plan, au parc 
national Banff en Alberta. 


Branch that took him to every part of 
Canada. His pictures made Canada’s 
wilderness beauty world famous. 

He also filmed more than 50 motion 
pictures, including an enormously suc- 
cessful ‘““Grey Owl” series. 

In 1946, the magazine “Canada’s 
Weekly” said of Bill Oliver, “He climbed 
mountains, scrambled over glaciers, 
hung by the eyelashes to crags, all in 


thirteen 


3 Lakes in the Clouds—near Lake Louise, 


Banff National Park, Alberta 


4 Snowpeak Avenue, Yoho National Park, 


British Columbia 


5 Snow mushrooms, Lake Louise, Banff, 


National Park, Alberta 


search of good publicity material.”’ It 
might be added that Oliver did all this 


while carrying some 27 kg of equipment. 


The photographs in this exhibition 
have been chosen to represent the 
boundless beauty of the National Parks 
of Canada as captured and preserved 
by the camera of Bill Oliver between 
1920 and 1940. 


fourteen 


His work, according to one reviewer, 
demanded ‘“‘the effort of the big game 
hunter, the endurance of the explorer, 
the courage of the R.C.M.P., the patience 
of Job and the kindness to animals of 
St. Francis of Assisi’’. 

Many of the pictures in this exhibition 
are more than 50 years old. Their endur- 
ing freshness and drama are a tribute 
to Bill Oliver’s creative spirit. We have 


better cameras today, but not better 
photographers. 
This exhibition was produced for Parks 
Canada by Dwight Dolan, with technical 
advice and assistance from W. F. Lothian 
and Jack Holroyd. Photos were printed 
by the Canadian Government Photo 
Centre and mounted by the Canadian 
Government Expositions Centre of the 
Department of Supply and Services. 
After a preview showing in Ottawa, 
the W. J. Oliver exhibition began a cross- 
country tour at Battleford, Saskatche- 


3 Lacs enchassés dans les montagnes, 


au-dessus du lac Louise, que |’on apercoit 


en bas a gauche. Au parc Banff. 


national Yoho en Colombie-Britannique. 
5 Neige insurgée dans la région du lac 
Louise au parc Banff. 


wan in September. The Banff Centre 
and Regina were among October and 
November stops. 

The exhibition will be at the Glenbow 
Institute in Calgary during December 
and January. A Toronto showing is 
scheduled for February 1978. 


L’avenue Snowpeak (pic neigeux) au parc 


Pee Se tL ae 


ty 
¥ 


Mey 


x 
my 
& 


Inquiries about the W. J. Oliver photo 
exhibition, including requests for book- 
ings, should be addressed to the Chief, 
Parks Canada Information Division, 
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H4. 


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ans ervation™= 
anaca Spring 1978 


Cette revue parait en anglais et en 
francais. Pour la version frangaise, voir 
au verso de la publication. 


Parcs 
Canada 


Parks 
Canada 


iv 


Volume 4, No. 1, 1978 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Cana- 
dians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Table of Contents 


3 Camping in the National Parks 


7 Fundy: A Park for All Seasons 
by Mary Majka 


11. Vincent Massey: A Significant 
Canadian 


12 The Bells of Baddeck 
by P. Richard Lindo 


Note: Different pictures appear in the 
English and French versions. 


Cover: The flag ceremony at Fort Wellington, 
Prescott, Ontario. Here in November 1838, a 
small garrison defeated a force of rebel 
“patriots” and American sympathizers. 
(Photo: Steve Shaw) 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of the Hon. J. Hugh Faulkner, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1978. 

QS-000 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production: Joffre Feren 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo Credits: Camping in the National 
Parks, 2, Ted Grant; 4, Jim Foley. Fundy: A 
Park for All Seasons, 1, K. Drysdale; 2 and 8, 
Ted Grant; 4, D. Hondie. The Bells of 
Baddeck, 4, Gilbert Grosvenor. 


Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1978 
Pierre Des Marais Inc. 
Contract No. O9KT. A0767-7-1003 


An index to Volumes 1, 2 and 3 can be 
obtained by writing to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit line. 
Address inquiries to The Editor, Conservation 
Canada, Department of Indian and Northern 
Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 

K1A OH4. 


«My 


in the National 


Canada is a beautiful country and its 
national parks preserve some of our 
most beautiful areas. 

Camping in one of Canada’s national 
parks offers visitors not only the oppor- 
tunity to enjoy the great outdoors but 
also the chance to understand it. In our 
national parks visitors can breathe in the 
invigorating unspoiled air and experi- 
ence the wonders of nature. 

Our national parks have been set 
aside so that Canadians will always have 
special places of natural beauty and 
serenity that preserve the original face 
of our land. They have been dedicated 
by Parliament for the benefit, education 
and enjoyment of the people of Canada 
for all time. 

There is at least one national park in 
every province and territory, twelve in 
Western Canada, six in Central Canada, 
seven in the Atlantic provinces and three 
north of 60° in the Yukon and Northwest 
Territories. The Trans-Canada Highway 
and other major roads provide access 


four 


On the trail, Banff National Park, Alberta 
Setting up camp in Banff National Park 
Hiking alongside Bow Lake, Banff 
National Park 

4 Winter, Banff National Park 


Wr 


routes to most of Canada’s 28 national 
parks. 

Each national park offers the camper 
beautiful spots in which to pitch a tent 
Or park a recreational vehicle. Most 
national parks have at least one camp- 
ground where organized groups can 
camp together in a natural setting. In 
many parks the backpacker can trek 
into wilderness areas and enjoy primi- 
tive camping along the way. 

There are four general types of camp- 
grounds: those that can accommodate 
both tents and recreational vehicles, 
those designed strictly for tent campers, 
those that welcome organized groups 
and those that offer a primitive camping 
experience. 

Whether you are a trailer camper ora 
backpacker, a bird-watcher or mountain 
climber, there is a national park to suit 
your appetite for the great outdoors. The 
national parks offer a wide variety of 
Summer and winter recreational facil- 
ities. 


1  Surunsentier en montagne au parc 
national Banff en Alberta 

2 Oncampe au parc national Banff en 
Alberta 

3 Promeneurs au bord du lac Bow a Banff | 

4 Bien au chaud au parc national Banff 


Try swimming at the fine beaches in | 
Pacific Rim, Gros Morne, Forillon and | 
Prince Edward Island national parks or’ 
treat yourself to a dip in the mineral hot 
springs at Banff, Jasper and Kootenay 
national parks. 

Ride on horseback through the moun 
tains in Banff, Jasper, Waterton Lakes, 
Yoho, Prince Albert and Riding Moun- | 
tain national parks or explore the wilde’ 
ness areas of La Mauricie and Kejimkuji! 
by canoe. 

You will find excellent fishing at Terr: 
Nova, Fundy, Cape Breton Highlands 
and La Mauricie in the summer and ice’ 
fishing at Prince Albert and Riding 
Mountain in the winter. 

The towering snow-capped peaks in | 
Glacier, Kluane and Auyuittuq national 
parks invite the experienced mountain | 
climber, while the snowy slopes in Ban’ 
Jasper and Riding Mountain offer thril- 
ling skiing for both experts and begin- 
ners. 


f 
| 


6 five 


You can practise your golf or your 
tennis at Fundy, Jasper, Banff, Elk Island 
and Riding Mountain national parks. 
Boating is popular in many national 
parks and in some of them you can rent 
Canoes and rowboats. Every park has 
special enjoyment for the hiker, photo- 
grapher and nature lover. 

There are also many opportunities to 
experience first-hand the wonders of 
nature in the world’s most beautiful 
classroom — the great Canadian out- 
doors. Self-guiding nature trails are 
provided in many parks so that visitors 
can explore on their own by following 
signs along the route. Those who prefer, 
can share guided nature walks with park 
naturalists, or enjoy campfire chats and 


six 


5 Sur les hauteurs des Rocheuses a Banff 
6 Un oiseau des Rocheuses, le casse-noix 


5 On the way up, Banff National Park 
6 Clarke’s nutcracker (Nucifraga 
columbiana) 


américain (Nucifraga columbiana) 


film presentations. Park pamphlets de- 
scribe the wild animals and flowers that 
abound in the park. 

Parks Canada has just published a 
new guide, ‘“‘Camping in the National 
Parks of Canada’. This booklet provides 
a brief description of the recreational 
opportunities in each of the national 
parks and detailed information on the 
facilities available in each campground, 
as well as general park and travel 
information. 

If you would like a copy of ‘‘Camping 
in the National Parks’, please mail your 
request to Camping Guide, Parks Can- 
ada, Ontario K1A 0H4, Attention: Don 
Wilson. Print your name and address 
clearly and a copy will be sent to you 
free of charge. 


