Skip to main content

Full text of "Responsive Documents"

See other formats

DOCID:  4046925 


A  Guide  To  interne*  fteseqrcb 

The  opinions  expressed  in  this  article  are 
:hose  of  the  author(s)  and  do  not  represent 
:he  official  opinion  of  NSA/CSS.  , 

Approved  for  Release  by  NSA  on 
34-19-2013.  FOIA  Case  #70381 


DOCID:  4046925 


(b) (3) -P.L.  86-36 

Untangling  the  Web:  An  Introduction  to  Internet  Research 
bvl  L  Center  for  Digital  Content 

Last  Updated:  February  28,  2007 
Cover  Design  by|  | 


DOCID:  4046925 


This  product  has  been  produced  for  official  uoo  only.  Thio  produot  io 
not  approved  for  public  release.  The  information  contained  heroin  io 
for  the  exclusive  U3C  of  the  original  recipient  and  i3  not  for  further 
distribution  outside  the  recipient's  agency  or  organization.  The 
original  rooipiont  may  make  copico  for  distribution  only  within  the 
recipient's  agency  or  organization- 
Ultimate  responsibility  for  the  protection  of  this  product  from  public 
disclosure  rooidoo  with  the  uoor,  with  ocvorc  penalties  for  non 

For  additional  information,  please  contact: 

9800  Savage  Road 
Suite  6324 

Fort  Meade,  MD  20755-6324 

(b) (3) -P.L.  86-36 

DOCID:  4046925 


This  Page  Intentionally  Left  Blank 

UNCLASsiRED/yron  ornciAL  uoc  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


Table  of  Contents 

Preface:  The  Clew  to  the  Labyrinth  1 

"Every  Angle  of  the  Universe"  5 

What  Will  I  Learn?  6 

Why  Do  I  Need  Help?  7 

What's  New  This  Year  8 

Introduction  to  Searching  1 1 

Search  Fundamentals  11 

The  Past,  Present,  and  Future  of  Search  12 

Understanding  Search  Engines  18 

Search  Engine  Basics  20 

A  Word  About  Browsers:  Internet  Explorer  and  Mozilla  Firefox  22 

The  Great  Internet  Search-Offs  26 

Types  of  Search  Tools  28 

Web  Directories/Subject  Guides/Portals  28 

Metasearch  Sites  30 

Megasearch  Sites  35 

Types  of  Searches  and  the  Best  Ways  to  Handle  Them  36 

Search  Savvy — Mastering  the  Art  of  Search  43 

Google  47 

Google  Hacks  73 

Yahoo  Search  89 

Yahoo  Hacks  113 

Windows  Live  Search  1 1 8 

Gigablast  141 


DOCID:  4046925 


Exalead  146 

Ask  161 

More  Help:  Internet  Guides  and  Tutorials  173 

Specialized  Search  Tools  &  Techniques  175 

"Google  Hacking"  175 

Custom  Search  Engines  1 86 

Fagan  Finder  193 

Wikipedia  202 

Maps  and  Mapping  215 

Uncovering  the  "Invisible"  Internet  .239 

A9  Search  239 

Book  Search  245  260 

OAlster  264 

The  Internet  Archive  &  the  Wayback  Machine  .267 

Other  Invisible  Web  Resources  273 

Casting  a  Wider  Net — International  Search,  Language  Tools  277 

International  Search  277 

Online  Dictionaries  and  Translators  288 

You  Gotta  Know  When  to  Fold  'Em  304 

Beyond  Search  Engines — Specialized  Research  Tools  306 

Email  Lookups  308 

Telephone  and  FAX  Directories  311 

Online  Videos  and  Video  Search  317 

Online  Audio,  Podcasts,  and  Audio  Search  344 

UNCi_ASSiFiEP//rorc  ornciAL  ugc  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


Special  Topics— News,  Blogs,  &  Technology  Search  349 

Newsgroups,  Forums,  &  Mailing  Lists  349 

Weblogs  &  RSS  Feeds  356 

General  News  Sources  361 

News  Sites  &  Search  Engines  362 

Technology  News  Sources  377 

Telecommunications  on  the  Web  379 

Research  How-Tos  384 

Finding  People  384 

Using  the  Internet  to  Research  Companies  400 

How  to  Research  a  Specific  Country  41 1 

Finding  Political  Sites  on  the  Web  419 

Research  Round-up:  The  Best  Research  Tips  &  Techniques  424 

Researching  &  Understanding  the  Internet  433 

A  Plain  English  Guide  to  Internetworking  433 

Researching  Internet  Statistics  441 

Regional  Registries  and  NICs  443 

Domain  Name  Registries  449 

Understanding  Domain  Name  and  Whois  Lookup  Tools  451 

World  Network  Whois  Databases:  AfriNIC,  APNIC,  ARIN,  LACNIC,  &  RIPE ..  455 

Global  Network  Whois  Search  Tools  456 

Domain  Name  Whois  Lookups  458 

Internet  Toolkits  471 

How  to  Research  a  Domain  Name  or  IP  Address  474 

Traceroute  483 


DOCID:  4046925 


Geolocating  Internet  Addresses  497 

Finding  ISPs  &  Internet  Access  Points  503 

Cybergeography,  Topology,  and  Infrastructure  511 

Internet  Privacy  and  Security — Making  Yourself  Less  Vulnerable  in  a 
Dangerous  World  514 

Basics  for  Improving  Your  Internet  Privacy  and  Security  518 

Increase  Your  Knowledge  521 

Browser  Concerns  525 

Email  Concerns  543 

Microsoft  and  Windows  Concerns  .560 

Handle  with  Care:  More  Privacy  and  Security  Concerns  578 

General  Security  &  Privacy  Resources  605 

Conclusion  606 

Web  Sites  by  Type  607 



DOCID:  4046925 


Preface:  The  Clew  to  the  Labyrinth 

One  of  the  most  famous  stories  about  libraries  tells  of  the  tenth  century  Grand  Vizier 
of  Persia,  Abdul  Kassem  Ismael  who,  "in  order  not  to  part  with  his  collection  of 
117,000  volumes  when  traveling,  had  them  carried  by  a  caravan  of  400  camels 
trained  to  walk  in  alphabetical  order."1  However  charming  this  tale  may  be,  the  actual 
event  upon  which  it  is  based  is  subtly  different.  According  to  the  original  manuscript, 
now  in  the  British  Museum,  the  great  scholar  and  literary  patron  Sahib  Isma'il  b. 
'Abbad  so  loved  his  books  that  he  excused  himself  from  an  invitation  by  King  Nuh  II 
to  become  his  prime  minister  at  least  in  part  on  the  grounds  that  four  hundred 
camels  would  be  required  for  the  transport  of  his  library  alone.2 

A  21st  Century  version  of  the  story  might  feature  any  number  of  portable  electronic 
devices — a  laptop,  a  PDA,  or  even  a  mobile  phone — designed  to  overcome  this 
difficulty.  Today,  1000  years  later,  the  Persian  scholar/statesman  would  have  to  find 
a  new  excuse  for  declining  the  job  offer.  Abdul  Kassem  Ismael  (aka  Sahib  Isma'il  b. 
'Abbad)  would  be  hard  pressed  to  explain  why  he  couldn't  just  find  what  he  needed 
on  the  Internet.  The  message  seems  to  be  that  books  are  passe,  replaced  by  ones 
and  zeroes,  the  real  world  replaced  by  a  virtual  one,  knowledge  supplanted  by 
information  at  best  and  chaotic  data  at  worst.  Have  we  shrunk  the  world  or 
expanded  it?  Or  have  we  in  some  way  replaced  it? 

Untangling  the  Web  for  2007  is  the  twelfth  edition  of  a  book  that  started  as  a  small 
handout.  After  more  than  a  decade  of  researching,  reading  about,  using,  and  trying 
to  understand  the  Internet,  I  have  come  to  accept  that  it  is  indeed  a  Sisyphean  task. 
Sometimes  I  feel  that  all  I  can  do  is  to  push  the  rock  up  to  the  top  of  that  virtual  hill, 
then  stand  back  and  watch  as  it  rolls  down  again.  The  Internet — in  all  its  glory  of 
information  and  misinformation — is  for  all  practical  purposes  limitless,  which  of 
course  means  we  can  never  know  it  all,  see  it  all,  understand  it  all,  or  even  imagine 
all  it  is  and  will  be.  The  more  we  know  about  the  Internet,  the  more  acute  is  our 

1  Alberto  Manguel,  A  History  of  Reading,  New  York:  Penguin,  1997,  19.  Manguel  cites  as  his  source 
Edward  G.  Browne's  A  Literary  History  of  Persia,  4  vols.,  London  :  T.  Fisher  Unwin,  1902-24.  I  found 
the  specific  reference  to  this  story  on  pages  374-375  of  Vol.  1,  Book  IV,  "Decline  of  the  Caliphate." 
There  is,  sadly,  no  mention  of  the  alphabetical  arrangement  of  the  library.  This  entire  masterpiece  is 
available  online  at  The  Packard  Humanities  Institute,  Persian  Texts  in  Translation,  23  February  2006, 
<http://persian.packhum.orq/persian/pf?file=90001011&ct^Q>  (15  November  2006). 

2  Edward  G.  Browne.  Vol.  1,  Book  IV,  "Decline  of  the  Caliphate,"  A  Literary  History  of  Persia  "  4  vols., 
London:  T.  Fisher  Unwin,  1902-24,  374-375.  Available  online  at  The  Packard  Humanities  Institute, 
Persian  Texts  in  Translation,  23  February  2006, 

<http://persian.packhum.orq/persian/pf?file=90001011&ct=0>  (15  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


awareness  of  what  we  do  not  know.  The  Internet  emphasizes  the  depth  of  our 
ignorance  because  "our  knowledge  can  only  be  finite,  while  our  ignorance  must 
necessarily  be  infinite."3  My  hope  is  that  Untangling  the  Web  will  add  to  our 
knowledge  of  the  Internet  and  the  world  while  recognizing  that  the  rock  will  always 
roll  back  down  the  hill  at  the  end  of  the  day. 

I  will  end  this  beginning  with  another  story  and  a  word  of  warning.  "Tlon,  Uqbar, 
Orbis  Tertius"  describes  the  discovery  of  an  encyclopedia  of  an  unknown  planet. 
This  unreal  world  is  the  creation  of  a  secret  society  of  scientists,  and  gradually,  the 
imaginary  world  of  Tlon  replaces  and  obliterates  the  real  world.  Substitute  "the 
Internet"  for  Tlon  and  listen.  Does  this  sound  familiar? 

"Almost  immediately,  reality  yielded  on  more  than  one  account.  The  truth  is  that  it 
longed  to  yield... The  contact  and  the  habit  of  Tlon  have  disintegrated  this  world. 
Enchanted  by  its  rigor,  humanity  forgets  over  and  again  that  it  is  a  rigor  of  chess 
masters,  not  of  angels... A  scattered  dynasty  of  solitary  men  has  changed  the 
face  of  the  world.  Their  task  continues.  If  our  forecasts  are  not  in  error,  a  hundred 
[or  a  thousand]  years  from  now  someone  will  discover  the  hundred  volumes  of 
the  Second  Encyclopedia  of  Tlon.  Then  English  and  French  and  mere  Spanish 
will  disappear  from  the  globe.  The  world  will  be  Tlon."4 

As  we  enjoy,  employ,  and  embrace  the  Internet,  it  is  vital  we  not  succumb  to  the 
chauvinism  of  novelty,  that  is,  the  belief  that  somehow  whatever  is  new  is  inherently 
good,  is  better  than  what  came  before,  and  is  the  best  way  to  go  or  best  tool  to  use.  I 
am  reminded  of  Freud's  comment  about  the  "added  factor  of  disappointment"  that 
has  occurred  despite  mankind's  extraordinary  scientific  and  technical  advances. 
Mankind,  claims  Freud,  seems  "to  have  observed  that  this  newly-won  power  over 
space  and  time,  this  subjugation  of  the  forces  of  nature,  which  is  the  fulfillment  of  a 
longing  that  goes  back  thousands  of  years,  has  not  increased  the  amount  of 
pleasurable  satisfaction  which  they  may  expect  from  life  and  has  not  made  them  feel 
happier."5  Indeed,  most  of  the  satisfactions  derived  from  technology  are  analogous 
to  the  "cheap  enjoyment... obtained  by  putting  a  bare  leg  from  under  the  bedclothes 
on  a  cold  winter  night  and  drawing  it  in  again."6  What  good  is  all  this  technology  and 
information  if,  instead  of  improving  our  lot,  it  only  adds  to  our  confusion  and 
suffering?  We  are  continually  tempted  to  treat  all  technology  as  an  end  in  itself 
instead  of  a  means  to  some  end.  The  Internet  is  no  exception:  it  has  in  large 

3  Karl  Popper,  Conjectures  and  Refutation:  The  Growth  of  Scientific  Knowledge,  London  &  New  York: 
Routledge,  2002,  p.  38. 

4  Jorge  Luis  Borges,  "Tlon,  Uqbar,  Orbis  Tertius,"  in  Labyrinths,  ed.  Donald  A.  Yates  and  James  E. 
Irby,  New  York:  New  Directions  Books,  1962,  17-18. 

5  Sigmund  Freud,  "Civilization  and  Its  Discontents,"  tr.  James  Strachey,  New  York:  Norton,  1962,  34- 

6  Freud,  35. 



DOCID:  4046925 


measure  become  the  thing  itself  instead  of  a  means  of  discovery,  understanding, 
and  knowledge. 

Like  Tlon,  the  Internet,  "is  surely  a  labyrinth,  but  it  is  a  labyrinth  devised  by  men,  a 
labyrinth  destined  to  be  deciphered  by  men."  We  must  avoid  getting  lost  in  the 
labyrinth  without  a  clew.  My  hope  is  that  Untangling  the  Web  will  be  something  akin 
to  Ariadne's  clew,7  so  that  as  you  unravel  it,  you  can  wind  your  way  through  the  web 
while  avoiding  some  of  its  dangers.  Remember  also  that  those  who  use  the  Internet 
to  do  harm,  to  spread  fear,  and  to  carry  out  crimes  are  like  the  mythical  Minotaur 
who,  as  well  as  being  the  monster  in  the  Minoan  maze,  was  also  its  prisoner. 

7Daedalus,  the  architect  of  the  infamous  labyrinth  on  Crete,  purportedly  gave  King  Minos'  daughter 
Ariadne  the  clew,  a  ball  of  thread  or  yarn,  to  use  to  find  a  way  out  of  the  maze.  Ariadne  in  turn  gave 
the  clew  to  Theseus,  who  slew  the  Minotaur  and  found  his  way  out  of  the  labyrinth.  Theseus  repaid 
Ariadne's  kindness  by  leaving  her  on  an  island  on  their  way  back  to  Athens. 

8  "Minotaurus,"  WikiMedia  Commons,  <http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/lmage:Minotaurus.qif>  (6 
February  2007).  This  image  is  in  the  public  domain  because  its  copyright  has  expired. 



DOCID:  4046925 





DOCID:  4046925 


"Every  Angle  of  the  Universe" 

One  wag  has  suggested  that  the  Internet  is  an  "electronic  Boswell,"  the  chronicler  of 
our  age.  It  is  that  and  more  because  the  Internet  chronicles  not  only  a  time  and 
place  but  all  times  and  all  places,  known  and  unknown,  real  and  imaginary.  The 
Internet  is  the  closest  thing  to  the  fantastical  "Aleph"  imagined  by  the  great  Argentine 
story-teller  Jorge  Luis  Borges,  an  object  whose  diameter  is  "little  more  than  an  inch" 
but  which  nonetheless  contains  all  space,  "actual  and  undiminished,"  and  in  which 
one  can  see  "every  angle  of  the  universe." 

While  the  comparison  with  the  mythical  Aleph  may  strike  you  as  a  bit  whimsical,  it  is 
in  fact  not  an  altogether  unfair  metaphor.  There  has  never  been  anything  that 
approaches  the  Internet's  reach  (to  almost  every  part  of  the  globe  in  less  than  thirty 
years),  its  size  (estimated  at  532,897  terabytes  way  back  in  20039),  and  its  ability  to 
link  us  together  in  a  new  kind  of  world  community  (words,  pictures,  sounds,  ideas 
beyond  imagining).  But,  as  with  all  new  technologies,  it  comes  at  a  cost — many 
costs,  in  fact.  We  pay  for  the  benefits  of  the  Internet  less  in  terms  of  money  and 
more  in  terms  of  the  currencies  of  our  age:  time,  energy,  and  privacy. 

The  goal  of  this  book  is  to  help  you  save  some  of  each  of  these  valuable  resources: 
time,  by  making  your  searches  more  efficient;  energy,  by  reducing  the  frustration 
using  the  Internet  often  entails;  and  privacy,  by  pointing  out  some  simple  measures 
to  take  to  lower  your  cyber-profile  and  enhance  your  security. 

I  cannot  emphasize  strongly  enough  that  this  book  was  already  out  of  date  by  the 
time  it  was  published.  Even  though  I  have  checked  and  rechecked  every  link  in  this 
book,  some  addresses  are  bound  to  have  changed,  some  sites  will  have  shut  down, 
and  some  tips  and  techniques — such  as  search  engine  rules  and  syntax — will  no 
longer  be  accurate.  This  is  a  testament  to  the  changeable  nature  of  the  Internet  and 
I  must  beg  your  forbearance  for  any  such  errors.  Writing  about  the  Internet  is  much 
like  trying  to  catch  Proteus10 — as  with  the  mythical  prophet,  it  keeps  changing  and 
escaping  our  grasp. 

School  of  Information  Management  and  Systems,  University  of  California  at  Berkeley,  "How  Much 
Information?  2003,"  27  October  2003,  < 
info-2003/internet.htm>  (October  2005),  Executive  Summary. 

10  "Proteus — i.e.  full  of  shifts,  aliases,  disguises,  etc,  Proteus  was  Neptune's  herdsman,  an  old  man 
and  a  prophet... There  was  no  way  of  catching  him  but  by  stealing  upon  him  during  sleep  and  binding 
him;  if  not  so  captured,  he  would  elude  anyone  who  came  to  consult  him  by  changing  his  shape,  for 
he  had  the  power  of  changing  it  in  an  instant  into  any  form  he  chose."  "Proteus,"  Brewer's  Dictionary 
of  Phrase  and  Fable,  1898,  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Internet  has  often  been  called  the  world's  largest 
library  with  all  of  the  books  on  the  floor." 

Curtin,  M.,  Ellison,  G.,  Monroe,  D.,  "What's  Related?  Everything 
But  Your  Privacy,"  7  October  1998,  Revision:  1 .5, 
(14  November  2006). 

What  Will  I  Learn? 

To  achieve  these  goals,  this  book  will: 

>  help  you  understand  how  to  use  the  Internet  more  efficiently  to  find  useful 
information  and,  in  so  doing... 

>  make  clear  why  the  Internet  is  an  invaluable  resource. 

This  year  I  have  reorganized  the  book  to  make  it  more  logical  and  easier  to  use.  The 
first  part  of  the  book  still  focuses  on  the  ins  and  outs  of  searching:  how  search 
engines  work,  types  of  search  tools,  how  to  handle  different  types  of  searches.  The 
next  section  has  expanded  to  offer  in-depth  tutorials  on  six  major  search  engines. 
Next,  the  book  covers  specialized  search  tools  and  techniques,  including  a  new 
section  devoted  to  Wikipedia.  I  have  also  moved  the  discussion  of  maps  and 
mapping  to  this  section.  This  is  followed  by  "invisible"  web  research  to  include  the 
changes  to  A9  and  Amazon's  search  inside  the  book  option.  Next  is  the 
international  search  and  language  tools  section,  followed  by  specialized  research 
tools,  including  new  sections  on  video,  audio,  and  podcast  searches.  The  next 
section  covers  specific  topical  research,  such  as  news,  telecommunications, 
btogs,  and  RSS  feeds.  This  is  followed  by  a  series  of  "how  to"  guides,  culminating 
with  tips  and  techniques  for  more  effective  searching.  The  book  then  delves  into 
using  the  Internet  to  research  the  Internet,  with  the  final  section  still  addressing 
crucial  privacy  and  security  issues. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Why  Do  I  Need  Help? 

There  are  no  Internet  research  experts. 

There  are  people  who  make  a  living  using  the  Internet  for  research  and  who  know 
more  than  others  about  what  is  on  the  Internet,  how  to  find  what  they  want  on  the 
Internet,  and  how  to  do  this  with  relative  efficiency.  But  no  one  knows  what  is  truly 
"out  there"  for  two  fundamental  reasons: 

>  The  Internet  changes  constantly.  By  that  I  mean  daily,  hourly,  minute-to- 
minute,  incessantly. 

>  It's  too  darned  big!  If  we  can't  accurately  size  the  Internet  (which  we  can't), 
you  can  be  sure  we  don't  know  what  is  available  via  this  resource  with  any 
degree  of  accuracy  or  completeness. 

This  doesn't  mean  you  can't  ever  hope  to  find  anything  on  the  Internet.  You  often 
can  find  what  you're  looking  for  (and  usually  a  lot  more)  with  comparative  ease,  but 
no  one  should  be  deluded  into  believing  he  has  a  good  grasp  of  the  entire  world  of 
information  available  on  the  Internet.  Realistically,  the  best  search  engines  index 
only  a  fraction  of  all  webpages  and  keyword  searching  is  at  best  an  art  that 
routinely  misses  relevant  sites  while  loading  you  down  with  dross. 

Are  you  discouraged?  Don't  be... novices  often  have  more  luck  finding  something 
arcane  than  seasoned  researchers  because  of  the  power  of  creative  thinking  and 
serendipity.  I've  learned  never  to  underrate  luck  and  intuition  when  doing  Internet 
research,  but  I  think  the  two  most  important  tools  for  successful  Internet  research 

1 .  a  good  set  of  bookmarks 

2.  other  people  with  experience  searching  the  Web 

Never  assume  others  are  already  aware  of  some  website,  tool,  or  technique  you 
find  particularly  useful.  The  sheer  quantity  of  data,  information,  and  knowledge 
associated  with  the  Internet  is  so  enormous  that  no  one  can  know  more  than  a 
fraction  of  what's  on  it.  While  we're  talking  size,  let  me  mention  an  important 
distinction.  The  Internet  and  the  web  are  not  one  and  the  same,  though  the  web  is 
what  most  people  think  of  when  you  say  "Internet." 


DOCID:  4046925 


In  fact,  as  huge  as  it  is,  the  Worldwide  Web  is  actually  a  subset  of  the  Internet. 

The  Internet  is  the  network  of  networks,  all  the  world's  servers  connected  by  routers, 
to  put  it  in  semi-technical  terms.  The  web  is  that  portion  of  the  Internet  that  uses  a 
browser  (typically  Netscape  or  Firefox — browsers  built  upon  Mozilla — or  Microsoft's 
Internet  Explorer)  and  some  type  of  hypertext  language  (usually  HTML)  to  move 
around.  This  book  focuses  primarily  on  the  web  because  tackling  the  web  by  itself  is 
a  big  enough  challenge. 

As  you  have  no  doubt  guessed  by  now,  the  Worldwide  Web  does  not  come  with  an 
instruction  manual  or  users  guide,  which  means  much  if  not  most  of  what  you  learn 
about  researching  using  the  Internet  will  come  from  hard-won  experience.  On  the  up 
side,  you  probably  will  not  be  able  to  break  anything  on  the  Internet.  More  than 
likely,  no  matter  how  lost  or  hopelessly  confused  you  become,  you  will  only  damage 
your  own  computer  and/or  network — and  perhaps  your  good  humor  and  sanity. 
However,  because  of  the  almost  astronomical  growth  of  malicious  activity,  the 
Internet  has  become  a  dangerous  place,  and  users  have  discovered  that  they  have 
inadvertently  spread  malicious  software  (malware)  such  as  viruses,  worms,  and 
Trojan  horses.  That  is  why  I  have  devoted  the  last  section  of  the  book  to  personal 
computer  security  and  privacy.  We  are  all  at  risk  from  the  rising  tide  of  bad  and  in 
some  cases  criminal  behavior,  so  we  must  take  responsibility  for  protecting 
ourselves  and  our  computers  from  the  ruses  and  attacks  that  grow  in  number  and 
sophistication  each  year. 

This  book  will  expand  on  simple  "rules"  of  Internet  research,  rules  that  are  really 
more  in  the  nature  of  friendly  suggestions.  These  rules  are  the  fruit  of  my  own 
experiences  as  an  Internet  user  and  may  prevent  you  from  repeating  all  the 
mistakes  I  made  that  gave  rise  to  the  rules  in  the  first  place.  Some  of  these 
suggestions  may  at  first  strike  you  as  odd  or  inconsistent,  but  the  rationale  for  each  I 
hope  will  become  clear  as  we  go  along.11  The  fact  is  that  today  we  are  drowning  in 
information  and  starving  for  knowledge.  The  goal  of  Untangling  the  Web  is  to  help 
rescue  users  from  the  ocean  of  information  (and  misinformation)  by  throwing  them  a 
virtual  lifeline. 

What's  New  This  Year 

Most  people  probably  have  not  thought  about  or  been  very  much  affected  by  the 
changing  search  landscape  because,  as  is  only  natural,  most  people  have  one  or 
two  sites  they  routinely  use  for  search  and  research,  regardless  of  the  nature  of  the 
inquiry.  However,  virtually  all  search  professionals  will  agree  that  knowing  where  to 
look  for  information  is  the  key  to  successful  searching.  Yet  few  venture  beyond 

11  If  you  are  using  the  hypertext  version  of  this  book  on  line,  the  links  in  the  paper  may  not  load 
correctly.  Try  the  refresh  button,  copy  and  paste  the  url,  or  type  in  the  url  directly. 



DOCID:  4046925 


the  comfortable  confines  of  the  familiar  search  engine.  While  the  major  search 
engines  continue  to  improve  each  year,  they  are  far  from  the  be  all  and  end  all  of 
search.  The  problem  with  general  search  tools  is  that  they  cannot  provide  targeted 
or  tailored  results,  certainly  not  without  a  lot  of  work  on  the  part  of  the  user.  For  this 
reason,  a  large  part  of  Untangling  the  Web  is  devoted  to  other  ways  to  uncover 
information,  be  it  subject  guides,  "deep  web"  resources,  targeted  search  tools,  or 
unusual  tips  and  techniques  for  revealing  what  is  hidden. 

Again  this  year,  I  have  included  detailed  information  on  how  to  use  Google,  Yahoo, 
Gigablast,  and  Live  Search  (formerly  MSN  Search)  to  find  very  specific  data.  I  have 
also  updated  and  expanded  the  section  on  Exalead  and  added  Ask  to  the  major 
search  engines.  However,  unless  you  spend  a  fair  amount  of  time  using  each  of 
these  search  tools,  you  will  probably  find  their  many  options  too  complicated  and 
cumbersome  for  everyday  use.  A  different  approach  is  to  use  specialized  search 
tools,  which  begs  the  question  of  how  to  find  these  tools.  Untangling  the  Web  maps 
a  number  of  the  Internet's  less-traveled  roads,  i.e.,  excellent  but  unheralded 
specialty  search  tools  such  as  Fagan  Finder,  Amazon's  A9  multipurpose  search,  and 
ThomasGlobal's  business  search.  Also,  the  section  on  international  search  is 
substantially  larger  than  before. 

In  recognition  of  the  growing  importance  and  influence  of  collaborative  websites, 
there  are  several  new  sections  in  this  year's  book.  One  is  a  separate  section 
devoted  to  Wikipedia,  contributed  in  part  by  my  colleague  Diane  White.  Video  and 
audio  search  exploded  during  2006,  and  this  year's  edition  contains  a  new  and 
extensive  examination  of  video  search  sites  as  well  as  a  new  section  on  audio 
search  and  podcastinq.  Two  other  new  sections  are  devoted  to  custom  search 
engines  and  book  search,  neither  of  which  is  an  entirely  new  technology  but  both  of 
which  spread  in  popularity  and  improved  in  quality  in  the  past  year.  Custom  search 
is  fast  becoming  a  replacement  for  web  directories,  which  continue  their  slide  into 

The  section  on  researching  and  understanding  the  Internet  now  begins  with  a  new 
section  on  "internetworking."  This  tutorial  is  a  response  to  a  number  of  requests  from 
people  such  as  myself  who  need  basic  knowledge  and  understanding  of  how  the 
Internet  works  without  too  much  technical  jargon  or  expertise.  I  hope  you  find  that  it 
falls  in  a  comfortable  middle  ground  between  simplistic  and  abstruse. 

Once  again,  the  section  on  privacy  and  security  grows  in  proportion  to  concerns 
about  protecting  our  privacy  and  security  on  the  Internet.  Fortunately,  as  the 
problems  increase  and  the  malicious  users  become  more  enterprising,  so  do  the 
ways  and  means  for  protecting  ourselves.  However,  home  computer  security  is  a 
personal  responsibility  few  people  take  seriously  until  it  is  too  late.  Untangling  the 
Web's  privacy  and  security  information  is  designed  to  help  users  avoid  becoming 
victims  and  instead  take  the  offense  in  protecting  themselves,  their  families,  and  by 
extension,  the  Internet  community  from  the  Internet's  evil-doers.  The  2007  edition 
includes  new  sections  on  clearing  private  data  in  Firefox,  encrypting  files  in 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 

uNCi_AssiFiED//ron  ornciAL  uoc  only 

Windows,  pretexting,  protecting  yourself  from  search  engine  leaks,  whether  or  not 
you  can  really  opt  out  of  online  directories,  and  a  brief  discussion  of  wireless  Internet 

I  have  also  reorganized  Untangling  the  Web  to  make  it  easier  to  use.  The  new 
section  on  "Specialized  Search  Tools  &  Techniques"  brings  together  some  already 
existing  topics,  such  as  Google  hacking,  with  the  new  sections  on  Wikipedia  and 
Custom  Search  Engines.  I  also  moved  maps  up  to  this  section  because  they  have 
become  integral  to  basic  search.  Specialized  Research  Tools  now  include  the  video 
and  audio  search  sections  as  well  as  telephone  and  email  search.  Basically,  all 
types  of  search  comprise  the  first  two-thirds  of  the  book,  while  the  remainder 
focuses  on  the  Internet  itself  and  privacy  and  security.. 

As  was  true  of  last  year's  edition,  I  can  again  say  with  confidence  that  the  2007 
Untangling  the  Web  was  already  out  of  date  before  it  reached  your  desk. 
Experienced  Internet  users  understand  the  Internet  is  truly  a  river  of  information  that 
is  impossible  to  step  into  twice.  And  the  basic  concepts  for  using  the  Internet  to 
research  topics  of  interest  to  our  community  of  readers  are  sound  despite  changes 
in  websites,  links,  and  technology. 

Web  links  often  change.  In  case  of  a  bad  link  for  a 
news  article,  use  the  site's  search  facility  and  search 
by  the  headline,  author,  or  date.  In  the  case  of  a  bad 
link  inside  a  website,  try  going  to  the  site's  homepage 
and  working  your  way  down  to  the  page,  which  may 
still  be  there,  only  in  a  different  location. 

¥  Web  Tip 



DOCID:  4046925 


Introduction  to  Searching 

Search  Fundamentals 

The  September-October  1997  issue  of  IEEE  Internet  Computing  estimated  the 
Worldwide  Web  contained  over  150  million  pages  of  information.  At  the  end  of  1998, 
the  web's  size  had  grown  to  more  than  500  million  pages.  By  early  2000,  the  best 
estimates  put  the  number  over  1  billion  and  by  mid-2000  there  was  a  study  showing 
that  there  are  over  550  billion  unique  documents  on  the  web.12  Netcraft,  which 
has  been  running  Internet  surveys  since  1995,  reported  in  its  November  2006  survey 
that  there  are  now  more  than  100  million  websites.  "The  100  million  site  milestone 
caps  an  extraordinary  year  in  which  the  Internet  has  already  added  27.4  million 
sites,  easily  topping  the  previous  full-year  growth  record  of  17  million  from  2005.  The 
Internet  has  doubled  in  size  since  May  2004,  when  the  survey  hit  50  million."13  The 
major  factors  driving  this  boom  are  free  blogging  sites,  small  businesses,  and  the 
relative  and  lower  cost  of  setting  up  a  website.  Another  recent  survey  found: 

>  The  World  Wide  Web  contains  about  170  terabytes  of  information  on  its 
surface;  in  volume  this  is  seventeen  times  the  size  of  the  Library  of  Congress 
print  collections. 

>  Instant  messaging  generates  five  billion  messages  a  day  (750GB),  or  274 
Terabytes  a  year. 

>  Email  generates  about  400,000  terabytes  of  new  information  each  year 

The  numbers  hardly  matter  anymore.  The  enormous  size  of  the  Internet  means  we 
simply  must  use  search  tools  of  some  sort  to  find  information.  Otherwise,  we  are 
voyagers  lost  on  a  vast  uncharted  ocean. 

12  Michael  K.  Bergman,  "The  Deep  Web:  Surfacing  Hidden  Value,"  BrightPlanet,  August  2001, 
<>  (14  November  2006). 

13  "November  2006  Web  Server  Survey,",  1  November  2006, 
<  2006  web  server  survey,  htm  I  >  (15 
November  2006). 

14  School  of  Information  Management  and  Systems,  University  of  California  at  Berkeley,  "How  Much 
Information?  2003,"  27  October  2003,  < 
info-2003/execsum.htm#summary  >  (14  November  2006)  Executive  Summary. 



DOCID:  4046925 


When  you  do  a  search,  you  are 
going  through  more  information  in 

less  than  30  seconds  than  a 
librarian  probably  could  scan  in  an 
entire  career  30  years  ago. 

Consider  this: 

All  the  major  search 
engines  now  index  well 
over  a  billion  pages  of 
information.  The  problem 
generally  isn't  lack  of 
data  but  finding  that  one 
tiny  needle  in  a  virtual 
haystack  of  almost 
limitless  size  (much  like 
looking  for  a  needle  in  a 
stack  of  needles). 

Any  serious  researcher 

needs  to  know  more  about  search  engines  than  the  average  person  using  the  Net 
for  fun  or  even  for  very  specialized  searches  associated  with  a  hobby  or  perhaps  a 
certain  topic,  e.g.,  cancer  research.  How  do  you  learn  the  ins  and  outs  of  search? 

The  Past,  Present,  and  Future  of  Search 

"Search  has  become  the  most  hotly  contested  field  in  the  world  of  technology.  "15 

Remember  Northern  Light?  How  about  Excite,  Galaxy,  Lycos,  HotBot,  Magellan, 
InfoSpace,  Go,  Webcrawler,  iWon,  Netfind,  or  Webtop?  If  so,  you've  been  searching 
the  Internet  a  long  time  because  many  of  these  search  engines  are  long  gone  and 
forgotten.  However  many  changes  in  search  and  search  engines  have  taken  place  in 
recent  years,  nothing  has  been  quite  so  dramatic  as  what  has  occurred  in  the  past 
two  years  with  the  appearance  of  the  new  Yahoo  and  Live  Search  engines. 

While  many  smaller,  focused  search  tools  still  exist,  the  sad  fact  is  that,  in  terms  of 
large,  powerful,  world-encompassing  search  engines,  Internet  searchers  at  this 
moment  have  fewer  major  search  engines  from  which  to  choose. 16  What  happened 
to  get  us  to  this  point  and  what  does  the  future  portend? 

15  Terry  McCarthy,  "On  the  Frontier  of  Search,",  28  August  2005, 
<http://www.time.eom/time/magazine/article/Q. 91 71,1 098955-1. OO.htmO  (14  November  2006). 

16  Of  course  there  are  many  non-US  search  engines  beyond  those  run  by  Google,  Yahoo,  and 
Microsoft,  but  they  generally  target  a  particular  part  of  the  world  and  are  not  serious  competitors  with 
Google,  Yahoo,  or  Live  Search  at  this  time. 



DOCID:  4046925 


In  the  early  years  of  the  Internet,  there  was  enormous  competition  in  the  search 
market  among  a  large  number  of  search  engines  vying  not  only  for  users  but,  more 
importantly,  for  investors.  The  "dot  bomb"  crash  in  mid-2000  began  the  shakeout  of 
search  companies  that  continues  to  this  day.  The  biggest  change  wrought  by  the 
failure  of  so  many  Internet-based  investments  was  the  growth  of  pay-per-click 
advertising  in  search  results.  Pioneered  by  Overture,  these  so-called  sponsored 
results  began  to  show  up  at  the  top  of  search  result  lists:  the  more  an  advertiser  was 
willing  to  pay,  the  higher  his  result  on  the  list.  Then,  in  2002  the  big  search  engine 
consolidation  began:  first,  Yahoo  purchased  Inktomi,  a  little  known  but  major  player 
in  the  search  engine  world.  In  2005,  Overture  bought  AltaVista,  one  of  the  oldest  and 
most  venerable  search  engines  on  the  Internet,  then  quickly  acquired  AlltheWeb, 
another  major  search  engine.  To  top  it  off,  in  July  2003,  Yahoo  bought  Overture, 
thus  acquiring  three  huge  search  properties  at  one  time. 

All  this  was  done  publicly.  The  real  revolution  was  what  was  happening  behind  the 
scenes:  with  a  remarkable  degree  of  secrecy,  Yahoo  gave  the  engineers  it  had 
acquired  from  AltaVista,  AlltheWeb,  and  Inktomi  a  new  task— create  a  whole  new 
search  engine  to  compete  with  Google.  On  February  18,  2004,  Yahoo  unveiled  its 
new  search  engine,  which  has  a  database  and  search  features  to  rival  Google's. 
Shortly  thereafter,  Yahoo  began  killing  off  the  "parents"  of  its  new  progeny:  first 
Inktomi,  then  AlltheWeb  and  AltaVista.  While  users  can  still  go  to  the  AlltheWeb  and 
AltaVista  websites  and  run  searches,  the  results  are  pulled  from  the  Yahoo  database 
and  many  of  the  unique  search  options  and  features  of  both  search  engines  are  no 
longer  available.  However,  Yahoo  continues  to  add  new  features  and  options  that 
are  improving  its  capabilities. 

During  2006,  two  major  search  engines  unveiled  major  changes  that  make  them 
serious  contenders:  Ask  and  Exalead.  During  2006  Teoma  and  Ask  Jeeves  ceased 
to  exist  as  separate  search  sites  and  merged  under  the  umbrella.  The 
French  search  engine  Exalead  came  out  of  beta  for  a  new  look  and  major  overhaul 
during  2006  and  continues  to  offer  a  number  of  important  and  unique  search 
features.  MSN  Search  became  Live  Search,  which  left  beta  status  in  September 
2006  and  increased  the  much-needed  competition  from  a  company  that  knows  how 
to  make  successful  (if  imperfect)  products.  still  offers  its  own  search 
engine,  A9,  although  during  2006,  Amazon  eliminated  some  of  A9's  unique 
functions,  switched  from  Google  to  Live  Search  to  power  web  searches,  and 
appeared  to  be  if  not  abandoning  A9  then  certainly  scaling  it  back. 

All  the  major  search  sites  are  still  trying  to  be  the  "Swiss  army  knife"  of  search 
engines.  Google,  Yahoo,  Live  Search,  Ask,  and  Exalead  all  competed  hotly  with 
each  other  to  roll  out  new,  better,  faster,  fancier,  more  powerful  tools  to  do 
everything  from  search  the  contents  of  your  computer  in  a  heartbeat  to  letting  you 
"fly"  around  the  world  with  a  bird's  (or  satellite's)  eye  view  of  the  planet.  Among  the 
new  search  engine-based  tools  and  programs  arriving  this  past  year  were  vastly 
improved  maps  and  mapping  technologies,  enhanced  multimedia  search,  desktop 



DOCID:  4046925 


search  utilities,  toolbars  integrated  into  the  browser,  and  application  programming 
interfaces  (APIs)  for  use  by  individual  developers. 

If  2004  was  the  year  of  the  new  search  engine  and  2005  the  year  of  tailored  search, 
2006  seems  to  have  been  the  first  year  of  Web  2.0.  Interactive,  participatory  Internet 
activities  such  as  blogging,  podcasts,  online  video  sharing,  and  wikis  dominated  the 

Podcasting  finally  came  into  its  own  last  year.  Podcasting  is  recording  and 
broadcasting  any  non-musical  information — be  it  news,  radio  shows,  sporting 
events,  audio  tours,  or  personal  opinions —  usually  in  MP3  format  for  playback  using 
a  digital  audio  player.  Many  websites  now  serve  as  directories  to  help  users  find 
podcasts  of  every  variety  anywhere  in  the  world.  Podcasting  has  caught  on  because 
it  is  easy,  inexpensive,  mobile,  flexible,  and  powerful.  Yahoo  got  out  in  front  of  the 
podcasting  trend  with  its  new  Podcasts  Search  site  after  a  study  the  search  giant 
published  with  Ipsos  Insight,  which  disclosed  that  most  of  the  people  who  are  using 
RSS  do  so  without  even  knowing  it.17  RSS,  which  either  stands  for  Rich  Site 
Summary  or  Really  Simple  Syndication,  is  an  XML  format  for  news  and  content 
syndication.  News  aggregators  are  programs  designed  to  read  RSS  formatted 
content,  which  is  very  popular  in  the  blogging  community.  Many  if  not  most  blogs 
make  their  content  available  in  RSS. 

Although  there  is  no  agreed  upon  definition  of  what  Web  2.0  means,  in  general 
terms  most  people  believe  it  involves  at  a  minimum  users  collaborating  to  share 
information  online,  i.e.,  an  interactive,  participatory  web  in  contrast  to  what  is  now 
being  called  the  static  web  (or  Web  1.0).  I  think  the  Wikipedia  article  on  Web  2.0 
sums  the  current  state  of  affairs  up  nicely  when  it  says  "To  some  extent  Web  2.0  is  a 
buzzword,  incorporating  whatever  is  newly  popular  on  the  Web  (such  as  tags  and 
podcasts),  and  its  meaning  is  still  in  flux."18 

Another  important  aspect  of  Web  2.0  is  that  it  organizes  information  differently  from 
traditional  web  and  other  news  and  knowledge  models.  So  reports  a  Time  article  on 
the  frontiers  of  search  in  its  5  September  2005  issue.  There  is  good  reason  to 
believe  this  claim,  given  a  major  investment  firm's  assessment  that  "by  2010, 
search-engine  advertising  will  be  a  $22  billion  industry  worldwide,  up  from  an 
estimated  $8  billion  today."19 

One  casualty  of  Web  2.0  appears  to  be  directories.  Directories  are  hierarchical 
guides  to  a  subset  of  what  are  presumably  the  best,  most  relevant  (or  at  least  most 
popular)  websites  on  a  specific  topic.  Yahoo  was  always  the  king  of  directories,  but 

17  Yahoo!  and  Ipsos  Insight,  "RSS:  Crossing  into  the  Mainstream,"  October  2005  [PDF]  , 
<  whitePaper1004.pdf>  (14  November  2006). 

18  "Web  2.0,"  Wikipedia,  <  2.0>  (15  November  2006). 

19  McCarthy. 


DOCID:  4046925 


several  years  ago,  I  noted  a  marked  decline  in  both  the  quantity  and  quality  of  the 
Yahoo  directory.  The  other  major  directory  was  and  remains  the  Open  Directory 
Project,  which  has  always  powered  the  Google  Directory  and,  ironically,  now  powers 
the  Yahoo  Directory.  What  distinguished  the  Open  Directory  from  Yahoo  was  that, 
while  Yahoo  was  heavily  commercial,  the  Open  Directory  has  always  relied  upon 
volunteers  to  populate  and  maintain  it.  Now  that  most  of  users'  creative  energy 
seems  to  have  moved  to  wikis,  the  ODP  is  in  what  may  be  a  permanent  and 
ultimately  fatal  decline.  Today,  the  most  successful  directories  tend  to  be  specialty 
directories  such  as  or,  and  vertical  search 
engines,  such  as  or  MedlinePlus,  which  focus  on  a  particular  topic 
instead  of  trying  to  catalog  the  entire  Internet. 

Directories  were  almost  always  a  part  of  the  portal  concept.  Portals  were  all  the 
rage  for  a  few  years,  while  search  was  considered  the  Internet  boondocks — no  one 
was  terribly  interested  in  the  boring  (and  unprofitable)  technology  of  search.  So 
where  are  portals  now — those  one-stop  handy-dandy  Swiss  army  knife  websites  that 
tried  to  do  and  be  all  things  to  all  people?  Most  of  them  are  gone,  thanks  in  large 
part  to  Google's  ascendancy.  With  its  clean,  spare  look,  Google  changed  the  face  of 
Internet  search  by  moving  away  from  the  portal  concept  to  pure  search.  While  it  is 
true  that  Google  offers  a  directory  as  well  as  other  types  of  searches — Image,  news, 
shopping,  groups — Google's  focus  has  always  been  on  web  search.  Google's  new 
look,  which  debuted  in  April  2004,  included  removing  the  directory  tab  from  the 
Google  home  page,  further  evidence  of  the  decreasing  importance  of  directories. 
Although  there  is  growing  criticism  of  the  "gooqlization"  of  websites,  Google 
continues  to  be  the  standard  by  which  most  sites  are  judged. 

The  rapid  and  dramatic  decline  in  web  directories  is  only  partially  attributable  to 
Google's  success.  The  other  explanation  for  the  waning  of  directories  is  the  Tristram 
Shandy  paradox.  The  Life  and  Opinions  of  Tristram  Shandy,  Gentleman  is  a  nine- 
volume  18th  century  novel  in  which  Tristram  Shandy  tries  to  record  every  detail  of 
his  life  but  discovers  his  task  is  hopeless  because  it  takes  him  one  year  to  document 
only  one  day.  As  Shandy  writes  an  additional  day,  it  takes  him  an  additional  year  to 
complete  the  events  of  that  day.  Such  is  the  fate,  to  a  somewhat  lesser  degree,  of 
those  who  seek  to  compile  an  Internet  directory.  By  the  time  the  information  in  the 
directory  is  researched,  compiled,  and  published,  the  Internet  has  changed  and 
made  much  of  that  information  obsolete. 

I  believe  Yahoo's  decision  to  metamorphose  from  directory  to  search  engine  was  in 
part  a  result  of  a  tacit  recognition  of  the  Tristram  Shandy  paradox.  Yahoo  just 
couldn't  keep  up  with  the  Internet's  changes  and  it  became  too  costly  to  try. 
Creating  and  maintaining  a  directory  is  an  extremely  manpower  intensive 
endeavor,  which  flies  in  the  face  of  the  Internet  model  of  relying  on  automation 
and  technology.  Undoubtedly,  Yahoo's  changes  were  largely  driven  by  Google's 
enormous  financial  success.  Yahoo  sat  by  for  years  and  watched  as  Google's 
popularity  (and  revenues)  increased  as  Yahoo's  stagnated.  "By  the  late  '90s  much  of 
[Yahoo's]  focus  was  actually  diametrically  opposed  to  search,  which  is  supposed  to 



DOCID:  4046925 


send  you  to  other  sites.  The  Yahoo  portal  strategy  was  to  keep  the  eyeballs  on  its 
turf,  where  they  viewed  more  ad  units,  shopped,  and  bought  premium  services.  Only 
when  a  third  of  online  ad  spending  moved  to  search  within  a  few  short  years  did 
Yahoo  decide  to  buy  in  big."20 

Again  in  2006  Yahoo  changed  the  look  of  its  homepage,  but  I  believe  Yahoo  is 
making  a  fundamental  error  by  still  presenting  its  busy,  messy  portal  face  to  the 
world.  Although  savvy  Internet  searchers  know  to  go  directly  to  in  order  to  avoid  the  confusion  and  get  a  clean  interface, 
most  users  are  still  going  to  the  main  Yahoo  page  where  they  are  confronted  with 

My  Yahoo)        My  Mail  | 


Web  :  images    video    Audio  .  Directory  ;  Local  j  News  :  Shopping 

£7)  Ynhr*ol  An«w4r«:  A»k  »  qu«it(ofi  |  Answer  gueitloru 

Web  Searcli 

£3  Autos 
©  Finance 
£3  Games 
O  GcoCitie* 
{$  Groups 
C7  HoUobs 
0  Maps 
Q>  Movies 
e§  Music 
^?  Personals 
£j  Photos 
?3  Real  Estate 
Q  Shopping 
@>  Sports 
<S  Tech 
O  Travel 

^)  Yellow  Pages 

.  Moi  e  Yahoo:  Services 

Small  Business 
'  Web  Hosting 
'  Domain  Names 


Entertainment  l 



Speed  up  your  PC 

Out  tach  expert  has  some  atfvies  to  give 
yam  tired  computet  a  liltte  exto 

ODmph.  ■>  Take  eight  simple  «beps 

*  Updating  your  old  hsidvsra 

•  Mar*  fnjm  Yl  tach  »<Jui!Ou 

KH'  Wax  Red  50>c"»  bid  f«r 

Movies:  'Caiino  Rov-sle' 
rod  carpet  photos 

lij  Video  fjamoji  Hands-on 
|j  with  the  PUySt-atiori  3 

Tilth*  Ne*«9 


More  Featured 


« Iraq  government  split  over  hostages,  militia  threat 

■  Trenl  Lott  wins  back  Serrate  leadership  slot 

.  small  waves  htt  Japan  after  tsunami  fear  Cn strong  qu»k» 
.  US  Airways  makes  18  billion  bid  for  Delia   £x  8i9  offer 

■  S.F.  to  end  high  schools"  JROTC  programs  CSj  studant*  proton 
.  Study  says  late  angioplasty  may  be  futile 

•  Divers  suivey  USS  InUepid's  hull  for  damage   Z3  intmpid  photo* 

>>  More:  News    Popular  Business 

M*rketJ>  Dowi 
Stock  Quotes  i 


Naadaqi  +  0.-IV 

Page  Options  .yj 

Check  your  mail  status:  Sign  In 
f><3  Mail  (^Messenger 

-ree  mail:  Siyn  Up 

-  Weather 

^  Local 

^  Horoscopes 

AU  New  2007  Scoring  ■  Ad  F.edhack 

Inside  Yahoo!  Eiifeiuimnent 

1  The  Ytjht>o'  Trjf^til  Show  h  lic-ie 

Th«  b«st,  the  worst,  *nd  everything 
in  betveen.  Holp  d»<lde  who  wi/t  be 
tha  nnxt  veb  celeb. 