Fu ndy: 1 Conducted hike 1 Excursion guidée 
A Park for 
All Seasons 


by Mary Majka 


The Bay of Fundy, which separates the 
provinces of New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia, has unusual physical and histor- 
ical attractions. The bay is remarkable 
for its tremendous tides, believed to be 
the highest in the world. Spring tides 
attain a rise of from 18.3 m to 21.3 m, 
while during periods of ordinary flow, 
the tides vary in height from 12.2 m to 
iovceny 
Known to Europeans since the 16th 
century, the bay was shown on the 
Cabot map of 1544. By the end of the 
16th century, the bay was known as the 
Bay of Fundy. For many years it was 
believed that the name was derived from 
the Portuguese ‘‘fondo”’ meaning deep. 
Later research led to the opinion that 
the name was an English corruption of 
pg <a - — " peas mma, the French word ‘‘fendu’’, meaning split. 
Soi oe el ete ale ern SM i Guus An area overlooking the Bay of Fundy 
ss — ‘ , ie "a was selected in 1947 for the establish- 
ment of the first national park in New 
Brunswick. Mary Majka, a New Bruns- 
wick resident who knows and loves this 
beautiful park, has told the Fundy story 
in a book published by Brunswick Press 
of Fredericton, N.B., Fundy National 
Park, $4.95. The following extracts are 
taken from her delightful book: 


“Fundy is not large as National Parks 
go; in Canada there are many larger 
ones. Some of them offer different, some- 
times more exciting types of recreation 
or scenery. And yet, as we will try to 
discover. Fundy is a special park. 
“Fundy National Park was established 
in 1948 as a 20 km? area of forest, slop- 
ing towards the sea and deeply cut by 
river and stream valleys, including some 
of the most interesting and beautiful 
features of the Bay of Fundy. But the 
scenery and charm should not be the 
only aspect a visitor looks for, nor 
should the recreational possibilities oc- 


seven 


poo s yield their treasures of plarish 
oe nd sec 
‘covers itsel with a 


nsect larvae com- 
plete their aquatic cycles and emerge as 
dragonflies or mosquitoes. The summer 
day is long and in the evening the frogs 
call from the swamps. Or perhaps one is 
. lucky to see the majestic silhouette of a 
mae on : . moose appear at the edge of the water. 
=. “Autumn begins in September. Al- 
though the days may be warm, the tem- 
_ perature at night drops, and soon the © 
trees start to turn colour, reaching their 
peak between September 20 and Pee at 


Reh 


Nany p ople prefer this time of the 
_ year for vacationing. There is a serene 
_ and quiet atmosphere about the park _ 


d artists. 
le rivers andforthose 
who went to try their luck, there are ep 
pools along the Alma River with ae 
_ fish to be seen, if not always willing to ~* 

be caught! As the trees start to acquire 
heir brilliant. hues, mushrooms seem to. 
spring up everywhere. 
“Winter starts around the last days: of 
December, but there are many days © 
_ when snow covers the ground i in Novem- 
ber. pret remes winter | is rather Saha 


svered oe any feet of snow, and 
“ trees are all adorned with icicles. and 
- snow crystals, the weather improves’and 
_the sun shines day after day, changing 
the landscape into a winter wonderland. 
_ “Much of nature rests, hibernates and 
ring, but many animals and 
plat ntinue their activities and some 
of them thrive in this cold environment. 
- Moose and deer gather together in yards 
_sometimes numbering many individuals, 
sometimes just a few. In the park, moose 
yards are found at higher elevations 
whereas the deer move down to the 
shore where the snow is less deep and 
the climate less severe. The moose’s 
diet consists of twigs; the deer also dig 
for food under the snow. Porcupines 
climb trees and stay for days feeding on ~~... 
the inner bark. Mice feed on seeds, | < ee, 
rabbits on twigs, and the weasel, fox and . 
obcat ae smallermammals. 
birds stay in the park during Se ea 
winter ve, some even arrive from the 
cele spend the winter here. The sea- Le 
_ shore life descends tothelowerlevels 
of the shore where the water shelters 
: and protects it from frost and ice. 


_ “Many winter activities take place in 
‘the park: cross-country skiing, snow- 
shoeing, winter camping, tobogganing, 
and skating on the lakes. There are a 
growing number of winter enthusiasts 
who enjoy the snow and the beauty of 
this northern park. 


The Giant Tides of Fundy 

“One needs a long rope to tie a boat to 
the wharf in Alma. Why? Simple, the boat 
will have a long ride up or down, de- 
pending on the tide. Going to a beach? 
Do not plan a picnic too near the edge 
of the water. You might end up scram- 


bling up the rocks to escape the rising 
tide, or find that the waves have disap- 
peared a kilometre away. There are even 
roads and bridges in Albert County that 
disappear when the tide is high, and 
peninsulas that become islands. You 
ight think it a most unsettled situation. 
_ “Living at the shore of the Bay of 
Fundy or near the mouth of a creek or 
river that flows into it, one must live 
according to tides. Instead of looking 
lat a clock, one gets used to looking at 
the tide tables. A trip by boat, a swim or 
even a visit to your neighbour may not 
De possible if the tide is wrong. Tides 
are caused by the gravitational pull of 
the moon. Nowhere in the world are the 
ides higher and the influence so pro- 
round as in the Bay of Fundy. 
_ “Twice in twenty-four hours, the water 
rises and twice it recedes, a constant 
coming and going. The daily onrush of 
waters not only assaults the rocky shores 
out pushes its way into tidal rivers, re- 
ersing their flow and flooding their 
\anks. Thousands of hectares of tidal 
nud flats and marshes are covered with 
salty water for a few hours every day, 
2nabling a special world to exist. Grasses 
and other plants, fishes, insects, birds 
and mammals are closely tied to the rise 
and fall of the sea.”’ 


Vincent Massey: 
A Significant 
Canadian! 


Canada’s first native-born Governor 
General, Vincent Massey, was commem- 
orated i in a ceremony at Hart House 

A oe 


overnor Genetal: unveiled 


a national historic plaque which had 


been erected on the recommendation 


itted ecnadicn = a man who loved 


his country fiercely”. 


“As Governor General, Vincent 


Massey travelled to every part of our 


| country urging all Canadians 
ite our good fortune.” 
marking the 50th anniver- 
he Canadian Club of Montreal, 
assey said, “We have many 
om abroad and we are proud 
bag ngetish and snow them | 


He became Governor General in 1952 
and served as the Queen’s official 
representative in Canada until 1959. 

After his retirement, he directed the 
Massey Foundation and established 
Massey College, a graduate college at 
the University of Toronto. Vincent | 
Massey died December 30, 1967. 


An R.C.M.P. constable by the Vincent Massey 
memorial plaque . 


Le jour de la cérémonie, un agent de la 


& R.C. eae de la plaque oe 


The text of the national historic _ 
plaque which now stands on public om 
iS DIAY at Hart iasetewtl bl ne University ee 

)f ad: " 


eleven 


The Bells. 
of a 


by P: nee Lindo* 


z Alexendee Graham Bell arid his family 
first visited the Cape Breton town of 
- Baddeck in the summer of 1885. The 
Bells, en route to Newfoundland, made 


a stop in Cape Breton at the sugestion.—_- 


of Mrs. Bell’s father, Gardiner Greene 
Hubbard, who was acquainted with that 
part of Nova Scotia because of his 
interest in the Caledonia coal mines 

at Glace Bay. 

A few years earlier, Bell had read 
Charles Dudley Warner’s book, Baddeck 
and that Sort of Thing. He remembered 
Warner’s description of the charms of 
Baddeck and decided to see it for 
himself. He was not disappointed, for 
Warner had not overdrawn the appeal 
of the town. A few days later when the 
steamer for St. John’s ran aground 
near Portugal Cove, the Bells cancelled 
their Newfoundand trip in favour of 
a return visit to Baddeck. 

The second visit confirmed first 
impressions. “Baddeck is certainly 
possessed of a gentle, restful beauty’, 
wrote Mabel Bell, ‘‘and | think we would 


*Senior Curator, Specialist Unit 
‘ Interpretation Division 
Parks Canada. 


twelve 


be content to stay here many weeks 


_just enjoying the lights and shades 
“on all the hills and isles and lakes”. 


As for Alexander Graham Bell, the 
Bras d’Or Lakes reminded him of the 
salt lochs of his beloved Scotland and 
he felt very much at home not only 
with the scene but also with the people 
of Cape Breton, with their Scottish 
background and names reminiscent 
of the Highland Clans. 

For many years the Bells had been 
seeking a summer retreat of salt water, 


mountains and valleys and cool climate, 


far enough from fashionable centres 

to allow them to live a simple, free and 
unconventional life. Baddeck fulfilled 
all their requirements. The cool climate 
was particularly appealing to Bell, for 
he hated the summer heat of his 
Washington home. 

Returning to Baddeck in the summer 
of 1886 the Bells rented an abandoned 
four-room cottage on the outskirts 
of the town. The cottage, which they 
later bought and enlarged, fronted on 
Baddeck Bay. Across the bay several 
farms divided a headland which 
stretched approximately three kilome- 


- climbed to the top of Redhead. From | 


tres out into the blue lake. The red | 
bluffs at its top gave this jutting pean: 
sula the local name Redhead. 

In their exploratory trips about the 
countryside Bell and Mabel one day 


a little clearing at the summit they could 
see a magnificent panorama of the 

Bras d’Or Lakes. The view so fascinated | 
them that they determined to own the 
hill. 
It took Bell seven years to acquire 
all the land he needed. Renaming the | 
headland ‘“‘Beinn Bhreagh’”’,, Gaelic for | 
Beautiful Mountain, he made plans 
to erect an elaborate house on the 
property. In the meantime, he and his 
family were to spend the summers in 

the “Lodge’’, a cottage which he and his | 
secretary, Arthur W. McCurdy, designed | 

and had built in 1889. 

When the main house, Beinn Bhreagh | 
Hall, was completed in 1893 regional 
newspapers described it as one of the 
finest mansions in eastern Canada. 
In the words of one of Bell’s grand- 
daughters, Lilian Grosvenor Jones, 

f 


“the house was, and is, big and ugly in 
the flamboyant style of the eighties”’. 


1 The headland at Baddeck 


Nevertheless for. Bell — hie famil 


the house was to give long and happy. 


service. 


By the time Bell had begun to estab- = 


lish his summer home near Baddeck — 


he was already internationally recog-- 
nized, not only for his invention of the 


telephone but also for other products 
of his creative genius. As he achieved © 
financial independence, it became 
possible for him to devote his time to 
research in other fields. 

For many years Bell had had an inter- 
est in flight, or as he preferred to call 
it, aerial locomotion. At Baddeck he 
pursued this interest with characteristic 
energy, and began studying the flight 
of kites, considering this the best and 
safest approach to the problem of avia- 
tion. By 1901 he was working with a 
tetrahedrally designed kite, a design 
based on the triangular pyramid which 
gave it stability. In the following years, 
giant kites of this type were built and 
flown, 

Bell’s experimental work attracted 
to his home at Beinn Bhreagh a group 
of talented young men devoted to 
aviation. In October, 1907, at the sug- 


1 La pointe a Baddec 


gestion of Mabel Bell, he entered into 
an agreement with these men for the 
joint production of experiments on 
aerial locomotion. The organization was 
named the Aerial Experiment Associa- 


tion and its work was financed by 


Mrs. Bell. 

The Association included Bell, Glenn 
H. Curtiss, a manufacturer of motor- 
cycles and engines from Hammondsport, 
New York, F. W. (Casey) Baldwin and 
J. A. D. McCurdy, both engineering 
graduates from the University of Toronto, 
and Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge of the 
U.S. Army. 


“dn 18 << of aes at hott 


i = pantreamianort and Baddeck, the 
-- Association made important contribu- 
-tions to the development of aviation. 


By mutual agreement, each member 


~ was charged with the responsibility of 


designing and supervising the con- 
struction of a powered machine. The 
fourth machine, McCurdy’s Silver Dart, 
was built at Hammondsport and taken. 
to Baddeck. On February 23, 1909, 
McCurdy, in the Silver Dart, took off 
from the ice of Baddeck Bay and flew 
a distance of 800 m. This was the first 
airplane flight in Canada and the first © 
by a British subject anywhere in the 
British Empire. 

While experimenting with airplanes, 
Bell and his associates sought to apply 
the principles of powered flight to boats. 
Baldwin was particularly interested in 
this line of experiments. Over a number 
of years, he and Bell developed a sys- 
tem of hydrofoils which saw practical 
application in the highly successful 
HD-4, the large cigar-shaped hydrofoil 
craft which, in 1919, achieved a record 
water speed of 114.04 km/h. In the 
1950’s the Canadian Navy adopted the 
Bell-Baldwin system of hydrofoils for 


thirteen 


ow 


use in its prototype ship, the H.M.C.S. 
Bras d’Or. 

Until virtually the last days of his life 
Bell remained a man of driving energy 
and insatiable scientific curiosity. 

A single project was never enough to 
preoccupy him. While experimenting 
with flying machines or hydrofoil craft, 
he also busied himself attempting to 
develop a flock of twin-bearing sheep, 
a research project which he enthus- 
iastically maintained for almost 30 years. 
He also turned his attention to life- 
saving devices, experimenting with 
methods of recapturing water from 
human breath, and with a type of solar 
still which could provide drinking 
water aboard small boats adrift at sea. 

Of all his interests, however, the one 
that Bell himself identified as being 
closest to his heart, and certainly the 
one that ran through all his adult life, 
was his interest in improving the 
teaching of the deaf. 

Alexander Graham Bell wanted the 
deaf to be taught speech and lip 
reading, not a sign language that set 
them apart from normal persons. Helen 
Keller, whose education he helped 
direct, and his own wife Mabel, who 
had been deaf since the age of five as 
a result of an attack of scarlet fever, 
showed what could be done. 

Bell conducted extensive research 
on the heredity of deafness, published 
numerous articles on the subject and 
gave financial assistance to individuals 
and organizations devoted to the edu- 
cation of the deaf. His own organiza- 
tion, the Volta Bureau, which he formed 
with funds he received as his share 
from the sale of graphophone patents, 
continues its good work today in 
Washington, D.C., under the name 
Alexander Graham Bell Association 
for the Deaf. 

For the people of Baddeck it was a 
matter of considerable civic pride to 
have such a famous resident among 
them. They admired and respected Bell 
and, despite his tendency to be some- 
what aloof at times, felt comfortable 
in his presence. As for Mabel Bell, the 
feeling for her was one of genuine 
affection. Today, those among the resi- 
dents of Baddeck who knew her, speak 
of Mrs. Bell as a “‘very remarkable 
lady” who was in no way overshadowed 
by the greatness of her husband. 

Through her efforts the Baddeck 
Public Library was established, a Home 
and School Association was organized 
and the services of a V.O.N. nurse were 


fourteen 


2 Bell with Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan 
(centre), 1894 

Beinn Bhreagh 

Mabel and Alexander in the garden at 
Beinn Bhreagh 


Ww 


obtained. A pet project of hers, the 
Cape Breton Home Industries, provided 
opportunities for many women in that 
area to develop skills in sewing, knitting 
and lace-making. 

The fine craftsmanship which is very 
much in evidence in Cape Breton today 
is probably due in part to the work of 
her organization. But Mabel is perhaps 
best remembered for her Young Ladies’ 
Club of Baddeck, a club which she 
founded in 1891 to “‘stimulate the 
acquisition of general knowledge and 
to promote sociability among the young 
people of Baddeck’’. The club, with 
its name changed to the Alexander 


2 Bell et Helen Keller. Debout, Anne 
Sullivan. En 1894 

3 La demeure des Bell, Beinn Breagh 

4 Alexander et sa femme Mabel dans le 
jardin de Beinn Breagh 


Graham Bell Club, continues to function 


today with a full and active program. 

In 1954 the daughters of Bell, Mrs. 
Gilbert Grosvenor and Mrs. David 
Fairchild, generously donated to the 
people of Canada a priceless collection 
of artifacts, relics of experimental 
work conducted at Beinn Bhreagh, 


which reflect the extraordinary versatile | 


mind of Bell. 

The Canadian Government agreed, 
in return, to construct and maintain 
a suitable building for the extensive 
collection. The Alexander Graham Bell 
Museum, opened to the public in 1956, 
is one of the most popular National 


Historic Parks operated by Parks 
Canada. 

Over the years the Bell family and 
the National Geographic Society have 
supplemented the original donation with 
artifacts relating to Bell’s Washington 
Volta Bureau years, replicas of early 
telephone models, hundreds of historic 
photographs and the remains of the 
HD-4 hydrofoil craft. 

Recognizing the need for additional 
space to adequately display the collec- 
tion, Parks Canada began an ambitious 
expansion program at the Alexander 
Graham Bell Complex in 1975. The new 
facilities will open to the public in 
May 1978. 

Most of the space in the new display 
will contain exhibits relating to Bell’s 
Baddeck years — his sheep breeding 
experiments, his work on aerial locomo- 
tion, his marine experiments and his 
experiments for children. There will 
also be special displays on Mabel Bell 
and on Bell’s lifelong interest in the 
education of deaf-mutes. 


The last hall in the expanded Complex 
will be devoted to hydrofoil craft, in 
particular to the HD-4, and Baldwin’s 
work on hydrofoils after Bell’s death 
in 1922. Highlights of this hall will be 
the exhibit of the remains of the original 
HD-4 and a full-scale reconstruction 
of the craft. 

As a teacher, scientist and inventor, 
Alexander Graham Bell dedicated his 
life to the benefit of mankind with 
unusual success. This is the underlying 
theme of the Alexander Graham Bell 
Complex at Baddeck, Nova Scotia. 

Beinn Bhreagh Hall remains the 
private property of the Bell family and 
Parks Canada wishes to express its 
appreciation to the family for permis- 
sion to photograph the grounds and 
house. 


Centre spread: A street scene in the Fortress 
of Louisbourg National Historic Park, 

Nova Scotia (Photo: Shawn MacKenzie 

and Jeannette Hjorth-Nielsen) 


fifteen 


Parcs 
Canada 


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yall 
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IVETE TEVue parait en anglais et en 
francais. Pour la version frangaise, voir 
au verso de la publication. 


Parks 
Canada 


Parcs 
Canada 


iw 


Volume 4, No. 2, 1978 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Cana- 
dians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Table of Contents 


3 Canada’s Wild Rivers 
by Caroline Woodward 


7 The Grounds of John A.’s 
Bellevue House 


10 The True North: Who Stands 
on Guard? 
by Jim Shearon 


Cover: Bellevue House, Kingston, Ontario. 
Residence of John A. Macdonald in 1848. 
(Photo: Shawn MacKenzie) 


Centre spread: Wilberforce Falls, Bathurst 
Inlet, N.W.T., highest falls in the world north 
of the Arctic Circle. (Photo: Peter Poole) 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of Hon. J. Hugh Faulkner, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1978 

QS-7067-020-BB-A1 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production: Joffre Feren 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo Credits: Canada’s Wild Rivers, 

1, Priidu Juurand; 2, Bill Pisco; 4, Roger 
Beardmore; Bellevue House, 1 to 3, Shawn 
MacKenzie; The True North, 1, Tom 

Kovacs; 2, Peter Poole; 3, Roger Beardmore, 
4, Philip J. Holman; 5, Roger Beardmore. 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit 
line. Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of 

Indian and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 
K1A 0H4. 


©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1978 
Contract No. O9KT. A0747-8-1204 


Co 


Canada’s 
Wild Rivers: 


by Caroline Woodward 


Canada is a land of wild rivers. In the 
early days these rivers served as trading 
and transportation routes for native 


and European alike. Today, these same 


wild rivers are being rediscovered by 
growing numbers of canoeists and | 
wilderness lovers. 

Parks Canada has suinveyed wild 
rivers across the country so that modern 
explorers can be made aware of the 
rewards and hazards of wilderness 
water voyages. Rivers untamed by dams 
and unsullied by industrial pollution 
were chosen for their historical signifi- 
cance and scenic beauty. 