Watch  a  voto  now 

Puleo  -  Y.ittoos  Ai«  Inio 

Green  Machines;  Most  Viewed  Hybrid; 

l  •  Toyota  Priuc 
1    Honda  Civic  Hybrid 
Lexus  CS  450K 
Toyota  C»mry  Hybrid 
Ford  Eccapa  Hybrid 

Here's  Yahoo's  dilemma:  how  does  it  compete  with  Google  for  searchers  seeking  a 
simple,  clean  interface  while  simultaneously  retaining  and  attracting  users  who  want 
"one  stop  shopping"?  Thus  far,  more  searchers  are  still  going  to  Google  first  rather 
than  muddling  their  way  through  the  kind  of  mess  you  see  above.  Where  Yahoo 
excels — and  in  my  opinion  beats  Google — is  in  shopping  and  in  finding  local 
information.  This  is  a  fact  Yahoo  not  only  recognizes  but  also  embraces.  Says  Ted 
Meisel,  head  of  Yahoo's  Overture  division,  "We  never  claimed  it  [Yahoo]  was  a 
better  approach  for  doing  research  on  18th  century  Spain.  But  if  you  are  trying  to 
buy  a  power  washer  for  your  back  deck,  it's  a  pretty  good  way  to  find  what  you 

Steve  Smith,  "Search  Wars:  Google  vs.  Yahoo!,",  April  2004  Issue, 
<http://www.mediapostxom/dtls_dsp_mediamag.cfm?maglD=245868>  (registration  required). 



DOCID:  4046925 


need."21  That's  fine  for  personal  searches,  but  it  does  not  help  the  searcher  who  is 
using  the  Internet  for  work-related,  academic,  or  other  types  of  research. 

The  future  of  search  seems  to  be  in  fewer  but  more  experienced  and  more 
commercially  driven  hands  now  than  a  decade  ago.  Certainly  both  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  search  results  are  much  better  today.  And  there  are  other  trends  in  search 
that  are  going  to  have  a  major  impact  on  users,  love  them  or  hate  them.  Among 
these  are  greater  personalization  of  search,  an  area  in  which  Google,  Yahoo,  and 
Live  Search  are  all  vying  for  your  attention.  Then  there  is  the  concept  of  social 
networking,  through  which  Internet  users  with  similar  interests  share  their  web 
knowledge  and  experience.  Social  bookmarking  sites  such  as  or  digg 
and  sharing  software  such  as  Stumbleupon  are  growing  in  popularity  as  individual 
users  seek  ways  to  help  each  other  discover  and  propagate  information. 

There  has  also  been  a  strong  impetus  towards  more  localized  search  for  shopping, 
news,  map  directions,  services,  telephone  lookups,  and  more.  Yahoo  initially 
outpaced  Google  in  this  area  because  it  already  owns  an  enormous  warehouse  of 
information  about  where  its  users  live  and  work,  shop  and  play.  However,  Google, 
Yahoo,  Ask,  and  Live  Search  all  moved  strongly  into  the  local  and  personalized 
search  arena  during  2006.  Add  to  the  mix  all  the  other  services  search  companies 
offer  or  plan  to  offer,  such  as  Google's  much  ballyhooed  and  controversial  foray  into 
email  with  Gmail.  The  move  toward  greater  personalization  (likes  and 
dislikes/interests/shopping/travel)  and  more  services  (especially  email  and  tailored 
news)  brings  increased  concerns  about  privacy  and  security.  The  more  Yahoo, 
Google,  Amazon,  Microsoft,  et  al.  know  about  us,  the  more  they  can  serve  up  what 
we  want. 

But  the  more  they  know,  the  less  control  we  have  over  our  privacy  and  computer 
security.  I  am  reminded  of  a  scene  from  the  film  Minority  Report  in  which  the  main 
character  walks  into  a  clothing  store  and,  after  his  eye  scan,  the  computer  welcomes 
him  by  name,  asks  if  he  was  happy  with  his  previous  purchase  (which  it  details)  and 
what  he  would  like  now.  It  doesn't  take  a  lot  of  imagination  to  see  how  this 
technology  can  be  abused.  Everyone  wants  convenience  but  it  is  a  virtual  axiom  of 
technology  that  every  increase  in  convenience  brings  with  it  some  decrease  in 
privacy  and,  most  likely,  security.  Now  more  than  ever,  the  future  of  search  is  one 
that  appears  to  be  heading  towards  more  personalization,  more  features,  more 
options  and,  inevitably  it  seems,  less  privacy,  less  security,  and  fewer  companies 
with  the  will,  technological  know-how,  and  financial  resources  to  build  and  maintain 
search  engines. 

21  Steven  Levy,  "All  Eyes  on  Google,"  Newsweek,  29  March  2005,  p.  54, 
<>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Understanding  Search  Engines 

The  best  way  to  keep  up  to  date  with  search  engines  in  the  US  is  to  visit  websites 
devoted  to  search  and  to  read  their  newsletters.  One  of  the  oldest  sites  about  search 
is  Search  Engine  Watch.  Although  Search  Engine  Watch  was  originally  designed  for 
webmasters  (by  webmaster  Danny  Sullivan),  it  is  a  good  resource  for  researchers 
who  want  and  need  in-depth  information  about  the  major  English-language  search 
services  and  some  country  specific  engines.  Search  Engine  Watch  is  also  home  to 
Search  Day,  noted  search  maven  Chris  Sherman's  daily  newsletter.  While  Search 
Day  is  kept  current,  Search  Engine  Watch  now  has  many  out  of  date  pages. 

Stepping  into  the  breach  is  the  superb  Pandia  Search  Central,  which  offers  current 
search  news  and  an  almost  endless  number  of  tips,  tutorials,  guides,  and  even  its 
own  search  tools.  Pandia  has  emerged  as  the  premier  site  for  news  about  and  help 
with  search. 

A  gmile  to  ti^&inti\  se?nclnr>q  aid  search  enyimi  marketing 

Pandia  Search  Central 

Search  the  Web: 

Learn  hovyto  search  the 
Web  more  efficiently! 
Visit  our  free  search 
engine  tutorial! 

Select  search  engine;  |  Pondia  Powersearch  H 

Ask  for  More  Space  &  Help  |  More  Tools  |  Tutorial  |  Web  Directoiy  I  News  Search 

Search  Engine  News 
Search  Engine 
SE  Detective 
Free  Newsletter 
RSS  feed 

Search  tools: 

Powersearch  All-in-One 
Plus  Web  Directory 
Radio  Search 
People  Search 

On  Web  Searching: 

Search  Tutorial 
Syntax  Q- card  s 

On  Search  Ranking: 

SE  Marketing  Tutorial 
SE  Optimization  Gateway 
SE  Submission 
Pay  Per  Click  SE 

On  Pandia: 

Search  this  Site 
Pandia  FAQ 


On  Web  searching  and  search  engine 

Pandia  has  all  you  need  to  know  about  search  engines,  internet 
searching  and  search  engine  marketing. 

•  Learn  how  to  search  the  Web  more  efficiently. 

•  Read  about  search  engines  and  sites  devoted  to 

•  Gain  easy  access  to  all  the  best  search  tools 
■  Learn  about  search  engine  marketing. 

•  Find  the  best  online  search  engine  optimization  resources 

Our  latest  search  engine  news  and  articles 

•  Search  Marketing  1  More  than  Direct  Response 

•  Seven  elements  for  building  an  effective  corporate  blog 

•  Search  for  images  at  the  New  York  Public  Library  Digital 

•  Search  Engine  Marketing  inc..  Driving  Search  Traffic  to 
Your  Company?s  WeD  Site 

Our  search  engine  news  column  is  updated  several  times  a  week, 
and  Includes  more  search  eng,ne  news  and  in  depth  feature 
articles.  If  you  subscribe  to  our  weekly  newsletter,  we  will  send 
you  these  stories  by  mail  for  free 

Free  newsletters! 

Get  Pandia  Search  World, 
our  free  weekly  news  update 
on  Web  searching  and 
search  engine  optimization. 

Subscribe  also  to  The 
Pandia  Post,  our  free 
bimonthly  newsletter,  and  get 
articles  on  internet 
searching,  search  engines 
and  ranking. 

P*  Pandia  Search  World 

F  The  Pandia  Post 


Enter  email  address: 


Wewlllrievei  givevour 
address  to  any  other 
company  or  organization 
Read  our  privacy  policy 

In  depth  search 
engine  marketing 
tutorial  with 

The  search  engine 
landscape  is  changing 
dramatically.  How  are  you  to 
keep  track  of  all  Ihese 

The  Unfair  Advantage  Book 
on  Winning  the  S$&icb 
Engine  Wa.r$  is  the  book  the 
marketing  professionals 
have  been  using  to  win  Ihe 
search  engine  optimization 
race  for  the  pasl  seven  years 
You  get  a  new  version  every 
month,  updated  by  people 
who  know  the  industry  from 
the  inside. 

Other  good  web  search  sites  include  John  Battelle's  Searchblog,  Philipp  Lenssen's 
Google  Blogoscoped  (which  covers  much  more  than  just  Google),  Gary  Price's 



DOCID:  4046925 


Resource  Shelf,  Phil  Bradley's  Weblog,  Greg  Notess's  Search  Engine  Showdown, 
as  well  as  Web  Master  World  and  Web  Search  Guide.  Among  the  best  search 
engine-specific  blogs  are  the  Yahoo  Search  Blog,  the  Official  Google  Blog,  Google 
Operating  System,  and  Live  Search  Weblog. 

The  only  thing  predictable  about  search  engines  is  how  quickly  and  frequently  they 
change  not  only  their  content  but  also  their  features.  Because  there  are  websites 
devoted  to  keeping  up  with  the  myriad  changes,  they  are  your  best  bet  for  staying  on 
top  of  the  ever-changing  world  of  search  tools. 

Search  News  and  Blogs 

Google  Operating  System 
John  Battelle's  Searchblog 
Live  Search  Weblog 
Official  Google  Blog 
Pandia  Search  Central 
Philipp  Lenssen's  Google  Blogoscoped 
Phil  Bradley's  Weblog  bradlevs  webloq/ 

Research  Buzz 
Resource  Shelf 
Search  Day 
Search  Engine  Showdown 
Search  Engine  Showdown  Reviews 

Search  Engine  Watch 

Search  Engine  Watch  Web  Searching  Tips 

Web  Master  World 

Web  Search  Guide 

Search  Engine  Watch  Blog 

Yahoo  Search  Blog 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

?  Web  Tip 

Browsers  assume  the  prefix  "http://"  unless  you  tell 
them  otherwise,  which  means  you  do  not  need  to  type 
"http://"— just  type  the  url  (address). 

Search  Engine  Basses 

A  search  engine  comprises  three  basic  parts: 

1.  The  spider/robot/crawler  is  software  that  "visits"  sites  on  the  Internet  (each 
search  engine  does  this  differently).  The  spider  reads  what  is  there,  follows 
links  at  the  site,  and  ultimately  brings  all  that  data  back  to: 

2.  The  search  engine  index,  catalog,  or  database,  where  everything  the  spider 
found  is  stored; 

3.  The  search  engine  software  that  actually  sifts  through  everything  in  the 
index  to  find  matches  and  then  ranks  or  sorts  them  into  a  list  of  results  or  hits. 

Important  points  to  consider  about  search  engines: 

>  Spiders  are  programmed  to  return  to  websites  on  a  regular  basis,  but  the 
time  interval  varies  widely  from  engine  to  engine.  Monthly  or  better  is 
considered  "fresh." 

>  When  you  use  a  search  engine,  you  are  searching  the  index  or  database,  not 
the  web  pages  themselves.  This  is  important  to  remember  because  no 
search  engine  operates  in  "real  time." 

>  Spiders  do  not  index  all  web  pages  they  find,  including  pages  that  employ  the 
"Robots  Exclusion  Protocol"  or  the  "Robots  META  tag."  The  first  of  these 
mechanisms  is  a  special  file  website  administrators  use  to  indicate  which 
parts  of  the  site  should  not  be  visited  by  the  robot  or  spider.  The  second  is  a 
special  HTML  metatag  that  may  be  inserted  by  a  web  page  author  to  indicate 
if  the  page  may  be  indexed  or  analyzed  for  links.  Not  every  robot/spider 



DOCID:  4046925 


respects  these  mechanisms.  Password  protection,  firewalls,  and  other 
measures  will  generally  keep  spiders  from  crawling  a  website  and  indexing  it. 

The  Web  Robots  Pages  * 

Robots  Exclusion 

Sometimes  people  find  they  have  been  indexed  by  an  indexing  robot,  or  that  a  resource  discovery  robot  has 
visited  part  of  a  site  that  for  some  reason  shouldn't  be  visited  by  robots. 

In  recognition  of  this  problem,  many  Web  Robots  offer  facilities  for  Web  site  administrators  and  content 
providers  to  limit  what  the  robot  does.  This  is  achieved  through  two  mechanisms: 

The  Robots  Exclusion  Protocol  A  Web  site  administrator  can  indicate  which  parts  of  the  site  should  not 

be  vistsed  by  a  robot,  by  providing  a  specially  formatted  file  on  their 
site,  mhttp ://... /robots. txt. 

The  Robots  META  tag  A  Web  author  can  indicate  if  a  page  may  or  may  not  be  indexed,  or 
analysed  for  links,  through  the  use  of  a  special  HTML  META  tag. 

The  remainder  of  this  pages  provides  full  details  on  these  facilities. 

Note  that  these  methods  rely  on  cooperation  from  the  Robot,  and  are  by  no  means  guaranteed  to  work  for  every 
Robot.  If  you  need  stronger  protection  from  robots  and  other  agents,  you  should  use  alternative  methods  such  as 
password  protection. 

Robots  Exclusion  Page 

Not  every  search  engine  has  its  own  proprietary  search  program  but  instead  relies 
upon  another  company's  search  service  for  its  results.  Most  of  these  strategic 
alliances  now  involve  Yahoo,  Google,  and  Windows  Live  Search.  All  these 
partnerships  are  subject  to  change  without  notice;  for  more  on  these  strategic 
alliances,  see: 

Search  Engine  Alliances 

Knowing  that  Yahoo,  for  example,  is  the  search  tool  behind  a  search  engine  can 
save  you  time  because  you  can  be  pretty  sure  that  using  AltaVista  will  get  you 
similar  (although  not  identical)  results  to  the  other  search  engines  also  powered  by 
Yahoo.  It  is  critical  to  remember  that  each  service  powered  by  a  particular  search 
engine  produces  different  results  even  though  they  may  all  use  the  same  core 
database.  Why  is  this?  Because  the  search  interfaces  have  their  own  algorithms  that 
decide  how  queries  are  run,  how  results  are  returned,  or  even  if  they  query  the  entire 
database  (most  do  not).  In  short,  go  to  the  primary  search  engine — Google,  Yahoo, 
or  Live  Search  for  best  results. 



DOCID:  4046925 


A  Word  About  Browsers: 

Internet  Explorer  and  Mozilla  Firefox 

Two  years  ago  I  declared  that  the  "browser  wars"  were  for  all  intents  and  purposes 
over  and  Microsoft's  Internet  Explorer  (IE)  had  won.  IE  still  commands  more  than  90 
percent  of  the  world's  browser  market,   and   AOL  abandoned  Netscape's 



Caveat  Browser 

Alexa  and  Smart  Browsing  technology  are  very 

controversial  because  of  their  invasion  of 
privacy  implications.  For  more  information,  take 

a  look  at  the  article: 
"What's  Related?  Everything  But  Your  Privacy" 

Curtin,  M.,  Ellison,  G.,  Monroe,  D.,  "What's  Related? 
Everything  But  Your  Privacy,"  7  Oct  1998,  Revision:  1.5, 
(24  October  2006) 

in  mid-2003.  However, 
during  2004,  Mozilla 
browsers  experienced  a 
resurrection  thanks 
largely  to  user  frustration. 

Because  of  Internet  Ex- 
plorer's continued  domi- 
nance of  the  browser 
market  and,  more  im- 
portantly, because  it  is 
the  standard  browser  for 
many  Untangling  the 
Web  readers,  I  will  focus 
my  attention  on  Internet 

Nonetheless,  all  browsers  have  advantages  and  drawbacks.  /  still  recommend  you 
configure  two  browsers,  both  Internet  Explorer  and  Mozilla  Firefox.  Both  types 
of  browsers  allow  you  to  make  a  number  of  decisions  that  affect  your  privacy  and 
security  while  browsing.  Also,  both  browsers  have  become  much  more  customizable 
with  each  new  release,  allowing  every  user  to  select  and  save  his  own  preferences 
for  everything  from  fonts  to  what  will  appear  on  the  toolbar.  Be  sure  to  familiarize 
yourself  with  the  many  evolving  features  of  your  browser(s).  The  Microsoft  and 
Mozilla  websites  have  extensive  information  and  documentation  about  their 
browsers.  At  the  Mozilla  site  you  can  download  and  install  the  highly  regarded 
Firefox  browser  as  well  as  other  free  software,  such  as  the  Thunderbird  email 

In  October  2006,  both  Microsoft  and  Mozilla  introduced  new  versions  of  their 
browsers:  Internet  Explorer  7  (IE7)  and  Firefox  2.  Microsoft,  which  had  owned 
upwards  of  90  percent  of  the  browser  market  until  Firefox  took  off  a  couple  of  years 
ago,  recognized  it  has  a  genuine  competitor  on  its  hands  and  made  significant 
changes  and  improvements  to  its  browser  to  try  to  bring  some  Firefox  users  back 



DOCID:  4046925 


into  the  fold.  Will  it  work?  PC  World  offered  an  excellent  comparison  of  IE7  and 
Firefox  2.22  While  Firefox  2's  changes  are  mostly  refinements  of  already  existing 
features  with  no  change  in  the  browser's  look  and  feel,  IE7  marks  a  major  overhaul 
since  IE6  was  released  way  back  in  2001 . 

Among  the  changes  to  Internet  Explorer  7  are  tabbed  browsing,  integrated 
searching,  RSS  newsfeed  support,  and  an  antiphishing  tool.  The  most  noticeable 
change  is  IE7's  look  and  feel,  which  is  designed  to  resemble  Microsoft's  new 
operating  system,  Vista.  Probably  the  most  obvious  and  popular  addition  to  IE7  is 
tabbed  browsing,  something  Firefox  already  offered.  Also,  IE7  has  a  built-in  search 
box,  which  lets  users  search  from  anywhere  without  having  to  go  to  the  search 
engine's  home  page.  Google  and  other  search  engines  had  successfully  lobbied 
Microsoft  not  to  make  Live  Search  the  default  search  service,  so  you  can  pick  your 
search  engine. 

The  other  major  change  is  invisible:  improved  security  features  designed  to  cope 
with  the  almost  endless  number  of  vulnerabilities  that  have  afflicted  IE6.23  The  most 
prominent  of  these  security  upgrades  is  one  shared  with  Firefox:  an  "antiphishing" 
tool  that  works  by  warning  users  that  a  website  they  are  about  to  visit  may  be  fake 
and  redirects  them  away  from  the  page  unless  they  actively  choose  to  go  to  it.  The 
other  major  new  IE7  security  feature  is  something  called  Protected  Mode,  which 
prevents  a  website  from  changing  a  computer's  files  or  settings.  However,  Protected 
Mode  will  not  work  with  any  Windows  operating  system  except  Vista,  which  is  due 
out  next  year.  Also,  one  of  lE's  major  appeals  had  been  its  universality,  that  is,  it 
would  work  with  most  websites.  The  security  features  in  IE7  mean  that  some  sites 
that  could  be  viewed  in  earlier  versions  of  IE  cannot  be  viewed  in  IE7,  undermining 
one  reason  many  people  still  continued  to  use  the  Microsoft  browser. 

Firefox  2  is  another  in  a  long  line  of  gradual  updates.  This  version  adds  a  spell 
checker,  a  system  for  suggesting  popular  search  terms,  and  an  option  to  pick  up 
where  you  left  off  after  a  crash.  Firefox  2  also  upgrades  the  RSS  newsfeed  so  that 
now,  if  you  click  on  the  feed  itself,  instead  of  seeing  the  usual  XML  gibberish,  Firefox 
2  will  parse  the  raw  feed  into  something  readable  and  also  subscribe  to  a  feed  using 
one  of  a  numerous  (but  not  all)  newsreaders. 

What  is  the  bottom  line?  Firefox  users  should  upgrade  to  version  2;  it  will  be  easy 
and  pain  free.  IE6  users  probably  should  wait  a  while  before  downloading  IE7  to  let 

Erik  Larkin,  "Radically  New  IE7  or  Updated  Mozilla  Firefox  2--Which  Browser  is  Better?"  PC  World, 
18  October  2006,  <http://www.pcworldxom/printable/article/id.127309/printable.html>  (24  October 

23  Not  24  hours  after  its  release  and  the  first  vulnerability  was  detected  in  IE7.  Of  course,  it  also 
affects  IE6,  but  this  is  embarrassing  for  Microsoft  given  that  the  company  has  touted  the  security  of 
IE7  over  its  predecessor. 

<  Explorer  Arbitrary  Content  Disclosure  Vulnerability  Test/> 



DOCID:  4046925 


early  adopters  find  the  inevitable  bugs  that  Microsoft  will  have  to  fix.  Frankly,  after 
five  years,  you  would  think  Microsoft  could  do  better  than  come  up  with  a  browser 
that  basically  mimics  the  best  features  of  Firefox  and  its  other  (much  smaller) 
competitors.  This  looks  mostly  like  catch-up  and  very  little  like  innovation. 

If  you  are  going  to  use  Netscape,  another  Mozilla-based  browser,  I  do  not 
recommend  using  Netscape  8x  because  it  has  many  reported  problems.  Stick  with 
either  Netscape  7.1x  or  7.2x.  Also,  if  you  prefer  a  streamlined  version  of  Netscape 
7x  without  all  the  annoying  "extras,"  I  can  recommend  one  from  Sillydog  (silly  name, 
great  tool).  "Netscape  7.1  is  based  on  Mozilla  1.4.  Both  applications  share  almost 
identical  features,  such  as  tabbed  browsing,  custom  keywords,  and  Sidebar. 
Exceptions  are  additions  of  proprietary  features  such  as  the  support  for  Netscape 
WebMail  and  AOL  mail.1'24  Netscape  7.2  is  based  on  Mozilla  1.7.2.  "In  addition  to  the 
technologies  that  Netscape  7.2  shares  with  Mozilla  1.7.2,  it  includes  additional 
features  such  as  a  number  of  installed  plugins,  support  for  Windows  Media  Player 
Active  X  control  which  are  not  available  in  Mozilla. 

Microsoft  Internet  Explorer 
Mozilla  Firefox  http  ://www.  mozi  I  la  .com/f  i  refox/ 

Netscape  7.1  Streamline 
Netscape  Archive  (7.1  or  7.2) 

24  Mozilla  FAQ,  <http://www.mozilla.Org/start/1.4/faq/qerieral.htrril#ns7>  (14  November  2006). 

25  Browser  Archive,  31  October  2005,  <>  (24 
October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


What  the  heck  are 


6i  ^^^fl^S^^  99 

Cookies  are  text  placed  on  your 
computer's  hard  disk  (yes!)  by  a 
website  in  order  to  remember 
something  about  you.  For 
example,  a  site  may  set  a  cookie 
that  enables  you  to  reenter 
without  logging  in  or  customize 
its  pages  based  on  the  type  of 
browser  you're  using.  Cookies 
remain  controversial  (more 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Great  Internet  Search-Offs 

Over  the  last  decade,  the  inevitable  "search  offs"  have  become  commonplace  (both 
Internet  vs.  traditional  researcher  and  Internet  researchers  against  each  other). 
Some  of  the  findings  of  these  "contests"  provide  insight  into  how  search  engines 

1 .  Most  search-offs  and  wide-ranging  studies  continue  to  find  surprisingly  little 
overlap  among  major  search  engines,  so  use  more  than  one  search  engine 
as  a  general  rule. 

2.  The  Internet  is  now  being  widely  used  for  "serious"  research,  which  means 
higher  quality,  more  reliable  information  on  the  web.  But,  as  with  any  research 
source,  you  must  weigh  the  validity,  accuracy,  currency,  and  overall 
quality  of  the  information  before  using  it. 

3.  Search  engines  rely  on  statistical  interfaces,  concept-based  search 
mechanisms,  or  link  analysis  to  return  and  rank  hits;  using  boolean 
expressions26  usually  interferes  with  or  defeats  these  statistical  approaches. 
In  general,  do  not  use  boolean  queries  unless  you  know  exactly  what  you 
are  looking  for  and  are  very  comfortable  with  that  search  engine's  boolean 
rules  (no,  they  are  not  all  the  same;  for  example,  you  may  have  to  use  CAPS 
for  all  operators).  Also,  many  search  engines  do  not  correctly  process  nested 
boolean  queries  (boolean  searches  with  parentheses). 

4.  Be  aware  that  search  engines  are  giving  more  weight  to  popular  and/or 
pay-for-placement  web  pages.  In  fact,  most  search  engines  use  services  to 
determine  which  are  the  most  visited,  and  therefore  most  popular,  websites 
and  return  them  at  the  top  of  the  results  list.  This  is  a  strategic  move  away 
from  the  traditional  "words  on  a  page"  ranking  system.  Trustworthy  search 
engines  will  clearly  indicate  which  hits  are  paid  entries. 

The  term  "boolean,"  often  encountered  when  doing  searchers  on  the  web  (and  frequently  spelled 
"Boolean"),  refers  to  a  system  of  logical  thought  developed  by  the  English  mathematician  and 
computer  pioneer  George  Boole  (1815-64).  In  boolean  searching,  an  "and"  operator  between  two 
words  or  other  values  (for  example,  "pear  AND  apple")  means  one  is  searching  for  documents 
containing  both  the  words  or  values,  not  just  one  of  them.  An  "or"  operator  between  two  words  or 
other  values  (for  example,  "pear  OR  apple")  means  one  is  searching  for  documents  containing  either 
of  the  words.  "Boolean,", 

<httD://,2906601sid44  qci21 1695,00.html>  (14  November 


DOCID:  4046925 


5.  Learn  the  search  syntax  of  the  search  engines  you  use  (never  assume). 
Most  search  engines  use  double  quotes  ("")  to  enclose  a  phrase  and  the  plus 
+  and  minus  -  keys  to  indicate  "must  include"  and  "must  exclude"  respectively. 
But  these  are  by  no  means  universal  rules  (especially  when  using 
international  or  metasearch  engines). 

6.  The  default  operator  for  all  major  US  search  engines  is  now  AND.  As  of 

February  2002,  no  major  search  engine  used  OR  as  its  default  operator. 
However,  most  search  engines  will  let  you  use  an  OR  in  the  simple  search 
box:  Yahoo  and  Google  permit  OR  searches  in  the  simple  search  box,  but 
you  must  capitalize  the  OR. 

7.  Keep  in  mind  that  because  HTML  does  not  have  a  "date"  tag,  "date"  can 

mean  many  things:  creation  date;  the  last  modified  date  for  the  page;  or  the 
date  search  engine  found  the  page.  /  do  not  recommend  searching  by  date 
except  when  using  weblog,  news,  or  newsgroup  search  engines. 

Understanding  statistical  interfaces  is  important,  especially  for 
researchers  used  to  boolean  and  other  non-statistical  query  languages. 
Most  search  engines  use  statistical  interfaces.  The  search  engine  assigns 
relative  weights  to  each  search  term,  depending  on: 

>  its  rarity  in  their  database 

>  how  frequently  the  term  occurs  on  the  webpage 

>  whether  or  not  the  term  appears  in  the  url 

>  how  close  to  the  top  of  the  page  the  term  appears 

>  (sometimes)  whether  or  not  the  term  appears  in  the  metatags. 

When  you  query  the  database,  the  search  engine  adds  up  all  the  weights 
that  match  your  query  terms  and  returns  the  documents  with  the  highest 
weight  first.  Each  search  engine  has  its  own  algorithm  for  assigning 
weights,  and  they  tweak  these  frequently.  In  general,  rare,  unusual  terms 
are  easier  to  find  than  common  ones  because  of  the  weighting  system. 

However,  remember  that  "popularity"  measured  by  various  means  often 
trumps  any  statistical  interface. 

UNCLASsiFiEP//rorc  ornciAL  uoc  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


Types  of  Search  Tools 

Before  delving  into  the  intricacies  of  search  engines,  let's  look  at  some  other  ways  of 
finding  information  on  the  web.  Search  engines  are  not  the  only  and  often  not  even 
the  best  way  to  access  information  on  the  Internet. 

Web  Directories/Subject  Guides/Portals 

Web  directories  are  organized  subject  catalogues  that  allow  the  web  searcher  to 
browse  through  lists  of  sites  by  subject  in  search  of  relevant  information.  Yahoo, 
Galaxy,  Google  Directory,  Lycos,  and  the  Open  Directory  are  select  lists  of  links 
to  pertinent  websites.  Directories  were  once  viewed  as  the  future  of  the  Internet 
because  they  could  sift  through  the  mountains  of  information  and  millions  of 
websites  to  offer  only  the  best  and  most  relevant.  However,  directories  have  truly 
fallen  by  the  wayside  over  the  past  several  years  with  the  rise  of  Google  and,  even 
more  importantly,  wikis  in  general  and  Wikipedia  in  particular.  Directories  continue  to 
recede  in  importance  and  value  to  researchers  as  they  are  increasingly  replaced  by 
better  alternatives,  including  Custom  Search,  by  which  a  voluntary  community  of 
searchers  shares  expertise  to  create  more  focused  searches  with  more  relevant 
results.  The  reason  for  the  decline  of  directories  is  obvious:  directories  are  simply 
too  manpower  intensive  and  expensive  to  keep  up  with  the  ever-changing  and 
expanding  web.  I  would  say  at  this  point  directories,  while  not  dead,  are  probably 

Directories  rely  on  people  to  create  their  listings 

Obviously,  this  is  a  much  more  labor-intensive  business  than  operating  a  search 
engine  robot.  Websites  indexed  in  a  directory  are  either  described/evaluated  by 
editors/reviewers  or  rely  on  descriptions  provided  by  web  page  owners  who  may  pay 
for  placement  in  a  directory.  When  you  search  a  directory,  the  only  retrievals  will 
come  from  those  descriptions,  so  keep  this  in  mind.  Although  directories  give  you  a 
much  more  limited  view  of  the  web,  directories  do  have  their  own  utility.  Most 
directories  also  have  a  backup  search  that  provides  responses  to  queries  that  don't 
match  anything  in  the  directory  listings. 

Directories  may  produce  more  relevant  results 

Subject  guide  databases  are  always  smaller  than  those  of  search  engines,  which 
means  that  the  number  of  hits  returned  tends  to  be  smaller  as  well.  On  the  bright 


DOCID:  4046925 


side,  this  means  the  results  directories  produce  are  often  more  relevant.  For 
example,  while  a  search  engine  typically  indexes  every  page  of  a  given  website,  a 
subject  guide  is  more  likely  to  provide  a  link  only  to  the  site's  home  page.  For  this 
reason,  they  lend  themselves  best  to  searching  for  information  about  a  general 
subject,  rather  than  for  a  specific  piece  of  information. 

Yahoo  still  has  the  best-known  subject  guide/directory  and  can  be  a  good  starting 
place  for  research,  even  on  technical  subjects.  Yahoo  used  to  list  links 
alphabetically,  but  once  Google  came  along  with  its  ranked  list  of  sites,  Yahoo 
started  offering  most  popular  sites  first  before  going  to  its  alphabetical  list.  However, 
Yahoo's  directory  has  suffered  in  recent  years  as  the  Google  Directory  has  steadily 
improved.  Google  gets  its  directory  data  free  in  the  form  of  the  Open  Directory 

You  may  not  recognize  the  Open  Directory  Project  by  this  name,  but  you  have 
probably  used  it.  The  ODP  is  the  directory  behind  the  Google  Directory,  AOL 
Search,  Yahoo  Directory,  and  many  others.  The  ODP  "is  the  largest,  most 
comprehensive  human-edited  directory  of  the  Web.  It  is  constructed  and  maintained 
by  a  vast,  global  community  of  volunteer  editors." 

Galaxy  is  definitely  worth  a  look  because  it  was  designed  for  and  by  "professionals," 
so  it  has  a  bent  toward  business,  technology,  and  science  that  other  directories  lack. 
You  may  search  either  the  Galaxy  collection  or  the  web  using  their  proprietary 
search  engine.  Best  of  the  Web  started  life  in  1994  as  a  web  awards  site  and  is 
now  a  full-fledged  directory. 

Many  more  specialized  directories  are  discussed  under  the  Invisible"  Internet. 

Best  of  the  Web 


Google  Directory 

Open  Directory 

Yahoo  Directory 



DOCID:  4046925 


Metasearch  Sites 

The  growth  in  the  number  of  search  engines  has  led  to  the  creation  of  "meta"  search 
sites.  These  services  allow  you  to  invoke  several  or  even  many  search  engines 
simultaneously.  These  metasearchers  may  do  a  more  thorough  job  of  sifting 
through  the  net  for  your  topic  than  any  single  search  engine.  If  you  are  new  to  using 
search  engines,  these  are  a  great  way  to  do  a  very  broad  search,  while  familiarizing 
yourself  with  the  popular  engines  and  how  they  respond.  But  metasearch  engines 
inevitably  lack  the  flexibility  of  individual  search  tools. 

It  is  important  to  note  that  many  metasearch  engines  do  not  employ  some  of  the 
best  search  engines,  such  as  Google  and  Yahoo.  Also,  my  biggest  complaint  about 
metasearch  engines  is  that  they  perform  shallow  searches,  usually  only  retrieving 
the  top  ten  or  so  hits  from  a  site,  which  is  far  too  few  to  be  comprehensive  or  truly 
representative  of  what  is  "out  there." 

However,  metasearch  engines  do  serve  a  purpose.  If  you  are  unsure  if  a  term  will  be 
found  anywhere  on  the  web,  try  a  metasearch  engine  first  to  "size"  the  problem. 
you  may  get  zero  hits  with  a  dozen  search  engines  (you've  got  a  problem)  or  you 
may  get  a  half-dozen  right-on-the-money  hits  right  off  the  bat. 


Vivisimo,  in  my  opinion  the  best  free  metasearch  tool  available,  opened  a  new 
search  site — Clusty— in  2004  and  then  made  Clusty  its  search  home  in  2006. 
Fundamentally,  Vivisimo  and  Clusty  are  the  same,  but  Clusty  adds  options  for  news, 
image,  Wikipedia,  government,  and  blog  searches. 

The  Vivisimo  technology  behind  Clusty  is  unique  because  it  employs  its  own 
clustering  engine,  software  that  organizes  unstructured  information  into 
hierarchical  folders.  Clusty  offers  clustered  results  of  web,  news,  and  certain 
specialty  searches.  The  Clusty  default  is  to  search  the  web  using  Live  Search, 
Gigablast,  Ask,  Wikipedia,  and  the  Open  Directory. 

Clusty  is  especially  useful  for  searching  ambiguous  terms,  such  as  cardinal, 
because  it  clusters  them  by  logical  categories,  as  shown  below. 



DOCID:  4046925 


jobs  more  » 

i7  -'■    l^nr.'JJISL-. ,  iilMj  i  j^aaaiaJ  preferences 


All  Results  f^v j 
Q  Si.  Louis  Gmlin.ils-211 
H  Uiiiveisity  c:2| 
&  C.nliolicp;] 
O  Gliding  He,iltli(ct 
O  NaiHi»iii  C->ii<UuaI<5i 
0  Aiizoiiii  C.inliniilsi&! 

0  RnfziiHjer  -i i) 
0  Pliotoyiophynoj 
#  number  (<i) 
more  |  ail  clusters 

frnrj  in  fltist^is. 


Top  244  results  of  at  least  18,087.488  retrieved  for  the  query  cardinal  (definiliorQ  (details 
Top  Hews 

'  Pope  names  Brazil  cardinal  to  key  posU.^ricn  ^t.^  u  rn-m.- 

Find  more  news  stones  > 

Cardinal  Stritch  Univ 

Info  on  Attending  Cardinal  Stritch  Un'rv,  Plus  a  Free  Info  Booklet  -  Csitffc^techUriiv.r.orrt 
St.  Louis  Champs  Gear 

2006  Cards  Champs  Merchandise  -  T-Shirts,  Hals.  Mugs,  &  Souvenirs.  -  w  '^tLour^Cf^niuv  -.^n 

1.  Cardinal  Health  -  Making  healthcare  safer  and  more  productive  6  <V  & 

Offers  drug  development  services  in  the  pharmaceutical  and  biotechnology  industiy.  Contains  information  on  company, 
investor  relations  and  news 

vv-,Af\r.--.ii)irt')i  rem  -  |cochr>]  -  MSN.  Op?n  r.iirfcivtivy,  W'ls^Kit,  Giij^hlast 

2.  Cardinality  ©  <fo 

In  mathematics,  the  cnrtlinaliry  of  a  set  is  a  measure  of  the  "number  of  elements  of  the  set".  There  are  two 
approaches  lo  cardinality  -  one  which  compares  sets  directly  using  biiections.  injeclions,  and  smjections.  and  another 
which  uses  cardinal  numbers, 
en  W:k^fcoia  dniahiv  -  [.-.a;". he]  -  V./=kipec=i^ 

3.  Cardinal  Stritch  University  B  (:s  & 

The  Cardinal  Stritch  University  Theatre  Arts  department  will  present  ,..  In  honor  of  the  Feast  of  St.  Francis,  Caidlnal 
Stritch  University  More 

\~rM  c-tntch.fc'u  -  [each*?]  -  G^aofat;,  Open  Diie«ery.  W'iser>ut.  Ail. 

4.  Cardinal  o  # 

The  word  cardinal  comes  from  the  Lai  in  caido  for  "hinge"  and  usually  refers  to  things  of  fundamental  importance,  as  tn 

Also,  Clusty  lets  users  look  at  the  sources  of  the  search  results  and  types  of  sites 
(e.g.,  .com,  .gov).  Clusty  has  a  unique  feature  that  allows  users  to  search  inside 
clusters.  In  this  example,  the  original  search  was  [iran]  and  the  "find  in  clusters" 
search  was  [nuclear].  Here  are  the  results  of  this  recursive  search  looking  at  the 
sources  of  data: 



DOCID:  4046925 


web  news  images  wikipgdia  blags  jobs  more » 

All  Hestilisf^J' 
*  Ask  i  so  j 

»  MSN  (34i 

&  NY  Times (ic) 

o  Open  Diiectoiyra: 

o  Sponsored  Listings ( 

s»  Wtkipedi.iiiOi 

o  Wisemitijoi 

»  Yrtdoti:  Ilew5i!0i 

i": i id  in  clusters  


remove  highlighitmq 

Find  | 

Fori!  size 



24  of  the  lop  results  retrieved  for  the  query  iian  malch  the  sub-querv 

1.  Iran  may  limit  work  with  IAEA  if  sanctions  imposed 

4  i-rjijr;  ago  ■  haii  may  limit  its  cooperation  with  the  U  N.  nuclear  watchdog  if  sanctions  are  imposed 
over  the  Islamic  Republic's  atomic  program,  a  former  chief  nuclear  negotiator  was  quoted  as  saying  on 
Wednesday.  European  stales  have  prepared  a  drafl  sanctions  resolution  after ..  Ii an  rejected  repeated 
UN.  demands  tD  scrap  uranium  enrichment,  which  can  be  used  to  make  material  for  power  stations  or 
warheads      Russia  has  expressed  misgivings  about  the  proposal.  Hassan  Rohani,  a  moderate 
politrcian  who  led  Iran's  nuclear  negotiations  with  the  European  Union  since  2003  until  hardline  President  Mahmoud 
Ahmadinejad  took  office  last  year,  warned  about ... 

iipy/i  y&hoo  c om'Vnm'iOOi) i  IGlrts  jimtouelesrjranjaea^dc  ■  [cache]  -  Yahoo!  Nevws 

2.  Iran  to  pay  incentives  to  attract  tourists  B^™ 

£  hours  qyo  -  hait  will  offer  cash  incentives  to  travel  agencies  to  encourage  Western  tourists  to  visit  the  country,  giving 
a  premium  for  Americans,  the  official  Islamic  Republic  News  Agency  reported.  The  Islamic  republic's  political  leadership 
has  been  trying  to  reach  out  to  ...  ordinary  Americans  to  show  thai  a  standoff  over  Ii  tin's  nuclear  ambitions  is  with  the 
Bush  administration  not  U.S.  citizens.  The  latest  initiative  comes  as  the  United  Nations  Security  .  .  Council 
deliberates  a  draft  resolution  that  would  impose  sanctions  on  linn  for  its  disputed  nucieai  program.  "Iian's  tourism 
department  will  pay  520  per  person  to  those  who  attract  European  or .  . 
ney.'i  y<tfwo  rom/vV.p/i;*n.'JV°''',*T:  •  k^iie]  -  Yalwci  New? 

3.  NTi:  Country  Overviews.  Iran  Profile  ©  ^  « 

Introduction.  Iran's  chemical  weapons  and  ballistic  missiles  ,  and  possibly  its  nuclear  weapon  program  and  biological 
warfare  capabilities,  are  meant  to  deter  opponents  and  to  gain  influence  in  the  ... 

w,y  nv  viffj'>_i^Sfrg;c,fi.'r;ro0l^ii/lrari.;'nl1c:'  Unit  -  iV-Achs]  -  MSN 

4.  Moscow  may  back  U.N.  sanctions  on  Iran  e  <\  & 
1 3  hours  age-  ■  Two  senior  Russian  officials  indicated  Tuesday  that  Moscow  could  back  a  draft  U.N. 
Security  Council  resolution  imposing  sanctions  on  han,  in  an  apparent  sign  of  the  Islamic  Republic's 
growing  isolation  over  its  nuclear  program.  The  comments  came  after  months  of  Russian  opposition  to 
sanctions  and  suggested  that  Moscow  could  reluctantly  support  punishment  as  a  lever  of  influence  over 
a  stubborn  hnn  Just  last  Thursday,  the  foreign  minister  said  Moscow  was  opposed  to  the  resolution 

For  news,  Clusty  searches  the  New  York  Times,  Associated  Press,  Reuters,  and 
Yahoo  News  (which  subsumes  a  huge  number  of  sources).  One  of  the  best  features 
of  Clusty  news  search  is  the  ability  to  toggle  among  clustered  results,  sources,  and 
sections  (such  as  business,  health,  tech,  science). 

AH  Results  ^fi,) 

©  AP13) 

o  NYTiiiiesfe?.' 

o  RenieiS|£,Ai 

o  Yalio«:  News;&ai 

f:ndin  ; lifters 


>  □ 

Top  News      Woild      U.S.      Business      Spoils  Health 

Top  205  results  of  at  least  686  relrieved  for  the  query  iiaq  (definition)  (details) 

Yahoo!  News  » 

**  Canada  welcomes  63 

Palestinians  stranded  between,  Jordan  jVj^t-1  rj-i.^jvi  imru 

*  Military  chart  shows  h.m  sliding 
towaid  "chaos*  rv.nw  n-j'-sj  is  m>ru 

&  Gunmen  kidnap  hani  coach  foi  blind  r.- 

5>i  rriinr  .me 

NY  Times  » 

6  A  Ser-ate  Newcomer.  Helping 
Fellow  Democrats  on  the  Trail  and 
Drawing  Big  Crowds  r^  Tin^n 

»  Dsmocrals  Discover  N&w  Political 
Frontier     iin-.,,.^«4  mir,.-  jop 

Reuters  » 

»  Resulls  in  key  House  racas: 
Reuters  poll  .r^tt^ft  h.-u'-  a-j 

o  Kerrv  ssvs  sorry  foi  "botched 

»  (rvi«4 Is  divided  ovai  checkpoints 
order  +  t.fvt:  <>if 


o  Hezbollah  threatens  street 
protests  w>  •  r-ouis 

&>  says  it  needs  $100  billion  in 

aid .i-Vi  !-*hcuu  J.;t 

»  Democrats  increase  hope  of 
winning  Housa  t.--^  m,  t.-^j;:  a-j.- 

S3  ► 



DOCID:  4046925 


Clusty  also  provides  a  number  of  advanced  search  options  and  preferences, 
including  the  option  to  add  your  own  customized  tabs  to  the  main  search  page. 

Clusty  stands  out  as  one  of— if  not  indeed — the  best  metasearch  tools  available  for 
free  and  without  registration  on  the  Internet.  When  clustering  works  (and  the 
Vivisimo  technology  was  independently  rated  as  accurate  90  percent  of  the  time),  it 
offers  advantages  for  automatically  grouping  huge  amounts  of  information  logically. 
Because  there  is  no  human  intervention,  Vivisimo's  clustering  algorithm  "also  helps 
in  discovering  new  areas  of  subject  development,  avoiding  the  'mummy's  curse,'  in 
which  human  catalogers  have  to  recognize  a  term  before  approving  it  for  usage  and 
then  leaving  the  earlier  material  using  the  term  un-indexed  and  irretrievable  by  that 
term  as  an  authorized  descriptor  or  metatag."27 


Jux2  lets  users  query  three  search  engines — Google,  Yahoo,  and  Live  Search  (still 
referred  to  as  MSN  Search) — and  then  shows  you: 

1 .  The  Best  Results  from  all  three  search  engines  and  the  total  hits  for  each. 

2.  What  only  Google  found  and  what  is  missing  from  Google. 

3.  What  only  Yahoo  found  and  what  is  missing  from  Yahoo, 

4.  What  only  Live/MSN  Search  found  and  what  is  missing  from  Live/MSN 

27  Barbara  Quint,  "Vivisimo  Clustering  Chosen  to  Enhance  Searching  at  Institute  of  Physics 
Publishing  Site,"  Infotoday,  25  March  2002,  < 
2.htm>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 




advanced  ggarctt 

Best  Results 

Compare  Google's 

Compare  Yahoo's 

Compare  MSN'* 

What  only  Google  found 

ATROPOS  :  The  deity  from  Greek  Mythology 

Greek  Mythology.  Meet  the  Classical  Gods  of  Ancient  Greece  ATROPOS:  Oldest  of  the  three  FATES.  She's  the 
one  who  cuts  the  Thread  of  Life  with  her  fatal ... 

KiV,  rovr-ir  vr^h^.'-n/fj:  ffk-rv  yt-h.-^cy.  phpH^-iVy  "'"iTF  "'POS  [  #  6  on  Google]  c/atropos  .html 

ht.t.7  :  i/ .  !c  v  r,«i-/y-fV.-yii^po--  html  [#7  on  Google]  Hornblower  and  the  Atropos  (Hornblower  Saga  (Paperback  ...  Hornblower  and  the  Atropos  (Hornblower  Saga  (Paperback)):  Books:  CS  Forester  by  CS  Forester. 

fitt,'.i :  ;V w -      .Ol.:  ;..:>  cfcr-v  : . ■  ■  -  ■„/ •,< V.i i i.i o i- ,■  \ q/ cj  *  l-  3 ;  (/  - / 0 ':■  .1  k,  .':  S ^ 2 ? ^ ? v ™ o I  c- n ■: '■:  [#9  on  Google] 

What's  missing  from  Google 

http;//en  m  ki  pedi  a  .orq/wi  ki/Atro  pos 

From  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia  Atiopos  is  also  a  British  entomological  journal  -  see  Atropos  (journal).  In 
Greek  mythology,  Atiopos  was  the  third  of  the  Moirae.  ...  It  was  Atiopos  who  chose  the  mechanism  of  death  and 
ended  the  life  of  each  mortal  by  cutting  their  thread  ... 

Kbv.:;7e...-  <j-      ;.'««». orqf wtk«.'~".r-cpci .  [#Jon  Yahoo!,  #3  on  MSN] 

Bioqger:  User  Profile:  Atropos 

Atropos  Gender:  female  Industry:  Fashion  Occupation:  Model  Location:  Ohio  :  United  States  About  Me  I'm  a  22  year 
old  female  who  enjoys  exploring  deviant  fashion  as  a  form  of  self  expression 

H c  i.-.c-?*; .  ccr/i/piciM*/' 465-41  2>i  [#5on  MSN] 

I  believe  you  will  be  as  surprised  as  I  was  to  see  how  little  overlap  there  often  is 
among  the  "big  three"  search  engines. 