The survey crews monitored points 
of entry and exit, water level variations, 
river flow, portages and good camp- 
sites. They also documented sites of 
historic interest and the flora and fauna 
along the routes. 

It is dangerous to assume that 
Canada’s wild rivers are suitable for 
every adventure-seeking soul. Even 


é 


€ 


a There is a continual transition from 
_ coniferous to boreal forest, interspersed — 


the expertise and end 
_ most shed (othe i river canoeist will 

be pushed to po nite on.these power- 

ful rivers. 


- freeze-dried food and light veight camp- 
_ ing gear assists today’s “voyageurs” as 
ages, ote of aluminum: or fibre” 


& 


“is th Udine Maree Westiged 
j e mid-ni teenth ge oeng iad? 


groups rise 3 650 r m to 6 0501 m in sian 
relief above the Yukon Plateau. The 
northernmost limits of the Yukon. 

_ border the Arctic Ocean where the. 's 
-barrenlands extend tothe gravel 
beaches. i 


with stretches of grassland, alpine’. 
tundra and finally the Arctic: batren- 
lands. 2 

The floral emblem. Of the Yiikow. the: 
Bitpie fireweed, is much in evidence 


around burned-off areas and’ abandoned 
sites. Blueberries, raspberries, Labrador | 


tea and wild rose-hips are late summer. 
delights that can be‘ savoured as well as 
visually enjoyed. 

Visitors may travel to the Yukon by 
car on the Alaska Highway “fly to 
Whitehorse or take the three-day boat 
voyage from Vancouver,.B. c. to Skag- 


four 


Sieh Alaska. The boat 


~ ride on the White Pa 


_ Inside Passage an 


from Skagway to Whitehor 
incredible scenic experience. 
Arrangements can be made in White- 
horse for parties to be taken in and out 
of wild river ben float plane. wea 


being ready to do battle with mosquitoes 
of legendary size and viciousness. 

The Yukon River system has 3 520 km 
of water and is readily accessible at 
several places including Whitehorse, 
Carmacks, Marsh Lake and the aban- 
doned town-site of Minto, 

_The navigational hazards of the. 

fiver are not.So formidable as to 
deter he ever-increasing number of 
‘travel rs from canoeing, beating. or 
‘floating down this historic transportation 
route. Roads and airplanes are now the 
major. travelways of the Yukon;so — 
happily for the’ adventurous with an eye 
for the glee the river , Danks are 


Piero ehs 


sal 
8. 


a + : : e x : ee 4 p.. & 

ets : The scene changes 2 as. delantiy 

as the colour of th lay water. The* 

towering blutis, giv way!t 3 rolling hills’, 
ed basalt roek cliffs. Oppor- 
r hiking are many,ahd the 

WS Of A valleys and dis- 


5 


ergy spent on side-trips! 
elkirk, Sainte, by Baker! 


five 


Six 


1 The Little Bell River in Northern Yukon 

2 Aerial view of the Grand Canyon of the 
Stikine River in northern B.C. 

3 Rafting on the Yukon River 

4 Lining on the Mountain River, N.W.T. 


in 1848, is now abandoned except for 
an Indian caretaker. Originally a trading 
post and mission, it once boasted a 
Taylor and Drury Department Store and 
one-room school. 

A highlight of any trip down the Yukon 
River is a visit to Dawson City, strate- 
gically located where the gold-bearing 
Klondike River joins the Yukon. The 
restoration of many of its buildings has 
recaptured the colourful personality of 
Canada’s oldest city north of the sixtieth 
parallel. Robert Service’s hill-top cabin 
is open for visitors intrigued by the 
Yukon magic that inspired the famous 
northern poet. Today, Dawson City is 
part of the Klondike Gold Rush Interna- 
tional Historic Park, a co-operative 
undertaking between Canada and the 
United States. 

The Yukon River, being one of the 
least difficult rivers in the Territory to 
canoe, invites family groups. White- 
water enthusiasts who want to try the 
challenge of canoeing in remote areas 
and for whom the rigour of lining and 
hauling canoes shin-deep in icy currents 
is merely invigorating should try the Big 
Salmon, Ross or Macmillan rivers. 

Canoeing the Yukon rivers, and retra- 


1 Méandres de Ia riviére Little Bell dans 
le nord du Yukon 

2 Le grand canyon de la riviére Stikine dans 
le nord de la Colombie-Britannique 

3 En radeau sur le fleuve Yukon 

4 Halage dans des rapides de la riviére 
Mountain dans les Territoires du Nord- 
Ouest 


cing the routes of the early explorers 
and goldseekers will delight those who 
crave the adventure and solitude of 
almost untouched wilderness. 
The wild rivers of the Yukon present 
a challenge to the canoeist, but a 
greater challenge lies in preserving and 
protecting them so that future genera- 
tion too can discover the true essence 
of the Canadian North. 
If wild rivers interest you, look for Parks 
Canada’s booklets on “Wild Rivers’, 
a series of practical guides designed to 
assist modern Canadian voyageurs to 
enjoy a valuable part of their natural 
heritage. The following titles are now 
available: 
Yukon Territory, No. R62-82/1976-3 
Newfoundland and Labrador, 
No. R62-82/1977-6 
James Bay and Hudson Bay, 
No. R62-82/1977-5 
Alberta, No. R62-82/1974-2 
Saskatchewan, No. R62-82/1974-1 
Quebec North Shore, No. R62-82/1976-4 
The booklets, which cost $1.50 each 
can be ordered from: Printing and 
Publishing, Supply and Services 
Canada, Ottawa K1A 0S9, or from your 
local bookseller. 


The Grounds 


of John A.’s 


Bellevue House 


During the period from 1830 to 1845 
Kingston flourished both as a garrison 
town and as the capital of Upper and 
Lower Canada. It attracted a large con- 
tingent of builders, merchants, bankers, 
and craftsmen. A great deal of money 
was invested in business and in real 
estate. One person to capitalize and 
initially to profit from the influx of gov- 
ernment officials was Charles Hales, a 
merchant and grocer. With his newly 
made wealth he built Bellevue Terrace, 
a picturesque villa in the Italianate 
Revival Style. ves 


landlord, the house is variously known in 
Kingston as Tea Caddy Castle, Molas- 
ses Hall, and Muscovado Cottage.” 

In a later letter he refers to the house 
affectionately as Pekoe Pagoda for as 
he wrote, his wife ‘begins to feel the 
advantages of the complete quiet and 
seclusion of the house... which is 
completely surrounded with trees, and 
has a fresh breeze ever blowing on it 
from Lake Ontario’. 

As Sir John A. Macdonald’s letters 
imply the ‘‘Eyetalian Willar’ was initially 
looked upon as somewhat of an oddity 


*Mr. Stewart is a period landscape architect 
for the Department of Indian and 
Northern Affairs. 


by John J. Stewart* 


By 1844 the capital had switched to 
Montreal and the government officials 
moved out leaving Charles Hales with 
considerable loss in his extensive real 
estate investments. Bellevue was rented 
and Hales and his family moved back 
over his grocery store. In 1848 John A. 
Macdonald, then Kingston’s M.L.A. and 
later the first Prime Minister of Canada, 
briefly took up residence at Bellevue 
Terrace with his ailing wife and infant 
son. 


reflecting the occupation of its owner. 
His descriptive names conjure up 
images of far off places and trade goods 
from the orient such as tea, spices and 
molasses. With its canopied balconies, 
trelliswork, fringed barge board towers 
and picturesque grounds Bellevue must 
have appeared as an exotic addition 
attracting considerable attention. With- 
out its bric-a-brac, Bellevue would lose 
the lightheartedness and playfulness 
which had made it unique in Kingston. 
Bellevue Terrace was always intended 
as a gentleman’s villa. It had the re- 
laxed setting of a retreat and enough 
property for a kitchen garden to supply 
the needs of the family. It was never 
intended as a farm. A description of the 


John A. Macdonald in a letter to his 
sister, Margaret Greene, described his 
new home and its owner. 

“I have taken a cottage or rather, | beg 
its pardon a Villa near Harpers Cottage 
to which we remove /sa, the baby and | 
on Saturday. It is alarge roomy house 
where | hope to see you and Jane next 
spring. The house was built for a retired 
grocer who was resolved to have an 
‘Eyetalian Willar’ and who has built the 
most fantastic concern imaginable. 
From the previous laudable tho’ rather 
prosaic pursuits (sic) of the worthy 


ee 


property in 1851 in a newspaper de- 
scribes it as “delightful, combining the 
attractions of the country and the ad- 
vantages of the city. Altogether this is a 
desirable residence for a family in easy 
circumstances’. 

It is most probable that the basic 
structure of the house was inspired from 
pattern books, These books were plen- 
tiful and popular in both the U.S.A. and 
Canada where there were more crafts- 
men builders than architects. The play- 
ful details of fringe canopied balconies, 
fretwork and finial could have been 
chosen at random and added to the 
structure almost as icing to a cake. 

Bellevue House was acquired by 
Parks Canada in 1965 in order to restore 


seven 


it to the 1848 period when Sir John A. 
Macdonald and his family lived there. 
A great deal of careful research went 
into the restoration of the house under 
the direction of R. R. Dixon. It was not 
until ten years later that a program was 
undertaken by the author to restore 
the grounds. 

As with the house, pattern books were 
probably used originally to lay out the 
grounds. Andrew Jackson Downing, 
who was the leading exponent of the 
picturesque style in America, published 
books on both architecture and gar- 
dens. In his book Landscape Gardens 
published in 1841 he illustrated houses 
containing many of the details seen at 
Bellevue. Books such as Downing’s 
may have been used to design the 
grounds which would explain why no 
documentation has been found attrib- 
uting the design to one architect. 

It is not Known when the grounds 
were laid out. Mrs. Macdonald who was 
bedridden during most of their stay at 
Bellevue writes of the pleasure she 
received from the scent of flowers drift- 
ing in her bedroom window. This sug- 
gests there were gardens by 1848. The 
restored grounds closely resemble 
the layout as illustrated on a map dated 
1869. As with the house, the grounds 
were restored in the Italianate Revival 
Style. 

The style is well suited to the sloping 
site. The grounds are terraced on two 
levels with formally laid-out alleys and 
side-paths surfaced in gravel. It is prob- 
ably as a result of the terraces that the 
name Bellevue Terrace was derived. 
Exotic as well as mature native trees 
and shrubs are dotted throughout the 
lawns greatly reducing the sense of 
formality which the path system would 
suggest. A gingerbread gazebo tucked 
off in a corner and overshadowed by a 
gigantic oak offers a quiet retreat. 

A large circular garden geometrically 
laid out in a rich floral display is the 
focal point in this area. 

The original carriage drive sweeps 
up past the house in a semi-circle. This 
year fruit trees will be planted on the 
lawn next to the drive recreating the 
orchard which once grew here. A beau- 
tiful picket fence and gates were re- 
constructed along the front property 
enclosing this area. 

The vegetable garden is located on 
the lower terrace. A close-board fence 
surrounds the area. Just outside the 
fence is the pump. Historically this was 
a communal well shared by Bellevue 


eight 


1 Tapisserie ou jardin, Londres a l’époque 
n’aurait pas mieux fait 

2 et le tabac croit toujours dans le potager 

3 le carrosse allait jusqu’a la galerie 


1 A Victorian-style carpet garden 
2 Tobacco grows in the vegetable garden 
3 A carriage drive leads to the house 


and two other properties. By midsummer 
the cold frame used in the early starting 
of vegetable seeds for transplanting 

into the garden is partially hidden by 
pumpkins and a flower with the romantic 
name of love-lies-bleeding. The long 

red feather plumes of this plant give it 
its name. 

The formality of the upper garden 
is continued in the vegetable garden. 

It is broken up into four quadrants each 
planted with various vegetables, kitchen 
herbs and small fruits. The garden was 
not only practical but was also a part 

of the landscape design. It was intended 
to be viewed from above either the 
upper terrace or the house. Rows of 
lush vegetation in varying shades of 
green through gray, ripe tomatoes, the 
feathery foliage of rows of carrots con- 
trasting the broad tobacco leaves, as 
well as several species of pumpkins and 
melons growing amongst the corn, let- 
tuce and wild chicory, suggest ordered 
chaos as they spill over on to the path 
system. 

The garden is intended to represent 
the sort of garden a well-to-do family of 
the 1850’s would keep. The garden had 
to produce not only food but also herbs, 
some cosmetics, insect repellents and 
air fresheners. By this time in a centre 
like Kingston very few medicinal plants 3 
would have been grown as these could 
be purchased locally. 

In restoring the grounds, an effort has 
been made to grow only plant varieties 
available in Kingston in the 1850s. A 
major difficulty we encountered at 
Bellevue was finding appropriate plant 
material. We knew what plants were 
grown at that time, but the original 
strains were often no longer available 
since they had been interbred. Where it 
was impossible to obtain seeds of old 
varieties, modern strains were used. 

At Bellevue the grounds not only 
provide a delightful setting for the house 
but also in themselves create a direct 
experience for the visitor illustrating the 
manner in which the persons of the 
past responded to their natural settings. 
The floral garden at Bellevue tells as 
much about John A. Macdonald’s pre- 
ferences and the attitudes of well-to-do 
people in Upper Canada as does the 
Italianate Revival Style of Bellevue 
House itself. 

Landscapes and gardens with their 
plantings and landscape structures can 


be important in interpreting an impor- 
tant part of our heritage. At Bellevue the 
interpretive maintenance program 
established by the site superintendent, 
Ed Friel, adds a great deal to a visit 
to the site. Chances are as you walk up 
the drive you will see the gardener out 
scything the lawn or weeding the vege- 
table garden. Early maintenance tools 
as well as traditional techniques of 
gardening are employed as a part of 
day to day maintenance. The present 
gardener, Russ Ferguson, is not only a 
skilled gardener, but most important 
he is sensitive to the history of the prop- 
erty. Dressed in period costume, he is 
more curator of the landscape than 
someone expected just to cut the lawn. 
In its setting, Bellevue has a definite 
feeling of the picturesque with its lofty 
location overlooking Lake Ontario, 
terraced grounds, many specimen trees 
and shrubs and elegant gardens. The 
house, set at an angle to the street to 
take best advantage of the view, forms 
the hub of a small estate. A part of 
Bellevue’s charm is its romantic, almost 
mysterious atmosphere which has been 
preserved even today though it is sur- 
rounded by the 20th century. 


~ The True North: 


by Jim Shearon*- 


ie. 


a 


sahannes 


Mr. Faulkner said: “Il hope this North- 
ern conservation strategy will include 
the setting aside of natural reserves for 
scientific and recreational purposes 
as well as the protection of critical 
habitats for fish and wildlife which are 
essential ingredients of the natural 
environment for all Canada and are crit- 
ical for the native people of the North.” 

During the coming months, Parks 
Canada officers will hold meetings in 
communities in the North to provide 
information to local residents and hear 
their comments and suggestions on 
how these wilderness areas can best be 
protected. Further meetings will take 
place after local residents have had time 
to consider the information provided to 
them and there will also be meetings in 
other parts of Canada so that all those 
who are interested in the North, who 
value a “True North, strong and free’”’, 
will have an opportunity to express 
their views. 

Persons or organizations who would 
like to receive or contribute information 
on any of these Northern Wilderness 
areas may do so by writing to Hon. Hugh 
Faulkner, Minister of Indian and North- 
ern Affairs, House of Commons, Ottawa, 
or to the Director of the National Parks 
Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, On- 
tario K1A 0H4. 

Following is a brief description of 
the six Arctic wilderness areas proposed 
by Mr. Faulkner. 


twelve 


1 Ibyuk pingo near Tuktoyaktuk 

2 Nelson Head on southern Banks Island 

3 Purple saxifrage blooms near Lake Hazen, 
Ellesmere Island 

4 Muskoxen at Eureka, N.W.T. 

5 Yelverton Pass, northern Ellesmere Island 


Greenland 


\. Arctic 


_\ Circles- 
XS oo 


a 


Wager Bay 
Wager Bay is on the northwest side of 
Hudson Bay in the Northwest Territories. 

The history of the Inuit people of 
Wager Bay is believed to date back 
more than 4 000 years. 

The area is unusual for its diversity 
of arctic land and sea mammals. The 
local caribou herd is frequently seen 
grazing the hills alongside the bay, and 
polar bears swim in its waters. The 
waters of the bay are frequented by 
the beluga whale and narwhal.. 

The reversing falls between Wager 
Bay and Ford Lake is one of only three 
such phenomena in Canada. The rever- 
sing falls and a tidal bore at the mouth 
of the bay create polynias, areas free 
from ice year-round. 


Banks Island 
Banks Island is located 483 km north- 
east of Inuvik. The proposed wilderness 
area stands at the northern end of the 
island and includes a portion of the 
Thomsen River Basin, the Musk Ox 
River, and Mercy and Castel Bays. A 
southern component featuring Nelson 
Head is being considered. 
Archaeological evidence indicates 
that the island has been intermittently 
occupied by Inuit for more than 3 000 
years. Sir William Edward Parry, in 1820, 
was the first European to sight and 
name Banks Island. 


—_ 


Le pingo Ibyuk prés de Tuktoyaktuk 

2 On dirait une sculpture, a Nelson Head, 
au sud de l’ile Banks 

3 Saxifrages a feuilles opposées prés du lac 
Hazen dans I’ile Ellesmere 

4 Boeufs musqués a Euréka dans les 
Territoires du Nord-Ouest 

5 Lecol Yelverton au nord de l’ile Ellesmere 


Most of the 4 000 to 5 000 muskoxen 
on the island are concentrated in the 
lower Thomsen River basin. 

The lower stretches of the river area 
designated Migratory Bird Sanctuary. 
The proposed wilderness area in- 

cludes three topographical units: a 
deeply dissected plateau of Devonian 
age to the east, the Thomsen River 
Valley lowlands in the centre and to the 
west a dissected upland of Cretaceous 
age. 


Bathurst Inlet 

The proposed wilderness area sur- 
rounding Bathurst Inlet in the Northwest 
Territories, is remarkable for the di- 
verse and luxuriant vegetation which 
provides habitat for barrenground car- 
ibou, muskox, Arctic fox, Arctic hare 
and abundant bird-life. 

The first European explorers found 
Bathurst Inlet inhabited by the Copper 
Eskimos, a loose association of local 
groups. Two groups Known to frequent 
the inlet in the spring were the Uming- 
maktormuit, “‘people of the muskox”’, 
and the Kilukuktormuit, ‘“‘people of Bath- 
urst Inlet”. Although there has not been 
an extensive archaeological study done 
on the Inlet, many sites and artifacts 
have been found including stone blinds, 
tent rings and fishing weirs. Banks 
Peninsula, for example, has many signs 
of more permanent human occupancy 
which can be further studied and may 
reveal the lifestyles of the original 
inhabitants. 

The inlet is a critical breeding ground 
for the peregrine falcon, a rare and 
endangered species. 

The Bathurst Caribou herd of about 
200 000 animals is the largest herd in 
Canada. 