Dogpile,  despite  its  name,  is  a  good  metasearch  engine.  Dogpile  includes  Live 
Search  results,  along  with  those  from  Google,  Yahoo,  and  Ask  Jeeves.  This  is,  of 
course,  very  good  news  because  Dogpile  is  now  drawing  from  all  the  major  US- 
based  search  engines  with  the  exception  of  Gigablast.  It  also  searches  smaller  or 
lesser-known  search  engines  and  directories,  including  the  MIVA  (formally 
FindWhat),  LookSmart,  Ask,  About,  and  more.  Interestingly,  the  European  version's 
name  is  Webfetch  because  of  "unfortunate  associations"  between  Dogpile  and 


Mamma,  the  "Mother  of  All  Search  Engines,"  might  just  be  exaggerating  a  wee  bit. 
Mamma  offers  web,  news,  image,  and  yellow  and  white  page  search  options. 




DOCID:  4046925 


Search  engines  queried  are  Ask,  Wisenut,  Gigablast,  and  Entireweb  (a  serious 
misnomer)  and  directories  queried  are  Open  Directory,  About,,  and 
two  pay-per-ciick  sources. 

The  Pandia  Metasearch  Engine 

The  famed  search  guide  site,  Pandia,  offers  its  own  excellent  metasearch  engine. 
The  Pandia  metasearch  engine  "collects  and  sorts  the  hits,  takes  out  duplicates,  and 
presents  the  end  result  in  a  simple  format.  "The  first  results  you'll  see  are  from  what 
Pandia  describes  as  the  "essential  search  engines  and  directories,"  which  include 
Google,  Yahoo,  HotBot  and  Wisenut.  Strangely,  Pandia  continues  to  list  AlltheWeb 
(Fast)  and  AltaVista  as  search  engines  while  they  acknowledge  at  other  places  on 
their  site  that  Yahoo  subsumed  both  engines.  Still,  this  is  a  very  good  metasearch 

More  metasearch  sites 




http  ://www.  sea  rch .  co  m/ 

Open  Directory's  List  of  Metasearch  Sites 

Megasearch  Sites 

Megasearch  sites  simply  store  several  search  engines  under  one  roof,  but  you  have 
to  do  the  searches  one  search  engine  at  a  time.  They  are  becoming  more 
sophisticated  and  better  as  time  passes,  serving  as  good  entry  points  for  finding  and 
evaluating  search  engines.  They  are  especially  useful  for  locating  international 
search  engines. 

All  Search  Engines 
Find  It  Quick 
Search— 22 
SearchEzee  Engines/ 



DOCID:  4046925 


Types  of  Searches  and  the  Best  Ways  to 
Handle  Them 

The  first  thing  to  ask  yourself  is  the  one  question  a  lot  of  people  never  consider:  is 
the  Internet  the  best  place  to  start?  In  general,  the  Internet  has  become  so  good  at 
answering  factual  questions— -the  kinds  of  things  you  find  in  an  almanac,  an 
encyclopedia,  or  a  phone  book — that  it  is  now  usually  better  in  terms  of  speed, 
timeliness,  and  accuracy  than  other  resources.  For  example,  if  I  need  to  know  the  . 
world's  largest  hydroelectric  plants,  I  can  open  an  almanac  and  look  up  this 
information  or  I  can  type  [world's  largest  hydroelectric  plants]  into  Google,  Yahoo,  or 
Live  Search,  where  the  first  result  links  me  to  a  page  at  Information 
that  contains  the  answer  to  the  question. 

Still,  compared  to  traditional  library-type  resources,  the  Internet  may  be: 

>  slower  (though  this  is  changing  with  new  technologies). 

>  less  reliable  (large  amounts  of  bad  data  in  among  the  good). 

>  disorganized  (a  library  with  all  the  books  on  the  floor). 

>  frustrating  (lots  of  "broken"  links). 

>  hard  to  use  (generally  poor  search  tools  and  too  much  data  to  sift  through). 

>  risky  because  of  growing  privacy  and  security  threats. 
This  being  said,  why  do  we  need  to  use  to  the  Internet?  Because: 

>  it  has  almost  unlimited  amount  of  data  (also  a  minus... too  much  of  a  good 
thing  and  way  too  much  of  the  bad). 

>  the  data  tend  to  be  current. 

>  it  offers  multimedia  (video,  audio,  charts,  tables,  illustrations). 

>  it  allows  the  individual  to  do  much  more  of  his  own  research. 

>  it  is  relatively  inexpensive  (at  least  in  some  countries). 

>  most  importantly,  it  contains  a  vast  amount  of  unique  information. 



DOCID:  4046925 


You've  thought  through  your  research  question  and  decided  to  use  the  Internet  to 
find  information  either  because  you've  already  tried  traditional  sources  without 
success  or  you  believe  the  Internet  is  your  best  option.  You're  sitting  in  front  of  your 
terminal,  you've  logged  onto  the  Internet  and  you're  staring  at  a  blank  screen.  Now 
what?  Let's  start  with  a  (relatively)  easy  type  of  search.  You  need  to  find  general 
information  about  a  fairly  broad  topic. 

Let's  say  you  need  to  research  a  broad  topic  unfamiliar  to  you,  for  example,  Java. 
The  best  approach  may  not  be  to  type  java  into  a  search  engine.  Why?  Because 
you'll  probably  get  millions  of  hits,  and  the  first  ones  may  be  to  commercial  sites 
trying  to  sell  you  something  relating  to  Java  and  will  undoubtedly  also  include  other 
meanings  of  Java,  such  as  Indonesia  and  coffee.  If  you  are  looking  for  general 
information  on  a  topic,  wikis,  specialized  (vertical)  search  engines,  and  virtual 
libraries  are  often  better  starting  points  for  researching  general  or  broad  topics  than 
big  search  engines. 

The  single  biggest  mistake  searchers  make  is  using  the  wrong  search  tool.  For 

example,  search  engines  are  generally  not  the  best  tools  for  finding  current  news 
(use  a  news  search  engine),  for  researching  broad  topics  (use  a  specialty  directory 
or  virtual  library),  or  for  performing  specialized  searches  such  as  scientific  research 
(use  a  specialty  search  engine).  That's  why  the  number  one  rule  for  web  research  is: 

Rule  One 
Use  the  right  tool  for  the  job. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Let's  go  back  to  the  Java  example  where  you  want  to  find  general  information  on  the 
web  about  Java  programming.  Start  with  the  Yahoo  directory  and  see  what 
categories  it  offers  on  Java.  You  can  ignore  the  sponsored  results  and  the 
categories  about  Indonesia,  classic  arcade  games,  and  commercial  Java  services. 
Instead,  your  best  bet  is  Programming  Languages  >  Java: 


-  Directory 

Search:  ^  the  Web   |    f  the  Directory   |        this  category 

Search  I 

Programming  Languages  >  Java 

Directory  >  Computers  and  Internet:  >  Programming  and  Development  >  Languages  >  Java 


Industry  Categories 

♦  Developers^ 

Additional  Categories 

♦  Applets  (45) 

♦  Booksffl 

♦  Classes  (3) 

♦  Compilers  (9) 

♦  Events  (2) 

♦  FAQs  (5) 

♦  Games  (65) 

♦  Guides,  Tutorials  and 
Documentation  (27) 

♦  Java  2  Platform.  Enterprise  Edition 

♦  Java  2,  Micro  Edition  (J2ME)  (8) 

♦  Java  Advanced  I  inn  ding  (JA)Ka 

SITE  LISTINGS  By  Popularity  |  Alphabetical     (Whafs  Thir^) 

Java  Virtual  Machines  UVMs)  (5) 
J  tit  id 

Magazines  (4) 
Mailiixi  Lists  (1) 
People  (3) 
Porting  Projects  (4) 
Security  (21) 
User  Groups  (18) 
Utilities  (5) 
Web  Directories  (6) 

Email  this  page      Suggest  a  Site 
Advanced  Search 


CocoBase  Q/R  Persists 
Data  for  Java 

Get  CMP,  BMP,  Session, 
Transparent  Persistence 
for  Java  applications.  ... 
www.  thought  in  c  corn 

Hands-on  Java  Training  in 
75  Cities 

Instructor-led  Java 
courses  in  more  than  75 
cities  across  the  U.S.  ... 

Java  Code  Generation 
Generate  java  classes 
from  XML  schemes  or 
UML  models,  or  generate 

wav.  alt  ova.  corn 

Complete  Java  Training 
Hands  on  instructor-led 
_cjmplete  Java  training.  


Right  there  on  one  page  is  a  wealth  of  promising  links  to  documentation,  reference, 
tutorials,  news,  downloads,  articles,  etc.,  and  to  the  most  lucrative  resource  of  all, 
the  metaguide.  In  this  case,  take  a  look  at  Java  Boutique,  which  is  a  collection  of 
useful  Java  information,  news,  forums,  and  more  collected  in  one  convenient 



DOCID:  4046925 



Color.nlo  Tech  Online:  IT  LookSrnnrt  Soaich  MarKciuirt  &  Data  Ttnoutth 

Services.  Education  Onlhie  Advertising  VtrtujIizaHon 

Best  Buy  For  Business.  Fmd  Best  Buy  Hit  Business,  tiinl  Web  Design  Semccs: 

DJit.ih.ise  and  mwe.  Commnet  Security  H.?rdw.ufc.  flphis.Net 

Gcnoralc  D.TKrtuso-Dirvcn  Woh 
Apps  for  .NET  In  Mimnes 

Best  Biry  f-oi  Business.  Find 
,  software  Applications  and 
'.  more. 

|   TU<jfl»l«  |   ftavmwi  |   Tool*  I   by  Wwrt  I  b»  0W  I 

I    SuOnWl  |    Swtct  |    forufra  | 

ttttttuHKttf  CttMir*  toci.^ions  ^th  th.  toob.h.n,  KMorn.  L.„n  how  vou  pan  ut«  rt  to  Cr»te  «m  thrt  «>:W  thp  o«*b,litl»     CRM  mere. 




Java  Mows 
iOEs  ond  Taota 

Applets  and  Apps: 

Apptots  by  Calogwy 
A{iplot3  bv  Oate_ 

Suurcu  Corip 


Itaoro  Poll 
Diecusoion  Forum 
(Jonioci  Us 

j5\  Newsletters 

GeUtse  latest  tram 
-**"^  DevX  agJ^sJ  lo  you 

New  on  Java  Boutique 

Tylgr^lf  ■  JSP/S«rvletj    SOAP   Ftevitws  ■  DbvToqJ»  g|gpmv 
Sor1«dS«t  BfXJ  SoffdMao  Made  Easi.r  with  Two  Hew  HuHano  lnUrtac*s 

The  new  java.util  package  contains  two  new  interfaces  of  this 
package:  java.util. NfavlgableSet  and  Java.util. NavigableMap.  Both  have 
been  introduced  to  ease  your  suffering  when  working  with  SortedSet 
and  SortedMap. 

How  pp  Java's  Lirty  Mgwjyre  Uo?  Comparing  Array?.  Lists,  nod  M»p« 

Java  offers  several  solutions  for  storing  objects  in  an  ordered  list: 
arrays,  Lists,  and  Maps-to  mention  the  best  Known.  But  which  one  Is 
the  best  forvour  application?  This  article  analyzes  trie  performance 
benefits  and  drawbacks  of  each  solution  with  reaMife.  real-lime 

popfc  Excerol:  J»v»  EE  5  Tmoflak  The  3rd  Edition 

This  latest  edition  updates  existing  chapters  about  JSP.  EJ8,  and 
Servtels,  white  adding  new  chapters  on  the  Sun  Java  System 
Application  Server  9,  Web-tier  technology,  and  wet)  services.  Take  a 
look  at  Chapter  9  for  an  Introduction  to  JavaServer  Fates,  a 
server-side  user  interface  component  framework  for  Web  apps. 

Strlpaa  TlfcftS  Struts  loir*  Nod  Lcyel 

Struts  has  done  a  good  job  all  these  years,  but  It  may  be  time  for  a 
new  framework's  day  in  the  sun.  Learn  about  some  of  Stripes' 
features  and  how  developing  a  Stripes  application  is  a  step  up  from 

Featured  Partner  Developer  Zones 

Intat  Go  PanWIrt  Portal 
■  P«StmJllori_.r<5T 
AM 064  QevSource 

QttvX  Skllibulldlnnlrow  I6M  <Hm»lQP»rW&rkg 
IBM  Rational  Tpo|s  and  L^earrMnp,  Showya^ 
Avaya  Dgyglppef  C^ry^on  renter 
Microsoft  Visual  Studio  Extan«lbllltv 

Thanks  to  thousands  of  individuals,  corporations,  and  organizations,  the  Internet 
offers  countless  such  metaguide  sites  on  a  huge  variety  of  subjects.  Which  brings  us 
directly  to... 

Rule  Two 

Let  other  people  do  as  much  work  for  you  as 
possible  (use  their  metaguides,  their  FAQs,  their 
expertise  to  your  advantage). 

Directories  are  not  the  only  good  sources  of  general  information.  A  number  of  virtual 
libraries  and  reference  desks  have  sprung  up  on  the  web  and  they  tend  to  be 
terrific  starting  places  for  all  types  of  general  information  because  they  have 
thousands  of  pre-selected  links  to  sources  of  data  the  researchers  know  to  be  good. 

Let's  continue  with  the  Java  example.  If  we  go  to  the  Intute  Science,  Engineering, 
and  Technology  page  (formerly  EEVL,  the  Internet  Guide  to  Engineering, 



DOCID:  4046925 


Mathematics  and  Computing)  and  search  on  java,  we  get  back  a  list  of  highly 
relevant  and  carefully  evaluated  websites: 

intiStC  :  science,  engineering  &  technology 

@@  iiitusc-  >  Science,  Encjineethi;  and  Technology  >  Searth  >  Results 


Aboitl  no 

A./  rtf  ssivjiffli 

jQj^^K   '  .":  ! 




Sli'JljeSt  7\  SlJf! 


.....  Tiniuiui)  Suite 

Initio  events 

We  re«m  moil 

En (jln<; <a i it (j  e .j ui 1 1  n .1  Is  |$ 

Hoi  topic?  h| 

Nonunl  h-izyinls 

Science  flat.t 


Siihjeot  |>.nks 


Woild  (|tii<ie 

Search  Results 

Se.nch  |   !  in  |  All  subjects         §|  & 

Advanced  spare h  Sul'isci  A- 2  Now  rgsciirr?^  HC'ip 

|  Search  term(s)  jw.i  [subject(s):  All]  j 
!  Results  773  ; 

Harvester  results  406:6  f^HL'jJh  s /) ' 

.^Details  Fu||  record      Qo  tQ  websj(e  0  Sgve  RecQrd 

Now  showing:  1  -25  of  773  records 
Page:  12  3^5  ...31 

Peiioteiim  Systems  of  the  Notiiiwest  J<Wi>  Pioviiice.  Jtjv* 
Sonlfieiisl  Sittn.m.i.  Ii}<lmiesi<i 

Order  by  Relevance  I  .^Dtebjtficai 
m  l  Offshoie       %  Details  %  0 

Records  mafked,  0 

This  report  is  available  online  from  ihe  USGS.  Mature,  synrifl  lacustrine  shales  of  Eocene  io 
Oligocene  age  and  mature,  late  rift  coals  and  coaly  shales  of  Oligocene  to  Miocene  age  are  source 
rocks  for  oil  and  gas  in  two  important  petroleum  systems  of  the  onshore  and  offshore  areas  of  the 
Northwest  Java  Basin,  Biogenic  gas  and  carbonate  sourced  gas  have  also  been  identified.  These 
hydrocarbons  are  trapped  primarily  in  anticlines  and  fault  blocks  involving  sandstone  and  carbonate 
reservoirs.  These  source  rocks  and  reservoir  tocks  were  deposited  in  a  complex  of  Tertiary  rift  basins 
formed  from  single  or  multiple  half  grabens  on  the  south  edge  of  the  Sunda  Shelf  plate. 

Focus  on  J.iv.i  ■  %Ociails  0 

Focus  on  Java,  hosted  by,  aims  to  create  an  environment  for  learning  about  the  Java 
programming  language,  by  editing  and  presenting  contemporary  information  about  its  development. 

]  The  site  includes  a  weekly  article  on  Java,  as  well  as  links  of  various  sorts  for  JUGs,  JDKs,  and 
Usenet  groups.  There  is  a  news  section  updated  daily,  tutorials,  documentation  and  source  code  on 
all  aspects  of  Java  scripting  and  programming.  The  site  also  includes  free  tools  and  utilities  as  well 
as  links  to  Java  resource  sites  on  the  Web  such  as  source  code  banks,  web  directories  and  online 

In  addition  to  the  obvious  SUN  sites  about  Java,  there  are  many  others,  such  as 
links  to  Java  FAQs,  news,  tutorials,  course  notes,  seminar  slides,  articles, 
development  tools,  users'  groups,  mailing  lists,  books,  conferences,  links  to  web- 
based  courses,  and  other  resources. 

Now  you  have  a  new  resource  for  future  Java-related  research.  Naturally,  the  first 
thing  to  do  is  bookmark  the  page. 

Rule  Three 

Bookmark  constantly,  organize  your  bookmarks,  and 
back  them  up  as  though  your  life  depends  on  it. 

One  of  the  biggest  and  most  influential  entries  into  the  reference/research  world  on 
the  Internet  is  Wikipedia,  a  self-described  free  encyclopedia  that  anyone  can  edit. 
Because  of  its  growth  and  importance,  Wikipedia  has  earned  a  separate  section  in 
this  year's  edition.  According  to  the  Wikipedia,  the  term  "wiki"  describes  "a  group  of 



DOCID:  4046925 


Web  pages  that  allows  users  to  add  content,  as  on  an  Internet  forum,  but  also  allows 
others  (often  completely  unrestricted)  to  edit  the  content.  The  term  wiki  also  refers  to 
the  collaborative  software  (wiki  engine)  used  to  create  such  a  website  (see  wiki 
software).  In  essence,  the  wiki  is  a  vast  simplification  of  the  process  of  creating 
HTML  pages,  and  thus  is  a  very  effective  way  to  exchange  information  through 
collaborative  effort.  Wiki  is  sometimes  interpreted  as  the  acronym  for  'what  I  know, 
is\  which  describes  the  knowledge  contribution,  storage  and  exchange  up  to  some 
point."28  The  most  obvious  potential  problem  with  an  encyclopedia  that  "anyone  can 
edit"  is  quality  control,  and  in  fact,  one  of  the  Wikipedia's  co-founders  admitted 
serious  problems  with  the  quality  and  accuracy  of  some  (perhaps  a  lot)  of  the 
Wikipedia  content.29  While  there  is  a  tremendous  amount  of  good  information  in 
Wikipedia,  it  should  not  be  relied  upon  as  a  sole  source.  Neither  should  it  be  ignored 
as  this  example  of  a  "disambiguation"  page  on  "java"  shows: 

S  create  account  loy  m 

*  aiticle       discussion  j     ;  edit  this  page  h  history  • 


From  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia. 

The  term  Java  can  refer  to: 
In  geography: 

*  Java  (island),  the  most  populous  island  in  Indonesia 

■  Javanese  language,  a  language  widely  spoken  on  the  island  of  Java 

*  Java  coffee,  a  variety  of  coffee  plant  which  originated  on  the  island  of  Java,  or  a  slang  word  for 

*  Java  Trench,  a  subduction  zone  trench  off  of  the  island  of  Java 
»  Java,  Georgia  (Republic  of  Georgia) 

*  Java,  New  York  (United  States  of  America) 

■  Java,  South  Dakota  (United  States  of  America) 
In  computer  science: 

«  Java  is  a  technology  developed  by  Sun  Microsystems  for  machine  independent  software,  which 

»  Java  programming  language,  an  object-oriented  high-level  programming  language 

*  Java  virtual  machine,  the  virtual  machine  that  runs  Java  byte  code 

■  Java  platform,  the  Java  virtual  machine  plus  associated  libraries 

■  JavaScript,  a  scripting  language  (unrelated  to  the  Java  programming  language). 
Java  may  also  mean: 

Wikipedia  also  has  the  advantage  of  offering  a  free  encyclopedia  in  a  number  of 
languages  besides  English,  including  French,  Polish,  Portuguese,  Spanish,  Dutch, 
Swedish,  Italian,  German,  and  Japanese. 

28  "Wiki,"  Wikipedia,  Wikipedia,  2005.  <>  (14 
November  2006). 

29  Andrew  Orlowski,  "Wikipedia  Founder  Admits  to  Serious  Quality  Problems,"  The  Register,  18 
October  2005,  <  Q/1 8/wikipedia  quality  problem/>  (14  November 



s  Main 

o  Community  Portal 

s  Current  events 

r  Recent  changes 

a  Random  article 

*  Help 

«  Contact  us 
«  Oonfiions 


I —  ~~ 

Go  |    Search  | 

«  What  link?  here 
«  Related  changes 

*  Upload  tile 

a  Special  pages 
w  Printable*  version 



DOCID:  4046925 


To  review,  the  best  starting  places  for  general  information  on  broad  topics  are  web 
directories/subject  guides,  virtual  libraries,  and  reference  desks.  There  are  hundreds 
of  such  websites,  but  I've  selected  a  few  of  the  best. 


Encyclopedia  Britannica30 



Information  Please 

Internet  Library  for  Librarians 

Intute  (formerly  RDN) 

The  Internet  Public  Library 

Librarians'  Index  to  the  Internet 

The  Library  Spot 

Martindale's  The  Reference  Desk 

My  Virtual  Reference  Desk 

Pinakes  Subject  Gateway31  http 


WWW  Virtual  Library 
Yahoo  Reference 

Web  Tip 

Think  of  search  engine  databases  as 
huge  warehouses  in  which  everything 
from  diamonds  to  debris  is  stored.  Your 
job  is  to  find  the  jewels  amid  the  muck. 

30  Although  full-text  articles  require  a  paid  subscription  to  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  the  site  is  still  a 
useful  starting  place  for  research  and  includes  free  access  to  the  Britannica  Concise  Encyclopedia. 

31  Pinakes  is  the  gateway  to  Intute  and  dozens  of  other  equally  valuable  specialized  research  sites. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Search  Savvy — Mastering  the  Art  of 

While  directories  and  virtual  libraries  contain  information  selected  by  people,  search 
engine  databases  are  mostly  unfiltered,  that  is,  no  human  being  is  looking  at  the 
data  being  indexed  to  determine  its  value,  authenticity,  and  reliability.  Search 
engines  are  where  the  researcher's  experience,  knowledge,  judgment,  and  intuition 
really  come  into  play.  Because  of  their  vast  scope  and  size,  search  engines  are  the 
heart  and  soul  of  Internet  search  and  research.  No  other  resource  reaches  as  far  or 
wide  or  quickly  as  a  search  engine.  A  researcher  must  learn  to  use  search  engines 
to  their  fullest  extent  despite  their  limitations. 

Individual  search  engines  have  some  very  important  advantages  over  directories, 
metasearch,  and  megasearch  sites.  Foremost  among  these  is  the  fact  that  they 
have  much  larger  databases  of  indexed  sites.  However,  no  single  search  engine  is 
best  Each  has  its  own  advantages  and  drawbacks.  Furthermore,  there  is  a 
remarkable  lack  of  overlap  among  search  engines  databases,  so  it  is  vital  that 
you  train  yourself  to  use  more  than  one  search  engine. 

Greg  Notess  ran  an  interesting  little  experiment  that  demonstrated  the  need  to  use 
more  than  one  search  engine.  He  was  looking  for  the  real  name  for  an  AOL  screen 
name,  a  piece  of  information  that  is  often  hard  to  find.  One  only  search  engine — in 
his  example,  Yahoo,  found  the  name — while  Google,  Live,  Gigablast,  Ask,  and 
Exalead  all  failed  to  locate  the  information.  It  could  have  been  any  search  engine, 
not  just  Yahoo,  that  provided  the  data,  but  the  point  is  clear:  you  must  try  multiple 
search  engines,  especially  when  looking  for  obscure  or  hard  to  find  information. 

On  a  larger  scale,  the  metasearch  engine  Dogpile  touted  the  results  of  a  2005  study 
they  did  in  collaboration  with  researchers  from  the  University  of  Pittsburgh  and 
Pennsylvania  State  University  showing  a  lack  of  duplication  in  the  top  results  of  the 
major  search  engines. 

"When  the  researchers  ran  12,570  different  queries  through  search  engines  at 
Yahoo,  Google,  MSN  and  Ask  Jeeves,  they  found  that  only  1.1  percent  of  the 
results  appeared  on  all  four  engines,  while  84.9  percent  of  the  top  results  were 

3  Greg  Notess,  "Overlap  Showdown:  Only  1  of  6,"  Search  Engine  Showdown,  28  December  2006, 
<http://www.$  showdown  only  at  1  of  1.shtml> 
(16  January  2007). 


DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  USE  ONLY 

unique  to  one  engine.  Only  2.6  percent  of  the  results  were  shared  by  three 
search  providers,  and  1 1.4  percent  were  delivered  by  two  search  engines." 33 

I  am  not  surprised  by  the  results,  although  I  doubt  the  lack  of  overlap  is  quite  as 
significant  as  the  study  indicates.  The  researchers  used  a  relatively  small  sample, 
they  only  looked  at  the  top  ten  results,  they  included  paid  results,  and — probably 
most  significantly— Dogpile  sponsored  the  study.  If  a  study  to  test  metasearch 
engine  results  compared  to  individual  search  engine  results  concludes  that 
metasearch  engines  do  a  better  job,  it  is  hardly  surprising  (and  not  necessarily 

You  can  read  the  Dogpile/University  of  Pittsburgh  and  Penn  State  University  study 
and  take  a  look  at  Dogpile's  "Compare  Search  Engines"  page  to  see  how  the 
comparison  works. 

Dogpile's  Compare  Search  Engines 

"Different  Engines,  Different  Results" 

All  search  engines  have  their  own  way  of  doing  things,  which  means  there  is  no  set 
of  rules  or  guidelines  that  users  can  apply  to  them  all.  It  helps,  however,  to 
familiarize  yourself  with  the  kinds  of  features  available  so  you  will  at  least  know  what 
to  look  for. 

Often  research  involves  the  search  for  specific  information:  a  telephone  number, 
a  name  or  title,  a  specific  company  or  product,  a  piece  of  equipment,  etc.  Even 
researching  a  general  subject  may  require  a  broader  data  set  than  a  virtual  library  or 
subject  guide  offers  if  you  need  to  find  out  as  much  as  possible  about  a  subject.  For 
example,  if  I  need  to  know  everything  available  on  the  web  about  Mexico  and 
NAFTA,  I  cannot  limit  myself  to  someone  else's  edited  list.  Besides,  there  won't  be  in  collaboration  with  researchers  from  the  University  of  Pittsburgh  and  Pennsylvania 
State  University,  "Different  Engines,  Different  Results,  A  Research  Study,"  July  2005, 
<:http://comparesearchenqines.doqpilexom/OverlapAnalysis.pdf>  (14  November  2006).  I  have 
serious  doubts  about  the  accuracy  of  this  claim,  but  the  general  conclusion  of  the  study  that  there  is  a 
lack  of  overlap  among  search  engine  results  is  valid,  if  exaggerated. 



DOCID:  4046925 


much,  if  any  information  because  I  am  looking  for  specialized  information  (Mexico) 
within  a  big  topic  (NAFTA). 

Compared  to  directories  and  metasearch  services,  individual  search  engines  offer 
much  greater  flexibility  and  many  more  options  for  searching,  not  the  least  of  which 
is  the  ability  to  search  using  boolean  expressions.  Search  engine  companies  have 
concluded  (probably  rightly)  that  boolean  searches  are  beyond  the  ken  of  most 
users,  although  you  may  find  the  boolean  queries  permitted  by  the  best  search 
engines  are  inferior  to  what  you've  used  before. 

One  of  the  hottest  areas  of  contention  surrounding  search  engines  has  always  been 
and  continues  to  be  search  engine  index  size.  I  recommend  you  take  size  claims 
with  a  grain  of  salt.  Search  engine  index  sizes  are  self-reported  and  not  validated  by 
any  objective  third  party.  This  old  contest  came  to  a  head  in  2005.  First  Yahoo 
claimed  to  have  indexed  over  20  billion  "items"  in  its  index.  These  items  included 
"just  over  19.2  billion  web  documents,  1.6  billion  images,  and  over  50  million  audio 
and  video  files."34  Yahoo's  claim  at  first  appeared  to  mark  the  beginning  of  another 
competition  to  retain  the  "honor"  of  having  the  biggest  search  engine  database, 
something  Google  had  prided  itself  on  for  years.  This  time,  however,  instead  of 
fighting  back  with  bigger  number  counts  on  its  homepage,  Google  dropped  those 
numbers  entirely  as  part  of  its  seventh  birthday  celebration  in  September  2005.  At 
the  same  time,  Google  announced  a  "newly  expanded  web  search  index  that  is 
1,000  times  the  size  of  our  original  index... which  makes  Google  more  than  3  times 
larger  than  any  other  search  engine."35  Google  did  not  offer  any  specific  number  but 
insisted  it  offers  the  most  comprehensive  collection  of  websites  and  documents  on 
the  Internet.  Yahoo  makes  a  similar  claim.  The  answer?  There  is  no  one  "best" 
search  engine  or  site;  researchers  need  a  good  toolkit  of  many  resources  when 
looking  for  rare  information. 

Determining  search  engine  database  size  is  something  more  akin  to  alchemy  than 
arithmetic,  so  I  suggest  you  take  all  such  estimates  of  size  with  a  large  dose  of 
skepticism.  Besides,  numbers  are  one  thing  and  good  search  results  are  quite 
another.  What  good  do  20  billion  web  documents  do  if  not  one  of  them  provides  the 
results  you  are  seeking?  Relevant  results  are  the  best  measure  of  a  search 
engine's  value,  but  from  my  experience,  having  a  larger  pool  in  which  to  fish  for 
these  answers  really  does  make  it  more  likely  that  a  search  engine  will  retrieve  the 
results  users  seek  in  the  case  of  obscure  information,  which  is  after  all  the  kind  of 
information  we  are  often  seeking.  Search  engine  size  wars  are  almost  always  a 
good  thing  for  researchers  because  it  keeps  the  big  players  on  their  toes  and 

34  "Our  Blog  is  Growing  Up— And  So  Has  [sic]  Our  Index,"  Yahoo!  Search  Blog,  8  August  2005, 
<http://www.vsearchbloq .com/archives/0001 72.html>  (15  November  2006). 

35  "We  Wanted  Something  Special  for  Our  Birthday,"  Google  Blogspot,  26  September  2005, 
<hUp://qoogleblog>  (15  November 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  official  USE  ONLY 


DOCID:  4046925 


motivates  them  to  improve  their  services.  This  past  year's  competition  was  no 

Another  important  fact  to  remember  is  that  most  search  engines  do  not  index  entire 
websites  or  documents.  It  is  no  longer  clear  exactly  how  much  of  a  webpage  the 
major  search  engines  index.  For  example,  Google  used  to  only  index  approximately 
the  first  100KB  of  HTML,  and  reportedly  the  first  megabyte  of  PDF  documents,  but  in 
October  2005,  Google  dramatically  increased  the  size  of  its  cache  limit.  Yahoo 
indexes  at  least  the  first  500KB  of  HTML  and  PDF  documents.  As  for  Microsoft  files 
types,  my  experimentation  with  them  indicates  that,  in  most  cases,  Yahoo  indexes 
virtually  the  entire  file,  even  in  the  case  of  very  large  documents. 

The  following  is  an  overview  of  the  major  search  engines  in  terms  of  their  features, 
how  to  use  them  effectively,  and  what  makes  each  one  distinctive.  It  is  important  to 
remember  there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  perfect  search  engine.  Each  one  has  its 
advantages  and  drawbacks.  The  only  way  to  fully  exploit  a  search  engine  is  to  take 
the  time  to  learn  to  use  it,  which  means  you  must  read  the  instructions. 

Rule  Five 
Read  the  instructions. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Google  first  gained  fame  and  widespread  use  because  of  its  single-minded  focus  on 
search,  exemplified  by  its  "clean"  interface,  and  its  PageRank™  "weighted  link 
popularity."  In  simple  terms,  Google  gives  each  webpage  a  rank  based  on  the 
number  of  other  pages  linking  to  it  and  the  "importance"  of  those  pages,  where 
importance  is  derived  from  an  overall  link  count.  While  PageRank  is  imperfect,  it 
works  better  than  most  other  approaches  to  ranking  search  results  and,  indeed,  is 
one  of  the  primary  reasons  for  Google's  success. 

Some  of  Google's  features  that  helped  to  create  this  very  successful  and  powerful 
search  tool  are: 

>  cached  versions  of  webpages;  Google  was  the  first  search  engine  to  offer 
this  option,  which  let  users  peek  into  its  vast  database. 

>  automatic  conversion  of  non-HTML  filetypes  to  HTML  is  available;  Google 
was  not  the  first  to  do  this,  but  certainly  has  been  the  most  successful. 

>  backlinks  (the  link:  syntax);  unfortunately,  Google  now  limits  the  number  of 
backlinks  it  shows,  greatly  reducing  the  utility  of  this  option. 

>  Google  seems  to  have  increased  its  limits  on  the  size  of  indexed  pages.  I 

found  an  indexed  PDF  document  over  764K,  a  text  file  over  1000K,  and  a 
webpage  over  366K.  Very  few  webpages  are  larger  than  500K.  Google  does 
not  offer  HTML  versions  of  very  large  PDF  or  Word  documents,  e.g.,  the 
complete  9/1 1  Commission  Report,  but  exactly  what  their  cut-off  size  is,  I  do 
not  know. 

>  Google  refreshes  its  index  continuously,  not  on  a  schedule  (this  is  a  good 
thing);  Google's  Matt  Cutts  explains  Google's  refresh  rate:  "It's  true  that  when 
an  event  happens  on  the  web,  our  index  can  often  pick  it  up  in  1-2  days,  and 
usually  even  faster.  But  a  typical  page  in  Google's  main  web  index  is  updated 
every  2-3  weeks  or  faster;  it's  not  the  case  that  the  entire  main  web  index  is 
updated  every  2-3  days."36 

>  Google  stopped  advertising  the  size  of  its  database  in  2005,  but  Google  is 
one  of  the  largest  if  not  the  largest  search  database. 

In  determining  the  overall  size  of  its  index,  Google  also  includes  urls  of  pages  that 
it  has  not  crawled  and  for  which  it  has  not  indexed  the  text.  These  "orphan" 

36  Matt  Cutts,  "Google  Update  Speed,"  Google  Blogoscoped,  26  July  2006,  <http://bloq.outer- html#n28>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


pages  may  be  any  number  of  things,  including  pages  with  robots.txt  command  or 
tag.  Unindexed  pages  are  identifiable  by  what  they  lack:  no  summary,  no  page  size, 
and  no  cached  copy.  q/rob... 

Similar  Esges 

www.atmos.washi  txt 

Similar  pages 

fi chi er  indi quant  aux  robots  les  endroits  i nterdits  #  #  voir  http  ...  -  [  Translate  this  pags  1 

fichier  indiquant  aux  robots  les  endroits  interdits  #  #  voir  User-agent:  *  Disallow:  ...  -1k-  Cached  -  Similar  paqgs 

vww.pamarvs  .ku  .It/robots  .txt 

Google  no  longer  displays  the  number  of  pages  searched  on  its  home  page,  but  a 
search  on  [the]  returns  an  estimated  4.8  billion  pages,  so  that  represents  the 
minimum  number  of  pages  in  the  Google  database  (in  fact,  it  probably  is  far  larger). 
Remember,  all  size  claims  are  "self  validated,"  so  take  them  with  a  grain  of  salt.  Still, 
for  the  types  of  Internet  research  we  perform,  bigger  really  is  better  because  we 
have  a  much  better  chance  of  finding  obscure  information  in  billions  of  webpages 
than  in  millions. 

Customizing  Google  Preferences 

Google  offers  five  basic  Preferences  settings: 

1.  Interface  language:  if  you  are  more  comfortable  working  in  another 
language,  Google  can  display  in  dozens. 

2.  Search  language:  generally,  most  searchers  choose  to  search  in  any 
language,  but  there  are  occasions  when  it  makes  sense  to  limit  your 
search  to  one  or  more  specific  languages.  Google  supports  35  languages, 
including  non-Latin  languages  such  as  Arabic,  Simplified  and  Traditional 
Chinese,  Greek,  Hebrew,  Japanese,  Korean,  Russian,  and  Turkish. 

3.  Filtering  of  pages  containing  explicit  sexual  content. 

4.  Number  of  results:  a  purely  individual  preference,  but  10  results  per  page 
is  simply  frustrating;  Google  lets  you  see  up  to  100  results  per  page. 

5.  Results  window:  opens  results  in  a  new  browser  window. 

vwvw.stat.vcu  .edu/robots  txt 

Google  Orphans — no  cached 
copy,  no  summary,  no  page  size 

Similar  pages 

indexed  page — cached  copy, 
summary,  page  size 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Google  Results  Page 

Once  you've  entered  your  search  terms  and  selected  the  Google  Search  button, 
Google  will  present  you  with  a  list  of  results  (hits).  For  each  result  returned  you  may 


Home  | 
All  Abojl  Goocile 
Help  Cential 

Search  Help 

Basics  of  Search  j 

Advanced  Search  j 

►  Inteipiet  Results  j 

Customize  \ 

Google  Features 
General  FAQ 
Cowan  Us 

find  on  this  site: 

How  to  Interpret  youtSfarch  Resuhj 

Each  lenei  fs  a  link  to  that  element's  definition: 




ft  Web  Res^is  1  •  10  of  atom  W.»0  ?»  google  addiass  MB&flialilSiatf-  (OJ^  setoHJs) 

Q^-Tip  Frrtd  Maps  by  s  wching    a  sirtei  *Jc«si  waft  c*y  «  ap  code 
j  News  resifls  for  google 

!        CxHKte  Skes  ^  Qi<.frt  by  IccjMtf  ■  5k veHXt **  «<r  - 1  torn  jgo  [.  J~| 

;         GaoQle  Ro3;  Q)J  Sysict  To. Inhere  local  Search  Biafo  '  W^^Vc^  c^  -  5  hours  s^a 


[ ...  AiM<tij»      Us  ■  Bns's>m  Sofctf»ws  ■  Stf<ic»*  *  Toeis  •  Jew.  T  i 

I    _    K      L  M 

r  Google  Corporate 

;  ...  1M0An*hafi(tfePi*\ayUountaInVI»w.  CAW(W  ...  Tiirn  r$h:  o?ao  CHARLESTON 
1 0~j  Cte*  F*51  Landiojs  Dm;  Turn  ]«ti  tntc  ci.sway  31  ihs  "Google"  sign  st . 

>  the  statistics  bar  (F)  describes  the  type  of  search,  e.g.,  web,  and  shows  the 
number  of  results  returned  as  well  as  the  amount  of  time  it  took  to  complete 
your  search 

>  a  tip  (G)  may  appear  here,  but  not  all  queries  generate  tips.  A  typical  tip 
might  be  "Try  removing  quotes  from  your  search  to  get  more  results." 

>  "OneBox  Results"  (H)  typically  include  news,  stock  quotes,  maps,  weather 
and  local  websites  related  to  your  search 

>  the  title  (I)  of  the  webpage  found 

>  an  excerpt  (J)  from  the  webpage  with  your  search  terms  bolded 

>  the  url  (K)  of  the  webpage 

>  you  will  see  Supplemental  Result  only  if  Google  retrieved  the  result  from  its 
supplemental  and  not  its  main  index 

>  the  size  (L)  of  the  text  portion  of  the  webpage  (omitted  if  page  is  not  yet 

>  a  cached  (M)  link  to  the  version  of  the  site  stored  by  Google  if  it  is  indexed 

>  a  similar  pages  (N)  link  for  pages  related  to  this  result 

UNCi_AssiFiED//ron  ornciAL  UGC  ONLY 


DOCID:  4046925 


>  indented  results  (O)  indicate  Google  has  found  more  than  one  result  from 
the  same  website;  the  most  relevant  page  is  listed  first 

>  a  more  results  from  (P)  link  if  there  are  more  than  two  results  from  the  same 

Google  Basic  Search 

Google  assumes  as  its  default  that  multiple  search  terms  are  joined  by  the  AND 
operator,  so  that  a  search  on  the  keywords  [windows  explorer]37  will  find  all  the 
webpages  that  contain  both  search  terms.  Furthermore,  Google  will  first  try  to  find 
all  the  webpages  that  contain  the  phrase  ["windows  explorer"].  Google  will  search: 

>  first,  for  phrases  (keywords  as  one  long  phrase) 

>  second,  for  webpages  containing  all  the  keywords  with  the  greatest 
adjacency  (closest  together), 

>  third,  for  webpages  containing  all  the  keywords,  regardless  of  where  they 
appear  on  the  webpage 

Google  will  not  return  any  results  if  there  is  no  webpage  containing  all  the  search 
terms.  Try  this  query  to  see  what  I  mean: 

[kong  spektioneer  synecdoche] 

There  is  an  exception  to  this  rule.  Google  often  returns  results  when  a  keyword  is 
not  actually  on  a  webpage  but  is  in  a  link  to  a  website,  usually  as  text  in  a  link 

Matt  Cutts,  one  of  Google's  software  engineers  who  also  writes  a  blog  mostly  about  Google,  let  his 
readers  in  on  a  little  bit  of  Google  insider  information.  "At  Google,  we  use  [  and  ]  to  mark  the 
beginning  and  end  of  queries.  So  ["scorpio  submarine"]  means  to  do  a  phrase  search  for  "scorpio 
submarine",  while  [scorpio  submarine]  means  just  to  type  in  those  words  without  the  quotes-you 
leave  the  brackets  out  when  you  actually  do  the  search."  That's  an  interesting  and  useful  bit  of  trivia.  I 
have  tried  various  schemes  to  distinguish  queries  and  ended  up  using  italics  (not  a  very  elegant 
solution).  From  now  on,  I  will  be  using  brackets  to  set  off  queries  in  UTW.  Matt  Cutt's  Blog,  1 1  August 
2005,  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


B  This  is  G  o  ■■>  <j  i  e's  cache  of  as  retrieved  on  May  3,  2005  02:17:43  GMT. 
I  G  o  :*  (j  1  e's  cache  is  the  snapshot  that  we  took  of  the  page  as  we  crawled  the  web. 
I  The  page  may  have  changed  since  that  time.  Click  here  for  the  currant  page  without  highlighting. 
\  This  cached  page  may  reference  images  which  are  no  longer  available.  Click  here  for  the  cached  text  only. 
To  link  to  or  bookmark  this  page,  use  the  following  urf: 

ht>tp  :  / /  ww .  go o grl  c .  « ov>/  seaich^q^c acht :  3TnmyPts  4T<r0 0  J :  mm .  atfticna ains  .  n«c/ my Athens/  +us e 

Google  is  not  affiliated  with  the  authors  of  this  page  nor  responsible  for  its  content. 

These  search  terms  have  been  highlighted:  useiname  login 
These  terms  only  appear  in  links  pointing  to  this  page:  click  here 

Contact  <js  |  Edus?^1  Athene  |  Help 



Tuesday,  3  May  2005 

To  access  your  organisation's  electronic  resources,  log  in  to  MyAthens  with  your  Athens  (itemaint  and  password,  Please 
note  that  the  password  is  case  sensitive, 


>¥  Login 

This  is  a  secure 

Forgotten  your  Athens  account  details?  Don't  have  an 
Athens  account? 

Check  the  Athens  organisation  list  to  contact  your  Athens 
administrator  or  to  find  out  if  your  organisation  uses  Athens,  If 
you  are  not  a  member  of  one  of  the  organisations  listed,  then  you 
are  not  entitled  to  use  Athens. 

Google  limits  the  number  of  search  terms  to  32  keywords.  It  ignores  any  terms 
beyond  that  number.  However,  there  are  ways  to  force  Google  to  search  for  more 
than  32  keywords. 

Google  is  not  case  sensitive.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  anything  you  can  do 
about  this. 

In  late  2003  Google  introduced  automatic  word  stemming  or  truncation,  i.e., 
searching  for  variations  of  search  terms.  Normally,  word  stemming  involves 
searching  for  plurals  and  verb  conjugations  such  as  drink,  drank,  drunk.  However, 
Google's  word  stemming  is  not  consistent  and  somewhat  confusing.  For  example, 
stemming  does  not  work  either  with  single  word  or  phrase  searches,  i.e.,  a  search 
on  [child]  will  not  find  children.  Yet  a  search  on  [child  health]  will  find  child,  childhood, 
children,  and  children's.  Google  will  also  find  some  variations  of  verbs,  e.g.,  a  search 
on  [drink  water]  will  find  drinking  water.  Users  should  still  search  on  all  variations  of  a 
term,  including  plurals.  There  is  a  Google  hack  for  disabling  word  stemming. 

Google  automatically  clusters  search  results.  Multiple  hits  from  the  same  site  are 
indented  and  there  is  usually  an  option  to  see  more  results  from  a  specific  site. 

Google  permits  the  use  of  the  OR  operator  in  simple  search.  The  OR  must  be 



DOCID:  4046925 


Beyond  the  use  of  the  OR  operator  in  its  simple  search,  Google  does  not  support 
boolean  search. 

While  Google  assumes  that  multiple  keywords  are  a  phrase,  searchers  can 
delimit  phrases  using  double-quotes.  For  example,  if  I  search  on: 

[the  last  king  of  france] 

without  double-quotes,  Google  will  ignore  the  "the"  and  the  "of  in  its  search.  The 
results  I  get  include  many  irrelevant  hits,  such  as  music  from  a  group  called  "The 
Last  King"  and  an  article  about  Lance  Armstrong.  However,  if  I  enclose  the  same 
query  in  double-quotes,  Google  will  search  on  exactly  the  phrase  ["the  last  king  of 
france"],  and  return  a  result  with  the  name  of  the  last  king  of  France.  Enclosing 
searches  in  double-quotes  is  much  more  effective  for  finding  precise  results  than 
relying  on  automatic  phrase  searching. 

Google  no  longer  routinely  ignores  stop  words  outside  double  quotes.  Each  of 
these  searches  will  now  return  different  results: 

[the  last  king  of  france]  [last  king  france]  ["the  last  king  of  france"] 

Stop  words  are  English  words  that  are  so  commonplace  they  are  not  included  in  a 
search  unless  the  searcher  forces  Google  to  do  so.  The  stop  words  Google 
recognizes  include:  a,  an,  about,  and,  are,  as,  at,  be,  by,  com,  from,  how,  I,  in,  is,  it, 
of,  on,  or,  that,  the,  this,  to,  we,  what,  when,  where,  which,  with,  why.  There  probably 
are  others! 

However,  Google's  handling  of  stop  words  is  inconsistent.  For  example,  in  the  query 
[to  be  or  not  to  be],  Google  ignores  OR  because  it  may  be  a  logical  operator,  and  it 
also  appears  to  ignore  TO  and  BE,  only  searching  for  NOT.  Therefore,  you  may 
need  to  force  Google  to  search  for  a  stop  word  on  occasion.  There  is  a  Google  hack 
for  forcing  Google  to  search  for  stop  words. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  use  the  plus  sign  (+)  with  any  terms  except  stop  words  because 
by  default  Google  searches  for  all  keywords.  However,  there  are  many  times  when 
searchers  need  to  exclude  certain  terms  that  are  commonly  associated  with  a 
keyword  but  irrelevant  to  their  search.  That's  where  the  minus  sign  (-)  comes  in. 
Using  the  minus  sign  in  front  of  a  keyword  ensures  that  Google  excludes  that  term 
from  the  search.  For  example,  the  results  for  the  search  ["pearl  harbor"  -movie]  are 
very  different  from  the  results  for  ["pearl  harbor"]. 

Google's  handling  of  words  with  diacritical  marks  such  as  accents  or  umlauts  is 
inconsistent.  By  default,  Google  will  search  for  terms  matching  those  with  and 
without  the  diacritic.  As  Google's  Vanessa  Fox  explains,  "When  a  searcher  enters 
a  query  that  includes  a  word  with  accented  characters,  our  algorithms  consider  web 
pages  that  contain  versions  of  that  word  both  with  and  without  the  accent.  For 



DOCID:  4046925 


instance,  if  a  searcher  enters  [Mexico],  we'll  return  results  for  pages  about  both 
"Mexico"  and  "Mexico.""38 

For  example,  a  search  on  [fagade]  will  return  pages  containing  both  facade  and 
fagade.  To  force  Google  to  search  only  for  the  term  with  the  diacritic,  put  a  plus  sign 
in  front  of  the  term:  [+fagade].  You  may  see  a  few  pages  that  do  not  appear  to 
have  the  diacritic,  but  that  is  probably  because  that  term  appears  in  anchor  text  or 
an  inbound  link  that  is  pointing  to  the  page  but  not  actually  on  the  page  in  question. 

However,  Fox  goes  on  to  explain  that  results  also  vary  depending  upon  whether  you 
are  searching  at  or  a  Google  international  site  (e.g.,,  whether 
your  preferred  language  at  Google  is  English  or  another  language,  and  from  where 
you  are  coming  to  the  Google  site  as  indicated  by  your  IP  address.  If  Google  detects 
that  your  IP  address  geolocates  to  Peru,  your  search  results  will  be  different  from 
those  provided  to  someone  coming  to  Google  from  Norway,  regardless  of  the 
preferred  language  or  the  site  you  search.  Also,  users  who  have  registered  with 
Google  and  set  up  personalized  search  will  find  that  their  results  are  affected  by  their 
previous  searches.  In  other  words,  while  there  are  ways  to  manipulate  the  results 
Google  provides,  there  is  no  way  to  control  them. 

Google  treats  most  punctuation  marks  the  same  way,  as  links  in  a  search  string. 
For  example,  Google  handles  a  search  for  [c-span],  [c.span],  ["c  span"],  and 
[c?span]  basically  the  same  way.  However,  a  search  for  [cspan]  with  no  space  or 
mark  is  treated  differently. 

Vanessa  Fox,  "How  search  results  may  differ  based  on  accented  characters  and  interface 
languages,"  Official  Google  Blog,  32  August  31  2006, 

(November  27,  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  will  search  for  several  punctuation  marks  and  special  characters: 

>  the  ampersand  [&]:  Google  will  search  for  [barnes&noble]  or  [barnes  & 

>  the  underscore  [  _  ]:  Google  will  search  for  a  phrase  such  as 
[public_records.doc]  or  even  more  specifically  [public_records.html] 

>  the  dollar  sign  [$],  used  with  a  number,  for  example  [$100] 

>  the  sharp  [#],  for  example  [F#] 

>  the  slash,  but  only  when  used  in  the  search  [I/O] 

>  While  Google  will  not  actually  search  on  a  plus  sign,  the  search  engine  does 
recognize  the  difference  between  searches  for  [c],  [c+],  and  [c++] 

Google  Advanced  Search 

Google  has  a  number  of  "query  modifiers"  to  restrict  searches  and  make  them  more 
effective  in  many  cases.  These  query  modifiers  can  be  used  in  simple  search  in  the 
following  syntax  or  on  the  advanced  web  search  page  using  the  appropriate  menu 
options.  The  query  modifiers  Google  supports  are: 

>  site:  restricts  fesults -to' websites,  irf  a-  Q\yeh.  dom^^.  This  syntax  no  longer 
requires  you  to  add  a  keyword.  Google's  site:  syntax  will  also  search  within 
folders,  e.g.,  [site:jpl.].  Remember  you  can  add  keywords  to 
the  site:  search,  [site :jpl.  "jpl  spacecraft"] 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Domains 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  site:  command: 

[shuttle]  finds  pages  about  the  space  shuttle  at  the  NASA 

[site:info]  finds  all  the  pages  in  the  Google  database  in  the  .info  top-level  domain 

["bulletin  officiel"  site:fr]  finds  pages  in  the  French  top-level  domain  about  official 

[cirrus  -site: mastercard. com]  finds  pages  about  the  keyword  cirrus  that  are  not  at 
the  site 




DOCID:  4046925 


[site:jpl.  "jpl  spacecraft"] 

Web    Images    Video    News    Maps    Desktop    moie  » 



Results  1  ■  3  of  3  from  jpl.nasa.govtechnology  for  "jpl  spaceciaft" 

Tip.  Try  removing  quoles  from  your  search  lo  gel  more  results. 


Manner  10  was  the  first  JPL  spacecraft,  to  transmit  full  resolution  images  in  real  time  from 
planetary  distances,;  to  photograph  Venus,;  to  encounter  and  ...  -  30k  ■  C*cheri  -  Similar  ^ag*:-; 

ipdf]  The  Evolution  of  Technology  in  the  Deep  Space  Network  A  History  ^ 

File  Format  PDF/Adobe  Acrobat  -  View  as  HTML 

Mariner  10  was  the  first  JPL  spacecraft.  (1)  To  transmit  full-resolution  images  in  real  time 
from  planetary  distances.  (2)  To  photograph  Venus.  ... 
deepspace.jpl.nasa. govAechnology/95  J20/95-20.  pdf  -  SjmilarjjaQje? 

Technology  -  Images  &  Videos 

JPL  spacecraft  have  visited  ail  known  planets  except  Pluto  (a  Pluto  mission  is  currently 
under  study  for  the  early  part  of  the  next  decade). 

wwv\'  -  17k  ■ 

i  ached  -  Similar  r^ges 

>  intitle:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  containing  the  keyword  in  the  title. 
Advanced  Web  Search  >  Occurrences 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  intitle:  command: 

[intitle:amazon]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in  their  title 

[intitle:amazon  "rain  forest"]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in  their 
title  and  mention  the  phrase  "rain  forest"  anywhere  in  the  document  (title  or  text 
or  anywhere  in  the  document) 

>  allintitle:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  containing  all  the  keywords  in  the  title 
of  the  document. 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Occurrences 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  allintitle:  command: 

[allintitle:amazon  jungle  "rain  forest"]  finds  pages  that  include  ai[  the  words  in  the 
title  (not  the  text)  of  the  document,  e.g., 

<title>Amazon  Rain  Forest  Jungle  Tours</title> 

>  inurl:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  containing  the  keyword  in  the  url. 
Advanced  Web  Search  >  Occurrences 

UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ormaAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


Examples  of  how  to  use  the  inurl:  command: 

[inuit.nasa]  finds  all  pages  that  include  nasa  anywhere  in  the  url  (address) 

[inurknasa  -site:gov]  finds  all  pages  that  include  nasa  anywhere  in  the  url  of  sites 
that  are  not  in  the  .gov  top-level  domain 

[inurl:nasa  shuttle]  finds  all  pages  that  include  nasa  anywhere  in  the  url  of  the  site 
and  shuttle  anywhere  in  the  document  (url  or  anywhere  else). 

>  allinurl:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  containing  all  the  keywords  in  the  url. 
Advanced  Web  Search  >  Occurrences 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  allinurl:  command: 

[allinurhnasa  shuttle]  finds  all  pages  that  include  both  nasa  and  shuttle  in  the  url 
of  the  site. 

>  link:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  that  have  links  to  a  specific  webpage.  39 
Cannot  use  with  keyword  search  terms. 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Page  Specific  Search  >  Links 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  link:  command: 

[]  finds  all  pages  linking  to  the  NOAA  homepage. 

[]  finds  all  pages  linking  to  a  specific  page  at  the 
NOAA  site. 

>  info:  presents  information  Google  has  about  a  webpage.  This  option  is  only 
available  via  the  main  Google  search. 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  info:  command: 

[]  provides  links  to  Google's  cache  of  the  page,  pages  that  are 
similar  to,  pages  that  link  to,  and  pages  that 
contain  the  term 

The  Google  link:  command  no  longer  shows  all  links  as  it  once  did  in  order  to  cut  down  on  the 
amount  of  webspam  created  by  hidden  links  on  webpages.  Therefore,  the  Google  link:  command  is 
not  nearly  as  useful  as  it  used  to  be. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Web    Images    Video    News    Maps    Desktop    more  » 



Advanced  Search 


NOAA  Home  Page 

an  agency  of  the  US  Department  of  Commerce.  Conducts  environmental  research, 


Google  can  show  you  the  following  information  for  this  URL:| 

♦  Show  Google's  cache 

♦  Find  web  pages  that  are  similar  to 

♦  Find  web  pages  that  link  to 

♦  Find  web  pages  from  the  site  www. 

♦  Find  web  pages  that  contain  the  term  "" 

>  related:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  Google  has  determined  are  similar  to 
a  specific  webpage, 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Page  Specific  Search  >  Similar 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  related:  command: 
[]  finds  other  US  government  homepages. 

>  cache:  presents  the  version  of  the  webpage  Google  has  stored.  This  option  can 
also  be  accessed  by  clicking  on  the  Cached  link  on  the  main  results  page. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  cache:  command: 

[cache:www.]  shows  the  stored  version  of  the  NASA  homepage 

[  hurricane]  shows  the  stored  version  of  the  NOAA 
homepage  with  the  keyword  hurricane  highlighted. 

With  no  fanfare,  Google  once  again  began  showing  the  date  and  time  when  a 
webpage  was  cached.  This  is  not  a  new  feature  in  Google;  the  Google  cache 
option  showed  date/time  until  mid-2000  when  date  and  time  unceremoniously 
disappeared.  Now  it's  back.  Who  knows  why?  Who  cares?  It's  a  good  thing. 
Here's  what  you'll  see: 



DOCID:  4046925 


j  This  is  G  o    g  I  e's  cache  of  as  retrieved  on  Oct  30 ,  2005  03: 1 1 :51  GMT. 

I  Go    (|  I  e's  cache  is  the  snapshot  that  we  took  of  the  page  as  we  crawled  the  web. 

I  The  page  may  have  changed  since  that  time.  Click  here  for  the  current  page  without  highlighting. 

;  This  cached  page  may  reference  images  which  are  no  longer  available.  Click  here  for  the  cached  text  only. 

;  To  link  to  or  bookmark  this  page,  use  the  following  url: 

<  Ivtsep  :  //  www.  googl  c  .  e»xn/  jsaicK?q=cacht :  JGBHAXmoBeUJ:  www.l  ib  .  vir  g  ij\  i  a  .  cdu/  jc  ienc  e/ i  des/  s-c  1  inn .  ht:nr*4hl  =en 

j  Google  is  neither  affiliated  with  the  authors  of  this  page  nor  responsible  for  its  content. 

Important:  there  is  a  Google  hack  that  lets  you  view  the  cached  text  only  version 
without  first  viewing  the  cached  page  containing  images  and  other  non-text  data 
that  could  send  information  back  to  the  original  website.  Giqablast  also  offers  a 
"stripped"  cache  option. 

>  filetype:  Google  will  search  the  content  of  many  file  types  and  must  be  used  with 
keyword(s).  However,  there  is  a  Google  hack  that  lets  you  get  around  the 
keyword  requirement.  Microsoft  filetypes  are  potentially  dangerous  to  open  in 
their  native  formats.  Please  follow  these  instructions  for  handling  Microsoft  files 
on  the  Internet  safely. 

Warning:  use  Google  option  to  "view  as  html"  instead  of  opening  certain  file 
types  (mainly  Microsoft  Word  and  Excel)  that  could  contain  macro  viruses. 

Google  will  search  the  content  of  these  file  types: 


Corel  WordPerfect  (wp) 

Lotus  1-2-3  (wk1,  wk2,  wk3,  wk4,  wk5,  wki,  wks,  wku) 

Lotus  WordPro  (Iwp) 

MacWrite  (mw) 

Microsoft  Excel  (xls) 

Microsoft  PowerPoint  (ppt) 

Microsoft  Word  (doc) 

Microsoft  Works  (wks,  wps,  wdb) 

Microsoft  Write  (wri) 

Portable  Document  Format  (pdf) 

Postscript  (ps) 

Rich  Text  Format  (rtf) 

Text  (ans,  txt) 

Macromedia  Shockwave  Flash  (swf) 



DOCID:  4046925 


Example  of  a  filetype:  search: 

Advanced  Search    Preferences    Language  Tools    Search  Tips 

|filetype:doc  bulletin  Google  Search 

iDociTechnical  Daails  on  Microsoft  Product  Activation  for  Windows  XP 

^ileFormat  Microsoft  Word  2000  -  View  as  HTML 
TeclTrm^fHvt5TT<et  Biillelfn  August  2001.  ...  Appendix  A:  This  bulletin 
and  Microsoft  Product  Activation  for  Office  XP  Family  Products.  ... 

ww, microsoft. com/piracy/basifis/gctivatiori/  wintlaw£productactivatirjritechnjcalrnarketbulletin.doc  -  Similar  paq&s 

[filetype:doc  bulletin]  will  find  MSWord  documents  containing  the  keyword  bulletin 

For  details  on  how  to  use  the  Google  filetype  option,  please  refer  to  the  Google 
Filetype  help  FAQ.  Also,  there  are  a  number  of  undocumented  file  type  searches 
available  using  Google. 

Google  Special  Search  Features 

Spell  Checker:  Google  has  a  very  good  spell  check  option.  When  you  input  a  query, 
Google  checks  to  see  if  you  are  using  the  most  common  spelling  of  the  keyword.  If 
not,  Google  nicely  asks,  "Did  you  mean:  x?"  where  x  is  the  most  common  spelling.  I 
really  love  this  because  Google  doesn't  presume.  Sometimes  you  are  intentionally 
misspelling  a  term.  The  classic  example  is  [http  referrer].  This  computer  term  is 
almost  always  misspelled,  so  searching  on  [http  referrer]  won't  yield  nearly  as  many 
results  as  searching  on  the  misspelled  term.  Google's  dictionary  also  includes 
proper  names. 

Calculator:  the  Google  calculator  will  evaluate  basic  and  complicated  mathematical 
expressions  as  well  as  convert  units  of  measurement  and  physical  constants. 
Soople  makes  the  Google  calculator  extremely  easy  to  use.  For  detailed  help  in 
using  the  calculator,  see: 

Google  Calculator  Help 

Dictionary:  Google  has  integrated  dictionary  definitions  into  its  search  options. 
Nothing  could  be  easier  to  use.  Underlined  keywords  appearing  at  the  top  of  the 
results  page  are  linked  to 

Define:  new  to  Google  is  the  define  option.  To  use  it,  enter  define  then  a  word  or 
phrase.  This  feature  augments  the  dictionary  option  by  searching  a  wider  variety  of 
sources.  For  example,  the  query  [define  blog]  will  return  a  web  definition  as  the  first 
result.  The  advantage  of  the  define  option  is  that  the  definition  appears  at  the  top  of 

Google  Filetype  FAQ  filetvpes.html 



DOCID:  4046925 


the  Google  results  list,  whereas  using  the  dictionary  option  (clicking  on  define) 
requires  the  user  to  click  on  the  link  and  go  to  that  site  to  read  the  definition. 

Weh    Images    Groups    Mews    Froogle    Local"**''    Desktop    mote  ;> 

j-r-^  <z         wen  ima1 

Web  Results  1  - 100  of  about  11,600,000  for  define  blog  with  Safesearch  on.  (0;68  seconds) 

Web  definitions  for  Blog  j         sponsored  Links 

tf&F*-  Blog  is  short  for  weblog.  A  weblog  is  a  journal  (or  newslelter)  that  is  frequently  updated  j 

"  and  intended  for  general  public  consumption.  Blogs  generally  represent  the  personality   j  Set  Up  Your  Blog  for  Free 
of  the  author  or  the  Web  site.  \  Instantly  look  like  a  pro  &  create  -  Definition  in  context  j  b'ogs  tnat  9et  noticed  &  read  often 


Translations:  Currently,  Google  offers  webpage  translations  to/from  English  and 
Arabic,  simplified  Chinese,  French,  German,  Italian,  Japanese,  Korean,  Portuguese, 
Russian,  and  Spanish.  If  a  page  appears  in  the  results  list  in  one  of  the  languages 
Google  translation  supports,  you  will  see  [Translate  this  page]  after  the  page  title. 
All  the  newest  additions  to  Google's  translation  list  use  statistical  machine  translation 
software  developed  by  Google  and  the  quality  of  these  translations  is  far  superior  to 
that  provided  by  Systran.  These  languages  include  at  present  Arabic,  simplified 
Chinese,  Japanese,  Korean,  and  Russian. 

Number  Search:  The  numbers  Google  will  search  for  include: 

>  US  Patent  numbers:  syntax  is  [patent  5521308] 

>  UPS  tracking:  enter  the  tracking  number  with  or  without  spaces 

>  USPS  tracking:  enter  the  tracking  number  with  or  without  spaces 

>  FedEx  tracking:  enter  the  tracking  number  with  or  without  spaces 

>  DHL  and  Airborne  Express  tracking:  enter  DHL  plus  the  tracking  number 
[DHL  9999999999];  DHL  queries  are  the  least  reliable  on  Google 

>  ZIP  codes:  enter  a  US  ZIP  code,  either  five  or  nine  digits 

>  ISBN:  enter  any  International  Standard  Book  Number 

>  VIN  Information:  to  find  information  about  a  vehicle's  history,  search  on  its 
17-character  Vehicle  Identification  Number  (VIN) 

>  FAA  airplane  registration  numbers:  [n158ua]  (simply  enter  the  FAA 
registration  number;  no  special  syntax  is  required) 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  FCC  equipment  Ids:  syntax  is  [fee  EJM386S303] 

Weather:  The  Google  weather  search  is  for  US  locations  only.  Simply  enter  the 
keyword  weather  followed  by  a  city  and/or  state  or  even  just  a  zip  code  (which  works 
just  fine  by  itself)  and  Google  will  present  you  with  an  attractive,  succinct  weather 


Web  ^^il^  Qfnup^  Ijavs   F  too  ale  LtH£j       PesNipR  mote » 

Web  Results  1  - 100  asout  555  for  weaiim  94 101  0,35  seconds) 

Weather  Tor  San  Francises,  CA 

wen  Thu 

54"  F 

Mostly  Cloudy 

wmrj  &v/aii2mph 

HumitfBy  82-%  63'  I  id'       66" !  49" 


55'  I  51 " 


IT*  T| 

US  Los ai  Weatliw.  Service 
Current  weather  reports  &  fa  ret^sis 
foi'VObf  ar*a  with  teaWme  updates 

Airport  Delays  and  Weather:  To  see  delays  and  weather  conditions  at  a  US 
airport,  enter  the  airport's  three-letter  code  and  the  word  airport.  For  example,  to  see 
delays  and  weather  conditions  at  Baltimore-Washington  International,  enter  [bwi 
airport].  At  the  top  of  the  Google  results  page  you  will  see  the  image  of  an  airplane 
followed  by  a  link  to  "View  conditions  at  Baltimore-Washington  International  Airport 
(BWI),  Baltimore,  Maryland."  The  link  takes  you  directly  to  the  FAA's  Air  Traffic 
Control  System  Command  Center's  real-time  status  information  page  for  BWI. 

Phonebook,  Street  Maps,  and  Stock  Quotes:  US  residential  and  business 
phonebook  lookups,  US  addresses,  and  US  stock  exchange  data.  Please  see 
Google  Help  for  information  on  using  these  features: 

Google  Help 

Google  Guides:  Did  you  know  that  Google  publishes  "a  variety  of  reviewer's  guides 
to  selected  Google  products  on  the  Google  Press  Center"  designed  for  journalists 
who  are  reviewing  these  products?  However,  the  guides  are  very  well  done  and 
include  a  lot  of  useful  set-up  and  user  instructions. 

Google  Guides 

Google  Services 

Google  has  many  services  hidden  behind  its  spare  homepage.  By  selecting  "more" 
and  then  "even  more"  on  the  homepage... 



DOCID:  4046925 


Well    jmases  'Vide a    Naws    Mags  mofe_ 



Amortising  Ftop/stas-»  Business-  So^uttaras  ■  About  Goa-glo 

You  will  see  the  many  products  and  services  Google  offers  that  are  not  reflected  on 
the  "googlized"  homepage. 


V^f  Shop  for  items  to  buy  online  and  at  local  stores 
r--f^\  Images 

XJiOp   Search  for  images  on  the  web 


Find  local  businesses  and  get  directions 


View  maps  and  gel  direclions 

News  -  now  with  archive  search"**"* 
Search  thousands  of  news  stories 


Search  scholarly  papers 

IS     Specialized  Searches 
4Jt    Search  within  specific  topics 


Add  a  search  box  to  your  browser 

Q$k  Vide 
■Bp  Sear 

Search  TV  programs  and  videos 

Q      Web  Search 
~\    Search  over  billions  of  web  pages 

ijgg}  Web  Search  Features 
SjjSSS'   Find  movies,  music,  stocks,  books,  and  more 

^|  Pieasa 

Find,  edit  and  share  your  photos 


Create  3D  models  for  Google  Earth 

ts^  IM  and  call  your  friends  through  your  computer 
£i^~  Translate 

^       View  web  pages  in  other  languages 
Go  mobile 

Jlfjj  Maps  for  mobile 

vS^     View  maPs  an^  9et  directions  on  your  phone 

}/  Mobile 

Use  Google  on  your  mobile  phone 


0^  Use  text  messaging  for  quick  info 
Make  your  computer  work  better 

**JaF    A  free  collection  of  essential  software 

Web  Accelerator 
Speed  up  the  web 



Gel  email  updates  on  the  topics  of  your  choice 

nd  blogs  on  your  favorite  topics 

Book  Search 

Search  the  full  text  of  books 

•pQ  Catalogs 

V^i    Search  and  browse  mail-order  catalogs 

j/-ti    Complete  online  purchases  more  quickly  and  securely 

(0  ~ 

Search  and  personalize  your  compuler 

,^yy  Directory 

Browse  the  web  by  topic 


Explore  the  world  from  your  PC 


Business  info,  news,  and  interactive  charts 

Explore  and  innovate 

...  Code 

Download  APIs  and  open  source  code 

Co-op  -  now  with  Custom  Search  Engine^'*'' 
Cantiibute  your  expertise  and  customize  the  web  search  experience 

^11  Labs 

(||    Explore  Google's  technology  playground 
Communicate,  show  &  share 


Share  your  life  online  with  a  blog  ■■  it's  fast,  easy,  and  free 


Organize  your  schedule  and  share  events  with  friends 
Docs  &  Spieadsheets 

Create  and  share  your  projects  online  and  access  them  from 


ll_J    Fast,  searchable  email  with  less  spam 
Cp1  Groups 

<SS"     Create  mailing  lists  and  discussion  groups 

News:  Google  News  headlines  are  entirely  generated  using  a  computer  algorithm 
that  scours  more  than  4500  worldwide  news  sources.  Google  News  also  offers 
international  editions  for  France,  Germany,  India,  Italy,  Spain,  and  several  other 
countries.  For  details  on  Google  News,  see  the  news  search  engine  section  below. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Images:  Google  Images  indexes  more  than  a  billion  images  in  JPEG,  GIF,  and  PNG 
(Portable  Network  Graphics)  formats.  The  Advanced  Image  Search  lets  users  limit 
searches  by  filetype,  size  of  image,  coloration,  and  site  or  domain. 

Google  Image  Search 

Book  Search:  To  use  the  book  search,  simply  preface  any  search  with  the  keyword 
book  or  books.  The  first  three  results,  if  there  are  any  matches,  will  come  from 
Google  Book  Search. 

Groups:  Google  acquired  Deja,  the  last  remaining  Usenet  newsgroup  search 
engine,  in  2001.  Even  before  that,  Google  began  its  own  Usenet  archive  in  August 
2000.  The  complete  Usenet  archive,  more  than  a  billion  messages  dating  back  to 
1995,  is  searchable  via  Google  Groups.  In  2004  Google  introduced  a  new  version  of 
Google  Groups  that  includes  a  mailing  list  and  discussion  forum  creation  option  to 
rival  Yahoo  Groups1  similar  service.  Also  new  is  the  ability  for  registered  users  to 
keep  track  of  their  favorite  topics  using  the  star  ($?)  feature.  By  clicking  the  star  next 
to  a  favorite  topic,  that  topic  is  added  to  the  user's  "My  starred  topics"  page.  Postings 
now  appear  in  minutes  in  Google  Groups  rather  than  the  hours  it  used  to  take. 

Google  Groups  still  offers  both  a  simple  and  advanced  interface  to  search  the 
newsgroup  postings.  Both  interfaces  are  extremely  easy  to  use.  Google  Groups  not 
only  returns  results  (sorted  by  relevance  or  date),  it  also  shows  you  the  most 
relevant  groups  for  your  topic.  So  a  search  on  the  term  oceanography  suggests  I 
might  want  to  take  a  look  at  the  related  groups  sci.qeo.oceanoqraphv  and 
bionet.bioloqy.deepsea.  Newsgroup  searching  in  general  and  Google  Groups  are 
discussed  in  greater  detail  in  a  later  section. 

Google  Groups 

Mobile  SMS  Search:  This  service  is  different  from  the  SMS  text  messaging  that  has 
been  available  at  AOL,  Yahoo,  Live  Search,  etc.,  for  some  time.  The  new  Google 
SMS  permits  queries  using  mobile  technology.  Google's  SMS  service  offers  similar 
services  but  with  different  shortcuts.  It  is  open  to  all  US  subscribers  using  a  "major" 
US  cell  phone  provider  and  also  to  most  UK  mobile  subscribers.  The  US  number  is 
46645  (GOOGL  on  most  phones)  and  for  the  UK  it  is  64664  (6GOOG  on  most 
phones).  Google  explains  how  to  use  the  SMS  search  service  and  offers  a  number 
of  sample  queries  at  its  new  SMS  webpage. 

Google  SMS 

Patent  Search  (beta):  New  for  2007,  Google  Patent  Search  now  has  its  own 
discrete  page.  Users  could  always  search  for  US  patents  by  number,  but  Google 
decided  to  create  a  separate  page  for  these  searches.  The  new  site  offers  many 
advanced  search  options,  including  options  to  search  by  patent  number,  title, 
inventor's  name,  assignee's  name,  US  and  international  classifications,  and  issue  or 
filing  date  range.  Even  more  valuable  than  the  search  options  are  the  view  choices. 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASSIFlED//ron  ornciAL  U3C  ONLY 

The  new  Google  patent  search  has  the  ability  to  show  you  the  patent  itself,  complete 
with  zoom,  page  scrolling,  drawings,  internal  search,  and  other  patents  that 
reference  the  current  one.  Here  is  the  drawing  of  H.  K.  Markey  (aka  the  actress 
Hedy  Lamarr)  and  George  Antheil's  1941  patent  for  a  "secret  communication 
system"  that  used  a  new  concept:  frequency  hopping. 

Google  |ininven(or.Hedy  ininventor  Kiesler  ininvsntor:f    Sb arch  Patents  | 


Aug.  Si,  1942,  H.  K  MARKEY  ET  AL  2^92,387 


FU«d  Jun«  iO,  1941  2  Sh»ot9-3tKiet  1 

^4  Page | 

Sign  in 

<r*>  Full  scieer 

9  Patent  summary 

Potent  number  22923B7 
Filing  date:  Jun  10,  1941 
Issue  date:  Aug  1 1 ,  1942 

More  aboul  this  patent 

&  Patent  sections 


[  Description 
i  Claims 

B  Search  within  this  patent 

I  Go  I 

Google  Patent  Search 

Blog  Search:  Google  Blog  Search  is  a  direct  competitor  with  Technorati,  until  now 
the  big  dog  on  the  blog  search  block.  Despite  all  the  chatter  about  them,  blogs  are 
still  kind  of  mysterious  and  confusing  in  part  because  there  are  lots  of  things  called 
blogs  that  don't  fit  the  earlier  definition.  Blogs  originally  referred  to  on-line  personal 
journals,  often  updated  daily,  but  now  everything  using  RSS  or  Atom  (XML  formats 
for  distributing  newsfeeds)  seems  to  be  considered  a  blog.  Therefore,  blog  search 
engines  generally  restrict  themselves  to  indexing  and  searching  for  anything  that 
uses  a  site  feed.  Google  Blog  Search  is  no  exception.  The  new  Google  Blog  Search 
FAQ  says,  "The  goal  of  Blog  Search  is  to  include  every  blog  that  publishes  a  site 
feed  (either  RSS  or  Atom)."  [emphasis  added]  This  means  that  Google  Blog  Search 
defines  "blog"  as  any  site  with  an  XML  site  feed,  and  that  is  fine  as  long  as  we  know 
what  we're  getting.  However,  Google  Blog  Search  is  apparently  excluding  feeds  from 
news  sources  to  try  to  prevent  overlap  between  Google  News  and  Blog  Search. 


UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


Keep  in  mind  that  Google  Blog  Search  only  indexes  the  site  feed,  not  the  full 
content  at  the  website  that  originated  the  feed. 

Google  Blog  Search  indexes  feeds  dating  back  to  January  2000.  Also,  one  of  the  big 
advantages  of  the  XML  format  is  that  it,  unlike  HTML,  includes  date/time  data,  which 
means  you  can  use  Google  Blog  Search  to  find  information  from  a  specific  day  or  a 
range  of  dates.  Google  Blog  Search  will  also  enable  users  to  search  entire  blogs  or 

specific  posts. 

Some  of  the  Google  Search  operators  work  in  Google  Blog  Search  and  it  has  its 
own  unique  operators,  too,  as  the  About  Google  Blog  Search  page  explains: 

All  of  the  standard  Google  Search  operators  are  supported  in  Blog  Search.  These 

>  link:  [very  useful  in  finding  who's  linking  to  whom] 

>  site: 

>  intitle: 

Additionally,  Blog  Search  supports  the  following  new  operators  of  its  own: 

>  inblogtitle: 

>  inposttitle: 

>  inpostauthor: 

>  blogurl: 

For  example,  a  search  such  as  [mandolin  inpostauthor:Graham]  will  show  you  posts 
about  mandolins  written  by  people  named  Graham.  Note  that  you  can  also  use  the 
Advanced  Search  option  to  achieve  the  same  effect. 

In  addition,  you  can  restrict  your  results  to  any  one  or  any  combination  of  35 
languages  using  the  Advanced  Search  option.  Google  Blog  Search  will  also  give 
users  the  option  of  subscribing  to  the  blogs  in  the  news  aggregator  of  your  choice. 

The  main  drawback  of  Google  Blog  Search  seems  to  be  that  it  indexes  only  the 
content  of  feeds  and  often  what  is  syndicated  in  a  newsfeed  is  very  sparse. 
Technorati  wins  hands  down  on  this  point  because  it  does  do  full  text  searching. 
Google  may  eventually  decide  it  needs  to  do  so  as  well.  After  all,  this  is  a  beta 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Blog  Search 

About  Google  Blog  Search  bloqsearch.html 

Directory:  Google's  web  directory  uses  the  Open  Directory  Project's  collection  and 
its  own  search  technology  to  rank  the  sites  based  upon  "importance"  (which  usually 
means  popularity).  Google  Directory  lets  users  limit  searches  to  a  specific  directory 
category.  For  example,  if  I  search  the  directory  for  the  keyword  [afghan],  Google 
presents  two  categories: 

By  selecting  the  Regional  >  Asia  >  Afghanistan  category,  I  have  the  option  to  search 
only  in  this  category,  thus  focusing  my  search  and  avoiding  irrelevant  results.  The 
Google  Directory  contains  over  1.5  million  urls. 

Video  Search:  As  of  the  first  of  the  year  2007,  Google  Video  began  to  include 
results  from  YouTube,  which  it  purchased  in  October  2006.  For  now,  when  users 
click  on  the  YouTube  results,  they  are  taken  to  the  YouTube  website.  YouTube 
videos  do  not  appear  on  the  Google  video  homepage,  only  in  search  results  where 
they  are  recognizable  from  their  address. 

Google  Video  Search  is  a  way  to  search  and  view  TV  shows,  including  news, 
entertainment,  and  more,  for  free.  The  search  includes  not  only  national  networks, 
such  as  ABC,  CBS,  NBC,  and  CNN,  but  also  local  programming  and  shows  from 
around  the  world.  How  does  this  work?  Google  Video  indexes  the  closed  captioning 
of  TV  shows  so  that  when  you  search  for  a  keyword,  it  finds  that  word  in  the 
captioning  transcripts  and  displays  a  list  of  the  shows  with  that  keyword.  In  most 
cases,  you  can  only  see  still  shots  of  the  show,  but  in  a  few  instances,  you  will  be 
able  to  view  the  entire  broadcast.  This  is  a  very  new  Google  option,  and  it  is  sure  to 
expand  and  improve  over  time. 


Regional  >  Asia  >  Afghanistan 

Recreation  >  Pets  >  Dogs  >  Breeds  >  Hound  Group  ?  Afghan  Hound 

Google  Directory 

DOCID:  4046925 


One  of  the  best  features  of  Google  Video  is  that  you  do  not  need  any  special 
software  to  view  the  videos,  only  Macromedia  Flash  Player,  which  is  a  free  browser 
plug-in  that  most  users  already  have  on  their  computers. 

Google  Video  offers  users  the  opportunity  to  rank  video  using  a  system  of  one  to  five 
stars  for  users  to  rate  videos  as  well  as  the  ability  to  add  labels  (tags  to  describe  a 
video)  and  comments. 


VideoO  ^" 

Web  linages  Video  News  Maps  [.■esk;pp  inoie  >. 
liran  Search  £4hj>M±&yk 

New!  Upload  your  videos 

Top  100  Comedy  Music  videos  Movies  Soorls  Ammaiion  TV  shows  Google  Picks 

One  hour  video  about  Iran 

...  v fry  ftfrirtgfr  rami}/. 


|  53  rnin  23  so-c  -  Api  19.  2006 
\  Add  kihol 

;    Download    for  |  Windows /Mac 

;  r  feu  -fe^iii^^  j 

I  This  is  a  one  hour  video  all  about 

■<  Frj"  -  Next  Vl'Jeo  n 

Ptoylisl  -  Delail;  -  From  user  -  Related  - 
;  Comments"'1"''  -  Flag  as  inappropriate 

Continuous  Playback:  0[-i  -  OFF 

One  hour  vidao  aboul 

•    ' '     '  J  — 

L»;'s  Bomb  Irani 
4tvs  Productions 
3  rni.-i 

Woman  Police  in  itan 

Bomb  Itan 
3  min 

There  are  some  of  the  operators  that  work  in  Google  Video: 

title:  enter  the  name  of  a  TV  show  on  one  of  the  stations  Google  Video 
indexes,  with  or  without  keywords.  For  example: 

[title: nature]  or  [title:newshour  robotics] 

genre:  enter  news,  comedy,  music,  animation  with  or  without  a  keyword;  I 
recommend  referring  to  the  complete  list  of  genres  on  the  Advanced  Search 

type:  enter  sports,  music_video,  movie  with  or  without  a  keyword 



DOCID:  4046925 


duration:  short  (<  4  min.),  medium  (4-20  min.),  or  long  (>  20  min.)  with  or 
without  a  keyword. 

is:free  or  is:forsale  determines  whether  or  not  the  search  finds  free  or  for 
purchase  videos. 

language:  limits  the  search  to  videos  in  a  specific  language  using  the  same 
digraphs  as  main  Google  search. 

Google  Video 
Google  Scholar 

In  November  2004,  Google  introduced  a  new  tool  called  Google  Scholar.  Here's  how 
the  Google  site  describes  it:  "Google  Scholar  enables  you  to  search  specifically  for 
scholarly  literature,  including  peer-reviewed  papers,  theses,  books,  preprints, 
abstracts  and  technical  reports  from  all  broad  areas  of  research.  Use  Google 
Scholar  to  find  articles  from  a  wide  variety  of  academic  publishers,  professional 
societies,  preprint  repositories  and  universities,  as  well  as  scholarly  articles  available 
across  the  web."  Moreover,  "Google  Scholar... automatically  analyzes  and  extracts 
citations  and  presents  them  as  separate  results,  even  if  the  documents  they  refer  to 
are  not  online.  This  means  your  search  results  may  include  citations  of  older  works 
and  seminal  articles  that  appear  only  in  books  or  other  offline  publications."  Google 
Scholar  not  only  indexes  journal  articles,  dissertations,  and  technical  reports,  it  also 
indexes  books,  which  means  you  can  use  Google's  new  Library  Search  (OCLC's 
WorldCat  search)  to  locate  the  book  in  a  local  library  or  find  a  place  to  purchase  the 
book  online. 

Although  a  number  of  scholarly  search  sites  and  tools  already  exist — e.g.,  CiteSeer, 
DOAJ,  ArXiv,  and  even  Google's  own  partnership  with  IEEE — the  fact  that  the 
premier  search  engine  has  branched  off  into  scholarly  search  is  obviously 
significant.  Google  Scholar  searches  across  a  far  wider  range  of  sources  than  any 
other  publicly  available  scholarly  search  tool  currently  available.  Users  should  be 
able  to  read  at  least  an  abstract  of  articles  that  require  registration  and  access  the 
full  text  if  they  or  their  institution  have  a  subscription  for  the  content.  The  best  thing 
about  Google  Scholar  is  that  it  gives  users  the  range,  power,  and  flexibility  of 
Google.  As  far  as  I  can  tell,  all  the  types  of  Google  syntax — site:,  inurl:,  filetype:, 
etc. — work  with  Google  Scholar.  You  can  limit  your  search  to  file  type  using  either 
the  filetype:  or  ext:  syntax,  e.g.,  [ext:pdf]  (filetype:  and  ext:  work  interchangeably). 
The  most  useful  addition  to  Google  Scholar  is  probably  the  new  author:  syntax 
(which,  by  the  way,  already  existed  in  Google  Groups  search). 

As  you  can  see  from  this  query,  Google  Scholar  searches  and  retrieves  scholarly 
references  from  many  types  of  sources  and  also  provides  a  handy  "Cited  by"  link 
that  shows  all  the  pages  referring  to  the  original  work. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google*  f 


author  candy  "artificial  intelligence''  jftSej 


Results  1  -  14  of  14  for  author:candy  "artificial  intelligence"  (0.09  seconds) 

ibook]  Artificial  Intelligence:  A  Modern  Approach  -  Library  Search  -  Web  Search 

S  Russell,  P  Norvig,  JF  Camly,  JM  Malik,  DD  ...  -  Cited  1956 
Englewood  Clis.  WJ:  Prentice  Hall.  1 995 

[citation]  Creative  design  of  the  Lotus  bicycle:  implications  for  knowledge  support  systems  research  -  Web  Search 

L  Candy,  E  Edmonds  -  Cii©c|_b^20 
Design  Studies,  1996 

Support  for  collaborative  design:  Agents  and  emergence 

EA  Edmonds,  L  Camly,  R  Jones,  B  Soufi  -  C:|Ttd  by _38 

...  10  Jones,  RM  and  Edmonds,  EA  A  framework  for  negotiation.  In  CSCW  and 

Artificial  intelligence,  J.  Connolly  and  EA  Edmonds,  Eds.  ... 

Communications  oflhe  ACM,  1994  -  portal.  -  portal, 

Issues  in  the  Design  of  Expert  Systems  for  Business 

E  Edmonds,  L  Candy,  P  Slattsr.  S  Lunn  -  Ciisd  by  1 

...  INDEX  TERMS  Primary  Classification:  ["Computing  Methodologies  1.2  ARTIFICIAL 
INTELLIGENCE  1.2.1  Applications  and  Expert  Systems  Subjects:  Office  automation.  ... 

Expert  Systems:  Human  Issues  -  portal, 

{pop]  Introducing  creativity  to  cognition 

L  Candy,  E  Edmonds  -  Cited  by  3 

...  fortunate  to  welcome.  To  anyone  who  has  even  heard  of  Artificial  Intelligence, 
Marvin  Minsky  needs  no  introduction.  In  his  forthcoming  ... 

Proceedings  of  the  third  conference  on  Creativity  &  ... ,  1999  -  -  pQrial.acm.orci 

Google  Scholar  also  offers  an  advanced  search  option.  It  certainly  simplifies 
searching  for  articles  by  author,  articles  published  in  a  specific  publication,  and 
words  in  the  articles'  title.  However,  as  with  most  date  searches,  forget  it.  I  searched 
for  articles  about  chemistry  published  in  the  year  2020  and  found  three.  Either 
Google  knows  something  about  the  future  that  we  don't  or  their  software  is 
misreading  some  number  as  a  year.  The  advanced  Google  Scholar  search  also  let 
users  limit  their  search  by  publication.  This  is  somewhat  misleading  because  the 
"publication"  can  be  a  citation,  article,  or  book,  although  there  is  no  way  to  tell 
Google  Scholar  to  distinguish  among  these  choices.  Also,  the  publication  searches 
are  imperfect;  a  search  limited  to  the  publication  Nature  also  returns  results  from 
Nature  Medicine,  for  example. 

During  2006,  Google  Scholar  added  a  new  feature  that  "will  make  it  easier  for 
researchers  to  keep  up  with  recent  research... It's  not  just  a  plain  sort  by  date,  but 
rather  we  try  to  rank  recent  papers  the  way  researchers  do,  by  looking  at  the 
prominence  of  the  author's  and  journal's  previous  papers,  how  many  citations  it 
already  has,  when  it  was  written,  and  so  on.  Look  for  the  new  link  on  the  upper  right 
for  'Recent  articles1— or  switch  to  'All  articles'  for  the  full  list."40 

Dejan  Perkovic,  "Keeping  up  with  recent  research,"  Google  Biogspot,  20  April  2006, 
<>  (31  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Also  new  for  2006  was  a  related  search  option:  "For  every  Google  Scholar  search 
result,  we  try  to  automatically  determine  which  articles  in  our  repository  are  most 
closely  related  to  it.  You  can  see  a  list  of  these  articles  by  clicking  the  'Related 
Articles'  link  that  appears  next  to  each  result.  The  list  of  related  articles  is  ranked 
primarily  by  how  similar  these  articles  are  to  the  original  result,  but  also  takes  into 
account  the  relevance  of  each  paper."41 

Peter  Jacso  has  called  Google  Scholar's  quality  into  question  in  his  excellent  and 
thorough  analysis  of  Google  Scholar's  citation  ability.  Jacso,  Professor  of  Library 
and  Information  Science,  University  of  Hawaii,  concluded  that  "Google  Scholar  (GS) 
does  a  really  horrible  job  matching  cited  and  citing  references."42  There  are 
numerous  other  scholarly  citation  search  options  (CiteSeer,  ISI  Highly  Cited,  and 
Scirus)  that,  for  now  at  least,  are  superior  to  Google  Scholar. 

However,  I  would  not  count  Google  Scholar  out  in  the  long  run.  Google  Scholar  is 
yet  another  example  of  what  are  called  "vertical  search  engines,"  that  is,  search 
services  that  focus  on  indexing  and  searching  specialized  data  sources.  Vertical 
search  has  fundamentally  replaced  the  portal  concept  as  a  more  targeted,  less 
manpower-intensive,  and  more  cost  effective  means  of  getting  the  right  information 
to  the  right  people  at  the  right  time. 

Google  Scholar 

Advanced  Google  Scholar  Search  scholar  search 

Google  Trends 

Google  unveiled  Google  Trends  in  May  2006  and  set  a  lot  of  people  thinking  about 
its  potential  utility.  Google  Trends  is  a  new  technology  that  lets  users  see  how  many 
searches  have  been  performed  on  one  to  five  terms  and  where  those  searches 

"Google  Trends  analyzes  a  portion  of  Google  web  searches  to  compute  how 
many  searches  have  been  done  for  the  terms  you  enter  relative  to  the  total 
number  of  searches  done  on  Google  over  time.  We  then  show  you  a  graph  with 
the    results — our    search-volume    graph — plotted    on    a    linear  scale. 

Luiz  Barroso,  Distinguished  Engineer,  "Exploring  the  scholarly  neighborhood,"  Google  Blogspot, 
22  August  2006,  <> 
(10  October  2006). 

42  Peter  Jacso,  "Google  Scholar  and  The  Scientist"  Peter  Jacso's  Review  Extras,  October  2005, 
<>  (31  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Located  just  beneath  our  search-volume  graph  is  our  news-reference-volume 
graph.  This  graph  shows  you  the  number  of  times  your  topic  appeared  in  Google 
News  stories.  When  Google  Trends  detects  a  spike  in  the  volume  of  news  stories 
for  a  particular  term,  it  labels  the  graph  and  displays  the  headline  of  an 
automatically  selected  Google  News  story  written  near  the  time  of  that  spike. 
Currently,  only  English-language  headlines  are  displayed,  but  we  hope  to  support 
non-English  headlines  in  the  future.  Below  the  search  and  news  volume  graphs, 
Google  Trends  displays  the  top  cities,  regions,  and  languages  for  the  first  term 
you  entered."43 

There  are  some  very  important  limitations  to  Google  Trends,  however.  First  of  all, 
the  feedback  provided  by  Google  Trends  is  based  on  a  portion  of  Google's 
searches,  not  all  of  them.  Google  Trends  seeks  to  provide  "insights  into  broad 
search  patterns,"  not  detailed  and  verifiable  data  about  searches.  Second,  "as  a 
Google  Labs  product,  it  is  still  in  the  early  stages  of  development,"  meaning  it  is 
prone  to  error  because  "several  approximations  are  used  when  computing  your 
results,"  but  Google  does  not  say  what  these  are.44 

Here's  a  look  at  Google  Trends'  results  for  the  query  comparing  search  terms  ["north 
korea",dprk]  for  all  regions  and  all  years.  Note  that  in  Google  Trends,  you  can 
compare  terms  by  using  a  comma  to  separate  them. 


north  koreou.dprk 

'ou  can  compare  searches  tiy  Stboarating  wiih  ( 

Trend  history 

J  Cilies  !  Regions  Lanqu, 

Top  cities  iniimgiizadj 

1.  Seoul,  South  Korea 

2.  Washington.  DC,  USA 

3.  Seattle,  WA,  USA 

4.  Austin.  TX,  USA 

5.  New  Yolk,  NY,  USA 

All  Regions  \r|  |  All  yecirs  i£] 

;a]  DPRK  confirms  train  explosion 
Xinhua  ■  Apr  24  2004 

[ Bj  DPRK  to  suspend  participation  in  six-party  talks  far 
"indefinite  period" 

People's  Daily  Onlirr*  ■  Feb  10  2005 

[cj  US  has  "good  discussions"  with  DPRK,  says  Hill 
Xinhua  Sep  16  2005 

[Dj  US  not  to  atlack  or  invade  DPRK 
Pe3ceJoum3lisrn,com  -  Sep  19  2005 

!_Ej  China,  OPRK  mark  45th  anniversary  of  friendship  treaty 
Xinhua  ■  Jul  ID  2006 

UN  Security  Council  unanimously  adopts  resolution  on 
DPRK  missile  launches 
Psnple's  Daily  Online  -  Jul  16  2006 

43  "About  Google  Trends,"  Google  Trends,  2006,  < 
(31  October  2006). 

44  Google  Trends. 



DOCID:  4046S25 


Despite  all  its  limitations,  I  am  intrigued  by  the  potential  this  tool  offers.  For  example, 
if  I  were  looking  back  over  the  past  couple  of  years  for  a  very  obscure  term,  I  would 
definitely  use  Google  Trends  to  see  if  I  could  discern  anything  useful  from  this  data. 

Google  Trends 
Google  Guides 

Did  you  know  that  Google  publishes  "a  variety  of  reviewer's  guides  to  selected 
Google  products  on  the  Google  Press  Center"  designed  for  journalists  who  are 
reviewing  these  products?  However,  the  guides  are  very  well  done  and  include  a  lot 
of  useful  set-up  and  user  instructions. 

Google  Guides 

f  Web  Tip 

Everything  isn't  on  the  Internet 
(or  it's  not  free)! 

Contrary  to  popular  opinion,  everything  is  not  on  the  Internet.  In 
fact,  much  of  the  kind  of  information  you  are  used  to  working  with 
is  not  and  never  will  be  on  the  Internet.  Unrealistic  expectations 
about  the  kinds  of  information  you  may  find  on  the  Internet  can 
lead  to  frustration  and  wasted  time  and  effort.  A  general  rule  of 
thumb:  the  more  sensitive,  rare,  or  expensive  the  information,  the 
less  likely  it  is  to  be  on  the  Internet.  Also,  much  valuable  data  on 
the  Internet  requires  payment. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Hacks 

Google  hacks — a  term  usually  associated  with  the  book  of  the  same  name  published 
by  O'Reilly  Publishing — are  tips,  tricks,  techniques,  and  scripts  that  make  Google 
more  powerful  and  useful.  Some  are  extraordinarily  simple,  such  as  being  conscious 
of  word  order,  while  others  are  either  so  complicated  ("scraping  the  code")  or  trivial 
(Googlisms)  that  I  doubt  many  of  you  will  ever  need  them. 

Because  there  is  so  much  interest  in  Google  hacks,  I  thought  I  would  catalog  links  to 
the  best  sites  on  the  web  for  finding  more  information  about  Google  hacks  as  well  as 
bring  the  best  Google  hack  techniques  together  in  one  place. 

First,  a  word  about  Google  APIs,  which  are  used  to  create  many  Google  hacks.  API 
stands  for  Application  Programming  Interface.  Google  offers  its  own  free  APIs 
developers'  kit,  which  provides  documentation  and  example  code  for  using  the 
Google  Web  APIs  service 45  That's  fine  if  you  are  in  a  situation  that  permits 
downloading,  installing,  and  running  code  from  the  web,  but  that  is  not  always  an 
option.  However,  many  Google  hacks  either  do  not  require  an  API  key  or,  if  they  do, 
are  available,  thanks  to  the  kindness  of  strangers,  on  websites. 

Best  Google  Hack  Websites 

The  Official  (but  not  the  best):  Google  hacks  from  O'Reilly.  Taken  directly  from  the 
book  of  the  same  name  by  Tara  Calishain  and  Rael  Dornfest,  the  complete  list  of 
100  hacks  is  here,  but  only  a  few  have  details  about  how  to  use  them. 

Google  Hacks  http://hacks.oreilly.eom/pub/ht/2  Google  Hacks  Archive.  Much  better  source  of  Google  hacks 
from  Tara  Calishain's  website.  Google  hacks  are  listed  by  date  and  you  can  search 
the  site. 

Researchbuzz  hacks.shtml 

Google  API  FAQs.  Everything  you  need  to  know  about  Google's  API  service. 
Remember,  this  process  involves  registration,  downloading  software,  and  other 
interaction  with  Google,  so  it's  not  for  everyone. 

Google  API  FAQS 

45  "As  of  December  5,  2006,  we  are  no  longer  issuing  new  API  keys  for  the  SOAP  Search  API. 
Developers  with  existing  SOAP  Search  API  keys  will  not  be  affected."  Google  SOAP  Search  API 

<http://code.>  (20  February  2007). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Stagqernation:  Three  Google  APIs. 

>  API  Proximity  Search  (GAPS)  "uses  the  Google  API  to  search  Google  for  two 
search  terms  that  appear  within  a  certain  distance  from  each  other  on  a  page. 
It  does  this  by  using  a  seldom-discussed  Google  feature:  within  a  quoted 
phrase,  *  can  be  used  as  a  wildcard  meaning  'any  word.'"  This  is  a  very 
useful  tool]  it  gives  users  the  option  of  searching  for  two  terms  within  one, 
two,  or  three  words  of  each  other  in  any  order  or  a  specific  order. 