Bathurst Inlet also offers spectacular 
scenery. Wilberforce Falls is thought 
to be the highest falls in the world north 
of the Arctic Circle. Other major water- 
falls and islands with impressive scenic 
features are located in the area. 


Northern Yukon Territory 

The proposed wilderness area in the 
northern Yukon Territory encompasses 
the entire Firth River and its watershed, 
the Babbage River, the Old Crow Flats, 
the British Mountains, the Yukon Coast, 
Herschel Island and a marine com- 
ponent in the Beaufort Sea. 

In 1976, an archaeological dig un- 
earthed what is believed to be one of the 
oldest human remains ever discovered 
in the western hemisphere, and studies 


indicate that man was in this area more 
than 30 000 years ago. 

The Old Crow Flats, a level basin 
rimmed by mountains and dotted by 
hundreds of lakes, is an important mi- 
gration route for the Porcupine herd 
of barren-ground caribou. Each spring, 
between 70 000 and 140 000 caribou 
migrate from their wintering range in 
the Yukon interior to calving areas in 
the Northern Yukon and Alaska. 

Herschel Island, the Yukon’s only 
island, is thought to have been created 
by the force of glacial ice, which 
gouged marine sediments from the sea. 

Protected by a surrounding rim of 
mountains from the ice which changed 
the topography of much of North 
America during the Ice Ages, the North- 
ern Yukon is perhaps the only area in 
Canada where arctic tundra, alpine tun- 
dra and boreal forest can be observed 
in their natural condition in the same 
location. 


Ellesmere Island 

The proposed wilderness park which 
comprises northern Ellesmere Island and 
a portion of Axel Heiberg Island, includes 
Cape Columbia (83° 07’N), Canada’s 
most northerly point of land. 

The area is characterized by three 
major physiographic units — the Grant 
Land Mountains, the Lake Hazen Pla- 
teau on Ellesmere Island and Mokka 
Fjord Uplands on Axel Heiberg Island. 

Paleo-Eskimos once followed migrat- 


thirteen 


ing herds of muskoxen from the Cana- 
dian Arctic to Greenland. Excavations 
in Peary Land in Greenland have un- 
earthed a number of Eskimo sites which 
are more than 4 000 years old. 


During the late 19th century, three ex- 
ploratory expeditions travelled through 
the area. Fort Conger, on the northeast 
coast of Ellesmere Island, a site of 
historical interest, has been included 
in the proposed wilderness park. 

Several hundred glaciers are located 
within the proposed area. Ice caps ~ 
covering the mountains in northern 
Ellesmere Island may have once 
covered the entire island. 


Despite the severe « 
are sheltered pock 


Pingos of Tuktoyaktuk 

The proposed pingo national landmark 
area is located 2 200 km northwest 

_of Edmonton, Alberta and 6 km south- 
southwest of the village of Tuktoyaktuk 
_in the Northwest Territories. 

Pingos, low hills with massive ice 


cores, protrude from the rolling, lake- 
dotted tundra of the Tuktoyaktuk Pen- 
insula. Pingos form in lake beds in 


_ areas of permafrost and grow to matur- 


ity over several thousands of years. 
They eventually decay when pingo sum- 
mits are ruptured and their ice core 
melts due to exposure to the sun. 


Some pingos are dome shaped, others 
are flat topped or elongated. Some 
resemble volcanoes, complete with 
craters and water lakes. There are 
more than 1 000 in the Canadian North, 
almost entirely in the Tuktoyaktuk 
Peninsula. 


PSOE a 


Parks Parcs ‘ 
Canada Canada 


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Should Conservation Canada Continue? 


Does Conservation Canada make 
Canadians more aware of their natural 
and cultural heritage: what do you 


Please fill out the questionnaire in the 
middle of this issue and let us know 


think? 


ur opinion. 


Fa) Parks Parcs 
we Canada Canada 


Volume 4, No. 3, 1978 


Table of Contents 


3 Listen to the Wild: Kluane National 
Park 


8 Mona’s Fire Dress 
by Sid Marty 


11 Preserving Our Heritage 
by Peter H. Bennett 


13 Drawing on History 
by James D. Georgiles 


Cover: Slim River Valley with Sheep Moun- 
tain on right, Kluane National Park (Photo: 
Gerry Lee) 

French cover: Klukshu River, Kluane 

National Park (Crombie McNeill) 

Centre spread: The locks at Jones Falls on the 
Rideau Waterway, Ontario (Bill Kettlewell) 


Published by Parks Canada under authority 
of Hon. J. Hugh Faulkner, 

Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs 
Ottawa, 1978 

QS-7067-030-BB-A1 


Editor: James D. Georgiles 

Production Joffre Feren 

Design: Eiko Emori 

Photo credits: Listen to the Wild: Kluane 
National Park, 1 & 2, Chris George, 5, Gerry 
Lee; Mona’s Fire Dress, Ted Grant; Preserv- 
ing our Heritage, 2, Birgitta Wallace; 
Drawing on History, drawings by Bill 
Kettlewell 


Articles may be reproduced with a credit 
line. Address inquiries to The Editor, 
Conservation Canada, Department of 

Indian and Northern Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario 
K1A 0H4. 


©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1978 


Contract No. O9KT. A0747-8-1204 


Cette revue parait en anglais et en 
francais. Pour la version frangaise, voir 
au verso de la publication. 


“In a world of constant change, Parks 
Canada exists to preserve the natural 
heritage of this country, to help Cana- 
dians everywhere to enjoy the vast 
beauty of our land and the great achieve- 
ments of its founders.” 


Ph 


ss alt 


es 


® the 


Until very recently, the story of Kluane 
has not been the story of man. It has 
been the story of mountains, icefields, 
glacier-fed lakes and wide valleys; of 
boreal forests, tundra and spreading 
patchworks of alpine wildflowers; of 
roaming Dall sheep, moose and grizzly 
bears. 

t was to preserve the unique and 
wilc beauty of Kluane that a national 
park was established in 1974, Kluane 


National Park covers 22 015 km2 in the 


southwest corner of the Yukon, bor- 
dered on the west by Alaska, and on the 
south by British Columbia. It lies 160 km 
northwest of Whitehorse along the 
Alaska Highway that skirts the eastern 
fringe of the park. 

Those who travel the Alaska Highway 
will enjoy only a glimpse of all that the 
park’s boundaries embrace. To the west 
of the road loom the St. Elias Mountains, 
rugged peaks that make the Rockies 
look humble by comparison. 


four 


On aclear day, Mount Logan (Can- 


ada’s highest summit at 5 947 m) is 
visible, surrounded by other mountains 


of almost equal stature. As the Alaska 
Highway winds around the foot of Sheep 
Mountain its travellers may spot Dall 
sheep grazing on the lower slopes. 


It is within the park itself that Kluane’s 


wilderness unfolds in all its beauty. Two 
major mountain chains dominate the 
land: near the Alaska Highway, the 
Kluane Mountains form an unbroken 
chain of peaks approximately 2 400 m 
high; towering above the Kluanes, on 
the Alaska-Yukon border, is the St. Elias 
or Icefield Range, the highest mountains 
in all of Canada. Across the summit 
sleeps the largest icefield in the world 
outside of polar regions. In fact, two- 
thirds of the Kluane landscape lies 
under ice. 

Between the two mountain ranges lies 
a narrow trough of valleys and plateaux 
known as the Duke Depression. These 
plateaux, and the icefields of St. Elias, 
are drained by many rivers that cut 
through the Kluane Range. 

Glacier-spawned rivers and cold 
mountain lakes pattern the valley floors. 


Visitors to the area can see remnants 
of the great ice sheets of the Pleisto- 
cene area in the geological features 
around them. It was during this period 
that glaciers advanced and retreated, 
shaping the beauty of the mountains and 
leaving behind them other landforms 
such as cirques and eskers, outwash 
plains, ancient beaches and terraces. 

The scenery of Kluane is impressive, 
but hardly barren. Hundreds of varieties 
of shrubs and wildflowers can be found 
in the park. Vegetation ranges from 
forest to tundra; there are swamps, and 
also sand dunes. 


Three different kinds of growth exist 
in the Kluane region: boreal forest, sub- 
alpine vegetation, and alpine-arctic 
tundra. Boreal forests are found up to 
altitudes approaching 1 200 m. Above 
this elevation are smaller shrubs, birch 
and willow growing from a mat of 
plants and flowers. Higher still, above 
1 500 m, is the true tundra, where growth 
rarely exceeds 30 cm. 

Along the willowed streams, in forest 
and in tundra, are found the creatures 
of the Yukon. Members of the largest 
subspecies of moose in North America 
inhabit the forests and river valleys. 
Dall sheep graze, white against the tun- 
dra, and mountain goats clamber the 
rocky slopes above the timberline. 
Mountain caribou and mule deer have 
also been seen within the park. 

Along the many rivers and streams 
are the dens of wolves, coyotes and 
foxes. Grizzlies forage for food, espe- 
cially in the river valleys, and black 
bears, Alaska brown bears, wolverines 
and lynxes roam the area. Smaller 
mammals, such as snowshoe hares and 
Arctic ground squirrels, support the 
carnivore population. 

Kluane is also a land of warblers, 
eagles and falcons. The nests and songs 
of over 170 species of birds have been 
identified in the park to date. Willow- 
and rock-ptarmigans live on the tundra 
slopes. The forests have their thrushes, 
the valleys their magpies. 

A description of Kluane is a picture 
of all that is rugged, wild and beautiful. 
For many thousands of years, Kluane 
has been mastered only by the forces 
that have created its mountains and 
valleys. Its creatures have lived undis- 
turbed, bypassed by the history of man. 