§®@®©@©[natiOlfj  [writing]  [noted] 

[SECOND  JOCKEY  IN  A  ONE-HORSE  TOWN]  [texts]  [latest]  [abOUt] 

{  COCle]       Pl"gtns  for  M<»v*bl<*  Type  (  GAf>'»  j  GARB  CI  |  GAV/SM  j 

Google  API  Proximity  Search  (GAPS)  [■' ... 

Read  Me  ! 

I  _    ■  within  [TH  word®  of  |   _  |  iPSe^Sl 

;   |  in  thatorder    j^J   |  Sort  by  title         g|  Additional  terms:  |^ 

|   Show  |  All  ^  results,  with  up  to  1 10  ^r]  from  each  query    G  Filter  each  query  j  '■ 

License  key  (optional)  lf  Vou  have  V°ur°wn  Google  API  license  key.  uue  mould  appreciate  your  entering  I 

|    j  it  here.  It  mill  be  used  only  fortKe  searches  you  do  umh  this  script,  and  it  wrill  noi  [  ■ 

i    |    be  stored  anywhere  or  used  in  any  other  way. 

>  API  Web  Search  By  Host  (GAWSH)  "uses  the  Google  API  to  search  Google 
for  a  query  string,  and  returns  a  list  of  the  web  hosts  found  in  the  set  of 
results.  You  can  then  expand  any  of  these  hosts  and  display  only  the  results 
from  that  host... Clicking  on  the  triangle  to  the  left  of  a  host  will  perform  the 
same  query  again,  but  restricted  to  that  host  (using  Google's 
""  query  syntax),  and  expand  the  listing  to  display  the  first 
10  results."  I  have  to  admit  I  find  this  particular  script  more  confusing  than 
useful.  I  prefer  to  use  Google's  site:  syntax,  but  others  may  find  this  API  to 
their  liking. 

>  API  Relation  Browsing  Outliner  (GARBQ)  uses  the  Google  API  to  search 
Google  for  pages  that  are  either  related  to  (using  the  related:  keyword)  or 
linked  to  (using  the  link:  keyword)  that  URL.  Does  not  add  a  great  deal  to 
what  Google  can  do  already,  beyond  offering  the  option  to  view  the  results 
as  snippets  or  urls. 

Google  Rankings.  This  site  contains  a  number  of  different  options  created  as  search 
engine  optimization  tools  for  website  creators  and  maintainers.  However,  some  of 
these  Google  tools  are  what  you  might  call  "dual  use  technologies." 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Keyword  Density.  Probably  not  something  everyone  needs  everyday,  but  a 
pretty  neat  tool.  It  lets  you  enter  a  url,  then  see  which  are  the  words  and 
phrases  that  address  uses  most  in  the  form  of  a  detailed  report  on  their 
numbers  and  density.  Although  it  was  designed  as  a  search  engine 
optimization  tool,  I  can  see  its  utility  as  a  rudimentary  traffic  analysis  tool. 

Google  Rankings 


Eater  ih»  domain  or  URL  of  vgiji  v/ebstle-  :o  see  which  are  Ihe  wurds 

arcc  a  uses,  most,  see  3  detailed  «port    Hieii  timbers-  and  densrl? 

URL  erf  your  website:  hirp://T™ 

Ignore  words  0/    characters'  in  tength  or  less.  |  Minimum  occurences;  fT 

Include  the  following: 

Word  Fitters 

F  include  Page  TiEle 

F  Use  our  de^lt  kod  word  Irst 

F  Inc&Kfe  Mfeta  tac  Keywords 

Ignore  the  follow  na  word  fist 

Flnr  tude  Meta  tag  Description 

r  tncKide  orfy  she  following  word  fist 

Sepafate  words  by  a  spacs  or  pus  one  word  p#  lift& 

>  Mass  Keyword  Search:  This  tool  lets  you  enter  from  two  to  ten  keywords  and 
a  url  to  see  where  (if  anywhere)  the  site  ranks  in  Google  vis-a-vis  those 
keywords.  The  tool  only  searches  up  to  the  top  1000  Google  sites.  This  could 
be  useful  to  see  if  an  unusual  term  is  found  at  a  specific  site. 

>  Mass  Domain  Search:  With  this  tool,  you  can  enter  up  to  10  different  urls 
(domains)  for  the  same  keyword  and  check  the  position  of  the  websites  in 
Google  up  to  the  top  1000  sites.  This  could  be  useful  to  see  where  an 
unusual  term  ranks  in  a  number  of  different  sites  at  once. 

FindForward.  If  you  love  Google,  you  will  probably  find  Philipp  Lenssen's  creation 
very  useful.  Lenssen  has  done  Google  one  better  by  creating  a  simple  way  to  power 
search  Google  with  the  help  of  the  Google  Web  APIs.  All  users  have  to  do  is  to  enter 



DOCID:  4046925 


a  query  (FindForward  supports  all  basic  and  advanced  Google  search  options  and 
syntax)  and  select  the  type  of  search  desired  from  the  pulldown  list.  As  you  can  see 
from  the  list  below,  there  are  many  possible  types  of  searches  available.  Try  the 
Search  Grid  option,  in  which  you  can  enter  up  to  five  keywords  to  create  a  grid 
showing  inter-relationships  of  the  terms.  Try  [iran  korea  nuclear  terror],  for  example. 
Then  there  is  the  potentially  dangerous  Just  Files  option  for  searching  website 
directories  that  were  (probably)  not  meant  to  be  browsed. 

Find  Forward 

Faaan  Finder's  Google  Ultimate  Interface.  A  useful  and  friendly  Google  interface  that 
allows  users  to  maximize  Google  power  without  learning  the  syntax  that  it  deserves 
to  be  on  this  list.  (for  Internet  Explorer)  (for  Mozilla  browsers) 

Soople.  A  Google  interface  that  makes  Google's  advanced  features  so  easy  to  use 
it's  amazing.  The  main  page  offers  lots  of  query  boxes  that  enable  users  to  run 
complex  Google  queries  without  knowing  anything  about  Google.  But  I  think  the  best 
Soople  tool  is  the  calculator  page.  Did  you  know  Google  has  a  very  powerful 
calculator  function  as  a  basic  part  of  the  search  engine?  Most  people  don't,  and 
even  if  they  did,  they  wouldn't  use  it  because  it  is  not  what  I  would  call  intuitive. 
Therefore,  the  Soople  calculator  interface  to  the  Google  calculator  is  a  godsend  for 
the  mathematically  impaired  such  as  yours  truly. 

i  Image  Direct 
|  Amazon 
I  Chat  Search 
i  Search  Grid 
|  Tags 

!  Get  Questions 
|  Global 
I  Just  Files 
jMeta  Search 
j  Backlinks 
I  Old  Pages 
\  Lucky  First 

[Wildcard  Word    :jj  Find 

i  Randomize 
|  Ask  Question 

j  1950-2000 

Wildcard  Phrase 
|  Grow  Word 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  ugc  only 


Mam  Page 




Phone  &  Location  Superfilter 

Smart  calculator  (captain) 


Quick  unit  converter  (explain) 


Choose  uoit 


T*p:  Convert  many  measures/units 
Like  '  15  va'ds  in  me  tars ' 

*n:     Choose  uflit 


jenter  number    \*  zl  jenler number 

K Trigonometric  functions  texpUirQ 
|  Smus     3  l-r,le'  9  rtumber  CaJculetel 

Hoba-  numbars  aro  aistimcd  bo-  be  radians 
T/th*rvise  type  'decrees  the  n^m^er 

In  (logarithm  liasg  e)  (gxptafn) 
'  [enter  a  numbe<  Calculate! 

Find  the  remainder  after  division  (explain) 
Divide.-  |snte? e number    ay:  | enter  e  number 
Find  the  remaindgr  [ 

10/  pc> Mutate  the  percentage  of,.,  t>*p**m) 


enter  a  number    percent  of;  |entBr  a  number 

#  root  Of...  (expUian) 

|  Choose  roci      jefiier  6  number  Cglculaigt 

J     /_  F 

tog  (logarithm  base  1U)  (explain) 
er\W  o  f^um  ber  Calcwiolel 

)r*  Choose :  determine  the  number  of  woys  of 

27    Choosing  (explain) 

|enter  e  number    choose  | enter  a  number 
Calculate  I 

Soople  Calculator  php?sub=calculator 

Compare  Google  Results  From  Different  Countries.  This  is  a  valuable  and  much 
needed  new  tool.  This  site  lets  you  run  one  query  simultaneously  against  two 
different  Google  locations.  What  is  more,  it  also  lets  you  choose  between  two 
different  Google  datacenters.  For  example,  if  you  select  ""  as  a 
datacenter,  the  query  could  go  to  a  number  of  different  access  points.  It  is  probably 
better  to  pick  a  specific  Google  datacenter.  The  site  also  lists  many  but  not  all  local 
Google  domains.  If  you  select  a  local  domain,  the  search  and  results'  language  will 
default  to  that  country's  language.  However,  if  you  specify  a  local  Google  domain, 
the  tool  may  use  any  existing  datacenter. 

It  is  not  really  as  hard  to  use  this  tool  as  I've  made  it  sound.  You  can  easily  play 
around  with  this  tool  and  see  what  works  for  you.  Here's  an  example  of  a  search  for 
a  Spanish  term  in  the  US  using  the  generic  ""  and  the  local  Google 
and  datacenter  for  Spain.  The  results  are  quite  different. 


DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Geotargeted  World-Wide  Search  across  Data  centers  and  Countries 

[  BdcMo .iJ^.u^.oit  |  Moro  mfunootien  I  pk  cation  f  CunUct  me  ] 
Query  \b\*&t£i 

location  1;  \Un^a^'.nt5'5  *\ 
oocenter  i  |  nviw qaogle  corn  j»J 

Location  2: 

|  (local) 



V.wh  tm^K^  ViW*"  t&&\  flHWff 



%n.jf1r  jrtj  •(•^'i'  j>j14t>  h»tt<>;  ^t.(l  nun  ft  In  < 

Avwe:  AttaT-H  ts  w  onh*  wands  pmfrtw  co'esJOWl  mt-imj  trr«  tMcai;t*3!i> 

«♦    Y.'J*«rcftSr  r:$  t'.it'  A*    "    '■    .        "  ■  . .  ■ 

luij  Mo*1**  i«>  *th>ii*\<l\  i*1l>  rm>f»iif*^S!i  .lir^-jt  «*>?»j«f?  J*fl"*!ini* 
CjAd  till  Ifhi  "ytlc*  44A  ,lt»^  (fl*^fc*rjlUr-  or  ih*  hu^r  ratvjK 

•m»  j>!>;  f»sj*{f"'J|'.  "ys^if  .**r-*?;V3  'it-'tT-    •»    .'   -.>•  >■  "  -  '  "V  . 
Uii  .<i*vu  -.romtM  asm  tijj:*  Lfcnry  ror  l+^*ar  \n\m  .. 

—   -^r    '  f;-V  .;  >  _A.v"<"  •  ,\i  •  •.  >!;.- 

t*i:  5iw,is:(vif  is  flu  lam*)  pt»-f«w>r         C.  Ivy*:  arj  to  y^Ars^'a^er . 

«* -.^i       ^'  k."  :ir,<-  •t-.v.z         "  ':  >>S    -  ' 

Gouole  p 

Web  RfiRutta^  1  -  20  d'sptoiimatiftfnew  30.500.0QO  pei  s  alviiiaj  {0,19  s&g 

a-a Wares  com  .Home 

Atv<iiez  Ptimera  empiesa  espansls  enve^ia  tut  tmefrel  tJs  cszs,  pesca, 
golf,  nauttca,  e^tilscion,  buceo  v  esqui  Tcdos  ios  productos  d!  T=jor  ptecia 
v.£  en-    -  '2k  -         •  r     I'.Tivii'i  -  t-:  _'  ■      t  !f.L<f 

TAnt<Ui  V  P  ■  tv.-/->'  i- ..  v.i-J"  >__".'-  s  . .  .on.  phprp:-  £,i  ■  >  - 1 2 


Alvarez  Guitar 

Acajfl;c  ar>d  elecliic  gyii3rs  Banjo-s  and  martdciins 

^..v/  ,-il'Alt (..u        fcf.  •  ■.  .  .  |    .  .  •   ■  ,     (.  i  -  P_,_;__> 


W  hetmano  Piimgo  en  cl  tefed  sn'o  de  TVcS  A^af  rr;j  hpimano 
Ao:ua.:o  Vel^z  FL  PfTIHOO  en  el  Jeled'snn  de  feleitsion 
espanois  ... 

<  lie- A(uar«7  (Jfin'iAPaw. 

Using  Google  to  search  for  terms  using  non-Latin  character  and/or  diacritical  marks 
remains  problematic.  I  recommend  that  you  put  a  plus  sign  in  front  of  any  non- 
English  term  when  using  this  tool.  While  the  Google  geographic  comparison  tool  is 
imperfect,  it  is  a  useful  and  interesting  way  to  see  how  Google  handles  queries 
differently  depending  upon  geographic  region. 

Compare  Google  results  for  different  geographic  locations 

Simply  Google.  On  one  page  you  can  see  and  use  pretty  much  every  Google 
search,  find  most  Google  sites,  link  to  all  the  Google  blogs,  and  even  locate  some 
other  search  blogs  and  sites.  This  really  is  a  useful  site.  Notice  the  live  bookmarks 
for  all  the  blogs.  Google  search  syntax  works  fine  here  (it's  just  an  interface  to  the 
"real  thing"). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Sites 

Gooole  Analytics 
G&sole  Account 

Gcccle  Suggest 
Gcccle  Sets 
GfrfeCEld  Moon 
Gtccle  M^r^ 

GcoQle  Current  TV 
Gscqle  Zeitgeist 

Google  Fun 

Cubase  Google 
Google  Gulp 
Giecla  Romance 


Video  Player 








Google  Searches 

History  f 
Bookmarks  f 
Linyy  f 

A££i§  r 
Microsoft  T 
Movies , 

Definitions  I define 




Google  Blogs 

Officral  Googje  BfoqSl 
Ad  words  API  S3 
Bjooeer  Bu;z  © 

Google  Enterprise  S5 
Google  ^3ps  API  SI 
Gooqla  ReaderS? 

Inside  AtfSense  S 
Inside  Ad  Words  53 
Inside  Desktop  Q 
In*  ids  Sitemap  S3 

Other  Blogs 

Google  ElQooscQ&ed  Q 
Search  Engine  Watch  S3 
Inside  £>t>oak  53 

BatSe  lie's.  SearchbtoQ 

Weather  weather  Uitebcc  co  uk 


The  Answer  the  answer  to  life.  Ibe  univers  Seaich 

One  thing  that  I  found  really  interesting  behind  the  concept  of  this  page  is  that  it  has 
been  "de-googlized."  What  does  that  mean?  Well,  "googlizing"  a  home  page  means 
stripping  it  down  basically  to  one  thing,  in  Google's  case,  that  one  thing  is  search. 
The  critics  of  googlization  point  out  that  while  that  worked  great  for  Google,  it  rarely 
works  most  of  the  time  for  the  simple  reason  that  most  websites  are  trying  to  do 
something  more  than  just  one  thing.  In  fact,  "the  experience  of  using  Google  is  not 
the  experience  of  using  any  other  site.  People  go  to  Google  to  search  the  entire 
web.  People  go  to  other  sites  for  other  reasons  and  to  do  other  things,  sometimes 
many  other  things.  Furthermore,  Google  is  not  simple!  It  just  hides  its  complexity 
behind  that  plain  homepage. 

Simply  Google  qooqle.htm 

Jared  Spool,  "Home  Page  Googlization,"  User  Interface  Engineering,  April  6, 
2006,  <>  (30  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Related  Image  Search.  The  ever-creative  Philipp  Lenssen  has  developed  a 
new  tool  that  looks  for  related  images.  It  is  a  small  PHP5  script  that  is  "first 
screenscraping  Google  Sets,  and  then  it's  screenscraping  Google  Images  (once  per 
term  found  in  the  set,  which  is  why  this  takes  some  seconds)."  <http://bloq.outer-  .html>  I  have  to  say  it  is  mostly  a  novelty  at  this  point,  but  the 
results  are  interesting  and  could  potentially  be  useful.  Here  are  the  results  for  the 
query  [solar  system,  milky  way]: 

Fiftcf  Rented  Images 

Term  (like  frrrw  or  brad  p> tt) : 
|soloi  system*  nvilky  ffubfftrt  ] 

Pt&sulls  for  >.o!3r  System,  ir,i)ky  w<?y: 

Notice  that  you  can  search  for  up  to  two  terms  separated  by  a  comma.  That  means 
that  you  can  search  for  [solar  system,  milky  way]  but  a  search  for  three  single  terms, 
e.g.,  [mercury,  pluto,  mars]  may  return  strange  results  at  this  time.  In  any  event,  this 
is  an  interesting  and  unique  tool,  so  if  you  need  to  search  for  related  images,  this  is 
the  place  to  start. 

Google  Find  Related  Images 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Best  Individual  Google  Hacks 

While  not  the  only  useful  and  interesting  Google  hacks,  these  are  among  the  most 
valuable  and  less  well-known  techniques  every  serious  searcher  needs  to  know. 

How  Google  Parses  Queries.  Google  is  sensitive  to  the  number  and  order  of  query 
terms.  If  you  enter  the  query  [windows  explorer]  without  quotation  marks,  Google  will 
first  try  to  find  all  the  webpages  that  contain  the  phrase  ["windows  explorer3']  Google 
will  search: 

>  First,  for  keywords  as  one  long  phrase. 

>  Second,  for  webpages  containing  all  the  keywords  with  the  greatest 
adjacency  (closest  together). 

>  Third,  for  webpages  containing  all  the  keywords,  regardless  of  where  they 
appear  on  the  webpage. 

Word  Order  Matters.  Google  gives  more  weight  to  the  first  term  in  a  query,  so  put 
the  most  important  search  term(s)  first  Try  these  two  queries  and  you'll  see  how 
different  the  results  are:  [new  york  city]  vs.  [city  york  new] 

Repetition,  Repetition,  Repetition.  If  you  keep  getting  irrelevant  hits,  you  can  try 
repeating  a  keyword  that  will  be  emphasized  by  Google,  such  as  [java  coffee  coffee 
coffee],  which  cuts  down  considerably  on  the  number  of  results  about  the 
programming  language. 

Boilerplate  Words  or  Phrases  Yield  Gold.  Used  in  combination  with  keywords, 
standardized  words  or  phrases  can  produce  very  useful  results  from  Google. 
Whether  it's  "company  proprietary,"  "not  for  distribution,"  or  a  copyright  disclaimer, 
these  are  the  kinds  of  identifying  query  terms  that  searchers  need  to  look  for.  Tara 
Calishain  sites  the  example  of  using  "copyright  *  the  new  york  times  company"  plus 
keywords  to  locate  not  only  articles  at  The  New  York  Times  website  but  those 
reprinted  elsewhere. 

Disabling  Word  Stemming.  The  problem  with  Google's  word  stemming  is  that 
Google  does  not  give  users  the  option  to  turn  it  off,  which  can  frustrate  users  trying 
to  perform  precise  searches.  However,  if  you  put  a  plus  (+)  sign  in  front  of  a 
term,  this  will  disable  word  stemming. 

Searching  on  Stop  Words.  There  are  two  ways  to  force  Google  to  search  on  stop 
words  such  as  the,  a,  an,  I.  The  first  is  to  include  stop  words  in  phrases  enclosed 
by  double-quotes,  e.g.,  ["to  be  or  not  to  be"].  The  second  way  to  force  Google  to 
search  for  stop  words  is  to  put  a  plus  sign  (+)  in  front  of  them,  e.g.,  [+who  +what 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Wildcard.  Google  has  tinkered  with  its  wildcard  and  it  is  more  useful  but  still 
woefully  inadequate.  The  Google  wildcard  (*)  can  only  be  used  to  replace  a  term  or 
terms  in  a  query.  It  cannot  be  used  to  truncate  search  terms,  e.g.,  [child*]  to  find 
children,  childhood,  etc.,  and  it  cannot  be  used  to  find  alternate  spellings  of  terms, 
e.g.,  [kazak*stan].  That  being  said,  the  Google  wildcard  is  not  useless.  The  wildcard 
search  is  very  good  at  helping  you  do  "fill  in  the  blank"  searches,  and  it  works  great 
not  only  in  English  but  in  other  languages  as  well.  Here  are  a  few  examples  of  "fill  in 
the  blank"  searches  using  the  wildcard  (there  is  no  need  to  capitalize  because 
Google  ignores  uppercase): 


Wet    [r03H£->    SiS^SS    News    Ei£Silli    Local  moiej.; 

Wdb  Results  1  -  8  of  about  11  foi  "baliinioig  is  the  '  city  oi  mSl^^T^  SaUmmcU  on  (0.65  seconds) 

Find  inapt  iff  etching  for  a  uligd  address  wth  city  at  rip  code 

mti  •  '2nd  annus!  kgsggich  S^rocsium :  OVERSEW  &  GENERAL  INFCftMAtlQN 
eairitnoie  Is  'lie  Chnim  Ctiy  df  Moiylaml  While  ait&netag  j.v  owfersflce.  you^i'i 
b4  staying  in  l he  f-wt!  of  downiovrfi.  SdlltmCft'^  Inntsr  Hasbor  ... 

i<  c:;v      j''-tif:i-V'>.--;!^v.h?rr.|   £,  ■  !".  =•.-< 

MarVand  Mortoaoe  Specta  >sts  com  -  freaj  E sigte  baterciorg- 

The  city  of  Btiltlmoie  is  (lis  l.injesJ  ctty  lit  .ill  of  M.ityl.iml  B&Himtvre  j&  one 
of  the  loading  cities  in  trade  sr.e  cownoicc  in  rVkfylfrod  as  welL  ... 

■.^A'-.'^i-i'/l'Ji'fJ^lvilCvEii.  .[.'.£  t-ili.-U--  U'U       i  _u  .'.ita_b  V'.vnuC-  ill!'  i    2^    ■  ■'"  : 

Travel  ccmpare  prices,  reviews  and  buvsiNexTao-  Pnce  -  Review 
Cfropjivtjr.  Shopping  foi  Products,  Mortgages.  Tts-^1,  pars  8, Mote..  All  Calorie*. 
MAga:in«,  Travai.  -   ,  A^ionotive,  Baby.  Books  ... 

■  ::<.i  CQn\~t;*}\  'jf^r XV  >]i3?J'33.'E!  f?Ji      J  ■  .:•  :>  I  l 

M  iiv.'jnd  Va  :ascn  Ro-itd's  I  Ho:eit 

Bjllimoie  »  by  fai  Ihe  most  exciting  ciiy  of  Maiyl.ind,  a  proves  ihs  CksJej 
and  Ravens  foi  sporv/.t;  ev.ertainmeni  arid       is  wtuch  is ... 
avav'*         coi'v'-'vi"  !■  •'-•ml  ^rs  ■  •  :  ■'  j^j  ;  :  ■  ' 

WD  Moiiftscf*-  Hpr^  i|j3rvg  -  MP  Real  Estjig  -  Ba;tfogre 

Ihe  ctiy  o(  Bjillintoie  is  the  l<ii<|esi  city  fit  all  ot  Maiylanil  EJalttm&re  is  the 
leading  r.i'v  in  tiade  sncf  cenmer^e  in  Maryland  85  v/ell  ... 

You  can  use  more  than  one 
wildcard  in  a  search,  and  the 
wildcard  will  find  more  than 
one  missing  term. 


Web  Images  G-ajps  News 
f  *  9  o  preoidefl  *e  do  B^sil " 

Pre  cote  Local 


Results  1  - 100  of  about  7U  for  "  '  e  o  piesidente  do  Br.-Mil  "  £0,28  sesswd;)<:k-br  -  Vvikurtedia  Corcrnors  - 1  ■  <  ■  , ,     v.,+.  \ 

LuU  a  o  |fie*|i|«ni«  *lo  BrMiK  VV*dt-  4  fi  prtsideme  do  Seo^'jif  o  Goreo  6  o  noor  ft 

do  lutjiv  om  ijLif  5       eneomraiam  (iH^  GoiH)  ... 

0  Lul  J  e  o  PiesiJenie  Jo  Biasif,  nao  so     brssiletros  que  conrt     voisiam  nel?. 
cnas  de  lcd£«  nas  N&s  esi)e?amo5  que  el*  se  mar-rfeetc,  qu«  deix»  de  fazer ... 

•••'.»••*=•  i  ''.-.:-tr  ..  .1  L'f'  -  jy-  -  '       -a- • 

Pon-irn  co?  LgjLlCj  -  Est^ciar  c<jn  br ■  { 'j    LILLUUJ l_  I 

Dt;U3  «juda  s  «=™  quar  ajudar  BsmardQ  Lopes  Lula  piesidenteLULA  e  o  presidents 
ilft  Btasi!         ts^^'.rrtg^w  pelo  povt>  q^e  q'j^t  mudan^as  ... 

Hie  wildcard  can  be  used  at 
the  beginning  of  a  plnase. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Web    [maggs    yro-ipa    N*ws    tiHSif    ij3fal    mt>lF  V 

o„  l  1  Adyjrittd  Sharon 

Web  Resells  1  -  85  of  about  250  To(  "Einstein  itrtdo  en  *  "  (0.0?  seconds) 

£ ?  »'cn  fa'  l nglisii  te s u .1 ;        Vdu  c st?  speedy  youf  search  language  in  Pyrenees 

Yahoo'  C-rcuos  elbbhu  nam s^lanno  Mssse aer  i ■  ■  CD  of  2366  ■  f  j  _ ...  | 

France?  Albert  Eltt&telrt  «.icf<i  e«  tllm,  A'^atts,  en  Match  14.  1979  ,  de  pr»dr&e  J 
humanist_a  CM  r e  Send  Email,  Way  8. 200G  ... 

^Liih-ts  ne.i,-.l/!ljs  ebstas:  vi-foal:  lvtensa,e-s -  [  .  «-i  i..  »  | 

Einstein  naci*  an  Ului.  Algmania,  tr>  ie79  >■  omiyro  a  Estados  Untfca  1933  donde 
fJ!  eciendo  tr:  Piincertion  fiJutwa  Jtr?«j]  on  1955  ... 

V-V  .  .1/  '..Vl* ,!  ).'<'"!.,i.V:  ''•/C>'JiiUK-v-'-,»t  45^    ..^jj^-i  •  >'::!Lj>:ii.. 

'£iiis>ico  slerr^r.-  vneircano  A!t«rt  EitvEieiu.  waw  ti\  AleuitWia,  el  U  de  ms:io 
*379  y  rrurc     Prmcelon.  fvjj.  et  18  ds  3Dju  da  1955.  tuntnbuyii  mH 

The  wildcard  can  be  used 
at  tlie  end  of  a  pltrase. 

Stripping  the  Cached  Copy:  while  Google  offers  the  option  to  view  the  cached  text 
version  of  a  webpage  from  the  full  cached  page,  there  is  a  Google  hack  that  lets  you 
view  the  cached  text  version  only  without  having  to  open  the  cached  page  that 
contains  images  or  other  non-text  data  that  might  be  sent  back  to  the  original 
website  or  that  might  redirect  you  to  another  page  simply  by  adding  &strip=1  onto 
the  end  of  the  url  the  cached  page  as  follows: 

1.  Right-click  on  the  Cached  link  [in  red  below]  and  select  Copy  link  location  in 
Mozilla  or  Copy  Shortcut  in  Internet  Explorer. 

2.  Paste  that  location  (url)  into  your  browser's  address  bar  Ido  not  hit  return  vet!l. 

3.  Add  &strip=1  to  the  end  of  the  url  and  hit  return. 




Images    Groups    News  Frooqle 


Desktop    moie » 

Advanced  Seaich 


Results  1  - 100  of  about  1.720,000  for  tlprk  with  Safesearch  on.  (0.21  seconds) 

Official  Homepage  -  Democratic  Peoples  Republic  of  Korea  (DPRK  ... 

Official  Homepage  of  the  Democuitic  Peoples  Republic  of  Korea  (DPRK,  North  Korea)  10k  -  £a ch e.dj_£ j rn \ja\_ jj age 3_  

Official  Homepage  -  Pernod     Open  Link  in  New  Window 
Open  Link  in  New  lab 

Bookmark  This  Link 
Save  Link  Target  As... 

KFA  Forum  -  sow  -  osCorrij 
More  results  from  www.kore 

DPRK  -  Democratic  People';. 

Links  to  news  and  information  aboi 
Kim  Jong  II. 

www  kirnsott  comMlink.htm-  12k 
The  DPRK 

Copy  Link  Location 

Bookmark  This  Page 
Save  Pacje  As. , . 
Select  Aft 

Kim  II  Sung  and 

i  Properties 

The  DPRK  side  expressed  i^wlir'tTrelfreWTtTWraWum  on  missile  tests  beyond 
2003  in  the  spirit  ...  Chairman  of  the  National  Defense  Commission,  DPRK 

www|)ik-jp.htrn  -  29k  -  C^died  -  Similar  pa<i*s 


DOCID:  4046925 


This  will  show  the  cached  version  of  the  page  that  contains  only  text: 

I]  This  is  G  o  o  q  i  e's  text-only  cache  of  htlp://www.ko 
i  G  i  u  n  t  e's  cache  is  the  snapshot  that  we  took  of  tl 
■   i'he  fjayu  may  have  changed  since  that  time.  Click  he 
\  Click  here  for  the  full  cached  paqe  with  imaqes  inci^ 
I  To  :'.u\-.  \o  iji  bookmark  this  page,  use  the  following  ur 

^    http/7  trow,  google  .con/  sc*  icK^q^cicht ;  OTwJ_rDyJb  j»J:  « 

ie  pag  as  retrieved  on  Oct  25, 2005  04:54:39  GMT. 

e  as  we  crawled  the  web. 

the  current  paqe  without  highliqhtinq. 

;  a~4pr  ,  conv'  +  dpeklhl  =tn(icc  ip=l 

?Aw>  <y  r/fc'j       w  tnpcmibSeftv  in  camera. 

^  Thpsn  w.-irr.t  ircn^  have  been  highlighted:  dprikj 

.gafleFT — *^-r-i  ;  : — ii_ 

Overview.'lvle dia  c ontent 

>  Elite  r 

'  Video  Gallen/'Music  Gallerv 


Landscape  Gallery 

■kfa;  .  1 \ 

'Overview -About  the  KFA 
'  F  oun  elation .  Activihe  5 
■lvlemb'  eisliip  ■ 
:KFA  Menu  \  \  . 

Getting  around  the  32-word  limit.  For  years  Google  had  a  10-word  limit  for  search 
queries,  meaning  that  anything  more  than  that,  and  Google  would  drop  those  terms 
from  your  query.  However,  Google  expanded  the  number  of  terms  searched  to  a  32- 
word  limit.  While  the  casual  Google  searcher  will  probably  never  notice  the 
difference,  professional  researchers  certainly  will.  There  are  many  times  when 
researchers  need  to  search  for  long  phrases  (error  codes,  for  example),  exclude 
large  numbers  of  terms  to  avoid  unwanted  results,  run  complex  Google  API 
searches,  run  queries  of  multiple  sites,  etc.,  and  that  darned  10-word  interfered  with 
the  search.  While  there  are  a  number  of  work-arounds  all  were  unsatisfactory. 
Allowing  more  search  terms  is  a  big  improvement,  but  I  am  sorry  to  report  that  the 
new  32-word  limit  only  applies  at  present  to  main  Google  search,  Google  Images, 
Froogle  and  the  Google  Web  API,  while  the  10-word  limit  is  still  in  effect  for  Google 
Groups  and  Google  News.  This  is  especially  disappointing  vis-a-vis  Google  Groups 
because  it  has  long  been  one  of  the  best  sources  of  information  about  complicated 
computer  error  codes  and  other  computer  arcana.  Perhaps  the  folks  at  Google  will 
see  fit  to  expand  the  32-word  limit  to  include  Google  Groups. 

You  can,  however,  still  use  the  wildcard  to  trick  Google  Groups  into  searching 
more  than  10  keywords.  Google  will  hot  count  wildcards  as  search  terms,  so 
inserting  a  wildcard  into  a  phrase  will  let  you  search  for  more  than  10  terms.  I  have 
found  this  most  useful  when  searching  for  a  long  phrase  such  as  a  computer  error 
message,  which  may  frequently  run  well  over  10  words.  By  simply  removing  the 
"little  words"  such  as  an,  you  can  easily  search  for  the  entire  error  message. 

Here's  an  example  of  an  error  message  containing  more  than  10  terms: 
Windows  Socket  Error:  An  Invalid  Argument  was  supplied  (10022),  on  API  'connect' 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiEP//ron  ornciAL  uoc  only 

It  can  be  written  using  wildcards  to  run  the  complete  message  as  a  Google  Groups 

["Windows  Socket  Error:  *  Invalid  Argument  *  supplied  (10022),  *  API  'connect1"] 

Undocumented  Google  Filetype  Searches.  Google  can  search  for  many  more  file 
types  than  those  documented  on  the  Google  FAQ  page.  Here  are  some — but  not 
all— of  the  file  types  users  can  search  for  using  filetype:  plus  keyword  or  another 
special  syntax,  e.g.,  site:  (try  [filetype:cgi  bin]  or  [filetypejs  inurhlogin]). 

,  Undocumented 





backup  file 






batch  file 



binary  file 


UNIX  zip 




help  files 






initialization  file 






log  files 






PERL  script 






Windows  temporary  file 






Microsoft's  Visual  Basic  Script 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Hack:  Create  Your  Own  Google  Video  RSS  Feed.  Users  can  easily  create 
their  own  personal  RSS  feed  of  Google  videos  using  a  simple  Google  hack.  Let's 
say  you  want  a  feed  of  Google  videos  about  Iraq.  Here's  how  to  create  it: 

1 .  Go  to  Google  Video<>and  enter  a  search  term,  e.g., 

2.  The  result  will  be 

Ttes  XML  61s  &>es  act  appear  to  bave  any  style  ntformiaoo  ^coated  with  ii.  The  focutnttis  tree  \s  shown  below. 

-  « channel* 

cnd<*>Goo«|e  V].i?o  -  Video  Search  [iraq^/hit* 
*Onik>h^p/;videc>  g^o^e  conJvi'Jercscanch',q=iraqc.1inJr> 
<dnaipnou>Seaicti  results  fo:  qusty  fraq,]<*les«iitO*iP 
<=e*>npi ator>Ck»o£r  Vidto</ai»Eii|'i.itor> 

■:nt!f  > Video  Search  [iraq^/riflt^ 


cwUii*  100«Avidih» 

< /linage5, 
-  --itpiip 

^tiil^lriq  VcTcritTf  Speaks  Out  Ou  Wai  Cnmes^/iiite* 
-  tf-fotlc> 

Lttp/'vid*  o.g^gle.  e  amfadeoplay?  de  nd=-55379$0  522  S495470504sourceid=ytaiclifr  t  d 

<Putt>*r<oS\a  21  May  200i>  13  1621  PDT«.'|>nbDate> 
<d)v  style-'pofiftcrireJati^e,  width  322psr.  he^ghi  268pir.  fioarnghr.  rcargin-lefcleai.  margin-bosom  5eju1'cdr»  styie-^osincwabso^;  top  fr.  tefcO.  bore 


3.  Now  add  &output=rss  so  that  your  new  query  string 

4.  Now  you  can  add  this  XML  output  to  your  favorite  newsreader,  e.g.,  Bloglines 
to  create  a  Google  Video  feed: 



DOCID:  4046925 


Available  Feeds 

Google  Video  -  Video  Search  [Iraq] 

'■I  M 

-&arch  r~ult^  for  quer^;  [traq] 
P'-3v'*fe^  This  Fa^ui 



Updated  Items 


Monitored  By 



[Top  Level 

&  Display  as  hbw 

r  ignore 

<**  Default 

r  Complete  Entnee 

r  Summaries  if  Available 

r  Titles 

Every  time  a  new  video  containing  the  tag  "iraq"  is  added  to  Google  video,  it  will  be 
automatically  added  to  your  blog  feed.  Unfortunately,  this  hack  does  not  work  with 
Google  search;  that  would  be  a  very  nice  feature.  Google  Blogsearch  and  News 
have  RSS/Atom  feed  options  already  built  into  them  47 

Getting  around  Google's  keyword  restriction  for  filetype:  searches.  The  Google 
filetype:  syntax  requires  a  keyword.  To  get  around  the  requirement  for  a  keyword, 
use  the  filetype  extension  as  the  keyword,  e.g.,  [filetype:pdf  pdf]. 

Google's  "synonym"  (related  term}  search.  If  you  place  a  tilde  (~)  in  front  of  a 
keyword,  Google  will  search  for  the  keyword  and  for  its  synonyms.  For  example,  a 
search  for  ["computer  -security"]  will  find  not  only  security  but  also  vulnerability, 
encryption,  secure,  firewall.  As  you  can  see,  this  is  not  a  search  for  synonyms  but  for 
related  terms. 


lonut  Alex.  Chitu,  "Secret  Feeds  in  Google  Video,"  Google  Operating  System,  12  September  2006, 
<http://googlesystem.>  (5  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Search  Sinker.  This  query  option  comes  from  Tara  Calishain's  website, 
where  she  explains  how  it  works:  "Search  Sinker  asks  for  two  things:  a  query,  and 
then  a  'sinker" — a  word  that  you  want  to  emphasize  as  much  as  possible  in  the 
search,  e.g.,  [java]  as  the  query  and  [coffee]  as  the  "sinker."  The  script  counts  your 
query  words,  then  fills  up  any  remaining  space  in  the  query — remember  Google's 
query  limit  is  ten  words— with  your  'sinker.'"  No  API  required.  google  hacks  week  2004  2.shtml 

Use  Google  to  "Search  This  Site."  Have  you  ever  noticed  how  bad  many  internal  site 
searches  are?  Maybe  it's  just  me,  but  I  can't  ever  seem  to  find  what  I  want  using  a 
site's  internal  search.  However,  Google  can  perform  internal  site  searches  for  you, 
and  generally  my  experience  is  that  Google  will  do  it  better.  All  you  have  to  do  is  use 
the  site:  search  syntax.  So,  if  I  want  to  search  the  French  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs' 
website  for  [afrique],  all  I  need  to  do  at  Google  is  search  on: 

[  afrique] 

Number  Range  Search  Option.  Google  has  a  powerful  numrange  search,  which 
uses  two  number  separated  by  two  periods  (dots)  and  no  spaces.  Numrange  has 
proven  invaluable  to  malicious  types  who  use  it  to  harvest  credit  card  numbers.  But  it 
has  other  legitimate  uses  as  well.  It  may  be  important  to  indicate  what  the  numbers 
mean,  e.g.,  weight,  money,  pixels,  etc.  Google  does  recognize  the  almighty  dollar 
sign  (but  results  searching  on  the  Euro  symbol  are  inconsistent).  I'm  sure  you  can 
think  of  many  uses  for  the  Google  numrange  search,  such  as  searching  on  phone 
number  ranges,  dates,  address  ranges,  etc.  Try  a  search  such  as  [amman  telephone 
61 7. .680]  to  see  how  this  search  works.  Numrange  can  be  used  with  other  Google 
search  options,  such  as  [  617. .780].  Also,  you  don't 
have  to  use  two  numbers:  this  search  finds  DVD  players  up  to  $150:  ["dvd  players" 

Numrange  Searches 

Numrange  can  be  used  1o  specify  that  results  contain  numbers  in  3  range  you  sel.  You  can  conduct  a  numrange  search  by 
specifying  two  numbers,  separated  by  two  periods,  with  no  spaces.  Be  sure  to  specify  a  unit  of  measure  or  some  other  indicator  of 
what  the  number  range  represents. 

For  example,  you  might  conduct  a  search  for  DVD  player  $250..  300  or  3.  .5  megapixel  digital  camera.  Numrange  can  be  used  to  set 
a  range  for  everything  from  dates  {Willie  Mays  1950..1Q50)  to  weights  (5000..10000  kg  truck). 

DVD  player  S250..350 

Numrange  has  other  uses  that  I  discuss  under  Google  hacking. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Search 

In  February  2004  Yahoo  did  what  has  been  expected  for  about  a  year:  it  dropped 
Google.  However,  what  had  not  been  correctly  predicted  was  the  new  search  engine 
used  by  Yahoo  in  place  of  Google.  Pretty  much  everyone  expected  Yahoo  to  go  with 
the  Inktomi  search  engine  it  purchased  the  previous  year.  Instead,  Yahoo 
introduced  a  new  search  engine  that  "draws  on"  the  technology  of  Inktomi  and 
other  search  engines  such  as  AlltheWeb  and  AltaVista,  which  are  owned  by 
Overture,  a  company  Yahoo  also  acquired  in  2003.  After  many  years,  Yahoo  is  a 
legitimate  search  engine  and  not  just  a  directory  or  a  pale  copy  of  Google. 

Yahoo  has  been  and  remains  one  of  the  most  visited  and  most  popular  websites  on 
the  Internet.  It  was  one  of  the  first  web  portals,  debuting  in  1994  as  a  relatively 
simple  web  guide  and  expanding  rapidly  to  over  25  countries  in  13  languages.  Along 
with  Google,  Yahoo  is  one  of  the  most  recognizable  brand  names  on  the  Internet.  At 
the  core  of  Yahoo  was  its  directory  of  websites,  a  hierarchical  list  of  sites  organized 
by  subject.  Until  October  2002,  that  list  was  compiled  and  maintained  by  humans.  At 
that  point,  Yahoo  switched  to  Google  search  results,  thereby  undermining,  in  my 
opinion,  its  uniqueness  and  value. 

Yahoo  announced  in  mid-2006  what  it  claims  is  the  "most  significant  redesign  of  the  home  page  ever... [because]  we're  also  on  a  mission  to  empower 
people  to  find  information  and  turn  it  into  knowledge,  play,  and  meaningful 
communication."48  In  my  opinion,  this  was  sorely  needed.  What  are  you  going  to  find 
on  the  new  Yahoo  homepage?  A  great  deal  of  personalization  choices:  links  to 
Yahoo  email  and  Yahoo  Messenger;  local  weather,  traffic,  events;  and  the  most 
popular  trends,  primarily  in  entertainment  and  pop  culture.  The  most  significant 
addition  to  search  is  Yahoo  Answers,  Yahoo's  version  of  "ask  a  question." 

The  current  Yahoo  Search  Technology  (YST)  combines  the  technologies  of  the 
various  Yahoo  search  properties — Inktomi,  AlltheWeb,  and  AltaVista — as  well  as 
certain  Google-like  features  to  create  a  very  powerful  search  tool.  Among  these 
features  are: 

>  cached  versions  of  webpages 

>  automatic  conversion  of  non-HTML  filetypes  to  HTML  is  available 

Yahoo!  Search  Blog,  15  May  2006,  <>  (31 
October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


^  all  backlinks  are  shown  (Google  has  started  limiting  the  number  of  backlinks 
it  shows) 

>  Yahoo  refreshes  its  index  continuously,  not  on  a  schedule  (this  is  a  good 

>  Yahoo  limits  the  size  of  indexed  pages  to  the  about  the  first  500KB 

>  Yahoo  claims  its  database  contains  over  20  billion  "items"  (webpages, 
images,  audio  and  video  files);  if  true,  it  would  be  the  largest  search  engine 

>  default  operator  is  AND;  searchers  may  use  OR 

>  search  by  filetype,  but  can  only  be  used  via  the  Advanced  Search  option 
(there  is  no  special  syntax) 

>  it  appears  there  is  no  upper  limit  on  the  number  of  search  terms  (Google 
ignores  anything  beyond  32) 

>  an  option  to  open  link  in  new  window  (small  double-window  icon  at  end  of  url) 

At  the  same  time  it  was  introducing  its  proprietary  search  engine,  Yahoo  streamlined 
its  search  page  interface  so  that  it  is  resembles  the  Google  homepage. 

%E!00|  SEARCH 

Web  ,  Imag??  !  Video  \  Audio  ;  DiiedOfy  j  Local  !  News  ;  Shopping  j  Jobs  ;  More  ? 

$  Tip.   Get  dirsclions  fasL  Type,  [city]  map  >>Tiy  M 

rsho*  Mail  ■  Shov  Ne**1 

Search  Pi&ferences  -  Search  Services 

CopyiigMOMGB  Y*hoo>  Inc.  All  rights  ns«rv»d.  Privacy  P-?licv  -  Ttimj  of  S^f-ite  -  CopviiahtflF  Policy  ■  Submit  Y<mi  Silt 

One  feature  Yahoo  Search  offers  that  Google  would  do  well  to  imitate  is  the  ability  to 
edit  the  search  options.  Here  are  the  options  Yahoo  offers;  you  can  select  the  ones 
you  want  to  appear  on  your  Yahoo  Search  page.  With  Google,  you  get  what  they 
give  you. 


UNci_AssiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  UOC  ONLY 

DOCID:  4046925 


Customize  Yahoo!  Search  Homepage  Tabs 

Select  the  tabs  you  want  to  appear  on  your  Search  Homepage  and  click  "Save". 




The  most  relevant  results  from  across  the  Web.  This  tab  cannot  be  removed. 



Find  photos  and  illustrations  from  all  over  the  Web. 



Search  Yahool's  categorized  guide  to  the  web. 



Find  local  businesses  serving  your  area. 


■  News 

Search  for  news  stories,  pictures,  and  audio/Video. 




Find  millions  of  product  reviews  and  prices  on  the  Web. 



Find  maps  and  directions  to  anywhere  you'd  like  to  go. 


J§)     People  Search  j 

Search  for  people  using  Yahool's  telephone  and  email  directories. 




Search  for  airplane  tickets,  hotel  reservations,  car  rentals,  and  more. 

Yahoo  also  introduced  a  number  of  international  versions  as  well  as  "local"  Yahoos 
for  the  US.  These  international  versions  can  be  very  useful  for  locating  information 
about  a  specific  region  or  country.  The  pages  are  in  the  native  language,  so  if 
Catalan  is  unfamiliar,  you  are  probably  better  off  sticking  with  the  main  Yahoo 
search  page. 

T23ff»OtSSnu.I2?  Signup 

International  Yahoo! 


Argentina  US 

Brazil  U  S  in  Chinese 

Canada  U.S  in  Russian 

Canada  en  tVenijais  U.S  en  espancl 


Asia  PacHic 


Australia  &  NZ 
Hong  Kong 














UK  &  Ireland 

C  triad  a  tnfur.cuj- 

U.S.  m  Chinese  . 
U.S.  tn  espjiiol . 

United  State** 

UK  ft  Ireland  • 
Spain  • 

Norway  .  .  Sweden 
•  Denmarh 

.  U  S,  m  fiussuri 

•  Italy 

•  Greet* 

l4#  •  Taiwan 

«  Hong  Kong 
Thailand  •  ,  Philippine* 

■  Malaysia 
Singapore  • 

•  Au«b-«li»ftNZ 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  is  systematically  adding  "local"  searches  outside  the  US.  During  2006,  Yahoo 
added  Germany  and  UK/Ireland  to  its  "local"  page.  See  the  map  section  for  more 

Yahoo  International  http://world 

Customizing  Yahoo  Preferences 

Yahoo  currently  offers  four  basic  Search  Preferences  settings: 

1 .  SafeSearch  Filter:  choose  among  Strict,  Moderate,  Off.  The  Filter  lock  option 
requires  registration. 

2.  Languages:  search  in  any  language  or  one  or  more  of  35+  languages, 
including  Arabic,  Chinese,  Greek,  Hebrew,  Korean,  etc. 

3.  Display  and  Layout: 

Open  search  results  in  a  new  browser  window  when  you  click  on  the  link. 
Note:  Yahoo  also  offers  an  "Open  this  result  in  a  new  window"  option 
following  the  link  for  each  result  if  you  do  not  select  this  option. 

Results  per  page:  choose  to  display  10,  15,  20,  30,  40,  or  100  results  at  a 

Show  Save  and  Block  links  (to  easily  save  or  block  pages  to  Yahoo's  My  Web 
service  directly  from  search  results) 

Show  Instant  Search  results 

4.  Subscriptions:  search  Yahoo's  premium  content  sources  such  as  LexisNexis, 
Factiva,  The  Wall  Street  Journal,  Consumer  Reports.  Access  to  these 
sources  requires  a  paid  subscription. 

5.  Multimedia  Search:  allows  you  to  search  and  access  songs  already  available 
from  existing  audio  service  provider. 

The  Yahoo  Results  Page 

Once  you  have  entered  your  search  term(s)  and  clicked  the  Yahoo  Search  button, 
Yahoo  will  present  you  with  a  list  of  results  or  hits.  Depending  on  the  search  you  are 
running,  you  will  see  some  or  all  of  the  following  for  a  web  search: 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiEP//rorc  orriciAL  uoc  only 

Wel>  to  ages  !  Video  Ai>dio  Oitgfla^  Local .  News  =  Shopping  More  > 

"fc&HOOf  SEARCH  ^  " 

5ea?ch  Result 

Secret*  1 

:y  Also  fry,  kenya  newspapers.  da:iy  nafeon  kenya,  Kenya  news,  Kenya  airways  More... 


•  Travefzoo.  Handpjcked  Kenya  Peats 

v/o-j^.lr -vs-i : ;  . ; «i  Trawlzoo  handpie?f$  Qinstandutg  Kenya  rec&lion  o'esls  and  guides  you  directly  lo  the  ouslity 
companies  prewsfcng 

t  Voting  Kenya? 

ka-^t:  com    Fjnd  cheap  flights  and  hotel  rates  for  Kenya  from  over  I  GO    travel  sites  al  Kayak,  com. 
v  Kenya  Visitor  Guide  -  WonclFatfcook  -  Genres  Tips 

CDesa  ily  says  Kenya  io  falsing  fe;  11s  tfoes.  AH-'  m3  -  3:  :■:}■:=  Je;-:  -  2  l.oui^,  i-.l.  *r : 
F  IF  A  suspends  Kenya  fiofP  jiHfft3l:^4foQtball  A-'f-  ^,3 shoe*      .  u;  ^  l  it  k$ 
■•'~L  HSIISCS  ^ ■  «■' ;  ..^--r.:?  -  Kenya 
f      short r ui  -  >-i>_f:' 

1  Kenya  Web  B 

Guide  to  all  aspects  of  Kenyan  lite  and  links  to  companies  n  the  East  A/rican  legion. 

|={Ca*eg3ry  i  d...:.;„.....  ; ..^ 

■-■>?*  Unyxwli  futn - 1. ..  -  .  ^ _  ■  ^  e  •  j  ^w, 

2.  ^//edx.queensu.c&^icteato^ntoacls  mauVPfoieiKenyaDenpiarkFranca^s.doc  (microsoft  |» 

WORD)   I  :  "  ;  .  ,  J 

Resins  du  Prcgr5mnr>e  Kenya-Dsr.emsrk  progiamroe  tie  fofmslion  pour  dss  Oanois  au  Kenya  el  >ice  versa  a  pie 
soul&ree  au writ  au  Kenya  ch sq-je  aaa&e  s« ..  p 

D Safari  Magic 
Private  African  safaris  in  Kenya  and 
Tanzania,  East  Afeca.  Travel... 
■  ftiari^iiinir  com 

Kenya  Tour  wjhG  A.P 

6.  A.  P  Adventures  inwies  yea  10 
truly  wperianitt  Kenya  wiii  m*... 

Kenya  Hotel 

Book  your  hotel  in  Kenya  onttne 
■with  up  tc  7G%  off  fegular  rales. 

/,w*  jusi tagging;;  c-jm 

E.feM& CfeMi  fteHV8,  -  HejQ 

Feed  starving  children  inA&ea.  $50 

Kenya  Hotel 

Find  out  about  the  Hotels  in  Kenya 
before  you  baok  Discounted  rales. 

>  A  Also  try:  queries  to  help  you  refine  your  search. 

>  B  Results:  1-x  out  of  total  number  of  results. 

>  C  YAHOO  Shortcuts  Indicated  by  ^  next  to  the  first  result,  Yahoo 
Shortcuts  provide  "links  to  useful  content  from  Yahoo,  its  partners,  or 
across  the  web." 

>  D  Sponsor  Results  are  pay  for  placement  results  provided  by  Overture, 
a  Yahoo  company. 

>  E  File  Type:  if  the  document  found  is  not  HTML,  the  file  type  will  follow 
the  link,  e.g.,  (MICROSOFT  WORD). 

>  F  View  as  HTML:  for  non-HTML  file  types,  select  this  link  to  see  the 
page  in  HTML  format.  Microsoft  file  types  are  potentially 
dangerous  to  open  in  their  native  formats.  Use  view  as  HTML  to  open 
the  document  as  a  webpage  instead  of  downloading  it.  This  is  a  safe 
procedure.  For  more  information,  please  review  these  instructions  for 
handling  Microsoft  files  on  the  Internet  safely. 

UNCi_ASSiFiED//rorc  orriciAL  ucc  ONLY 


DOCID:  4046925 


>  G  More  pages  from  this  site:  select  this  link  to  search  for  other  pages 
within  this  particular  website  that  include  the  search  term(s). 

>  H  Category:  links  to  the  appropriate  category  in  the  Yahoo  Directory. 

>  I  Cached:  links  to  a  copy  of  the  page  as  saved  by  Yahoo's  search 
engine;  search  terms  are  highlighted  on  the  cached  page. 

>  J  Translation:  if  Yahoo  offers  a  translation,  you  will  see  [Translate  this 
page]  following  the  link. 

Yahoo  Basic  Search 

Yahoo  assumes  as  its  default  that  multiple  search  terms  are  joined  by  the  AND 
operator,  so  that  a  search  on  the  keywords  [windows  explorer]  will  find  all  the 
webpages  that  contain  both  search  terms. 

Yahoo  will  not  return  any  results  if  there  is  no  webpage  containing  all  the  search 
terms.  Try  this  query  to  see  what  I  mean: 

rollerskate  handshake  buckyball 

Unlike  Google,  Yahoo  does  not  limit  the  number  of  search  terms  to  32 
keywords.  Yahoo  will  try  to  match  all  the  keywords  you  enter. 

Yahoo  is  not  case  sensitive. 

Yahoo  does  not  have  true  word  stemming  or  truncation,  i.e.,  searching  for 
variations  of  search  terms.  Normally,  word  stemming  involves  searching  for  plurals 
and  verb  conjugations  such  as  drink,  drank,  drunk.  However,  Yahoo's  word 
stemming  is  not  consistent  and  somewhat  confusing.  For  example,  stemming  works 
with  some  words  but  not  with  others,  i.e.,  a  search  on  [child]  will  not  find  children;  a 
search  on  [drink]  will  find  drinks  but  not  drinking  or  drunk.  Users  should  search  on  all 
variations  of  a  term,  including  plurals,  and  not  rely  upon  the  automatic  but 
inconsistent  stemming  feature.  However,  there  is  a  Yahoo  hack  to  disable  word 

Yahoo  automatically  clusters  search  results.  If  you  want  to  see  more  pages  from 
a  specific  site,  simply  select  that  link  following  the  url  of  the  result. 


Yahoo  permits  the  use  of  boolean  operators  in  simple  search.  The  operators 
must  be  capitalized.  Yahoo  Search  will  run  full  nested  boolean  queries  (those  using 
parentheses),  such  as: 

[cardinals  AND  (bird  OR  catholic)  AND  NOT  (baseball  OR  football)] 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  recognizes  double-quotes  as  enclosing  a  phrase. 

Yahoo  does  not  have  any  stop  words,  i.e.,  commonplace  words.  In  fact,  you  can 
search  on  any  single  letter  or  number. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  use  the  plus  sign  (+)  with  any  terms  because  by  default  Yahoo 
searches  for  all  keywords.  However,  there  are  many  times  when  searchers  need  to 
exclude  certain  terms  that  are  commonly  associated  with  a  keyword  but  irrelevant  to 
their  search.  That's  where  the  minus  sign  (-)  comes  in.  Using  the  minus  sign  in  front 
of  a  keyword  ensures  that  Yahoo  excludes  that  term  from  the  search.  For  example, 
the  results  for  the  search  ["pearl  harbor"  -movie]  are  very  different  from  the  results 
for  ["pearl  harbor"]. 

Yahoo  will  search  for  the  ampersand  [&].  Yahoo  will  search  for  [barnes&noble],  but 
if  you  insert  spaces — [barnes  &  noble]— Yahoo  ignores  the  ampersand.  Also,  while 
Yahoo  will  not  actually  search  on  a  plus  sign,  the  search  engine  will  search  for  [c+] 
and  [c++],  although  it  does  not  recognize  the  difference  between  one  and  two 

Yahoo  Advanced  Search 

Yahoo  has  many  advanced  search  features  that  can  be  accessed  from  the 
Advanced  Search  page  or,  in  many  cases,  employed  in  the  simple  search  screen  by 
using  the  correct  syntax. 

Yahoo  has  incorporated  from  AlltheWeb  and  AltaVista  most  of  the  languages  in 
which  users  may  search;  like  its  predecessors,  Yahoo  is  superb  at  searching  for 
non-English  and  non-Latin  languages.  Using  either  the  language  preference  settings 
or  the  advanced  search  page,  users  can  select  from  over  35  languages  and 
encodings  in  which  to  search  and  see  results. 

Keep  in  mind  that  if  you  search  on  a  word  using  diacritical  marks  such  as  accents  or 
umlauts,  Yahoo  will  only  search  for  terms  matching  those  with  the  diacritic. 
However,  if  you  search  for  the  unaccented  term,  Yahoo  will  find  the  term  with  and 
without  the  diacritic.  For  example,  a  search  on  [fagade]  will  not  return  pages 
containing  only  the  term  fagade,  but  a  search  on  [facade]  will  find  both  facade  and 

Yahoo  offers  many  "search  meta  words,"  i.e.,  special  search  terms  to  restrict 
searches  and  make  them  more  effective.  These  special  operators  can  be  used  in 
both  simple  and  advanced  search. 

>  site/domain:  restricts  results  to  a  specific  website  or  domain,  including  a 
specific  top-level  domain.  May  be  used  with  or  without  keywords. 





UNCi_AssiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  uoc  only 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Site/Domain  >  Filter  results  from  specific 
domains  (com,  gov,,  etc.) 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  site/domain:  command: 

[]  finds,,  However,  it  will  not  find 

[]  finds  all  the  pages  from  the  Iranian  (.ir)  top-level  domain  indexed 
by  Yahoo. 

>  url:  use  to  find  a  specific  document  in  the  Yahoo  index.  This  command  is  very 
limited  in  its  usefulness  and  requires  the  full  url  (address),  including  the  http:// 
to  work.  This  command  works  best  using  the  Yahoo  Advanced  Search  to  find 
all  the  words  in  the  url.  May  be  used  with  or  without  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Show  Results  >  all  of  these  words  >  In  the 
URL  of  the  page 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  url:  command: 

[url:http://impact. arc.]  finds  this  specific  page  as  it  is  stored 
in  the  Yahoo  index. 

>  inurl:  restricts  results  to  any  page  with  a  term  in  its  url  (address).  May  be 
used  with  or  without  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Show  Results  >  In  the  URL  of  the  page 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  inurl:  command: 

[inurknasa]  finds  any  site  containing  nasa  anywhere  in  the  url.  Will  find 
webpages  at  as  well  as  pages  at 

[  Columbia]  finds  any  site  at  nasa. gov  that  contains  the  keyword 
Columbia  anywhere  on  the  website. 

>  title  or  intitle:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  a  specific  word  or  phrase 
anywhere  in  the  webpage's  title,  which  usually  appears  in  the  browser's  title 
bar  and  is  the  HTML  <title>  tag.  Title  and  intitle  appear  to  work  identically. 
May  be  used  with  or  without  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Show  Results  >  In  the  title  of  the  page 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  title:  or  intitle:  command: 



DOCID:  4046925 

1  lfAni  A€T<TlF"=n^PrfcFFrni  IfSF^MI  Y 

[title:amazon]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in  their  title 

[title:amazon  "rain  forest"]  Finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in 
their  title  and  mention  the  phrase  "rain  forest"  anywhere  in  the  document  (title 
or  text  or  anywhere  in  the  document) 

>  link:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  links  to  a  specific  url.  Yahoo  has  the 
unfortunate  requirement  to  enter  the  full  url  including  the  http:// to  use  the 
link  command,  which  adversely  affects  its  usefulness.  May  be  used  with  or 
without  additional  keywords. 

No  Advanced  Web  Search  Option 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  link:  command: 

[link:http://jpl.]  finds  all  pages  containing  links  to  any  page  at 

[link:http://jpl.  asteroid]  finds  all  pages  containing  links  to  any  page 
on  the  site  and  the  keyword  asteroid  anywhere  on  the  page. 

>  linkdomain:  the  Yahoo  link  command  finds  every  other  page  that  links  to  a 
specific  webpage,  but  linkdomain  finds  every  page  that  links  to  an  entire 
domain.  Simply  put,  the  linkdomain  command  should  not  be  used  with  the  full 
address  while  the  link  command  requires  the  full  address  to  work  properly. 
May  be  used  with  or  without  additional  keywords. 

No  Advanced  Web  Search  Option 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  linkdomain:  command  vs.  the  link:  command: 


use  to  find  links  to  an  entire  domain 

[link:]  or  [link:] 
use  to  find  links  to  a  specific  webpage 

Here  is  an  interesting  twist  on  link  searching,  that  is,  finding  sites  that  link  to  a 
specific  address.  This  search,  which  works  with  Yahoo  and  to  a  lesser  extent 
Live  Search,  finds  pages  that  link  to  a  specific  domain  or  domains  but  not  to 
another  specific  domain  or  domains.  An  example  would  help.  Let's  say  I  start 
by  finding  the  sites  that  link  to  the  Iranian  Ministry  of  Defense.  Here  is  the 
query  I  would  use: 




DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASSiFiED//rorc  orriciAL  UOC  ONLY 

This  query  returns  545  hits.  Now,  suppose  I  want  to  see  which  sites  link  to 
both  the  Iranian  MOD  and  the  Iranian  Electronics  Industries.  I  can  do  that 
easily  with  this  query: 


However,  I  see  lots  of  sites  that  also  link  to  the  ever-present  CIA  World 
Factbook,  which,  while  a  wonderful  resource,  isn't  want  I  want.  I  would  really 
like  to  see  the  sites  that  link  to  both  the  Iranian  MOD  and  IE!  sites  but  not  to 
the  CIA  Factbook.  Can  I  do  this?  Sure: 


While  this  technique  has  obvious  applicability  for  search  engine  optimization 
("who  is  linking  to  my  competitors  but  not  linking  to  me?"),  I  think  it  is  worth 
knowing  about  because  you  may  come  up  with  some  creative  ways  to  use  it. 
Just  as  an  interesting  example,  try  these  two  queries  in  both  Live  Search  and 
Yahoo.  It's  interesting  to  see  what  drops  from  the  results'  list  on  the  second 



I  believe  you  will  consistently  find  that  Yahoo  provides  more  results  than  Live 
Search  for  the  linkdomain:  searches.  However,  the  results  will  vary,  so  it's 
worth  using  both  search  engines.  Google  does  not  offer  a  linkdomain:  search, 
and  its  link:  search  has  been  hobbled. 

>  search  by  file  type:  restricts  results  to  PDF,  MS  Word,  XML,  and  other 

Yahoo  does  not  offer  a  filetype:  syntax.  However,  you  can  search  by  file  type 
using  the  advanced  search  option: 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  File  Format  >  Only  find  results  that  are:  > 
All  formats  or  one  format 

There  is  also  a  Yahoo  Hack  that  lets  you  search  by  file  type. 

>  Yahoo's  video  search  now  includes  an  option  to  search  for  MacroMedia 
Flash  files.  To  limit  your  Yahoo  video  search  to  Flash  files,  go  to  Yahoo  Video 
Search,  select  Advanced  Search,  uncheck  all  formats  except  Flash  and  run 
your  query.  A  simpler  approach  is  to  enter  the  query  [filetype:swf  keyword]. 
This  query  only  works  in  Yahoo  Video  Search,  not  Web  Search. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Video  Search 

>  Yahoo  now  links  its  cached  copies  of  webpages  to  the  Internet  Archive's 
Wayback  Machine.  To  use  the  link,  select  the  Cached  copy  of  a  result,  then 
click  on  "check  for  previous  versions  at  the  Internet  Archive."  That  link  takes 
you  to  the  results  of  a  Wayback  Machine  search  of  that  precise  url. 

g  back  to  results  for  "nasa  astrophysics" 

Below  is  a  cache  of  http://cdsa  It's  a  snapshot  of  the  page  taken  as  our  search  engine  crawled  the  Web. 
WeVe  highlighted  the  words:  nasa  astrophysics 

The  web  site  itself  may  have  changed.  You  can  check  the  current  page  (without  highlighting)  or  check  for  previous  versions  at 
the  Internet  Archive. 

Yaj&^s  not  affiliated  with  the  authors  of  this  page  or  responsible  for  its  content. 

Using  Yahoo's  More  from  this  site  option,  you  can  select  other  specific 
pages  to  view  using  the  Wayback  Machine's  access  to  the  huge  Internet 
Archive  database. 


The  NASA  Astrophysics  Data  System 

The  Digital  Library  for  Physics,  Astrophysics,  and  Instrumentation 

UNci_AssiFiEP//rcm  ornciAL  uoc  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


Advf,  Search  Compare  Archive  Pages 


Enter  Web  Address: 


Searched  for  httr>:- ''' 

89  Results 

Note  some  duplicates  are  not  shown.  See  all. 
*  denotes  when  site  was  updated. 



2  pages 

Dec  10, 1997 

4  pages 

Jan  19, 1998 

Search  Results  for  Jan  01, 1996 

2000  2001 
5  pages        9  pages 

9  pages 

Jan  25, 1999 

Oct  17,  2005 




10  pages       14  pages       20  pages 

Mav  20,  2000  *  Feb  01 ,  2001  *  Jan  21,  2002  *  Jan  30,  2003 

Dec  22, 1 997  *  Apr  29,  1 998 
Jul  1  4, 1998  : 

Feb  08, 1999  *  Jun  09,  2000 
Feb  03. 1999  *  Ju!  06.2000  * 

Dec  12. 1995  *  Feb  21,  1 959  *  Aug  17,  2000 
Mar  02, 1999  *  Pel  17,  2000  ' 
Mar  02. 1999  * 



Apr  29, 1999 
del  12, 1999 

Feb  24,  2D01 
Mar  01 ,2001 
Mar  08.  200  T 
Mar  31 ,  2001 
Apr  05,  2001 
May  16,  2001 
Jul  22,  2001  ; 
Sep  25,  2001 

*  Mar  19.  2002  * 

*  May  31,2002  * 

*  Jun  04,  2002 

*  Jul  21 ,  2002  * 

*  Aug  02,  2002 

*  Sep  21,2002 

*  Sep  24.  2002 

*  Nov  19,  2002  * 
Nov  28,  2002 

Feb  1 5,  2003  : 
Mar  23,  2003 
Apr  24.2003  " 
Jun  02,  2003  ' 
Jun  09,  2003 
Jun  19,  2003 
Jul  28,  2003 
Aug  06,  2003 
Sep  20,  2003 
Sep  25,  2003 
Nov  21, 2003 
Dec  04,  2003 
Dec  19,  2003 

Feb  25,  2004  * 
Mar  24.  2004 
Mar  25,  2004 
May  18.  2004  * 
May  22,  2004 
Jun  06,  2004  * 
Jun  09,2004 
Jun  12.2004 
Jun  19,  2004 
Jun  27,  2004 
Jui  01 ,  2004  * 
Sep  20,  2004  * 
Oct  14,  2004 
Oct  21,  2004 
Nov  12,  2004 
Nov  22,  2004  * 
Nov  25.  2004 
Nov  27,  20.04 
fjnv9fi  ?nna 

This  is  an  excellent  way  to  use  the  Wayback  Machine  to  its  fullest 
because  it  integrates  the  power  and  speed  of  a  huge  search  engine  such 
as  Yahoo  with  the  powerful,  though  sometimes  lumbering  and  hard  to  use, 
Internet  Archive  query  tool. 

Yahoo  Shortcuts 

Yahoo  Shortcuts  are  special  features  and  syntax  designed  to  help  users  find 
specific  kinds  of  information  faster  and  more  easily.  The  Shortcuts,  indicated  by  the 


Local  Shortcuts,  including  zip  and  area  codes,  weather,  traffic  reports,  gas  prices, 

Maps:  to  map  any  US  location,  search  on  the  street  address,  city  and  state  or 
the  word  map  and  a  location.  Some  international  maps  are  now  available. 

News  &  Information  links  when  search  term  matches  current  news  stories  to 
include  video  and  images. 

Travel  Shortcuts:  airport  information,  hotel  reservations,  exchange  rates,  and  flight 
tracker.  To  find  directions,  terminal  maps,  flight  delays,  and  weather  conditions  at  a 



DOCID:  4046925 


US  airport,  enter  the  airport's  three-letter  code  and  the  word  airport.  For  example,  to 
information  about  Baltimore-Washington  International,  enter  [bwi  airport].  At  the  top 

of  the  Yahoo  results  page  you  will  see  a  Yahoo  Shortcut  link  marked  by  the 
Clicking  on  the  Shortcut  link  takes  you  to  the  Yahoo  BWI  resource  page: 

Yahoo'    My  Mall 


Sign  In 

i9SD£  ■  Ftfedback  -  bl^lP. 

Baltimore  Washington  Intl.  Airport  (BWI).  Baltimore.  MD  liifoim.ition 

•  Parking 

Phone:  (410)859  7111 
A'ttliess  m.ip 
BWI  Termifial  Building 
PO  Box  8766 
Baltimore.  MD  21240-0766 
Directions  To  /  From  Airport 
Ground  Transpwiaiion 

•  Terminal  Map 

•  Airline;,  and  Terminals 

•  S.?.^lyj.i[.V^...Qy?.L,?.n..ll.?.j 

Current  AFipoii  Sums 

&  Mo  delays  (15  mins.  or  less) 


&  No  delays  (15  mins.  or  less) 
Sacurily  Checkpoint  Wail  Time; 

47°  /  <i9°  F 

•  Extended  Forec; 

Find  BWI  Airport"  Hotels 
Nearby  Airports. 

■  Washington.  DC  (IAD) 
•  Washington.  DC  fDCAJ 

j  Airport  Oirectoiy 

!  •  Atlanta,  GA(ATU 
j  -  Boston,  MA  (BOG) 
I  '  ChicajgpJL  (MOW) 

!  •  Mb*.  TXlj\V) 
1  *  Denver,  CO  (DEM) 

•  Detroit,  VII  [DTW) 

-  Fort  LaudeirialeJ~L  (FLl 

■  Las  Vegas"  MV(IAS) 

•  Los  AnfleitL  CA  [LAX] 

■  New  Yoik"  NY  i'JFK) 

■  New.york^NViLGA) 

■  Newark,  HjTeWR) 




|1 1/26/05 

Rooms     Adults  Children 

What  te  Yohool  F.ueChase? 

This  Yahoo!  FareChase  Airport  Drectory  page  provides  you  with  Information 
about  ETVW  Airport,  including  address,  map  and  driving  directions,  lerminat 

BWI  Airport  Limn  S?ivice' 
St*»r  Limousins 

Star  Limousine  offers 
shuttle  sortie**  to  Baltimore 
International  Airport  (BWI) 
in  Marylan.,, 

www,  >*^rsedrir,.ccp:-r! 

EWI  Airport  Shuttle?  and 

BWI  airport  shuttle,  BWI 
door-to-door  transportation. 
W«  sortftt  BWI  airport  to 
Maryland,  Vi... 
w  \i ~j ,  g  t  it  irp  o  rts .  c  3m 

BWI  Airpoti 

Corporate  dionti  »etking 
optimal  tffidencv  can 
reserve  professional  limo 
sorvice  from  BW.,, 
w  ■.  ■>  -.7 .  r  I  q  fi  tr .  a  n  d  e  l;  r  r ,  c  o  r  r . 

Ground  Transportation  for 

Low  Internet  fare  for 

Reference  Shortcuts  such  as: 

Dictionary  Definitions:  as  with  Google,  Yahoo  offers  the  define  option.  To 
use  it,  enter  define  then  a  word  or  phrase.  Yahoo  only  refers  to  the  American 
Heritage  Dictionary;  for  definitions,  so  Yahoo's  define  option  is  more  limited 
than  Google's. 

Synonym  Finder:  similarly,  Roget's  Thesaurus  provides  synonyms  for  Yahoo 
Search.  They  syntax  is  [synonym  keyword]. 

Encyclopedia:  the  Columbia  Encyclopedia  supplies  the  facts  about  a  topic. 
The  syntax  is:  ["facts  about"  keyword] 

Number  Search:  Yahoo  offers  many  types  of  number  searches.  The 
numbers  Yahoo  will  search  for  are: 

>  US  Patent  numbers:  syntax  is  [patent  5521308]. 

UNci_ASSiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


>  UPS  tracking  numbers:  [1Z9999X99999999]  (simply  enter  the  UPS 
tracking  number;  no  special  syntax  is  required). 

>  USPS  tracking  numbers:  search  on  [usps  9999999999999999999999]. 

>  FedEx  tracking  numbers;  syntax  is  [fedex  9999999999999999]. 

>  FAA  airplane  registration  numbers;  [n158ua]  (simply  enter  the  FAA 
registration  number;  no  special  syntax  is  required). 

>  ZIP  codes:  enter  a  US  ZIP  code,  either  five  or  nine  digits. 

>  ISBN:  enter  any  International  Standard  Book  Number. 

>  UPC  codes:  to  find  information  such  as  the  manufacturer  for  any  product, 
search  on  the  UPC  bar  code. 

>  V1N  Information:  to  find  information  about  a  vehicle's  history,  search  on  its 
17-character  Vehicle  Identification  Number  (VIN). 

Calculator  Shortcut:  a  calculator,  time  zone  calculator,  and  weights  and  measure 

MvYahool  Mall 

the  w«t 

Search  | 

Searrh  Home 

r?  Sign  Up 

Yahoo!  Help  >  Search  Help  >  Search  Tips.  Piefeiences,  &  Y.ihool  Shortcuts  > 
WItal  are  Yahoo!  Slwrtcirts? 

Yahoo!  Shortcuts  are  special  features  designed  to  help  you  to  find  answers  quickly.  Click  the  title  of  a  specific  feature  to  learn  more 
about  it. 

Try  a  search  using  any  of  these  Yahoo!  Shortcuts: 


Airport  Information 

Hotel  Finder 

■  ■■*  —  *      —  -  

♦  Stock  Quotes 

Airline  Registration  Information 

ISBN  Numbers 

♦  Synonym  Finder 


Area  Codes 


Local  Search  new! 

♦  Time  Zones 





♦  Traffic 


Dictionary  Definitions 

Movie  Showtirnes 

♦  UPC  Codes 

1  • 

Encyclopedia  Lookup 



♦  VIN  Number 

Exchange  Rates 



♦  Weiqhls.  Measures  and  Temperatures 


Flight  Tracker 



♦  Weather 


Gas  Ptices 


Sports  Scores 

♦  Zip  Cedes 

Yahoo  Shortcut  Help 
Yahoo  Shortcuts 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  uoc  only 

Yahoo  Services  and  Specialty  Searches 

News:  Yahoo  News  headlines  are  entirely  generated  using  a  computer  algorithm 
that  scours  approximately  4500  worldwide  news  sources.  Yahoo  News  also  offers 
international  editions  for  France,  Germany,  India,  Italy,  Spain,  and  several  other 
countries.  For  details  on  Yahoo  News,  see  the  news  search  engine  section  below. 

Images:  the  Yahoo  image  database  contains  more  than  a  billion  images  and 
includes  content  from  Yahoo  news  and  movies.  The  advanced  search  options  for 
images  permit  users  to  limit  the  search  by  size,  color,  and  image  type.  Users  of 
Yahoo  Search  can  add  the  Image  tab  to  the  left-hand  side  of  the  main  search  page. 

Video:  Yahoo  Video  search  is  extremely  powerful.  I  address  this  option  below  in  the 

video  search  section. 

Translations:  Yahoo  absorbed  AltaVista's  Systran  translation  page  (Babelfish)  but 
without  the  excellent  virtual  keyboard.  Systran  provides  reasonably  decent  machine 
translations  of  web  pages  from  many  European  and  Asian  languages.  The 
translation  page  lets  you  automatically  translate  a  search  result,  enter  any  url  you 
like,  or  copy/type  text  directly  onto  the  translation  page.  If  a  page  appears  in  the 
results  list  in  one  of  the  languages  Yahoo  translation  supports,  you  will  see 
[Translate  this  page]  after  the  page  title. 

Yahoo  Babelfish  http://babelfish.vahoo.CQm/ 

Yahoo  Language  Tools 

Mobile  SMS  Search:  This  is  a  new  service  that  is  different  from  the  SMS  text 
messaging  that  has  been  available  at  Yahoo  for  some  time,  i.e.,  Yahoo  Messenger. 
The  new  SMS  at  Yahoo  permits  queries  using  mobile  technology.  Yahoo's  SMS 
number  is  92466  (which  spells  Yahoo  on  most  phones).  Here  is  Yahoo's  explanation 
of  their  service,  which  is  presently  only  available  to  US  Cingular,  Sprint  and  Verizon 

Right  now  you  can  search  for  any  local  information  by  sending  a  query  with  your 
location  or  zip  code  like:  "pizza  94025,"  you  can  get  a  stock  quote  with:  "s  yhoo," 
weather  information:  "w  94025,"  dictionary  definitions:  "d  garrulous,"  horoscopes: 
"h  aquarius,"  WiFi  hotspots:  "wifi  94123,"  and  more  are  coming.  Hence  typing  V 
and  the  ZIP  code  get  you  a  short  weather  forecast.' 

Yahoo  Mobile  Search 

Directory:  As  with  Google,  Yahoo's  web  directory  uses  the  Open  Directory  Project's 
collection  but  the  two  versions  are  not  identical.  For  example,  if  I  search  the  directory 
for  the  keyword  java,  Yahoo  presents  multiple  directory  categories: 



DOCID:  4046925 




Yahoo!  Search  I  ^an«d 

'  Preferences 

Wei)  !  :  Images  \     Directory       Yellow  Pages       Hews  I  Products 


Programming  Languages  >  Java 

Indonesia  >  Java 


Sponsor  Results 

Hands- On  Java  Training 

Learn  hands-on  from  experts  in  rnofe 

Then  I  can  select  an  appropriate  category  where  Yahoo  Directory  lets  me  limit  my 
search  to  a  specific  directory  category. 




ln£&rr€sia  >  Java 

fire cto ry  >  Regional  >  Countries  >  Indonesia  >  Islands  >  Java 

>arch  news 

*~  the  Web        just  this  categor 




Places  in  Java 

♦  Cities  (1 6) 

♦  Provinces  (3) 

Java  Categor  ies 

♦  Business  and  Shopping  (453) 

♦  Community  (66) 

♦  Education  (73) 

♦  Entertainment  and  Arts  (30) 

♦  Health  (11) 

♦  News  and  Media  (7) 

♦  Real  Estate  (1  0) 

♦  Recreation  and  Sports  (1 4) 

♦  Travel  and  Transportation  (59) 

Yahoo  Answers:  the  biggest  change  to  Yahoo  search  during  2006  was  the 
integration  of  "ask  a  question"  or  Yahoo  Answers  into  core  search.  Yahoo  began 
integrating  responses  from  Answers  into  its  main  search  results  in  mid-2006. 
Although  you  can  read  answers  at  the  Yahoo  Answers  site,  in  order  to  ask  and 
answer  questions  users  must  register  with  Yahoo.  If  a  question  has  already 
appeared  at  the  Answers  site,  it  will  now  turn  up  in  the  results  from  the  main  Yahoo 
search.  Don't  expect  to  get  answers  to  esoteric  or  difficult  questions  (you  are  much 
more  likely  to  get  opinions  about  the  best  DVD  player  than  an  answer  to  a  question 
about  which  languages  are  spoken  in  Afghanistan).  But  the  reservoir  of  questions 
and  answers  will  continue  to  grow,  so  perhaps  we  will  see  a  richer  set  of  answers 
than  exist  thus  far. 

Yahoo  Answers 


DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Site  Explorer:  The  Yahoo  Site  Explorer  website  is  still  in  beta;  its  goal  is  to 
help  users  learn  detailed  information  about  a  specific  website: 

The  Yahoo  search  database  contains  detailed  information  about  the  structure  of 
the  web.  In  addition  to  the  web  pages  themselves,  the  database  stores 
information  about  links  among  pages,  and  uses  that  information  (as  well  as 
additional  algorithms)  to  gauge  the  popularity  of  a  given  page. 

Site  Explorer  gives  you  access  to  this  information  so  you  can  learn  about  a  site. 
To  explore  a  site,  you  submit  a  URL  using  a  search  box,  just  as  you  would  for  a 
normal  web  search.  You  can  then  click  links  on  the  results  page  to  see  detailed 

The  Yahoo  Site  Explorer  will  reveal  all  the  pages  in  a  specific  domain,  all  the  pages 
in  any  subdirectory  of  a  domain,  and  all  the  links  to  a  domain.  The  main  purpose  of 
the  Site  Explorer  is  to  help  webmasters  improve  the  rankings  of  their  sites,  as 
evidenced  by  the  capability  for  sites  to  submit  missing  urls,  the  fact  that  Site  Explorer 
provides  50  results  by  default,  its  web  services  APIs,  and  its  ability  to  export  the  data 
to  a  tab  separated  (TSV)  file  for  further  analysis.  The  initial  response  from  the  search 
community  has  been  lukewarm,  but  I  like  this  new  tool  because  it  simplifies  learning 
about  a  site  and,  unlike  Google,  Site  Explorer  provides  all  the  links  to  a  site  (which 
Yahoo  calls  "inlinks")  instead  of  a  limited  subset  of  links. 

Let's  examine  Site  Explorer  from  the  point  of  view  of  a  researcher  instead  of  a 
developer.  Here's  the  Site  Explorer  result  page  for  the  url  [] 
showing  all  the  pages  in  all  subdomains  of  that  website.  The  order  is  by  the  most 
visited  pages  at  the  domain  according  to  Yahoo's  records  about  the  page: 


Site  Explorer 

Page*  (238.132*  |,!«M731£) 

Show  p*ge&  jN#v  All     domains  [.Or^hMomaih 

Submit  Ufil 
Export  fkuls  to;T5V 

t\  VMM  t^tn^jr^j^ch 

2, .WW,  tern  om^k} 

3  &gt&$&2^^ 

4:  MSiM  *f  'i^HhOragr^-t'oft 
6.  vvhd. 

Wit*  MpJrMt  >jYM--:0i 



DOCID:  4046925 


Now  look  at  the  "inlinks"  (links  to  the  WHO  website)  Site  Explorer  found  that  show 
the  link  to  this  url  (  only: 

Site  Explorer "m 

Shew  lnlinks-io;-URt  I  Emgejagg. 

2.  lo^rcg      Vfofoe  flarea  ijeg^ 

4.  *  •'•<T--3.  7"hreg  sceretnosnB  292S 

tttaftj*  -  -iff  -  L  ! 

10.  tybf*ptm&  M&tmtx**m 

Submit  URi 
Export  c?su£s  ta'TSV 

By  way  of  comparison,  the  site:  search  in  Google — []— returned  a 
whopping  2.2  million  pages  for  this  domain  but  only  about  29,000  inlinks  to  the  url, 
whereas  Yahoo  Site  Search  returned  nearly  174,000  inlinks.  However,  I  find  it  easier 
to  explore  a  domain  or  subdomain  using  Site  Explorer.  Note  the  Explore  URL  link  for 
every  page  on  the  results'  list.  This  effectively  lets  you  "dig"  deep  into  specific  pages, 
directories,  or  subdirectories  in  a  very  orderly  way.  Keep  in  mind  that  you  cannot  use 
any  keywords  or  other  special  syntax  with  the  Yahoo  Site  Explorer  whereas  both  the 
Google  and  Yahoo  site:  command  lets  users  include  both  other  special  syntax  and 
keywords,  e.g.,  [  inurhsars  vaccine]. 

The  main  value  of  Site  Explorer  is  the  powerful  inlinks  command.  Look  at  the  big 
increase  in  the  number  of  inlinks  (917,704)  when  you  look  at  inlinks  to  the  Entire 


DOCID:  4046925 



Site  Explorer  m  $ 

Psm&M3)  ]  tol^(9 17.784}  Submit  URt. 

'  Star  Minks  lo  y^lf  ntJrt  Site  "  ~  " """    "      ~ export        to:  TSV 

fit-m^ '  -.His 

10-  Cfi£.:..bOy^.a} 

Remember:  Google  will  not  let  you  use  any  keywords  or  other  syntax  with  its  link: 
command,  and  it  purposely  limits  the  number  of  inlinks  as  a  way  of  trying  to  control 
webspam.  However,  Yahoo's  linkdomain:  syntax  will  let  you  use  keywords:,  e.g., 
[  sars].  The  bottom  line  is  that  the  Yahoo  Site  Explorer  does 
not  add  any  genuinely  new  functionality  for  researchers,  while  it  does  offer  new 
capabilities  for  developers.  You  can  do  everything  (and  in  some  cases  more)  with 
the  old  Yahoo  search  syntax.  So  why  use  Yahoo  Site  Explorer?  Because: 

>  it  provides  an  extremely  orderly  and  easy  to  use  way  of  digging  deep  into  a 

>  it  provides  if  not  a  complete  then  a  huge  set  of  inlinks  to  a  specific  url,  and 

>  it  ranks  the  pages  of  a  site  by  their  popularity  in  Yahoo's  statistical  records  of 
the  site. 

Yahoo  Site  Explorer  (beta) 

Yahoo  Mindset:  This  new  search  tool  from  Yahoo  Research  Labs  is  worth  a  look, 
especially  for  those  queries  that  turn  up  a  lot  of  commercial/shopping  hits  at  the  top 
of  the  list  when  you  are  trying  to  find  "academic,  non-commercial,  or  research- 



DOCID:  4046925 


oriented  sources."  Mindset  uses  a  single  slider  with  two  options:  at  the  far  left  is 
Shopping  and  at  the  far  right  is  Researching.  You  can  move  the  slider  anywhere 
along  the  continuum  to  minimize  commercial  results  and  maximize  research  results 
or  vice  versa.  Here's  a  good  example  of  the  two  different  sets  of  results  you'll  get  for 
the  query  ["windows  xp"]: 

"Researching"  Windows  XP  (ignore  the  sponsored  results) 



^>/1hf^.^5f5'guy.:cpm  '">w- •  ■"  -  ■'•  -• -•••«'•••  •• 
.  ;eiiej$Y& lime's : irff G^f^fa^l :DVB;iffiv&i-. 

5ft  Tv^gkgtfdgS'.cofliv  Ite^ta^ws  XP  Tweatgnq  Gome  „ 

(XPTC)  is  ihe  complgte  Wiiidow*  XP  and  syslsfn.^itinizaiion  gu&e 

m&.«.  T*te  Windows  XP  Twreakbg  Companion 

Microsoft  Windows !XP'y- 

Search  Mtcfo-sofl, com: for;- Microsoft  Widows  XP.  Latesi.News.  Laam  Aboul  SF2.  Windows  XP  Setviee  Pack-2:wilh 
Advanced  Security  Techr>oJap,ies  hetpayau  proled  your  PC  againsi'viruses,  hactess.  and  worms.  Uamabout  the  bena£ts 
i>f  Windows  XP  SP2  here.  ...  Mrcrasoft  Windows  XP  Professional  x64  Editisa  Soiol^.eenier.  Window*  XP  Passional 
n64  Ed^br^^pril  1JLi 

^Windows  XP  Shows  the  Directiori;  Micros^  is.Goinq * 

.,<  Windows  XPShews     Direction  Microsoft  is  Gtowgj.  t;,,af:lhe  major  security/  pwacy7-5tftbili(jf  conchas  ^.Windww* 
XP.'  Mr:  Schmierwote  the^bo^.App^^C^ptoqra^,.; 

Tvrtaks  3fl&fl*t$:fa  Wlnd«ws--S6;'9B;.M»,  XP,:  VisuafBasic  Scripts;  Utilrjir,  security,  impair image Jwfa^', 
r;o(Ttr9|(  secure,  password  pretext:  fM  Tlr?  exceptions  are  rW  Wnidowa  XP;  $$rrje  utilities' rWe  beeo  c&wartad  id-VlsMaf 

7?  >  ^  if  ton  Irt?  W.«  *  ■ 

■fini  wen. ?r?u.  ia*. 

■  it-     >-i-r..     i  li  iT.ri  tcaifcVa  'is.ii-i 

VWodtwt  XP 

-w^jfl  -.'U-t'.  iH:;  ft*     ^  i8ȴ. 

Tra^ft  -;  Handg  On 

iiy1>'iiii'd<'|i.  »«rtsT«  is! 

.  P/a  • 



UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  uac  onlt 

DOCID:  4046925 


"Shopping  for"  Windows  XP 

0fMIN;PSET6!:'9  fSZZ* 

q&aal  Microsoft  j?He' for  1  heir  !femily  of  opsrating  systems; 

...  Here&whsl  you  protjabl/  think;  Miciosoft  Wn^mXP^e  Ihe  most  pppglac OSitt  ffat-nrwMt.-  so  it m  twa 
reasons  wfty  Windows  XP  is  so  popular  (a):il  ^ 

3.  (23)  Annazon  com- So&we;  ^iefosoft^n^XP:PfO?e^t<^ai  Upgrade^. 

TbiUpgrade^isionrilA^  ftas.a.fine  irtra/feca ...        bear  irv  mtstd  {Hat 

Windows  XP  may  csm^elyGU  ta-sifcwwE  more- on  ... 

4.  Ril  CannpM is  the  Software Price  Beater  spedlgisfe 

..:  RJ  eampbell'i3  the  S^ware  Price  8eater  s^iali«^  ^N^fo:<«n  Office  2J03and  Window*  XP.... 
S^'rarePric  Wttiifows  XP  Htom&:Ediiioh<+SP2  (DEM)  t .poAfer'tey ... 

Compare  Pfe$s  ^ 


Widows  XP' 

*«i!yjir*i:-j.  r:Mcip 

3"!**:  MJ^lC^i^l 

•«<V9s.#e-^:!«:»  tan 

MEM  Windows  XP  Pw; 

Yahoo  Mindset 

Yahoo  Instant  Search:  This  is  yet  another  attempt  by  a  major  search  engine  to 
provide  answers  instead  of  lists  of  search  results,  Yahoo's  Instant  Search  tries  to 
give  you  a  single,  relevant  response  to  a  query.  As  their  blog  explains, 

If  search  engines  are  so  smart,  why  do  they  give  you  millions  of  results  when  you 
type  in  "boston  weather"?  Why  even  ten,  for  that  matter?  Why  not  just  one?  Or 
better  yet,  why  not  just  tell  me  what  the  weather  is?... 

Of  course,  the  answer  is  that  often  there  isn't  one  obvious  "answer"  to  a  query  and 
you  may  want  a  number  of  possible  sites  to  explore.  However,  sometimes  you  just 
want  a  straightforward  response,  and  that  is  what  Instant  Search  is  trying  to  achieve. 
Instant  Search  works  best  (in  fact,  only  works)  with  simple  requests,  e.g.,  [weather 
london]  or  [bwi]  or  [artificial  intelligence]  or  [convert  150  dollars  to  pounds].  Keep  in 
mind,  Instant  Search  is  not  trying  to  be  another,  which  "researches" 
answers  to  specific  questions.  Rather,  Instant  Search  tries  to  "guess"  what  most 
users  would  want  to  know  if  they  entered  a  query  such  as  [ravens];  Instant  Search 
guesses  most  users  are  looking  for  information  about  the  Baltimore  Ravens  and  not 
about  birds.  Sometimes  the  guesses  are  good,  sometimes  not. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Instant  Search  employs  the  AJAX  web  development  technique  that  is  starting  to 
make  a  big  splash.  AJAX  uses  asynchronous  JavaScript  and  XML  (thus  the  name 
"AJaX")  to  allow  interactive  web  browsing.  You  can  see  AJAX  in  action  with  one  of 
the  most  intriguing  features  of  Instant  Search.  You  don't  need  to  hit  the  Search 
button  to  get  your  answer.  As  you  type,  the  answer  (or  best  guess)  will  appear  in  a 
"speech  bubble"  below  the  query  box: 


Instant  Search 

[moi?|  Seott*  the  Web 

ittfosrckiliort  abouUbe  fourth  planet  from  the  Sun  and  Vhe  sevsrslh  largess 
.<a»av  ■  in--;^M^"  o-j/in.its  him' 

You  can  also  add  Instant  Search  to  your  Yahoo  Search  page  by  clicking  on  a 
link  on  the  Instant  Search  webpage.  I  actually  think  Instant  Search  is  closer  to 
Google's  "I  Feel  Lucky"  option  than  to,  something  the  Yahoo  press 
release  announcing  Instant  Search  alludes  to:  "Why  feel  lucky  when  you  can  be 
right?"  Instant  Search  doesn't  just  link  to  a  webpage  but  actually  tries  to  figure  out 
what  you  want  and  give  it  to  you  (fast).  It  will  be  interesting  to  see  if  this  tool  catches 
on.  I  suspect  that  people  will  find  the  magically  appearing  "speech  bubble"  irresistible 
for  a  while,  but  whether  or  not  Instant  Search  has  staying  power  will  depend  on  the 
quantity,  quality,  and  reliability  of  the  responses  it  provides. 

Yahoo  Instant  Search 

Yahoo  Podcasts;  Yahoo's  new  search  site  is  designed  not  only  to  find  podcasts  on 
topics  of  interest  but  also  let  users  search  podcasts  by  keywords,  categories  or  user- 
generated  topic  tags.  The  new  site  is  a  variation  on  the  traditional  Yahoo  directory, 
offering  a  category  list  by  topics,  lists  of  "what  other  people  like"  and  "what  we  like," 
and  a  search  box  that  lets  users  choose  to  search  either  series,  episodes  or  both.  A 
search  on  [spyware]  returned  5  series  results  and  202  episode  results.  It  is  clear 
from  the  highlighted  terms  in  the  results  that  Yahoo's  Podcast  search  looks  not  only 
at  tags  but  at  the  content  as  well: 

"AJAX."  Computer  Desktop  Encyclopedia.  Computer  Language  Company  Inc.,  2005.,  <>  (15  November  2006). 


DOCID:  4046925 


Episacfps  vimfrimf$. *r    "''MX?  '20?) 

'  *****;-> 

$  had  to  happen^'enfer^itie  mao  wlia  coined  the  term  Spywwe,  and  wrote  ihe  first  «vware  removal  B«k$ram, 
I'Mltt'Wrs  £ ftii^is  the  uj^mste.»pywai«  primer,  what'd wortrs,  <s»d.... 

2,  'isnm'-ir  n  \m 

Kti8pvspyw«*.  M*«r»itf9,.<>flteZaio  ipih*.  cms  Palmer  Rock*.  NswwtWM*,  sa*utt^3eo.  Acinic.  Viste;  «4*g  duel  12, 

Yahoo  Podcasts  includes  a  player  that  does  not  require  any  installation  so  that  users 

can  simply  click  on  thetSLM^nJ  button  to  hear  the  podcast  in  MP3  format.  If  you 
prefer,  Yahoo  Podcasts  even  lets  users  download  a  copy  of  a  podcast  for  later 
listening.  All  this  is  free  and  does  not  require  registration.  The  site  is  in  beta  as  of 

Why  is  Yahoo  breaking  into  podcasting  in  such  a  big  way?  Perhaps  this  is  in 
response  to  the  new  study  from  Yahoo  and  Ipsos  that  shows  that  while  RSS  feeds 
are  gaining  ground  among  the  technology  elite,  they  have  made  little  headway  with 
most  Internet  users.  At  least  that  is  what  most  users  believe,  but  the  reality  is 
somewhat  different.  How's  that?  'The  survey  found  that  31  percent  of  respondents 
used  RSS,  but  only  4  percent  were  aware  of  it.  A  full  96  percent  of  people 
participating  in  the  survey  told  Ipsos  Insight  that  they  did  not  use  RSS.  Their 
obliviousness  came  from  the  fact  that  most  people  used  browser-based  feed-reading 
software."  In  short,  folks  are  using  RSS  and  don't  know  it."  When  users  go  to  My 
Yahoo  or  Firefox's  live  bookmarks,  they  are  using  RSS  technology.  Moreover,  the 
study  found  that  even  the  most  tech-savvy  users  prefer  to  use  browser  or  web- 
based  RSS  readers  than  stand-alone  software.  That's  easy  to  understand  because 
people  are  so  deluged  with  technology  that  unless  it  is  easy  to  use  or  brings  some 
indispensable  new  capability,  people  simply  won't  use  it.  The  study  concluded: 



DOCID:  4046925 


Internet  users  do  not  understand  how  to  use  the  XML  button,  how  to  actively 
seek  out  RSS  feeds,  or  even  what  the  term  RSS  means.  Instead,  they  need  a 
simple  interface  where  they  can  choose  the  information  and  content  that  interests 
them.  This  is  where  personalized  start  pages  and  browser-based  experiences 
can  help  move  RSS  into  the  mainstream. 

Yahoo's  new  Podcasts  Search  tries  to  simplify  and  demystify  not  only  podcasting  but 
also  RSS  feeds  so  that  users  will  feel  comfortable  enough  to  try  a  new  technology 
and,  Yahoo  hopes,  get  hooked  on  it.  I  know  I  have  pretty  much  given  up  on  email 
newsletters  in  favor  of  RSS  feeds  at  Bloglines  because  it  is  just  so  much  more 

Yahoo  Podcasts  Search 

RSS:  Crossing  into  the  Mainstream,  by  Yahoo  and  Ipsos  Insight,  October  2005 
[PDF]  whitePaper1004.pdf 

Chris  Sherman  reviews  eight  RSS  readers  (for  parsing  primarily  XML  formatted  news  and  blogs); 
some  are  integrated  into  a  browser  while  others  are  standalone  products  that  must  be  downloaded 
and  installed.  Chris  Sherman,  "Choosing  an  RSS  Reader,"  SearchDay,  1  September  2005, 
<>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Hacks 

While  Google  hacks — tips,  tricks,  techniques,  and  scripts  that  make  Google  more 
powerful  and  useful— are  plentiful  and  fairly  well  documented,  the  same  cannot  be 
said  (yet)  for  Yahoo  Hacks,  despite  the  fact  that  O'Reilly  published  a  Yahoo  Hacks 
book  in  late  2005.  Part  of  the  reason  for  this  was  the  absence  of  Yahoo  APIs,  a 
problem  Yahoo  recognized  and  rectified  with  its  Developer  site. 