It may seem a strange truth that 
Kluane needs protection, difficult to 
realize that its destruction is remotely 
possible. Mining roads tell another 
story, bulldozer tracks have already left 
behind deep erosion gullies and in the 
fragile Arctic landscapes the impact of 
man is not easily erased. 


1 Steele Glacier 

2 Iceberg, Lowell Glacier 
3 Lichen on rock 

4 Ground squirrels 


Trees take a long time to grow in 
Kluane. Growing seasons are short, and 
destroyed vegetation leaves the soil 
wide open to erosion and the destruc- 
tion of wildlife habitats. 

These are some of the facts that man 
has ignored in his recent explorations 
for gold and copper in the Kluane area. 
The scars cannot be healed, but as a 
national park, Kluane is protected, its 
incredible beauty preserved for Cana- 
dians of today and tomorrow. 

What Kluane offers to those who 
travel there is an unsurpassed wilder- 
ness experience. For the adventurous, 
the most challenging mountain climbing 
in Canada can be found in the St. Elias 
or Icefield Range. International attention 
was given to 250 climbers who took part 
in the 1967 Yukon Alpine Centennial 
expedition, after Hannibal, one of the 
largest mountaineering expeditions 
in world history. 

The Icefield Range offers scientific 
challenge as well. Over the past few 
years, ongoing investigations by gla- 
ciologists, climatologists, biologists and 
hydrologists have studied such phe- 
nomena as the influence of glaciers on 
weather, and the adaptations of small 
mammals to arctic environments. 


1 Le glacier Steele dans le parc national 
Kluane 

2 Iceberg prés du glacier Lowell 

3 Lichen accroché a une pierre 

4 Ecureuils spermophiles de Richardson 


Studies of grizzly bears and Dall sheep 
in their natural environment have 
opened up new prospects for wildlife 
interpretation. 

Kluane is not only for travellers daring 
enough to brave the mountain peaks, 
or for those with scentific interest or 
expertise. The park is remote, but can 
be reached via the Haines Road and 
the Alaska Highway. 

There is wilderness camping and pic- 
nicking at Kathleen Lake, just off Haines 
Road, and increasing numbers of peo- 
ple are visiting this southwestern and 
most accessible region of Kluane. In the 
same area, fishermen test the icy waters 
at Mush, Bates, Kathleen and Sockeye 
lakes. Old mining roads beckon hikers 
into the back country. The high density 
of wildlife in the wide valleys assures 
all travellers a glimpse of the various 


five 


lodge in the Alder Creek marshes, 5 Hutte de castor !a ot le ruisseau Alder 
Lake devient le lac Mush 


creatures of the Yukon: the many faces 
of Kluane give nature photographers 
a chance to capture her moods. 

Slowly, Kluane’s story is unfolding 
to man. Her secrets are being whispered 
to those who care enough to listen. 
Technology, inevitably, has left its mark 
on the landscape. But those scars are 
few, and now forever halted. As an 
tional park, the land of Kluane stands 
like a gem in the western corner of 
Canada. 


AL RPP ob 


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SPA C cdeteenlpngirian Se 


Mona’s 
Fire Dress 


by Sid Marty 


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| 


Sid Marty, a warden at Banff National 


Park, took eight months leave of absence 


to write a book about the National Park 
Warden Service as seen through the 
experiences of one warden and his 
colleagues. 

Mona’s Fire Dress, an anecdote from 
Men for the Mountains by Sid Marty, 
is reprinted by permission of the Cana- 
dian Publishers, McClelland and 
Stewart, Limited, Toronto. 

“The old-time wardens of the mountain 
parks were a breed apart. Civilization 
had driven them into the sanctity of the 
mountains as it had done some years 
earlier the buffalo, the grizzly bear, the 
wapiti, and the wolf, and the mountains 
were the last stronghold of men like Bill 
Peyto, who once shot a grizzly through 
the eye with a single bullet from a .22 
calibre rifle, men like Frank Wells and 
Frank Bryant, who had curled up in the 
snow like wolves all night for the chance 
to catch poachers and then chased 
them for twenty miles on snowshoes, 
finally running them down. They were 
jealously possessive of their lonely 
districts and, if they saw more than one 
person during the course of a winter’s 
travel, they’d complain about ‘too many 
goddam people spoilin the peace and 
quiet.’. 

“Of necessity the women who married 
these men were as strong-willed and 
self-reliant as their husbands. In addi- 
tion to keeping house in the bush, such 
women were expected to lend a hand 
on the trail with packing the horses or 
fixing phone line. In later years, as the 
number of people travelling in the back- 
country gradually increased, the war- 
den’s wife acted on his behalf when he 
was absent, by selling fishing licences, 
giving information, registering climbers, 
and manning telephone and radio links 
to town in cases of emergency. She 
received official recognition from the 
parks branch, and no pay. In effect, the 
government gained two employees for 
the price of one. A married warden 
could travel more freely and efficiently 
in the bush with his wife ‘minding the 


store’ in a headquarter’s cabin. Obvious- 


ly, such a woman required considerable 
patience, and most important when 
dealing with the public, a sense of 
humour. 


Sundance Range, Banff National Park 


“We stopped to say goodbye to one 
of our neighbours at Pocahontas, an 
old-time mountain woman who took the 
life of a warden’s wife in her stride. 
Mona Matheson is known to some of the 
natives around Jasper as ‘one of the 
greatest gals who ever laced on boots.’ 
She lives in a cabin near the Yellow- 
head Highway in a clearing of pine and 
aspen forest with a commanding out- 
look toward the mountains she has 
known for most of her life. Though they 
have dominated her existence for over 
50 years, they have never dominated 
her spirit. Having outlived her husband, 
Charlie, she stays on in their cabin 
alone. 

“Mona met us at the door and invited 
us in for tea. It would be the last chance 
we would have to talk with her for 
several months. She’s a slender, grey- 
haired woman of medium height with 
a pert, pugnacious nose, and she moves 
with an ease and lightness that is at 
odds with her age. 

“Mona poured cupfuls of tea, the 
drink that serves as a conversational 
lubricant in the mountains. 

“Myrna was full of excitement about 
our move to the Tonquin Valley, and 
Mona told her not to listen to my objec- 
tions because she herself had raised 
a child in the Warden Service. That had 
been in the days before helicopters, 
when the hospital was many days away, 
and a mother had to be both nurse and 
doctor to her children in cases of 
emergency. 

“| mentioned Charlie and at once 
her expression changed, her eyes look- 
ing inward on a private pain — but 
only briefly. 

“““Charlie.’ She said the name softly, 
with a depth of feeling that made clear 
how great the loss was. She had been 
prepared for his death, though, because 
she had nursed him through several 
years of illness. 

“They had met at Medicine Lake in 
Jasper Park, where Mona and her sister, 
Agnes, worked as cooks in a trail-ride 
camp for Fred Brewster, a Jasper out- 
fitter. The wardens used to drop in for 
coffee on their patrols to Maligne Lake 
or the Rocky River. There was a stack 
of well-worn magazines in the tent for 
the dudes to read and the men would 
leaf through these at times, waiting for 
the coffee to boil, pretending they were 
reading. Mona noticed that Charlie 
was the only warden who held his mag- 


Le chainon Sundance dans le parc national 
Banff 


azine right side up. It seems the others 
were just using it as a lecher’s screen 
while they ogled the young cooks. 

“We didn’t like the way they looked 
at us,’ she said, and we laughed with 
her. 

‘Mona soon decided that Charlie 
would make a good partner although 
Charlie, 16 years her senior, seemed 
set in his bachelor ways and would be a 
difficult man to convert. But Mona was 
determined. She once helped him jingle 
his ponies at 4:00 in the morning when 
they pulled out on him at Jacques Lake. 
She walked and ran nine miles in thin 
running shoes to help round them up, 
chasing after the faint tinkle of the lead 
mare’s bell in the timber. Her feet had 
been slightly frostbitten in the process 
but Charlie, though sympathetic, was 
not entirely convinced about matrimony. 

“While he was making up his mind, 
Mona and her sister talked Fred 
Brewster into hiring them as horse 
guides. They had picked up skills of 
that trade by watching the cowboys 
working around camp and practising 
what they learned on their days off. 
After a brief confrontation with the 
Chief Warden and Park Superintendent, 
who were alarmed at the idea of women 
doing what had always been a man’s 
job, Mona and Agnes got their licences 
and became the first female guides in 
Jasper Park. 

“1 wonder why more women didn’t 
apply for those jobs,’ said Myrna. 

“Mona thought for a minute. ‘I don’t 
really know. Maybe they were afraid 
to try. Nowadays it’s different so I’m 
told.’ 

“In some ways,’ said Myrna, with a 
smile, ‘but in lots of ways it’s still the 
same.’ 


nine 


“Well, you see, I’ve never been afraid 
of anything. | don’t know why, but it’s 
true. Guiding turned out to be a lot of 
trouble and hard work. But for me, it was 
worth it. Just to know | could do 
the job.’ 

“The sisters were just Supposed to 
guide dudes on backcountry horse trips 
and Brewster was to provide them with 
men to do the packing and horse wran- 
gling. For some reason, these men 
never showed up. Mona never said why, 
but knowing a bit about cowboys, | 
wonder whether there wasn’t a bit of 
male conspiracy there, to test the sisters 
by seeing if they could do all the work 
involved, not just the horseback riding. 
it was a man-size task since each had 
to de the packing and wrangling as well 
as guiding for two outfits, totalling 
35 head of horses. They were up each 
day before 4:00 a.m. to catch, feed, 
saddle and doctor their animals. They 
had to pack all the food and equipment 
for the dudes as well, which included 
everything from thundermugs to out- 
board engines. They saw each other oc- 
casionally in camp that summer, the 
rest of the time they worked separately, 
guiding or packing. 