Yahoo  Developer  Network 
Yahoo  Developer  Network  Blog 

While  many  of  the  hacks,  mostly  employing  some  form  of  API,  are  geared  toward 
maps,  Yahoo  launched  a  webpage  devoted  exclusively  to  Yahoo  and  "mixed"  API 

Yahoo  Search  Application  Gallery 

I  recommend  you  pay  special  attention  to  the  following  applications  that  use  Yahoo 
APIs,  although  you  may  find  others  even  more  useful  to  you: 

Link  Harvester 

This  is  a  very  powerful — but  very  slow— tool  for  examining  links  to  a  domain  or  a 
specific  url.  The  example  below  shows  the  links  to  [].  Link  Harvester 
does  the  following: 

•  quickly  finds  almost  every  single  site  linking  into  a  domain  or  page. 

•  scrapes  past  the  1 ,000  search  result  limit  by  making  domain  filtering  a 

•  grabs  number  of  pages  indexed. 

•  grabs  links  to  any  page. 

•  grabs  total  inbound  links,  home  page  links,  and  deep  link  ratio. 

•  tool  is  fast  and  free,  which  is  great  considering  all  it  does. 

•  grabs  C  block  IP  address  information. 

•  tool  provides  links  to  Wayback  Machine  and  Whois  Source  (now  Domain 
Tools)  next  to  each  domain. 

•  free  &  open  source 



DOCID:  4046925 


•    uses  the  Yahoo  API  so  it  complies  with  their  TOS  [terms  of  service]. 

URL  (ex.;    Link  Type:  jjj^. 

[www.        1  Domain  z)  [j^~^J  Query  |    Start  Over  | 

http://api.  search,  yahoo.  corr^ebSearchSeiviceA/1/webSearch?query=linkdomain:www. 

Enlei  silenames  you  wan)  to  filter: 


Showing  201  unique  domains  from  the  first  250  results  of  273  total  results 

Links  To  Domain.  61D  Pages  Indexed:  121 

Links  To  Homepage:  255  Deep  Link  Percentage:  58% 

7  Unique  Educational  Domains  ('.edu>  with  7  Unique  C  Block  Addi esses 

P  [W]  [A]  [GJ  HI  [HJ  [D]  [Y|  job  svau  edu  cn  (2)  210.47. 174.208  |~  |W]  [A|  [G]  |T]  (H|  [D]  [YJ  iob  cn  (2)  221 .12.26.151 

r  [W|  [AJ  [G]  HI  [H]  [D]  [Y |  (2)  202.1 1 4. 121 .41  T  |W]  |A|  [GJ  [H  [H|  [D]  ( YJ  career  (2)  202. 1 1 2  1 1 7. 1 1 6 

r  [VVl  [A|  [G|  HI  [H|  (Dl  III  [2)  |~  [W|  [AJ  [GJ  |T|  [H|  |D|  [YJ  (2) 

r  |W|  |A)  [GJ  HI  [HJ  [DJ  (YJ  t2)  211  64.116.10      

12  Unique  Goveiment  Domains,  \mil)  wlih  10  Unique  C  Block  Addresses 

j  l~  LVV|  [A]  |G]  LTI  [H]  [PJ  |Y|  (4)  211  99  196.166  |~~  [W]  [A|  [§)  [T]  [Hj  [D|  [YJ  www  gov  cn  (2) 

j  riW]  (a]  [G]  [T]  [H]  |D]  |Yl  0  r~  [  yVJ  [A|  [G|  [T]  [H|  [U]  [Y]  Q]  61 .153.32.13 

r  IW]  |A]  [GJ  [XI  [HI  (DJ  |Y]  (4)  61  157.75.21  |~  [W]  [A|  (G|  |T|  [H|  [DJ  [VJ  -www. Changchun  gov  cn  (2)  221 .8.13. 135 

'  P  fW]  [A]  (G|  HI  [HJ  ipj  |Y]  wv/w  (2)  218  4.101 .3  f  |W|  (A|  |G|  |T|  [H|  [OJ  [V]  potial  piefriUjra;  (2)  200.230. 190.68 

\  r  |W|  [A]  |G|  |T|  |H|  [D|  |Y|  (2)  202. 106. 161.242  T  |WJ  [AJ  [G]  |T]  |H]  |0]  (yj  (2)  21 1 .99. 196. 166 

1  r  (W)  [AJ  [G]  [JJ  [H]  |D]  |Y]  bsq  sh  uov  cn  (2)  218.242.255. 1 18  |~  [Wf  [A|  [G]  |JJ  [Hj  [D]  [YJ  www cn  (2) 

182  Unique  Commeircjl  Domains  {'.com.  \net.  etc)  with  126  Unique  C  Block  Addresses  _  

ri^!l  [AJ  fGI  fT|  [HI  ID)  |Y|  www  atimss  corn  f21  |~[W1  [A|  [G|  [TJ  [H|  [D]  [YJ  wwvv.nuosht  net  (2) 

r  (WJ  [A]  |G|  HI  [HJ  [DJ  | Yj  (4)  210.51 . 190.23S  T |W|  | A|  | Gj  [T|  | H|  |0|  [yj  (4)  21 1 . 100.24.5 

r(WJ  [A]  [GJ  HI  [HJ  (DJ  [Y|  £2)  r~[W]  [A|  [GJ  |T|  [H|  [DJ  [YJ  ffl 

ri^VJ  [A]  fG|  HI  [HJ  [DJ  |V1  www  comeiromehina  com  [2)  T  [W|  |A|  |G[  |T]  (HJ  |0|  [YJ  spaces.msn  com  (2) 

r|W|  [A]  fGJ  [T|  [HJ  ID]  (YJ  www.popyard.ortj  (2)  T  [W]  [A|  [GJ  |T)  [H]  |DJ  [Yj  (4) 

For  each  unique  domain,  Link  Harvester  provides  [W]=Whois  Source  data  for 
domain;  [A]=lnternet  Archive  data  for  domain;  [G]=Google  cache  of  actual  webpage; 
[T]=Google's  text  only  cache  of  actual  webpage;  [H]=Google's  text  only  cache  of 
domain;  [D]=Whois  Source's  information  about  the  domain  from  the  Open  Directory; 
[Y]=Yahoo's  Directory  Listing  of  Whois  Source  data  about  the  domain. 

Hub  Finder 

"Hub  Finder  looks  for  sites  which  have  co-occurring  links  to  related  authoritative 
websites  on  a  particular  topic."  Basically,  Hub  Finder  locates  authoritative  websites 
on  a  particular  subject,  as  in  the  example  below,  for  Java.  In  this  case,  the  top  sites 
(most  authoritative  resources)  for  Java  are  shown.  Hub  Finder  also  permits  users  to 
download  the  data  in  CSV  (Comma  Separated  Value)  format  that  can  be  easily 
merged  into  a  spreadsheet  or  database. 

51  Link  Harvester,  Linkhounds,  <>  (14  November  2006). 


DOCID:  4046925 





Download  CSV 

Google  Key: 

Include  this  site  (optional)   Link  Type: 

Eiitei  up  to  10  sites: 

Queiytng  ihe  following  5  sites 

3:  com 
4.  rdrwl 

5:  javaboutique. internet. com 

Showing  45  sites  with  at  least  2  matching  hacklinks  fioin  178  se.irch  lesulrs 

<  *  X  |W|  [A]  [H]  [D]  [Y |  (209.249. 1 1 6.203) 
&    *    *  tWI  W  fHI  fPl  IV)  iava  sun. corn  (209.249.1 16.141) 

X  £  X  |W|  [A|  [H]  |Dj  [Y|  www.icp  org  ( 

X  X  [Wj  |A|  [h]  |D)  |YJ  ( 

<<  *  *  1VV|  [A]  (H)  [OJ  |Y]  ww.sur.  cofn  (209.249.1 16.195) 

*  £  X  (Wl  (A)  (HI  101  LYl  www.ialkcity  com  (66.37 .219.37) 

*  5S  (W|  |A|  [H)  [01  fV  1  (53.251 .168.82] 
X    3?  IVV1  IA1  [HI  fPl  IY1  csmeiot  ( 

*  X  [W)  [At  [H]  fPl  [Y]  dassent  net  £9.60.119  225) 

The  following  Yahoo  Hacks  generally  mirror  certain  Google  hacks,  with  the 
exception  of  the  originurlextension:  syntax,  which  is  unique  to  Yahoo  and  very 

>  Disabling  Word  Stemming.  Yahoo  does  not  give  users  the  option  to  turn  off 
word  stemming,  which  can  frustrate  users  trying  to  perform  precise  searches. 
To  run  a  precise  search,  enclose  the  term  in  double-quotes,  e.g.,  ["drink"]  will 
not  find  drinks  (except  in  sponsored  results). 

>  Searching  by  Filetype.  Despite  the  fact  Yahoo  mysteriously  disabled  its 
filetype  syntax,  you  can  use  originurlextension:  to  search  by  file  type,  but 
this  syntax  is  imperfect. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  originurlextension;  command: 

12  3  4  5 

Site  Name 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  [originurlextension:pdf  "white  paper"]  finds  pages  indexed  by  Yahoo  that  are 
in  PDF  format  and  contain  the  phrase  ["white  paper"]  anywhere  in  the  text, 
title,  or  url. 

To  search  by  specific  type  of  file,  use  the  syntax  originurlextension:  plus  one  of 
these  or  any  file  extension,  such  as  cgi,  log,  zip,  etc.  Because  this  workaround 
is  not  a  true  filetype  search,  you  can  search  on  any  file  extension. 

o  htm  or  html — standard  webpage 

o  pdf  — Adobe  Acrobat 

o  xls — MS  Excel 

o  ppt— MS  PowerPoint 

o  doc — MS  Word 

o  txt — text 

o  xml,  rdf,  rss— RSS  or  XML  feeds52 

Searchroller.  Searchroller  uses  a  JavaScript  to  let  you  create  a  neat  little  search 
query  bookmarklet53  for  your  future  use.  The  bookmarklet  comprises  a  set  of 
domains  you  like  to  search  on  routinely  but  don't  want  to  type  in  each  time.  For 
example,  perhaps  you'd  like  to  search  simultaneously  on  a  whole  group  of  news 
sites.  Tara  Calishain's  script  lets  you  input  the  urls  for  the  news'  sites  once,  then 
save  them  to  your  Favorites  or  Bookmarks.  Each  time  you  click  on  the  bookmarklet, 
a  screen  will  appear  asking  you  to  enter  a  query  term  or  terms,  then  the  bookmarklet 
will  automatically  go  to  Yahoo  and  run  that  query  against  all  the  urls  you  have 
previously  selected.  It's  a  great  timesaver  when  you  consider  this  is  a  typical 
Searchroller  bookmarklet  query,  although  it  could  be  much  longer: 

[iraq  (  OR  OR]  OR 
[  OR  OR  )] 

Searchroller  yahoo  hack  searchroller  fo.shtml 

Artificial  Proximity  Search.  Since  Yahoo's  APIs  are  so  new  and  as  yet  not  fully 
exploited,  clever  folks  like  Tara  Calishain  have  come  up  with  ways  to  force  Yahoo  to 
perform  new  types  of  searches.  The  proximity  search  lets  you  input  one  search  term 
and  look  for  it  from  1  to  5  "spaces"  (really,  words)  from  a  second  search  term.  For 
example,  I  can  search  for  henry  within  two  words  of  thoreau  and  find  many  instances 

In  order  to  read  RSS  or  XML  feeds,  you  need  a  reader  or  aggregator  to  parse  this  type  of  data. 

53  A  bookmarklet  is  a  tiny  JavaScript  application  contained  in  a  bookmark  that  can  be  saved  and  used 
the  same  way  you  use  normal  bookmarks.  Bookmarklets  do  not  require  users  to  download  and  install 
software.  For  more  on  bookmarklets,  visit  <>. 



DOCID:  4046925 


of  Henry  David  Thoreau.  This  tool  is  very  good  for  finding  names  with  the  last  name 
listed  first,  e.g.,  Thoreau,  Henry  David. 

YNAPS  -  Yahoo  Non-API  Proximity  Search 

Try  using  an  artificial  NEAR  search  for  Yahoo: 
Find  Word  One:  |henry 
W'tn'n  j  2  ▼]  spaces  of 

Word  Two:  thoreau 

Any  additional  words?  \ 
Search      Start  Over 

Yahoo  Proximity  Search 

http://www.researchbuzz.Qrq/2QQ4/10/vnaps  yahoo  nonapi  proximity  s.shtml 

Boilerplate  Words  or  Phrases  Yield  Gold.  Used  in  combination  with  keywords, 
standardized  words  or  phrases  can  produce  very  useful  results  from  Yahoo  as  well 
as  Google.  Whether  it's  "company  proprietary,"  "not  for  distribution,"  or  a  copyright 
disclaimer,  these  are  the  kinds  of  identifying  query  terms  that  searchers  need  to  look 



DOCID:  4046925 


Windows  Live  Search 

MSN  Search  is  no  more.  As  of  mid-September  2006,  Windows  Live  Search  was  out 
of  beta  and  officially  supplanted  MSN  Search.  It  came  as  a  surprise  to  no  one  that 
the  new  Live  Search  has  the  familiar  clean,  uncluttered  look  popularized  by  Google. 
Live  marks  a  clear  change  in  Microsoft's  overall  direction  from  a  multipurpose  portal 
to  a  search  service:  "  is  now  first  and  foremost  a  search  destination," 
according  to  Christopher  Payne,  Microsoft's  corporate  vice  president.54 

The  question  on  everyone's  mind  is  whether  or  not  Live  Search  is  any  better  than 
MSN  Search  or  Google  or  Yahoo  or  any  number  of  other  search  engines.  Thus  far, 
Live  is  not  noticeably  superior  to  MSN  Search,  but  it  is  a  one  of  the  top  three  largest 
and  most  powerful  US-based  search  engines. 

The  new  Windows  Live  Search: 

>  uses  its  own  database  for  web  search. 

>  indexes  at  least  5  billion  pages. 

>  offers  cached  links  with  the  date  Microsoft  estimates  the  page  was  last 
updated  (usually  the  date  the  Microsoft  spider  last  crawled  the  page); 
sometimes  a  date  will  appear  next  to  the  cached  link  on  the  results'  page  if 
that  page  has  recently  been  updated. 

>  has  a  "Near  Me"  search  option  that  only  works  in  the  US;  it  uses  your  IP 
address  to  determine  your  location;  users  can  override  this  location  by 
changing  it  on  the  Options  page.  Note  that  you  cannot  leave  the  default 
location  empty,  if  you  do  not  enter  a  location,  Live  Search  wiii  default  to 
what  it  reads  as  your  IP  address's  geolocation. 

>  offers  web,  news,  image,  local,  Q&A,  academic,  feeds,  video,  products,  and 
new  "build  your  own"  searches. 

>  offers  preference  control  via  "options." 

The  "Search  Builder"  query  customization  tool  has  been  replaced  by  the  "Advanced" 
option;  as  with  "Search  Builder"  the  Advanced  option  opens  a  little  window  beneath 
the  search  form. 

Chris  Sherman,  "Microsoft  Upgrades  Live  Search  Offerings,"  SearchEngineWatch,  12  September 
2006,  <>  (5  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Customizing  Live  Search  Settings  ("Options") 

Live  Search  currently  offers  these  user-defined  options  (preferences): 

>  Display:  display  the  site  in  a  specific  language  (most  major  languages  with 
some  notable  exceptions,  e.g.,  Arabic,  Thai). 

>  Number  of  Results:  choose  to  display  10,  15,  30,  or  50  results  at  a  time. 

>  Group  results  from  the  same  site:  Show  the  first  1 ,  2,  or  3  results. 

>  Open  Links  in  New  Browser  Window:  yes  or  no. 

>  SafeSearch  Filter:  choose  among  Strict,  Moderate,  Off. 

>  Location:  set  a  default  location;  Microsoft  detects  your  physical  location  from 
your  IP  address,  but  you  may  enter  a  new  geographical  location  in  its  place. 
Remember:  you  cannot  leave  the  default  location  empty.  If  you  do  not  enter  a 
location,  Live  Search  will  default  to  what  it  reads  as  your  IP  address's 

>  Search  Language:  search  in  any  language  or  search  in  one  or  more  of  38 
languages  including  Arabic,  Japanese,  Chinese,  Korean,  and  Hebrew. 

The  Live  Search  Results  Page 

The  clean  look  continues  on  the  results'  page.  Once  you  have  entered  your  search 
term(s)  and  clicked  the  Live  Search  button,  Live  will  present  you  with  a  list  of  results. 
Depending  on  the  search  you  are  running,  you  will  see  some  or  all  of  the  following 
for  a  web  search: 


DOCID:  4046925 


;  [kJI  - 

Cardinal  s&ath. 

Offers  drug  devetapisraril  Benraces.-im  l^e  p'hermacwtic.5l  and  tibiae hnciaqy 
industry-  tshiaMs  fir&nn#<»oii  oo  -tr^npany,  ihv&fter  i-atetkats.aNl  r>ews 

f  Cantonal  rS?a?tN  »s:  t!he  l&adjng1  provider  -of  pfodbtrts,  wvtcfls.aritf. 
;  .iupfBodfrifij  lis*  fiealih .;..»  ftf  Cardinal 'Health:,  evei-ytbirsg;  w«s  do  has  oite 
■  ui.ii^t^  purpose-;  lo  Wp-cwr  Mi^«B<w  ttfflt 

t  Forme;  accordtan  'fites,  J»o$8*fc*f  fcinctei*  •ai-HH-raft 

product  Otr^^Esar. 

%^«r.eciJ-«!  'S-OOflV  "  .....    ! J^4£ 


Cardinal  Hft^th  is,  tf>a  le^r.f^g.  pfnvtder: 
t!3f'isfhrm^d  !tsef?;from  the-^test 

Cardinal         !w's  quietly 

Related  5Rarfhfi$r  I 
St  Louis  Cardinals 
Cardinal  He^lrh 

tew  Cardinals 
Cardinal  Bird 

C, -si-din.?!  p'lttt^s^ 

Cardinal  r 

Looking  for  CartirrmlTfinct  exactly 

Great  flitep*  cardhW  •fix  For 

>  A  Type  of  results  (web,  image,  etc.):  the  number  of  resulting  pages  and 
estimated  total  number  of  results. 

>  B  The  title  of  the  webpage  found,  an  excerpt  from  the  webpage  with  the 
search  terms  bolded,  the  url  of  the  webpage. 

>  C  Cached  page:  links  to  a  copy  of  the  page  as  saved  by  the  Live  Search 
engine;  Live  Search  shows  the  last  date  the  page  was  examined  by  its  spider; 
search  terms  are  not  highlighted  on  the  cached  page.  Important  Note:  the 
cached  copy  of  Microsoft  file  types  are  safe  to  view. 

>  D  Additional  results  from  the  same  site;  clicking  on  "Show  more  results 
from..."  will  bring  up  the  pages  from  that  site  that  match  the  keyword(s). 

>  E  Related  Searches  offer  options  either  for  similar  terms  or  terms  with 
multiple  meanings,  e.g.,  "cardinal." 

>  F  Sponsored  Sites  are  paid  results. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Live  Basic  Search 

Live  Search  has  changed  little  about  its  basic  search  internals  in  terms  of  how  it 
handles  queries  and  the  number  of  basic  search  options. 

Live  Search  assumes  as  its  default  that  multiple  search  terms  are  joined  by  the  AND 
operator,  so  that  a  search  on  the  keywords  [windows  explorer]  will  find  all  the 
webpages  that  contain  both  search  terms. 

Live  Search  recognizes  double  quotes  as  enclosing  a  phrase. 

Live  Search  will  not  return  any  results  if  there  is  no  webpage  containing  all  the 
search  terms.  Try  this  query  to  see  what  I  mean: 

[rollerskate  handshake  specktioneer] 

Unlike  Google,  Live  Search  does  not  limit  the  number  of  search  terms  to  10 
keywords.  Live  will  try  to  match  all  the  keywords  you  enter. 

Live  Search  is  not  case  sensitive. 

Live  Search  does  not  offer  any  word  stemming  or  truncation,  i.e.,  searching  for 
variations  of  search  terms.  A  search  for  [child]  will  not  find  [children]. 

Live  Search  automatically  clusters  search  results.  If  you  want  to  see  more  pages 
from  a  specific  site,  simply  select  the  link  following  the  url  of  the  result. 

Live  permits  the  use  of  nested  boolean  queries  in  simple  search.  The  operators 
must  be  capitalized.  Live  Search  will  run  nested  boolean  queries  (those  using 
parentheses),  such  as: 

[cardinals  AND  ("st  louis"  OR  arizona)  NOT  (bird  OR  catholic)] 

Live  Search  will  ignore  stop  words,  i.e.,  commonplace  words,  if  the  query 
contains  non-stop  words;  the  query  [to  be  or  not  to  be]  will  only  search  for  the  term 
"not."  However,  you  can  search  on  any  single  letter  or  number  by  itself,  e.g.,  [1].  You 
can  also  force  Live  Search  to  look  for  stop  words  either  by  enclosing  the  query  in 
double  quotes  ["to  be  or  not  to  be"]  or  by  placing  a  plus  sign  in  front  of  the  stop  word, 
e.g.,  [+1  number]  or  [+to  +be  +or  +not]. 

Otherwise,  it  is  unnecessary  to  use  the  plus  sign  (+)  with  any  terms  because  by 
default  Live  Search  searches  for  all  keywords.  However,  many  times  searchers  need 
to  exclude  certain  terms  that  are  commonly  associated  with  a  keyword  but  irrelevant 
to  their  search.  That's  where  the  minus  sign  (-)  comes  in.  Using  the  minus  sign  in 
front  of  a  keyword  ensures  that  Live  Search  excludes  that  term  from  the  search.  For 
example,  the  results  for  the  search  ["pearl  harbor"  -movie]  are  very  different  from  the 



DOCID:  4046925 


results  for  ["pearl  harbor"].  You  may  use  the  boolean  operator  NOT  instead  of  the 
minus  sign. 

Live  Search  interprets  the  ampersand  [&]  as  a  space,  so  these  searches  are 
virtually  identical:  [at&t],  [at  &  t],  ["at  t"].  Also,  while  Live  Search  will  not  actually 
search  on  a  plus  sign,  the  search  engine  will  search  for  [C++],  although  it  does  not 
recognize  [c+]. 

Live  Search  Advanced  Search 

Thus  far,  while  Live  Search  added  more  advanced  search  options,  it  still  falls  behind 
Yahoo  and  Google  in  the  number  and  type  of  advanced  search  options  it  offers. 
Nonetheless,  Live  Search  has  several  advanced  search  features  that  are  accessible 
by  clicking  on  the  "Advanced"  link,  which  opens  a  small  window  that  used  to  be 
labeled  "Search  Builder"  in  MSN  Search  and  is  still  called  that  on  the  Help  pages. 
The  advanced  search  options  may  also  be  employed  directly  by  using  the  correct 
syntax  in  the  query  box.  Live  Search's  web  search  help  is  accessible  from  a  link  on 
the  Live  Search  home  page,  but  I  prefer  the  old  MSN  Search,  which  is  still  available 
and  at  this  point  still  accurate. 

Windows  Live  Search  Help 

Live  Search  now  offers  as  many  languages  in  which  users  may  search  as  Yahoo 
and  Google.  Using  either  the  language  preference  settings  or  the  advanced  search 
window,  users  can  select  from  nearly  40  languages  in  which  to  search  and  see 
results.  There  are  three  ways  to  specify  a  search  language: 

1.  in  the  Advanced  search  window,  select  Language,  then  pull  down  and  click  on 
a  specific  language. 

2.  type  your  search  terms  into  the  search  box,  and  then  add  language:  followed 
immediately  by  the  two-character  language  code.  For  example,  to  search  only 
for  sites  in  French:  [language:fr  keyword] 

3.  a  more  permanent  change  would  be  to  go  to  the  Options  page  and  change 
your  primary  search  language. 

Live  Search  does  not  distinguish  words  using  diacritical  marks  such  as  accents  or 
umlauts.  Live  Search  finds  terms  matching  those  with  and  without  the  diacritic.  The 
term  [fagade]  finds  facade  and  facade,  and  vice  versa. 

Live  Search  offers  several  special  search  terms  to  restrict  searches  and  make  them 
more  effective. 


UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


>  site/domain:  restricts  results  to  a  specific  website  or  domain,  including  a  specific 
top-level  domain.  Can  be  used  with  or  without  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Site/Domain  returns  results  from  specific  domains  (com,  gov,,  a  country  digraph,  etc.) 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  site:  command: 

[]  finds,,  However,  it  will  not  find 

[books]  finds  pages  containing  the  keyword  "books"  that  are 
not  at  any  website. 

[site:ir]  finds  all  the  pages  from  the  Iranian  (.ir)  top-level  domain  indexed  by  Live 

>  country/region:  on  the  Advanced  menu;  it  is  identical  to  the  site/domain  search 
for  a  country  digraph.  However,  if  you  do  not  know  a  country's  top-level  domain, 
you  can  use  the  Country/Region  pull-down  menu  to  select  the  country,  and  Live 
Search  will  automatically  enter  the  correct  country  digraph  for  you. 

>  language:  restricts  results  to  pages  in  a  specific  language.  Users  must  specify  a 
language  using  the  two-letter  code  or  use  Advanced  Search.  Can  be  used  with  or 
without  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Language  uses  pull-down  menu  to  select  languages. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  language:  command: 

[language:ro]  restricts  results  to  sites  written  in  Romanian. 

[Ianguage:es  domain:mx  mexico]  restricts  results  to  sites  written  in  Spanish  in  the 
Mexican  top-level  domain  that  contain  the  term  "mexico." 

>  url:  unlike  Google's  url  query,  Live's  url  query  checks  to  see  if  the  domain  or  web 
address  is  in  the  Live  Search  index.  This  query  is  not  really  intended  to  be  used 
with  other  search  terms. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  url:  command: 

[]  or  []  will  check  to  see  if  a  site  is  indexed 
by  Live  Search. 

>  inurl:  restricts  results  to  pages  that  contain  search  terms  within  the  url  of  a  site. 
Multiple  terms  can  be  used,  but  all  must  appear  in  the  url  (this  query  is  similar  to 
Google's  allinurl:  query). 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  inurl:  command: 



DOCID:  4046925 


[inurkmicrosoft]  finds  all  pages  containing  "microsoft"  anywhere  in  the  url 

[inurl:microsoft  downloads]  finds  all  pages  containing  both  the  terms  "microsoft" 
and  "downloads"  anywhere  in  the  url. 

>  inbody:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  search  term(s)  in  the  body  of  a 
webpage.  Can  be  used  with  or  without  other  search  terms. 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  inbody:  command: 

[inbody:amazon  -inurkamazon]  finds  all  pages  containing  the  term  "amazon" 
anywhere  in  the  body  (text)  of  a  webpage  but  which  do  not  contain  the  term 
"amazon"  in  the  url  of  the  page. 

>  intitle:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  search  term(s)  in  the  webpage's  title. 
Can  be  used  with  or  without  other  search  terms. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  intitle:  command: 

[intitle:amazon  inbody:brazil]  will  find  pages  that  contain  "amazon"  in  the  title  of 
the  webpage  and  "brazil"  in  the  body  text  of  the  webpage. 

>  contains:  restricts  results  to  pages  that  have  links  to  specific  the  file  type(s).  Can 
be  used  with  or  without  other  search  terms. 

Examples  of  how  to  the  contains:  command: 

[music  contains:mp3]  finds  webpages  that  contain  links  to  MP3  files  and  have  the 
keyword  "music"  in  them. 

["final  report"  contains:pdf]  finds  webpages  that  contain  links  to  PDF  files  that 
have  the  phrase  "final  report"  in  them. 

>  link:  Restricts  results  to  pages  containing  links  to  a  specific  url.  Can  be  used  with 
or  without  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Links  to  returns  results  for  pages  that  currently  link  to  a 
specific  url. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  link:  command: 

[linkijpl.]  finds  all  pages  containing  links  to  the  specific  domain 

[  asteroid]  finds  all  pages  containing  links  to  any  page  in  the  domain  and  the  keyword  "asteroid"  anywhere  on  the  linking 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  linkdomain:  Restricts  results  to  pages  that  link  to  any  page  within  the  specified 
domain.  This  is  a  broader  search  than  the  link:  query.  You  can  use  this  option  to 
determine  how  many  links  there  are  to  a  specific  page  from  sites  indexed  by  Live 
Search.  Can  be  used  with  or  without  additional  keywords. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  linkdomain: 

[linkdomain:jpl.]  finds  all  pages  containing  links  to  any  page  at,  including,,  etc. 

[linkdomain:jpl.  cassini]  finds  all  pages  containing  links  to  any  page  at  and  that  also  include  the  term  "cassini"  at  the  linking  website. 

star  [linkdomain:jpl.  -site:jpl.]  will  find  all  pages  containing  links 
to  any  page  at  from  sites  other  than  (this  eliminates 
internal  links  from  the  overall  results). 

>  linkfromdomain:  Restricts  results  to  pages  that  are  linked  from  the  specified 
domain.  This  query  only  works  with  second-level  domains,  e.g.,  []. 
You  can  use  this  option  to  determine  how  many  links  there  are  from  a  specific 
page.  Can  be  used  with  or  without  additional  keywords. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  linkfromdomain: 

[]  finds  all  the  pages  the  domain  links  to,  i.e., 
links  from  to  site  x. 

[  standards]  finds  all  pages  the  domain  links  to 
that  contain  the  term  "standards"  on  their  webpage,  i.e.,  links  from  to 
site  x  where  site  x  contains  the  keyword  "standards." 

>  Results  ranking:  allows  users  to  emphasize  different  factors  to  get  a  different 
set  of  results  for  the  same  search. 

1.  Type  your  search  terms  into  the  search  text  box,  and  then  click  Advanced 

2.  Select  Results  ranking,  and  then  move  the  equalizer  slider(s)  in  the  direction 
you  want. 

Live  Search  Help  explains  Results  ranking  in  this  way: 

"You  can  put  emphasis  on  different  factors  to  get  a  different  set  of  results  for  the 
same  search.  The  sliders  control: 

•   Updated  recently:  To  modify  your  search  to  add  emphasis  to  sites  that 
have  been  recently  added  to  the  search  index,  move  the  left  slider  up. 

UNCLASSiFiEP//rorc  ornoiAL  uoc  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


•  Very  popular:  To  add  emphasis  to  sites  by  the  number  of  other  sites  that 
link  to  them,  move  the  middle  slider  up. 

•  Approximate  match:  To  put  the  most  emphasis  on  the  match  between 
your  exact  search  words  and  your  results,  move  the  right  slider  down. 

•  Approximate  match  overrides  the  first  two  slider  rankings. 

•  Results  ranking  applies  to  web  searches  only." 

It  is  easier  to  visualize  how  to  use  results  ranking  by  looking  at  an  example.  In  this 
case,  the  search  on  ["saudi  arabia"]  has  been  reranked  to  emphasize  pages  that 
have  been  recently  updated  {frsh=100}  means  the  "freshness"  ranking  of  these 
pages  is  100  or  the  most  recently  updated  pages  in  the  Live  Search  database: 

Search  terms  Updated  recently  Very  popular  Approximate  match 
Site/Do  main 

Links  to  .  ,  , 

Country/Region  1  i  i 

>  filetype:  restricts  results  to  a  specific  filetype.  Can  be  used  with  or  without 
additional  keywords.  The  file  types  Live  Search  will  search  for  include  the  major 
Microsoft  file  types  and  a  few  others: 

Microsoft  Excel  (xls) 
Microsoft  PowerPoint  (ppt) 
Microsoft  Word  (doc) 
Portable  Document  Format  (pdf) 
Rich  Text  Format  (rtf) 
Text  (txt) 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  filetype:  command: 



Results  ranking! 

Static  Less  peculiar  6x, 

Slide  the  bars  to  weight  these  factors,  -^a-: 



DOCID:  4046925 


[filetype:doc]  finds  all  Word  files  at  the  NASA  domain  in  Word 

[filetypeixls  "financial  data"]  finds  all  Excel  spreadsheets  that  contain  the  phrase 
"financial  data." 

Live  Search  does  offer  safe  previewing  of  non-HTML  file  types,  and  this  is 
especially  useful  for  Microsoft  file  types,  such  as  Word  documents  and 
PowerPoint  slides.  In  order  to  access  the  safe  HTML  versions,  users  must 
select  the  "Cached  page"  on  the  results  page: 

GUdeftnes  tor  a  RMiM  Program  Risooft 

Guidelines  To?  Prepsmnq  s  (Revised  Pro-am  Report,  in  Spring  208?  .  A  Revised 
Program  Report  d&&$  m&i  retire  the  submission  ttf  all  cEawponente  of  the  orsginal 

wvr  y  ■>  nc  at  g  ^  g ;  xi/di  oc  wi  e  ft  ts/jp  ro^raN?*  trie*/  £  uki$!in&  s&e  vi  ssd  Pn^afnftep  ort.^oc 

additional  keywords" 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  ip:  command: 

[ip:66.21 8.77.68]  finds  all  the  sites  on  this  specific  host  computer. 

[ip:66.218. 77.68  "computer  security"]  finds  all  the  sites  on  this  specific  host 
computer  containing  the  phrase  "computer  security." 

>  S&Hfi^:;tw_o-  illllirch  ORtipng;  similar  to;  the  fjliipe:  It  limits 

searches  to  text  within  a  feed.  Feeds  are  specially  formatted  brief  descriptions  of 
content  with  a  link  to  the  full  version  of  that  content.  RSS  (and  the  competing 
Atom)  feeds  are  in  XML  format.  These  feeds  are  usually  used  for  syndicating 
web  content  such  as  blogs  and  news.  The  feed:  command  only  searches  the  text 
of  the  feed,  which  is  often  a  very  condensed  description  of  the  full  web  content. 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  feed:  command: 
[feed:"trojan  horse"] 

Each  of  the  results  represents  an  XML  feed  that  includes  the  phrase  "trojan 
horse."  There  is  no  point  in  clicking  on  the  link  in  a  browser  because  that  brings 



DOCID:  4046925 


up  the  XML  page  that  most  browsers  are  not  designed  to  parse.  The  cached 
copy  shows  the  search  terms  as  they  appeared  in  the  feed. 

>  hasfeed:  shows  the  pages  that  offer  feed  links  and,  if  you  add  a  keyword 
(something  I'm  pretty  sure  Live  intended  you  to  do),  the  pages  with  feed  links  and 
that  also  have  that  keyword  somewhere  on  the  page. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  hasfeed:  command: 
[hasfeed :"trojan  horses"] 

The  results  are  webpages  that  offer  news  feeds  and  contain  the  phrase  "trojan 
horses"  on  the  webpage.  This  does  not  guarantee,  however,  that  the  news  feed 
will  be  about  Trojan  horses,  but  the  chances  are  good  that  if  you  are  looking  for 
sites  with  newsfeeds  about  this  topic,  you  can  find  them  using  this  query. 

[hasfeed encryption] 

This  query  should  find  the  pages  at  the  Microsoft  website  with  feeds  about 
encryption.  What  this  query  actually  finds  are  pages  at  the  Microsoft  site  that 
contain  both  XML  feeds  and  the  word  encryption  in  the  text,  so  a  little  research 
will  reveal  which  of  these  Microsoft  newsfeeds  are  the  most  appropriate  to  the 
topic  of  encryption. 

This  command  is  listed  at  the  but  is  not  working  properly: 

>  inanchor:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  search  term(s)  in  the  webpage 

Live  Search  Special  Features 

Spell  Checker:  Live  Search  has  a  very  good  spell  check  option.  When  you  input  a 
query,  Live  checks  to  see  if  you  are  using  the  most  common  spelling  of  the  keyword. 
If  not,  just  like  Google,  Live  nicely  asks,  *  Were  you  looking  for  x,  where  x  is  the 
most  common  spelling.  The  Live  Search  dictionary  also  includes  some  proper 

Dictionary  Definitions:  as  with  Google  and  Yahoo,  Live  Search  offers  the  define 
option.  To  use  it,  type  [define]  then  a  word  or  brief  phrase,  e.g.,  [define  king  cobra]. 
Live's  define  option  is  more  limited  than  some  others  because  it  only  refers  to 

Encarta:  Microsoft's  encyclopedia  and  general  reference  source  Encarta  provides 
answers  to  questions  and  facts  about  a  topic.  Users  can  type  questions  and 
(sometimes)  get  direct  answers  to  them  by  simply  entering  a  question  and  clicking 
on  Search.  Live  Search  does  a  much  better  job  of  correctly  answering  questions 
than  MSN  Search  did  (unlike  its  predecessor,  it  correctly  identified  Chirac  as  the 



DOCID:  4046925 


French  president).  Live  Search  can  also  directly  answer  certain  specific  questions, 
such  as  [how  tall  is  the  empire  state  building]: 

libvv  tall  Iritis  empire  state  building  Nj*  i  jjl  feftLIf*  4jMU  -  wafaM*  »  #ffrflff| 
s  Bnt)fre  T  da,. 

:.  Mire  state  gu M in g,  New  Ytiifr(HY).,  Unfed  Stjtofi  bright:  381 
m/i,2:50  ft  te&tansds 

^VC  gift* -and  *aiw»rnrs -sut*i  as  ftova 
N<  FptfV;  fflrftji  %ncl  raw  on  sale 

4fa%' *«1r»  5sy<?  oiv.Mete  near 
Umpire  Ktot*  tiffing,  .fJgw  Vqffc. 

Live  Search  no  longer  has  the  Encarta  option  that  used  to  exist  on  MSN  Search.  For 
now,  the  easiest  way  I  have  found  to  invoke  Encarta  from  Live  Search  and  to  take 
advantage  of  the  Encarta  Free  Pass  is  to  limit  your  search  to  Encarta  using  the  site: 
syntax,  e.g.,  [site:encarta.  keyword].  This  will  give  you  two  hours  of  free 
Encarta  research. 

Measurement  Conversions:  Live  Search  uses  Encarta  Answers  to  convert 
distance,  weight,  time,  volume,  and  temperature.  The  conversions  may  be  stated  as 
questions,  e.g.,  [how  many  seconds  in  a  year?],  or  as  a  simple  phrase: 

®  2S  depress  Fa-hran'.beit  =■  -3u8SQ0S9  dtepree^  Celsius-    i^,^^,  ■ 

RSS  Results:  when  added  to  the  end  of  any  search  result,  the  &format=rss 
parameter  will  provide  users  those  search  results  via  RSS.  "When  you  subscribe  to 
this  RSS  feed  from  Live  Search,  you'll  get  the  top  ten  search  results  for  this  query 
delivered  to  your  RSS  Reader  or  personalized  site.  You  can  subscribe  to  any 
number  of  RSS  feeds  of  Live  Search  results  and  view  them  all  in  your  RSS  Reader 
without  re-running  your  search  queries."  To  use  this  option,  first  search  for  your 
terms.,  e.g.,  [tsunami  relief].  On  the  results'  page,  add  &format=rss  to  the  end  of  the 
url  in  the  address  bar  and  hit  return: 



DOCID :  4046925 


The  resulting  page  will  look  something  like  this;  from  here,  follow  the  instructions  on 
the  webpage: 

Thfs-is-thfc  RSS.  mam  your  search,  When  you  siJhscrftie  to  xm  rss  fe«d  rnqm^msearch,  you/8  g^rthe  top  t&n; 
search  result?  tor  mis  cfDery qeitvered  to  your  ftss  tfeaaeror  pers^al'sed.^,  Ymi.eari  supicirtie  to  any  numoef  qt'r$S 
needs  of  MSN  SearchTea^iaridview  mem  -att  in  your  RSS  Reat^r  .^oU  ^r^riing  yDtir  search- emeries;  if  you  wouki 
tike  to  learn  more  about -RSS  srrci  howta-use  rt  visit  our  Ks£p  topjc.on  She  surged  8aarh:R^'-Fggd's 

You  fan  subserve  fciithts  teedpy  copytog:the  ud-and  pasting  it  into  your  RSSneadev: 
htrp^earii  h-H  v  *.  c  oritur  *sutts:aspx?.q^urwfiti  Wormat^rssAf  0RM=MWRE 

(X  If-you  a&eady .  use  one  of  these  readers,  you  can  sutisc  r&e  with  Just-  one  ciick: 

Pacafic-  faanrrtl jNiff$um  Honiep-Mis 

Museum  mpftm^'ptWie  motion  HHput-tsunamis  eor  me  pg&pie  &fWPa«ft-Re$ortrit«  museum  m  ai*o,0f«erv& 
social  and  cultural  history  ahd.serve  as.a  !Mng-m£«sariai  to  mo$e  *y&o  iost.Hw.rir  ... 

Tsunaini  -  Wtepedia,  She  frse  eacytfopedia 

a  tsunami  (pronunciation  Vsy'noimtf  or 7tsu*na:rn^ )  js  a  series'-of  wavetfwhen  a- body,  of  wafe*  ,  such  as 
VapidV-oispteiced  on.  a  massive  Kile.  Earthquakes  ,  mass  movements -a&ove  or,.. ' 

indiaf} -Ocean  f  ^fragu^-*  Vyrfftfogat  ih*  fre'g  sncyctepgdia 
Wnj:/.%rt.v«kipe!r,  :       .'Jit  UfWismJ^afv  es^^i 

f  he  disasieris  l?nown  in  Asia  and  in  the  Hrtwnatjonal.medra.asihe  Asian  Isunamf .  and.ateo  catted  the  BowngDay 
TsunaiTa  in  Australia  ,  Canada  ,  New  Zealand „  and  the  United  Kingdom  as  it.toofc  place  orr ... 

^efciBte  id-  Ttijflpntt  Tw'namil  fe  'hosted-  and  maintained  at  me  IWwersiiy  of  Washington  by  the  Department  of  Earth 
and  Space  Sconces  s  This  wetreaeisdedicated  to  providfeiageneral  • 

Number  Search:  Live  Search  offers  many  types  of  number  searches,  including: 

>  UPS  tracking:  enter  the  UPS  tracking  number  [1Z9999X99999999]  or  [ups 

>  USPS  tracking:  enter  the  tracking  number  or  USPS  plus  the  tracking  number 
with  or  without  spaces  [usps  9999999999999999999999]. 

>  FedEx  tracking:  enter  the  tracking  number  or  FEDEX  plus  the  tracking 
number  [fedex  9999999999999999]. 

>  DHL  and  Airborne  Express  tracking;  enter  DHL  plus  the  tracking  number 
[DHL  9999999999];  a  DHL  tracking  search  must  include  DHL  in  the  query. 

ISBN:  enter  any  International  Standard  Book  Number  or  [isbn  9999999999],. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Calculator:  Live  Search  uses  the  Encarta  Calculator  and  Equation  Solver  to  perform 
mathematical  functions  using  "operators,  exponents,  and  roots,  factorials,  modulo, 
percentages,  logarithms,  trig  functions,  and  mathematical  constants."  The  Encarta 
calculator  appears  to  be  the  most  sophisticated  of  all  those  offered  by  major  search 
engines  because  it  will  even  solve  complex  algebraic  equations,  such  as  4xA3- 

The  Live  Search  calculator  uses  the  following  symbols: 









Raise  a  number  to  an  exponent  (For  example,  3A2  is  3  squared) 


Specify  the  order  of  operation 


Find  a  percent  of  a  number 

%  of 

Find  the  square  root  of  a  number 


Find  the  sine  of  an  angle 


Find  the  cosine  of  an  angle 


Find  the  cosine  of  an  angle 

I  FROC  FindFactsNStatistics.htm 



DOCID:  4046925 


Live  Search  Services 

Images:  the  Live  Search  image  database  is  no  longer  Picsearch.  Instead,  Live 
Image  Search  uses  Microsoft's  own  proprietary  image  database.  Images  are 
displayed  as  thumbnails  (small  versions  of  the  original  images),  and  the  user  can 
resize  the  thumbnails  either  using  the  slider  or  the  dropdown  "all  image  size"  menu. 
One  of  the  other  changes  to  image  search  is  the  addition  of  a  Scratchpad,  which  lets 
users  drag  and  drop  images  onto  a  collection  of  images  on  the  right-hand  size  of  the 
screen.  At  this  time,  you  do  not  have  to  have  an  account  with  Live  in  order  to  retrieve 
your  image  collections  (they  are  retrieved  based  upon  a  cookie  set  by  Live).  When 
you  mouse  over  an  image,  it  zooms  to  a  slightly  larger  size  and  moves  toward  the 
center  and  a  box  appears  that  shows  the  image  source  and  size,  and  a  link  to  the 
page  where  the  image  resides.  If  you  click  on  the  link,  the  linked  page  appears  on 
the  right  with  a  "show  image"  in  the  top  left  corner.  At  present  there  are  no  advanced 
search  options  for  images. 

,  1                 ,H'"  s 

@s£f  Live  Search 


nonrial_Qura  n_9D  7EG.jpg 

Ct?*i.h  MHil;1  f-S*a«4 

Also,  when  you  search  for  a  famous  person  using  Live  image  search,  look  for  the 
"Related  People"  window  to  appear  on  the  right  side  of  the  screen.  This  can  be  an 



DOCID:  4046925 


extremely  useful  tool  in  finding  relationships  between  people  in  the  news  or  historical 

The  Live  image  search  respects  some  but  not  all  of  the  web  search  syntax  and 
some  of  it  is  not  really  very  useful  for  image  search: 

>  site/domain:  restricts  results  to  images  from  a  specific  website  or  domain, 
including  a  specific  top-level  domain  (com,  gov,,  a  country  digraph, 
etc.).  May  be  used  with  or  without  keywords. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  site:  command  in  image  search: 

[  "twelfth  night"]  finds  images  of  "twelfth  night"  that  are  from;  note  that  the  images  from  may  reside  on  another 
website  (  is  in  the  image's  url). 

[site:ir]  finds  all  the  image  pages  from  the  Iranian  (.ir)  top-level  domain  indexed 
by  Live  Search. 

>  inurl:  restricts  results  to  images  that  contain  the  term  in  the  url  of  the  image 
itself.  Can  be  used  with  or  without  other  search  terms. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  inurl:  command  in  image  search: 

[inurl:amazon  "rain  forest"]  finds  all  pages  containing  "amazon"  in  the  url  of  the 
image  and  "rain  forest"  anywhere  on  the  webpage. 

>  intitle:  restricts  results  to  images  that  appear  on  pages  containing  search  term(s) 
in  the  title  of  the  webpage.  Can  be  used  with  or  without  other  search  terms. 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  intitle:  command  in  image  search: 

[intitle:amazon  brazil]  will  find  pages  that  contain  "amazon"  in  the  title  of  the 
webpage  and  "brazil"  anywhere  on  the  webpage. 

[intitle:amazon  inurl:brazil]  will  find  pages  that  contain  "amazon"  in  the  title  of  the 
webpage  and  "brazil"  in  the  image's  url. 

Video  Search:  Live  video  search  is  clearly  trying  to  be  competitive  in  the  video 
search  market.  In  October,  Microsoft  announced  a  new  partnership  with  Blinkx  to 
power  its  video  search.  This  looks  like  a  very  good  move  for  Microsoft.  "Blinkx 
already  powers  video  search  on  sites  ranging  from  AOL  to  ITN,  Lycos  and  Times 
Online.  It  also  indexes  video  from  the  likes  of  BCC,  Fox,  MTV,  Sky  News,  Reuters 
and  YouTube  and  makes  and  makes  videos  on  those  sites  searchable  on  Blinkx  or 
partner  sites.  To  date,  the  company  has  indexed  more  than  six  million  hours  of 
audio,  video,  and  TV  programming  to  make  it  searchable."55  However,  as  of  this 
writing,  the  Live  video  search  has  not  yet  been  updated  to  reflect  this 

55  Eric  Auchard,  "Blinkx  Signs  Microsoft  Pact,"  Reuters  via  Yahoo,  9  October  2006, 
<  nm/media  blinkx  dc  3>  (17  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

As  of  now,  the  Live  video  search  results  include  a  thumbnail  image  from  the  video 
with  the  title,  source,  length,  and  format.  All  videos  are  viewed  at  the  originating  site, 
as  shown  below  with  the  Newsweek  On  Air  interview  with  Iranian  President 

I  mi  m  *mti* 

■   author  of  ^Prom.  the  ifcrrwfcfs  Poir^  of  Visw,."  (Pr^r  Security 

H£©  translates  i4_ 

C«mis  Mi8er  goes 

iranVPfesictent  said  hi 
uranium  enrichment d* 

&3L  Kfifcif  »1H  *«e  '•<•«- 

.^fag^^ejjgj  Iran  cfoes 


?#<Q0\  fsWs  -  *       *  jar 

•^gBg^r^dt'^-ao  Doesn't* 

@  '0f<?^'  -**-'  —   — 

Iran"?  prijskJem  saw*  his  ctromry  is  wing  lb' discuss  a"  s.usp&nsfcm  of 
uranium  enrichment..  ,  9/2006  R&uters 

You  can  use  some  of  the  web  search  syntax  for  video  search.  Note  the  difference 
between  these  two  searches: 

[  iran] 
[reuters  iran] 

The  first  query  returns  only  those  videos  on  Iran  from  the  Reuters  website;  the 
second  query  returns  queries  from  any  site  that  includes  the  keywords  "reuters"  and 
Iran."  We  will  have  to  wait  and  see  how  these  query  options  change  once  the 
results  come  from  Blinkx. 