“Mona, a former cook, slaved away 
the long hours in her exalted position as 
head guide, while the new camp cook 
sat on a log and watched with interest. 
Holding a heavy pack box in her arms, 
the diminutive guide had to stand ona 
stump to reach the back of a tall horse. 
She was able to lift everything but the 
outboard engines needed for fishing at 
Maligne Lake. The motors weighed 
200 Ib but Mona’s cook, a big strapping 
man, used to lift them up onto the horse 
for her with ease. 


ten 


“‘Teamwork,’ said Myrna, giving me 
a significant glance. 

“‘That’s right,’ said Mona. ‘As long 
as he could lift them, | could get them 
tied on, and as long as it was tied on 
good, the horse would carry it.’ 

“| glanced at Mona in covert admir- 
ation. The key to the horse business has 
always been the skill of the handler, 
not his or her strength. Still, as a large 
mesomorph, who once had my hands 
full just dealing with two horses, | was 
feeling slightly overwhelmed as Mona 
modestly described how she packed 
from 10 to 15 head at a time. 

“Charlie too had been impressed, so 
they were finally married. 

“Mona’s skill with the diamond hitch 
came in a handy on many occasions, 
but none so dramatically as during the 
dry, hot summer of 1935. That year 
she and Charlie were stationed at Ma- 
ligne Lake, 32 miles southeast of Jasper 
townsite. ' 

“We had gone up to the narrows of 
the lake with our boat one Sunday. 
About noon, here comes Harry Phillips 
from the camp at the north end, with 
two kickers (outboard motors) on his 
boat, going like blazes. He told us a fire 
had broken out on the Horseshoe 
Bend.’ 

“Horseshoe Bend is on the Maligne 
River, between Maligne Lake and the 
Athabasca River, a good 15 miles from 
the narrows, 10 by boat and five by 
horse. They went down the lake as fast 
as they could. Charlie took some tools 
and two horses and galloped off down 
the trail. In an hour he was scouting the 


fire’s perimeter and he saw that he 
couldn’t contain it without help. He had 
his forestry fieldset with him, so he 
climbed a tree to the phone wire, 
hooked in his set, and rang up Jasper. 

“The Administration Building was in 
an uproar. Sixteen fires had broken out 
in the park that day and all available men 
were already committed. The Chief War- 
den told him to hang on, that he would 
send him a crew the next day. Charlie 
fought the fire all day, and late in the 
afternoon, worn out, he rang up Mona 
and asked her to bring him his outfit 
with tents, teepee, blankets, and enough 
food to last 20 men for three days. 
Alone, with the fire building up arround 
him, Charlie was lucky to be married 
to a horsewoman like Mona who could 
look after this chore without his riding 
back to help her. 

“The horses were pastured in the 
Opal Hills, a high meadowland above 
Maligne Lake, in the shadow of the 
9,000 foot Leah Peak. Mona moved as 
fast as she could, but it was 7:00 p.m. 
before they were in the corral and she 
could start saddling up. It took a while 
to gather up all the equipment and it was 
hard work packing the heavy teepee 
cloth, the bulky crew tents, the boxes of 
canned goods, wool blankets, and fire- 
fighting tools. The job had to be done 
carefully. It’s dangerous to have to load 
slip on the trail, especially in the dark. 
Mona worked on into the night by lan- 
tern light, finally topping off the packs 
with some empty 25 Ib lard pails, which 
would be cooking pots for the big crew. 

“Late that night she took the string 
out of the yard, heading down the 
Maligne River, which led her like a 
starry carpet through the darkness. 

She gave the mare its head and kept 
hers down out of the way of the low 
branches that swept over the trail. 

Just before dawn they rode out into a 
little meadow and, suddenly, there was 
a rush of heat rising from the ground. 
A lake of fire stretched out before her, 
no flames, just the embers scattered 
like fallen stars along the earth. There 
was a clink of metal and a shadow 
drifted across the red coals, little arrows 
of flame fanned in its wake. 

“Looks like hell, don’t it?’ cracked 
Charlie, adding, ‘Thanks, Mona.’ 

“They started setting up camp at 
dawn. The crew came in by boat from 
the head of Medicine Lake early that 
morning and Charlie shook his head 
when he saw them. They were boys, the 


oldest being about seventeen. Charlie 
asked Mona if she would stay and cook, 
since the administration wasn’t sup- 
plying acamp cook. Mona took the job. 

““‘Nlow we had no cook tent,’ she told 
us, ‘and we had no stove either. For 
a table, we used a pack mantle spread 
out on the ground. | cooked everything 
in those 25 Ib lard pails hung over an 
open fire. What a job! There were three 
shifts of fire-fighters to be fed three 
times a day and only one cook. That fire 
burned a whole month. It went right 
over the top of a mountain and down 
into some blind hole.’ 

“As she talked, | pictured the camp, 
the dirty, exhausted boys lying on the 
ground, the blackened pots smoking 
over the fire, and the bulldog flies and 
mosquitoes clumped in the air, living 
clouds of torture. | pictured Mona rolling 
out of her blanket in the teepee before 
dawn to start the breakfast fire and 
working late into the evening, the smoke 
of 30 days’ work stinging in her eyes. 

“What did they pay you for that, 
Mona?’ | asked. 

““Payl’ she exclaimed. ‘Ha! That’s 
quite a joke. Oh, the fire-fighters got 
paid, of course. Charlie got his regular 
wages, | think $130 a month. No over- 
time either. They hadn’t invented that 
yet. He had to stay on that fire 24 hours 
a day, until it was dead out.’ 

“Yes, but what about you?’ Myrna 
asked. ‘Didn’t you get paid at all?’ 

“Well, they didn’t quite know what 
to do with me. | was the warden’s wife, 
you see. | guess they figured it wouldn't 
look good, putting me on payroll. 
People would talk. In the end, they de- 
cided | should get something, so they 
gave me a cheque — for five dollars.’ 

“‘That’s terrible,’ Myrna said, 
stunned. | sat back in my chair, shaking 
my head. 

“It was about what I’d expected, and 
anyway, | was doing it for Charlie, not 
the service. Charlie and |, we shared 
everything, including the hardships. It 
was no picnic for him either, at times, 
but it brought us closer together. | have 
no regrets, though it was kind of hell 
at times.’ 


“There had been no trace of bitter- 
ness in Mona’s voice as she told the 
story, only a kind of ironic amusement 
at the memory. 

“‘! remember | bought a dress with 


the five dollars. | called it my fire dress. 


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Setting the mood for these historic 
accounts are 22 pen and ink sketches 
by Canadian artist C. W. (Bill) Kettle- 


Some of the sketches 
Falls on the Rideau Waterway, Fort 


well. These illustrations form a backdrop 
to our cultural heritage and Bill Kettle- 
well has applied his intense love of 


Canadian history to his works. 


places and 


the agency responsible 


Parks Canada, 
for these places of national significance, 


has published a new guide to aid Cana- 


dians and others interested in our 


Canada’s national historic parks and 
cultural heritage. 


sites commemorate people 
events of major significance in the his- 


torical development of our country. 


Bill Kettlewell 


Now 63 year. 


such as Jones 


young, 


S 
retirement in Toronto with 


the former Elizabeth Wilmot. 


Mrs. Kettlewell shares Bill’s interest in 


lives in semi 
his wife, 


location, others were executed from 


Wellington at Prescott and Bellevue 
photographs. 


House in Kingston were drawn on 


Historic, a compact 48-page booklet, 
contains brief accounts of 56 historic 
parks and sites where Canadians can 
experience their cultural heritage 


d 
Parks | 


Canada, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OH4. 


J 


Copies of Historic can be obtaine 


history and is well-known as an author 
free by writing to Historic Guide 


and railway historian. 


Well known for his historic drawings, 
Bill Kettlewell has illustrated many 
publications produced by the Province 
of Ontario. Bill’s active interest in our 

After history, Bill Kettlewell’s other 
love is horses and until a year ago he 


cultural heritage received official 
pointed to the Advisory Council of the 


recognition when he was recently ap- 
Ontario Heritage Foundation. 


lived in the small Ontario community of 


Milford where he raised, rode and 


painted them. 


From the remains of a Viking Settle- 
ment at L’Anse aux Meadows and the 
inventions of Alexander Bell, to the now 
silent guns of Fort Rodd Hill, each of 
the places listed in the guide tells a 


line drawings and vignettes which cap- 
rich story of Canada’s past. 


ture the essence of the park or site 


first-hand. The text is illustrated with 
commemorated. 


Although widely known for his paint- 
ings of horses — he has painted many 


thirteen 


4 Fort Langley National Historic Park, British 5 Interior of Fort Wellington National Historic 


th anu ro Columbia. A Hudson’s Bay Company post, Park, Prescott, Ontario. Garrison of the 
Fe ologi Fort Langley prospered in the 1850’s when Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment from 1838 
t all British route to the until 1870, the fort became a national 


\tually becoming the supply historic park in 1923. 
Ria 


wa ims 
pot for inland posts. Blacksmiths and 
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were made for packing salmon. 


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1 Al’Anse aux Meadows, a Terre-Neuve, 
sous des tertres envahis par l’herbe, des 
archéologues ont découvert les seuls 
vestiges en Amérique du Nord du passage 
et du sejour des Vikings dont on ait pu 
garantir l’authenticité. On a mis au jour 
les restes de six maisons, d’une forge, d’un 
sauna et de fosses a cuisson. 


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en médecine, en aérona 


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