News  Search:  as  of  now,  the  Live  news  search  is  only  a  list  of  stories  listed  by 
relevance.  MSN  Newsbot  <>  remains  Microsoft's 
premier  news  page.  However,  if  you  want  to  search  for  news  stories,  MSN  Newsbot 
takes  you  directly  to  the  new  Live  news  search.  Most  of  the  web  search 
commands  work  for  news  search.  Especially  useful  is  the  site/domain:  syntax, 
which  lets  users  limit  a  news  query  to  a  specific  source: 



DOCID:  4046925 


[  iran]  finds  pages  at  the  Washington  Post  website  that 
contain  the  keyword  "iran."  One  big  drawback  of  the  Live  news  search  is  its  inability 
to  list  the  results  by  date. 

Feed  Search  (Beta):  This  search  is  virtually  identical  to  the  feed:  websearch.  It 
limits  searches  to  text  within  a  feed.  Feeds  are  specially  formatted  brief  descriptions 
of  content  with  a  link  to  the  full  version  of  that  content.  RSS  (and  the  competing 
Atom)  feeds  are  in  XML  format.  These  feeds  are  usually  used  for  syndicating  web 
content  such  as  blogs  and  news.  The  feed  search  only  searches  the  text  of  the  feed, 
which  is  often  a  very  condensed  description  of  the  full  web  content. 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  feed:  command: 

[feed:"trojan  horse"] 

Each  of  the  results  represents  an  XML  feed  that  includes  the  phrase  "trojan  horse." 
There  is  no  point  in  clicking  on  the  link  in  a  browser  because  that  brings  up  the  XML 
page  that  most  browsers  are  not  designed  to  parse.  The  cached  copy  shows  the 
search  terms  as  they  appeared  in  the  feed. 

Live  Book  Search  (beta):  Microsoft  added  its  own  proprietary  book  search  in  late 
2006.  Details  are  in  the  Book  Search  section  below. 

Academic  (Beta):  Microsoft  introduced  Academic  Search  Beta  for  scholarly  search 
earlier  this  year,  and  it  is  now  also  a  Live  search  option.  Academic  search  still  has  a 
separate  website  at  the  Windows  Academic  Live  Beta  Homepage.  Clearly, 
Academic  search  is  intended  to  compete  with  Google  Scholar  and  other  scholarly 
search  sites.  Unlike  Google  Scholar,  Academic  search  focuses  on  computer 
science,  physics,  medical,  and  electrical  engineering  publications.  As  with  Amazon 
and  Google  Scholar,  Academic  search  has  partnered  with  the  Online  Computer 
Library  Center  (OCLC).  "OCLC's  involvement  in  Windows  Live  Academic  is  part  of 
the  Open  WorldCat  Find  in  a  Library  program,"56  and  also  provides  metadata  from 
WorldCat  to  Academic  search  to  give  researchers  access  to  the  resources  in  library 
collections  around  the  world. 

As  with  almost  anything,  Academic  search  has  good  features  and  weaknesses.  Here 
is  a  snapshot  of  the  first  page  of  results  on  the  search  [neural  network].  When  you 
execute  a  query,  you  will  be  presented  with  an  interface  that  looks  like  this.  One  of 
the  first  things  you  notice  is  the  split  screen,  which  I  actually  like. 

"WorldCat  live  in  Windows  Live  Academic  search  tool,"  OCLC  Newsletter,  Issue  2,  2006, 
<>  (17  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


~m    k"  r-^xs^mj-  ~",  ft) 

W*  csi«  near  at  network  i- <to*siof>  rv©ural  rn?twa^  (€>!$()..  Tb* 
VHMvvrv&riitd  «  v*K  '**  DtiH  «fwbW  II*  ... 

WW?  -H 

A  .TiQVfJ  aggy  neural  network:  jfrg  ya 
*  NW.r.*«»  Neural  Network;  The  fafim  ^™!N*tw<i(*  fx+Vlf, 

dm  y\-hi&<t,  And  ii  <#tt*&*s     ...  to&m  »<i' 

T<*hf*sM* ,  a^iig.nilUfr). U«f  v*r«fcv  E-flra*  ~ 

ls6*^four^i-n«t*»qr!c- based  fc^rvic^*  sai»foi  and  rf«fif$k»n  $jr*Uj*j> 
MMact<C«jftM4*jr.!  Gr^bott»eril  M«th6«K^  I  ftft'T«4tvit  ,f! 

^ifpapto  a  n-jvsi ! -ait- iii  £wdfcctw«.ftMcir  of  similar 

asac >.kfe^^«lgnto-«Mfe- bavin*  a  v*rr 
S*snplfc.,«r,d' fi&dftc*. mtxcrit^gndl  m  mm  «h  &wtks#?  j  v,,iy?fcije 

***$i*>B'for irttdijioef  -\: ^jprfce-?<^i<|. ir>.j>&rtafc»j$ m'  &m\&ht. 
7b  r  |i.J*|.j^ii"*  ^j'feh-  m  rffoft  5«y* m  iiascyifead  **d  tW  fofiSic»a' 

[  C^psiiat-'ir -$t  Mi*  *|etiir"d|  ^Cb*t^»«f8  cafi^Sfa  ^iTiplicwi  I't'sWai  <*U'if>?. 

)  c M-i. L.o.  t.b'i, /■  ■■.<;-hA',&.^%:ry'«,?t 


On  the  left  you  see  the  results;  on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  screen  is  more  detailed 
information  that  appears  automatically  as  you  click  on  different  results.  You  have  the 
option  to  view  the  abstract  or  properly  formatted  citations: 

1.  Slider  bar:  This  allows  you  to  expand  or  contract  the  amount  of 
information  contained  in  the  search  result 

2.  Preview  pane:  This  pane  allows  you  to  obtain  more  information  on  the 
result  that  you  are  hovering  over  with  your  mouse  on  the  results  pane 

3.  Abstract:  one  of  the  options  in  the  preview  pane  -  choosing  this  option 
will  allow  you  to  see  the  abstract  of  the  article  that  you  are  hovering 
over  with  your  mouse  on  the  results  pane 

4.  BibTeX/RefWorks/EndNote:  citation  options  in  the  preview  pane  - 
choosing  one  of  these  options  will  allow  you  to  see  the  formatted 
citation  (BibTeX,  RefWorks,  or  EndNote  format)  on  the  preview  pane 
for  the  search  result  that  you  are  hovering  over  with  your  mouse  on  the 
results  pane.  BibTeX,  RefWorks,  and  EndNote  are  different  formats 
that  allow  users  to  create  citations  automatically.  The  EndNote  RIS 



DOCID:  4046925 


format  is  compatible  with  EndNote,  Reference  Manager,  and  ProCite 

5.  Search  result:  the  actual  search  result;  this  includes  links  to  the  full  text 
of  the  paper,  link  to  search  the  web  for  that  paper  and  potentially  links 
that  allow  you  to  search  your  library  for  access  to  the  full  text  from  their 

6.  Sort  by  options:  allows  you  to  sort  the  search  results  by  relevance 
(default),  oldest  or  newest  date,  author  of  paper,  journal,  or 

The  best  things  about  Academic  search  are: 

>  a  list  of  journals  it  searches  (something  Google  Scholar  sorely  needs);  still, 
the  list  is  too  general  (for  example,  IEEE  Computer  Society  encompasses  a 
huge  number  of  journals  and  publications): 


>  the  preview  pane  is  a  good  idea— no  need  to  open  new  windows. 

>  the  slider  to  view  more  or  less  information. 

>  the  ability  to  extract  citations  (if  you  need  to  cite  the  information,  this  is  a  big 

>  the  "find  it  in  a  library  near  you"  search:  [worldcatlibraries  keyword]. 

Academic  search  needs  to  improve: 

>  lack  of  citation  search  (everyone  seems  to  agree  this  is  the  biggest  problem 
that  simply  must  be  rectified). 

>  no  advanced  search  (may  come  later). 

>  not  enough  content. 

Edit  Macros: 

This  new  feature  allows  users  to  "create  their  own  search  engine,"  so  to  speak.  Of 
course,  you  are  not  really  making  a  new  search  engine.  In  fact,  what  you  are  really 
doing  with  a  basic  macros'  search  is  automatically  generating  a  "site:"  search.  A 
basic  macros  search  for  ["north  korea"  "nuclear  test"]  on  CNN,  Reuters,  and  USA 
Today  is  equivalent  to: 

["north  korea"  "nuclear  test"  (  OR  site: www.  OR] 

The  advantage  of  the  macros  is  that  they  are  much  simpler  to  create,  especially  if 
you  want  to  search  30  sites,  and  you  can  easily  save  and  retrieve  your  macros,  but 
you  must  sign  in  to  in  order  to  save  and  retrieve  your  macros. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Find  Macros: com/default. aspx?-l=4 

Using  other  people's  macros  may  be  a  much  more  fruitful  activity.  Microsoft  has 
created  a  special  page  at  its  Gallery  website  to  help  users  find  already  existing 
macros  to  add  to  a  Live  search  page.  The  macros  are  by  type:  top  categories,  top 
downloads,  and  what's  new,  as  well  as  new  macros  highlighted  at  the  top  of  the 
page.  Users  can  add  any  macros  to  their  Live  Search  homepage  by  clicking  on  the 
"Add  to"  button.  However,  be  careful.  As  of  now  the  only  way  to 
remove/delete  a  macro  that  you  have  added  to  in  your  browser  is  to  delete 
the  browser's  cookies  (Microsoft,  this  needs  to  be  fixed!).  Also,  if  you  try  to  add  an 
uncertified  macro  to,  you  will  get  this:  "This  third-party  application  could 
include  code  that  is  unsafe."  While  the  danger  from  these  simple  macros  is  probably 
very  small  to  non-existent,  this  message  does  not  exactly  instill  confidence,  so 
caveat  quaesitor. 

Given  the  newness  of  Live  Macros,  there  are  not  very  many  to  choose  from  yet; 
however,  I  expect  to  see  this  list  grow  and  there  are  already  some  useful  macros, 
such  as  the  "reference"  macros.  Here  is  the  reference  macro  added  to  the  Live 
Search  main  menu  with  the  results  from  querying  the  reference  macro  only. 



DOCID:  4046925 


uractfunv-zas  wiacw>: Hvese«rcb.r»f«r«nc«  ftm  %    $16  r**«j[t*-  Sinks*  ••  fctefma( 

Urm;iu«v235  is  *n  aaieoo'^f  «r*mi«ft  thai  t&fa*  Ktm  ft* 
JiMKiif, irirtMir>-«5*,*y  inability  ^        $  rapidly  < 

resetters.  :  i.e*,  h  is  fibsHe: 

V'l  ether  ccmmoi 
ftntdh  (Nit? 

Thfc-rabsfc  abundant JgjfMtjfcp'ihan  9$!&)  #r*d  'most  si/a&feis  urarftim»239  (  ha^^Sfis 
TfieSe  pte-graph*  showing-  the  prap^ri*003  ofuranHwar238  (biue)  arsd 

'FissiQn  odsurs  with  stow  asutrons  ■wvtfi&r^ivgsly  r#r$  is-hoi^s  Mran*wm»z3S  (the  ■ 
only  naturally  occut  t^j  fasile  nvtteri«Q,  which  must  b*..  separated  fraas  th®  plemifal 
isot<jp&  uririum*-S38  for  its  . •» 

The  most  abMsdani  Jgi'saier'than  $*j%)-3rwf  ifttf.4t*Ht  is 
IvSx'iO  6  y*ars}j  Jitfb  p&ititl ten?  urartium-23S  8 


Uranium-?^  is'  the  er%  nsi«rsliy  occurring -raicSsar  frssBR  fusl,  bu*  this  isotope -'is 
about  1  pare  it*  i^tsf'hatwil  u^niym;  thQ  bslanea  is  mdstty  wr^n^-^'^ 

I  believe  there  are  too  many  results  from  Wikipedia  in  the  reference  search,  but  you 
can  easily  eliminate  the  Wikipedia  results  by  adding  []  to  any  query 
(conversely,  you  could  limit  your  search  to  Wikipedia  by  adding  []  to 
your  query.  Live  Search  Macros  are  only  the  latest  in  a  number  of  "create  your  own 
search  engine"  options,  all  of  which  are  variations  on  complex  queries  of  already 
existing  search  engines.  For  comparison,  see  the  section  on  Custom  Search 
Engines  below. 

QnA:  Live  Search's  new  QnA  (question  and  answer)  search  is  mostly  fluff,  at  least 
for  now.  You  can  look  at  the  questions  and  responses  to  see  what  I  mean  (typical 
questions:  "How  can  i  get  my  Space  Cadet  Pinball  that  was  preinstalled  in  Windows 
XP  back  in  Windows  Vista?"  "Do  you  think  the  Internet  is  contributing  to  Intellectual 
Laziness'?").  Lots  of  opinion,  not  a  lot  of  fact.  Let  us  hope  this  is  not  all  that  "Web 
2.0"  portends. 

Live  Platform:  In  September  2005  Microsoft  announced  it  would  begin  offering  APIs 
for  Live  Search,  Virtual  Earth,  Spaces  (weblogs),  Messenger,  Gadgets,  and  Expo 
classified  ads  database.  These  have  begun  to  rival  Google  in  terms  of  innovation 



DOCID:  4046925 


and  shared  technology.  To  keep  abreast  of  these  changes,  I  recommend  the  MSN 
Developer  Center. 

MSN  Developer  Center's  Windows  Live  Platform  and  Services  for  Web  Mashups 

Microsoft  subsequently  opened  Windows  Live  Dev  (Beta),  a  "one-stop  shop  for  the 
Windows  Live  Platform,  including  information  on  getting  started  with  Windows  Live 
services,  latest  documentation  and  APIs,  samples,  access  to  community  areas  and 
relevant  blogs,  and  announcements  of  future  releases  and  innovations."57  Microsoft 
is  trying  to  make  it  easy  for  users  to  integrate  their  products  with  Live  regardless  of 
platform,  browser,  or  language.  Certainly  the  first  two  are  a  departure  for  Microsoft, 
which  in  the  past  had  made  the  requirement  of  a  Windows  platform  and  an  Internet 
Explorer  browser  a  necessity  in  most  cases  in  order  to  "play  ball"  with  the  software 
giant.  A  further  example  of  Microsoft's  reluctant  openness  is  the  fact  that  Microsoft's 
Internet  Explorer  7+  browser  will  not  default  to  Live  Search,  something  other  search 
engines  had  objected  to. 

Windows  Live  Dev  (Beta) 

Microsoft  is  working  very  hard  to  improve  and  expand  its  search  properties,  so  much 
so  that  at  times  one  feels  as  if  we  can  see  them  working  under  the  hood  as  we 
watch.  Clearly,  there  are  many  things  that  need  improvement  and  many  things  that 
are  very  good  about  It  will  continue  to  be  one  of  the  top  search  sites  on 
the  Internet.  If  you  are  interested  in  keeping  up  with  news  about  and  changes  to  Live 
Search,  there  is  a  blog  devoted  to  it;  the  blog  offers  RSS  and  Atom  syndication. 
Also,  all  the  Windows  Live  Beta  projects  are  accessible  through  one  webpage  if  you 
want  to  see  what  Microsoft  is  planning. 

Windows  Live  Ideas  Beta 
Live  Search  Weblog 

57  Windows  Live  Dev,  Live  Dev  News,  8  June  2006, 

<>  (17  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 



The  Gigablast  search  engine,  which  has  been  around  since  2002,  is  still  not  quite  in 
the  same  league  as  powerhouses  Google,  Yahoo,  and  Live  Search,  but  it  is  well  on 
its  way  to  becoming  one  of  the  best  search  engines.  That's  something  of  a  surprise 
given  Gigablast's  humble  origins  and  unique  status  among  major  search  engines.  In 
case  you're  not  familiar  with  Gigablast,  it  is  different  from  its  major  competitors  most 
notably  because  it  is  still  owned  and  largely  run  by  the  guy  who  first  wrote  its  C++ 
code  in  2000.  Matt  Wells  is  still  the  very  hands-on  proprietor  of  Gigablast.  Its 
database  now  indexes  over  2  billion  pages,  up  from  650  million  in  late  2004. 
While  this  falls  short  of  the  size  of  the  Google,  Yahoo,  and  Live  Search  databases, 
it's  not  bad,  especially  considering  a  lot  of  the  "stuff'  in  those  databases  is  dross  and 
the  numbers  are  not  verified  independently. 

How  does  Gigablast  stack  up  to  the  big  boys?  Gigablast  has  some  very  nice 
features,  some  of  which  are  unique  to  it,  such  as  the  IP  range  search  (something 
AlltheWeb  once  offered). 


>  simple  interface 

>  cached  copies  with  date  indexed  [archived  copies] 

>  cached  copies  of  webpages  without  images  [stripped] 

>  links  to  Internet  Archives  [older  copies] 

>  clusters  results  by  default  (can  be  turned  off) 

>  no  limit  on  number  of  search  terms 

>  file  types  indexed  include  Microsoft  Word,  Excel,  and  PowerPoint,  as  well  as 
PDF,  PostScript,  HTML,  and  text;  syntax  is: 

o  type:pdf  for  Adobe  Acrobat  PDFs 

o  type:doc  for  Microsoft  Word  documents 

o  type:ppt  for  PowerPoint  presentations 

o  type:xls  for  Excel  spreadsheets 

o  typeips  for  PostScript  files 

o  typeitext  for  ASCII  text  files 

o  type:html  for  HTML  Web  pages 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  untcjj|p  feattire:  IP  rahfli;  Gigablast  adds  the  ability  (unique  as  far  as  I  know) 
to  search  on  an  IP  address  range.  [ip:21 6.239.41]  will  find  all  IP  addresses 
that  begin  with  216.239.41 

This  query  finds  all  the  sites  in  the  Gigablast  database  that  begin  with  the  IP 
address  66.218.77: 

Resurts  1  to  10  of  about  70,^7  forip;6&2 18:77  . 

Yahoo)  GeftQties 

uft^j^116*^^  -  33.1& '- :  j3tjia^^"  tefri PPM  -'Mlfee wlesl  - frwjeats i ;  J ul  26  200$  -muffled: 

•Jul  27  2005 

u*:$e0*ib$.yetf^  -  2: 3k  t.  f  aic  h  iy^g '  t  ootT  '-fejflfig»D  ^lafttewpteai  '-.indexed:  Jul  26  2005  < 

This  query  finds  all  the  sites  in  the  Gigablast  database  residing  on  the  specific 
host  whose  IP  address  is 

 j  ua„ 

|ipi6S.;21.8:77;6^  ,  .  ;  ,  ~~ 

ftesurts  1.  to  lO-af  aboui-4A;i52  for  ip:66.218.77.CS  . 

S  MSc  he  er  lead  i  ng 

diwiJrjtide-niThe'offlctal  cheerleading  page  for.SMS'in  Manass&s,  Virginia,  provides  tryoutinfomiatfon,  team  news,  and 

Cafe'gofo.  Sagifet-C  hggHeaaafag :  Vooth  ancJ-Rerreaiipn 

wS^v'^teeltesx;om  -  30;3k  -  Lare^edydopfl  -  -jslffiBeacfl'.-  igiggL££El£^l indexed:  Oct -00-2005  • 

modified;  Feb  18:2005 

>  other  special  syntax  includes  link:,  site:,  title:,  and  suburl:,  which  searches 
for  webpages  that  have  the  keyword  anywhere  in  the  url 

>  although  Gigablast  will  ignore  stop  words  in  a  long  query,  users  can  search 
on  any  word  or  number  by  itself 

>  default  operator  is  AND;  OR  and  AND  NOT  also  work;  nested  queries  (with 
parentheses)  are  supported 

>  moigue  featu^:  only  search 
engine  that  will  display  the  metatags  in  the  results  list,  but  the  syntax  for  this 
query  is  very  complex.  Please  see  the  Gigablast  review  at  Search  Engine 
Showdown  for  details  on  this  type  of  query: 

"Meta  Tag  Searching  and  Display:  Gigablast  is  the  only  search  engine 
indexing  meta  tags  beyond  just  the  meta  description  and  meta  keywords  that 
some  others  index.  It  is  the  only  search  engine  that  can  also  display  meta 



DOCID:  4046925 


tags  in  the  results  list.  Gigablast  claims  to  be  indexing  all  "generic"  meta  tags. 
In  addition,  it  can  display  the  meta  tags  in  the  results  list.  Doing  this  requires 
adding  commands  to  the  URL  of  the  results  list.  At  the  end  of  the  url,  add  a 
&dt=  followed  by  the  word(s)  for  the  meta  tags,  followed  by  a  colon,  and  then  a 
number  to  represent  how  many  characters  from  each  meta  tag  should  be 
displayed.  So,  for  example,  adding  &dt=keywords+author+generator+description:30 
will  display  the  meta  tag  content  for  meta  keywords,  meta  author,  meta 
generator,  and  meta  description  tags  for  any  records  retrieved.  Use  a  + 
between  meta  tag  words.  It  seems  that  this  "generic"  meta  tag  approach 
excludes  more  complex  meta  tags  like  Dublin  Core,  which  use  a  syntax  like 
DC.Creator.  The  dot  syntax  will  not  work  for  the  display  command,  although 
Gigablast  does  index  some  of  the  content  of  these  tags."58 

Sample  Output  of  Meta  Tag  Search 

&«kO  Reload 

O  http://www. gigablast. com/search?klz=134827&q=dublin+coreSdt=^;.  *3 


..DC-dot  now  conforms  with  the  Expressing  Dublin  Core  in  HTMUXHTML  meta  and  1 
..Now  you  can  click  on  the  DC-dot  button,  wherever  you  are,  to  create  Dublin  Core  m< 
about..  ..This  service  will  retrieve  a  Web  page  and  automatically  generate  Dublin  Cor 

add  string  to  the  end  of 
resulting  url  in  address 


metadata,  either  as.. 

Op  script:  ore  Give  DC-dot  a  URL  and  see  the  Dublin  Core  it  generates. 

Keywoi  <ls:  Dublin  Core,  DC;  generator;  editor;  Warwick  Framework;  SOIF;  TEl;  USMARC;  XML;  OILS;  ROADS;  RDF;  IMS 
yeneiatot :  HTML  Tidy,  see  www.w3  org 
description:  A  CGI  based  Dublin  Core 

Category.  Reference:  Libraries:  Libr3iy  and  information  Science:  Technical  Services:  Cataloguing:  Metadata-  Dublin  Core  uk/rnetadaia/dcrjot/-  B.8k-  [archived  copy]  -  [stripped]  -  [older  copies]  -  indexed:  Oct  05  2005  ■  modified:  Dec  1 1  2001 

Dublin  Core  Metadata  Template 

..When  the  list  of  Qualifiers  for  Dublin  Core  elements  is  finally  decided  upon,  this  template 
will..  ..You  may  include  my  name  and  email-address  in  a  list  of  those  using  Dublin  Core. 
Additional  DC.  ..Dublin  Core  Metadata  Template..  This  service  is  provided  by  the  "Nordic 
Metadata  Project"  in.. 

Dev,rlption'  from  the  Nordic  Metadata  Project 

Category  Reference-  Libraries  Library  and  information  Science:  Technical  Setvices:  Cataloguing:  Metadata:  Dublin  Coie 
Wvvw.lub. pi  -  40.5k-  [archived  copy]  -  [stripped]  -  [older  copies]  -  indexed:  Oct  05  2005 

Dublin  Core/MARC/GILS  Crosswalk 

..For  conversion  of  MARC  21  into  Dublin  Core,  many  fields  may  be  mapped  into  a  single 

Dublin  Core..  the  Dublin  Coie  to  MARC  mapping,  two  mappings  are  provided, 

one  for  unqualified  Dublin  Coie..  ..The  following  is  a  crosswalk  between  the  fifteen  elements 

In  the  Dublin  Core  Element  Set  and  MARC. 

Description-  Library  of  Congress 

keywoi  (Is.  MARC  Dublin  Core  GILS  Crosswalk 

author:  Library  of  Congress  Network  Development  and  MARC  Standards  Office 
description:  Crosswalk  from  Dublin  Core 

Category.  Reference:  Libraries:  Library  and  Information  Science:  Technical  Setvices:  Cataloguing:  Metadata:  Crosswalks'rfccfoss.hlrnl- 1 8.6k -  [archived  copy]  -  [stripped]  -  [older  copies!  -  indexed:  Oct  06  2005-  modified:  Dec  31  2002 

>  clearly  displays  date  webpage  was  indexed  and,  in  some  cases,  modified 

>  search  query  spellchecker  (Did  you  mean?  option) 

Greg  R.  Notess,  "Review  of  Gigablast,"  Searchengineshowdown,  17  September  2006, 
http://www.searchengineshowdown.eom/features/qiqablast/review.h       (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  undocumented  feature:  will  search  in  some  specific  languages,  but  I  don't 
know  how  many;  use  languageide  to  search  for  webpages  in  German,  for 


>  most  obviously,  the  Gigablast  index  is  still  smaller  than  those  of  Google, 
Yahoo,  or  Live  Search 

>  no  truncation 

>  is  not  case  sensitive 

>  no  wildcard 

>  limited  file  type  searches 

>  limited  language  options 

>  poor  documentation 

Gigablast  Options  &  Services 

Custom  Topic  Search:  Gigablast  offers  some  special  options,  the  most  important  of 
which  is  a  Custom  Topic  Search,  which  I  discuss  in  detail  under  the  Custom  Search 
Engines  section  below.  If  you  don't  read  anything  else  about  Gigablast,  please 
take  a  look  at  this  innovation. 

Directory:  As  with  Google  and  Yahoo,  Gigablast's  web  directory  uses  the  Open 
Directory  Project's  collection  but  Gigablast  use  a  Tiypertechnology  for  searching  the 
directory  that  allows  its  users  to  perform  searches  over  websites,  not  just  the  actual 
pages,  under  any  topic  in  the  directory,  in  effect,  instantly  creating  over  500,000 
vertical  search  engines  Additionally,  all  directory  searches  are  enhanced  by  the 
massive  amount  of  link  information  from  Gigablast's  multi-billion  page  index."  So  a 
Gigablast  directory  search  returns  not  only  DMOZ  categories  but  "Giga  Bits"  and 
website  listings  as  well. 

XML  Search  Feed:  Gigablast  also  offers  an  XML  Search  Feed  that  will  run  up  to 
1000  queries  per  day  with  a  maximum  of  ten  results  each.  But  remember,  you  must 
have  XML  parsing  software  to  read  XML  feeds,  so  this  new  feature  isn't  an  option  for 
all  users. 

XML  Search  Feed 

Giga  Bits:  Gigablast  has  its  own  refine  option  called  "Giga  Bits."  Giga  Bits  are  terms 
that  appear  in  a  blue  box  at  the  top  of  a  results  page  to  help  refine  and  focus  your 

Related  Pages:  Gigablast's  Related  Pages  were  introduced  in  March  2005.  Related 
Pages  are  "relevant  search  results  which  do  not  necessarily  contain  the  searcher's 



DOCID:  4046925 


query  terms."  Related  Pages  are  results  that  are  contextually  related  to  the  query 
terms  without  having  a  direct  connection  to  them.  The  Related  Pages  appear  in  the 
yellow  box  on  the  results  page. 

U&Jm^m^m^^^1  |"attificiel  intelligence" 

Results  1  so  10  of  about  2,640.799  for  "artificial  intelligence  - 

GiQii  BBs  (mote 

26%  Artificial  Life 

30%  cm  Artificial  intelligence  Repository  23%  ^^^B">S'&nte 

28%  gS°,l°^0mpUterSCignCe  robotics 
Bibliographies  *—  

Reference  Pages 
Related  Paijes  Quote) 

100%  siqarl  acm  erg 


Search  | 

y*  ol  Aftjftcial  Intefljgence  7fiQ,  Distributed  Artificial 
£  *  Resources  ^*  totettiaanee 

Artir.cKiy»mflanc»  20%  jQhflMcCarth¥ 
Research   L 

21  %  Artificial  intelligence  Depot  20%  Modern  Approach 
5%  AS  on  ihe  Web 

80%  The  Mults-Asient  Systems  Lab 
75%  IEEE  Computer  Society 

The  IEEE  Computer  Society  is  one  of  the  major  international 
professional  bodies  for  IT  professionals. 

American  .Association  for  Artificial  Intelligence  (AAA!) 
.Welcome  to  the  American  AssociationJar  Artificial  Intelligence!  Founded  in  1 979,  the.. 
American  Association  for  Ajtrt(clalIirtelN<jente  (AAA!)  (s  a  nonprofit..  ..aims  to  increase 
public  understanding  artificial  Mellkjeiice.  improve  the  teaching,. 

'! i  'Nonprofit  scientific  society  devoted  to  advancsng  the  scientific  understanding  of  the 
mechanisms  underlying  thought  and  intelligent  behavior  and  their  embodiment  in 

■or- 2,cmpu*ais:  r.rti:ic:a'  tnteil  gems.  Assc-aaticns 
■  t.'.  •     .,i»mnui si j  j\vUi\\ihiYzr\*  -o:iBHuriL. 

'f  w  ^aii  .m- 10  3fc-  jan:  hived  copvl-  [strj£pjedj  -  MMlS^SMir  indexed'  May  15  2005  -  modified;  Mar  31  2005 

MIT  Computer  Science  and  Artificial  Intelligence  Laboratory 

Computer  Science  and  Artificial  Intelligence  Laboratory.  Aboul 

•   ■   .  .  J-     .  .  ...     ■        .    .  ii    -        .  l     .  -    -s  :  -i-  n:   .1  -   :   i  ...  _  i   _    ■■_  ■  i. -j  l    :- ±  -  ii I- . 

Gigablast  still  "runs  on  eight  desktop  machines,  each  with  four  160-GB  IDE  hard 
drives,  two  gigs  of  RAM,  and  one  2.6-GHz  Intel  processor.  It  can  hold  up  to  320 
million  Web  pages  (on  5  TB),  handle  about  40  queries  per  second  and  spider  about 
eight  million  pages  per  day.  Currently  it  serves  half  a  million  queries  per  day  to 
various  clients,  including  some  metasearch  engines  and  some  pay-per-click 
engines."  We  are  not  talking  about  a  huge  "server  farm"  here.  Interestingly,  despite 
keeping  his  search  engine  "small,"  Gigablast  creator/proprietor  Matt  Wells  says  "I  am 
a  firm  believer  that  bigger  is  better,"  and  toward  that  end  he  is  hoping  to  get  the 
Gigablast  index  up  to  5  billion  pages.  For  more  on  Wells  and  Gigablast,  read  his 
interview  with  his  former  boss  at  Infoseek  in  the  April  2004  edition  of  AMC  Queue: 

"A  Conversation  with  Matt  Wells:  Steve  Kirsh  of  Propel  Software  Interviews 
Gigablast  Designer,"  ACM  Queue,  vol.  2,  no.  2,  April  2004, 
http://www.acmq  ueue.  com/modules.  php?name=Content&pa=showpaqe&pid= 135 
(15  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 



The  French  search  engine  Exalead,  which  introduced  a  new  look  in  2006,  has 
features  that  make  it  worth  special  mention.  Exalead  offers  both  proximity  searches 
and  truncation,  two  options  no  other  major  search  engine  offers  anymore.  In 
addition,  Exalead  presents  thumbnail  images  of  websites  in  the  results  list  (if  you 
want  them)  and  related  search  terms,  directory  categories,  website  locations,  and 
filetypes.  Exalead  now  claims  to  index  more  than  eight  billion  pages.  Although  this  is 
far  smaller  than  some  major  search  engines,  it  is  a  respectable  number  and  one  that 
is  sure  to  increase. 

While  the  new  version  of  Exalead  did  away  with  one  of  its  best  features — the  safe 
page  preview — Exalead  offers  a  number  of  other  unusual  or  unique  features 
designed  to  create  a  very  powerful  search  tool: 

>  Exalead  refreshes  its  index  continuously,  not  on  a  schedule  (this  is  a  good 

>  default  operator  is  AND;  users  may  use  OR. 

>  Exalead  does  not  publish  a  search  term  limit;  it  handled  some  very  long 
searches  perfectly  while  it  had  trouble  with  others. 

>  truncation,  proximity,  phonetic,  and  true  wildcard  searches. 

>  as  of  now,  Exalead  has  no  sponsored  links. 


Well  (  Imapes 

Welcome  to  your  exalead  homepage.  Ada  a  shortcut  to  personalize- it. 

Yellow  Pages  Witdpedia 

Add  mors  shortcuts  -  Hide  edit  buttons 

Notice  the  images  below  the  query  box.  Exalead  lets  users  put  "shortcuts"  here  by 
entering  a  title  and  url  for  your  favorite  websites. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Exalead  is  in  the  process  of  updating  its  help  pages;  thus  far,  you  can  find  various 
types  of  help  at  these  pages: 

Exalead  Refine  Your  Search 

Exalead  Advanced  Search  Help 

Exalead  Search  Syntax  Help 

http://www.  exalead.  com/search/C?definition=guervSvntaxReference 

Customizing  Exalead  Preferences 

Exalead  currently  offers  these  Search  Preferences  settings: 

1 .  Interface  Language:  English,  French,  or  German. 

2.  Search  language:  any  or  any  combination  of  most  languages. 

3.  Adult  content  Filtering:  on  or  off. 

4.  Display:  Open  results  and  shortcuts  in  new  window? 

5.  Number  of  search  results:  up  to  100  for  web  and  up  to  60  for  image. 

6.  Number  of  shortcuts  per  row:  4  up  to  12. 

7.  Display  view  on  results  page:  text  only;  text  and  thumbnail;  text  thumbnail 
and  extra 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Exalead  Results  Page 

Once  you  have  entered  your  search  term(s)  and  clicked  the  Exalead  search  button, 
Exalead  will  present  you  with  a  complex  results  screen.  Depending  on  the  search 
you  are  running,  you  will  see  some  or  all  of  the  following  for  a  Web  search: 

^hehcm'&nojc^™   j 

7,:,., : .,.  \ 


f^ftifenal  Mgtt&Mfrft  suppe^  phi^^y  ^#f*tf    tomirwual  E^«j(iBan  iradrtions; 

tmia.Pacffic  Oo'urnaj  erf  .Phenomenology    Ife'SupeiftaJaial:  ArKhropoldg-y ,  Phenemeaoloay 
and'ihe  Umiisrti&ttt  ofScientilte  Ptefc&naiism  Clicfi  faife  it? o'ew  w  v. 

W.D*        fc«iW«noO>i**g>  Mik'  ffMfetetti  Ri^o<cpny-»  Fh**tafa*Hff 

THE-WOftLD-PHgNOMEMGLQj^  IMSTiTUTgWocld.  insfflU!e:fof  ift^oesd 
Intobnatioh  on-.p'iogrimsj  piojects;  pubkaiibiis.  ...  <T|*  V/ORLO  PHENOMENOLOGY 
INSTITUTE  Wotld  Institute  ibr  Actei«:ei$  ^heriomenelbgical  R*s*sich  and  Learning 

mm$0mMOa^afii^\ &m$.%ffir&- ****  imtato. 
Se> uhws on  Phenom^ioto^y  -apd  Htefmeneui^gs 

Phenomenology, and  Hftmeneufics,  ...^rranai.ofl  Phenomenology  a/vd  ... 

Related  terms 


♦  'gos!»b  |-| 

File  types 

WwU  dpc) 

>  A  Matching  Documents:  the  best  results  for  the  query  with  the  page  title  listed 
first;  Exalead  clusters  results,  showing  only  the  "best"  page  for  each  website. 

>  B  Webpaqe  Description:  a  brief  summary  of  the  website. 

>  C  Page  preview  and  thumbnail  image:  The  biggest  disappointment  of  the  new 
Exalead  is  that  it  no  longer  offers  the  safe  page  preview  option  for  webpages. 
Instead  it  has  chosen  to  give  a  thumbnail  image  of  the  cached  copy  of  the 
webpage;  users  can  click  on  "Preview"  to  see  the  cached  copy,  complete  with 
highlighted  search  terms  and  the  date  cached.  Fortunately,  Exalead  does 
offer  safe  previewing  of  non-HTML  file  types,  and  this  is  especially 



DOCID:  4046925 


useful  for  Microsoft  file  types,  such  as  Word  documents  and 
PowerPoint  slides. 

lead  £s 

Search  Strategies  -  Exalead  Fact  Sheet 

FACT  SHEET:~EXALEAD  EXALEAD  URL  http://vwvw.exale.itl, com/  Key  features  ■ 
  151  FACT  SHEET:  EXALEAD  Similar  pages  Limit  by  domain/site  No 

hit;)  //Vvrv.-  1L1&  CO  ukAwarch/oKalsadsuriiiri  pdf  221-  -  AtfCJo  t-i  c'iti ,,;!,■: 

«  t)ac:^tn  insults, 

fio  to  ttraj 

^S^j^M^M^^^^^  5  tprmsffiLmri'  filetype:pdf  pifcy-ousnest 

jexalead  filetype  pd' 

Full  page  fy 

Search  Strategies  ■  Exalead  Fact  Sheet 



http  7/www.  exalead  corn/ 
Key  features 

 wildcards  for  stemming  words  pattern  matching  ("regular  expressions")  phonetic  search  approximate  spelling  search  NEAR  proximity  operator 

Full  Boolean  search  thumbnails  of  pages  displayed  in  results  related  terms  and  categories  displayed  on  the  results  page  user  specified  shortcuts  (Smart 
Bookmarks)  to  other  search  engines  on  the  home  page 

Search  options 

Default  search  type  Case  sensitive?  Wildcard/Truncation  All  of  your  words  No  Yes.  Asterisk  (*)  at  the  end  of  words,  for  example 
pollut*  Also  pattern  matchingfregular  expressions  for  internal  wildcards,  for  example  /psych  *ist/  or  /mpg(l|2|3)?/ 

Phrases  and  proximity  Phrases  "  "  For  example  "climate  change".  NEAR  operator  to  search  for  terms  within  sixteen  words  of  one  another.  Specify 

maximum  number  of  words  using  NEAR/n,  for  example  climate  NEAR/5  change  Plus  sign  (+)  before  stop  words  such  as  "the",  "of.  The  plus  sign  can  also  be 
used  to  disable  automatic  stemming  if  set  up  by  the  user  under  preferences.  Minus  sign  (-)  before  the  word,  for  example 

Mandatory  search  terms 

Exclude  pages  containing  a  term  Word  in  the  URL 

branson  -balloon  inurl.  for  pages  with  the  term  in  their  URL,  for  example  inuri.chocolate  intitle:  for  pages  that  contain  the  adjacent  word  in  the  tide,  for  example 
intitlexhocolate  link:  for  example 

>  D  Directory  link:  opens  the  related  categories  folders  from  The  Open 
Directory  Project,  which  are  also  listed  to  the  right.  You  can  completely  alter 
the  results  by  selecting  a  different  related  category,  e.g.,  in  this  example, 
continental  philosophy  instead  of  phenomenology.  Clicking  on  "More  choices" 
will  greatly  expand  the  related  terms  and  related  categories  lists. 

>  E  Add  to  shortcuts:  selecting  this  link  will  make  the  current  site  one  your 
shortcuts  that  appears  on  the  Exalead  homepage. 

>  F  Related  Terms:  clicking  on  a  related  term  runs  a  new  search  on  that  term 
and  displays  a  new  results  page  with  new  and  different  related  terms,  related 
categories,  etc.  Clicking  on  "More  choices"  will  greatly  expand  the  related 
terms  and  related  categories  lists. 



DOCID:  4046925 


G  Multimedia:  selecting  this  option  causes  Exalead  to  restrict  the  search  to 
webpages  that  have  links  to  audio,  video  RSS  content.  You  can  select  one, 
two,  or  all  three  multimedia  options.  If  you  dick  on  RSS,  any  feeds  available 
at  any  of  the  sites  in  your  results'  list  will  become  visible. 

Web  i  linages- 

Sign  in  |  Preferences 

Resuitsf1r35  ^aboui-75;for 

Watch  NASA  Video. at  AOL© 

vAwv.sDtvidso.oom-  Millions  of  Free  Videos.  MovIb  trailers,  music,  TV  -  free. 

NASA  -  Ares:  NASA's  New  Rockets  Get  Names 

Site  Help  &  Preferences  +  Home  +  NASA  Home  >  Mission  Seclions  >  Exploration  > 
Spacecraft  Print  ...  Credit:  NASA  +  View  Expanded  Views  of  Ares-I, ... 

ww.noSti.govMussiori  |iage£/explr>r-3tion/opac ecrafl/'iroo  naminrj.Diml-  /ft  Jul  2006 ■  Sk-Adf, 

6r  Audio  file:  *  RealPlayer  Log  (Ares  logo256K_Stream.rann)  -  0.3  Kb 
H  Video  file:  *  Window;  High  (Areslogo76BK_Stream.wrmO 
f*u)  RSS  Feed:  Aies,  NASA's  New  Rockets 

Matador  Records  I  Guided  By  Voices 

The  Matador  records  website  for  Guided  by  Voices,  the  label  releasing  ail  material  up  to  1997 
and  since  2002  for  the  band.  Includes  contest,  recording,  ... 

wwr.maladorrecords. com/guideOy.. wees/ -  01  Fob  2008  •  .-■■iti  iy  anotKuis 

^  Dhectoiy:  Aits  gnd  Enteitainrnaril  >  Music  *  ...  »  G  >  QuitieU  by  Voices 
^  Audio  file:  'My  Kind  of  Soldier  (sbv_my_kind_of_soldier.mp3)  -  3.6  Mb 
O  Video  file:  gt»v  -  0.2  Kb 
f*5)  Unofficial  RSS  Feed:  Matador  Records 

>  H  Languages:  limit  results  to  a  specific  language. 

>  I  Document  Type:  clicking  on  a  specific  file  type  will  only  return  matching 
documents  in  that  specific  file  type,  e.g.,  PDF,  TXT,  DOC,  PPT,  RTF,  and 
XLS  (remember:  do  not  open  the  Microsoft  file  types  on  the  Internet;  use  the 
page  preview  option  in  the  thumbnail  image  to  view  these  files). 

>  J  Image  Search:  Clicking  on  image  search  will  automatically  run  the  web 
search  against  the  image  database. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Exalead  Basic  Search 

Exalead  assumes  as  its  default  that  multiple  search  terms  are  joined  by  the  AND 
operator,  so  that  a  search  on  the  keywords  [windows  explorer]  will  find  all  the 
webpages  that  contain  both  search  terms.  However,  unlike  Google,  Exalead  does 
not  search  first  for  phrases,  then  the  terms  anywhere  on  a  webpage. 

Exalead  will  not  return  any  results  if  there  is  no  webpage  containing  all  the 
search  terms.  Try  this  query  to  see  what  I  mean: 

[rollerskate  handshake  buckyball] 

However,  remember  you  can  use  the  OPT  (optional)  operator  to  make  a  term 
desirable  but  not  required. 

Unlike  Google,  Exalead  does  not  limit  the  number  of  search  terms  to  32 
keywords.  Exalead  will  try  to  match  all  the  keywords  you  enter. 

Exalead  is  not  case  sensitive. 

Exalead  automatically  clusters  search  results.  If  you  want  to  see  more  pages 
from  a  specific  site,  the  only  way  I  know  to  do  so  now  is  to  run  a  site  search.  For 
example,  to  see  the  pages  at  Amazon  UK  search  for  [site:amazon.]. 

Exalead  permits  the  use  of  the  OR  operator  in  simple  search.  The  OR  must  be 

Exalead  recognizes  double-quotes  as  enclosing  a  phrase. 

Exalead  ignores  certain  stop  words,  i.e.,  when  searched  alone  or  with  other  stop 
words.  If  you  include  a  stop  word  such  as  a,  an,  the,  in,  or  be  in  a  search, 
Exalead  searches  for  it.  If  you  need  to  search  for  stop  words  by  themselves  or 
with  other  stop  words,  you  must  either  enclose  them  in  double-quotes  or  put  the 
plus  sign  (+)  in  front  of  them.  Compare  [to  be  or  not]  to  ["to  be  or  not  to  be"]  and 
compare  [fire  and  ice]  to  ["fire  and  ice"]. 

Using  the  minus  sign  (-)  in  front  of  a  keyword  ensures  that  Exalead  excludes 
that  term  from  the  search.  For  example,  the  results  for  the  search 
[phenomenology  -philosophy]  are  very  different  from  the  results  for 



DOCID:  4046925 


Exalead  Advanced  Search 

Exalead  has  a  unique  and  very  appealing  way  of  presenting  advanced  search 
features.  Clicking  on  the  "Advanced  search"  link  on  the  main  page  brings  up  a 
window  that  displays  and  explains  the  advanced  search  options.  In  every  case, 
these  options  work  in  the  simple  search  screen  by  using  the  correct  syntax. 


Advanced  search 



i  .Web  Search  ) 


.  exact  phrase    (j.  "to  te  or  r>ol  to  be" 

.  hirfrnlcten  terms  erj  c>>.r-ma<i 

.  wartis  staninqwlti  eg  ni&bsag' 

.  phonetic  spelling  e.g.  s-yj/xsm^e^xaHeac! 

.  approximate  spelling  e g.  3p?iii,Hke-*~yJati8a 

.  adjacent  woids  e.g.  (stock  A'£4P excte.'we) 

,  logical  expression  <?.«  ((;'*$}  03  weed)  hafti) 

.  reijula;  expression  e  g /&(>' 


.  |  Choose  a  country               country  U6A 

.  |  Choose  o  language       e-j.  i^n^aae  en 
.  on  a  qiven  site  e  f;  $tie  wikipecl&.or;] 
.  in  files  of  a  ciiven  formal  e^.  ftfetype&ot 

•  !pJA&JiM..oLil:!M2i£  >n!i!ft(o!fit)$iirebGile) 

*  in  tlie  ddoress  ofltie  pacts-  ep  >m:i) rvuuc 

.  on  paties  that  coniain  a  ciiven  Imk       rink -NtoAtowti' exsfczci com 


.  modulst)  after  3  cirven  daie-  e  g.  9fter.:'l>'fZ'i999 
.  modified  Detore  a  alvftn  date  eg.  More  37/J2/f99S 


Two  features  Exalead  offers  that  have  almost  vanished  from  search  elsewhere  are 
proximity  searches  and  truncation/wildcards. 

Exalead's  proximity  search  uses  NEAR.  The  default  setting  is  for  terms  that  are 
within  sixteen  terms  of  each  other,  but  users  can  change  the  proximity  by  adding 
a  number,  e.g.,  [empire  NEAR/5  building].  With  the  NEAR  operator,  order  is  almost 
irrelevant  as  this  query  demonstrates.  A  query  using  the  name  of  an  18th  Century 
French  foreign  minister,  Charles  Jean-Baptiste  Fleuriau,  comte  de  Morville,  shows 
how  the  NEAR  operator  works:  the  query  [comte  de  Morville  NEAR  Fleuriau  NEAR 
Charles  NEAR  Jean-Baptiste]  finds  any  indexed  page  containing  all  these  terms 
within  sixteen  words  of  each  other,  regardless  of  the  order  in  which  they  appear 
either  in  the  query  or  in  the  text. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Wei)  \  Images 

©dead      Icomte  de  Moiville  NEAR  Fleuriau, NEAR  Charles  NEAR  J  ^We|^iSt<t»^ciffj  Advanced  search 


Did  you  mean:  comet  de  Morvilie  NEAR  Fleuriau  NEAR  Chartes  NfcAR 

!  MORViLLE  (Charles-JearvBaptiste  de  Fleuriau  d'Annenonville.  comte 
igW^ginij^e^s  of  Foreign  Affairs'  Gallery  -  Archives  diplomaliques  -  Ministers  des  Affaires 
j-Efrangeres. ...  MORVILLE  (Charles-Jean-Bapltete  de  Fleuriau  ... 

i  _.. 

www  diplomaiie.gouw.Tj/archives  Qb/dose!6rs/"[s'l5.'ij?  htrrif  ■  15  Sep  2004  ■  2k  -  Md 

^*r::-'"  *    I  Chaiies  Jean  Baptiste  Fleuriau  de  MorvNIe  -  Wikipedia 

ij  Charles  Jean  Bnptlsie  fleutian  de  Morvilie  Un  article  de  ...  Fleuriau  dArmenonville, 
-  i;  jflkJL'i  comte  de  Moiville  est  un  homme  d'&at  francais  ne  a  Paris  le  30  oclobre  ... 

SAVg/vviki/ClitHlfts_J6«,in_Bapli6t«_FleuHtiu_de_M(>rvfll«  -  2?  Jul  2006-  Mk-  */.K!  Eo 

Relaled  (arms 

.  Jean-Eiantisia 

♦  Minister  to  France 
.  Louis  Michel 

.  Pietfe  Henn 
.  Tom  rfAuvergnfe 

•  English 
.  French 

Jean  Baptiste  de  Bo^er,  Marquis  d'Argens-  explanation-Guide,  info 
<F         > — August  1723  Charles  Jean-Baptiste  Fieurlau~  comte  de  Morvilie  16  August  1723  19  August 
!••"'    ZS£2ZZ~7~~\  1727  %»glises  Baptistes  de  la  RCA)  Baptist  Community  of ... 

HBtjSgWBgSy^j^^^  lBk-Acd?o. 

Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  (France):  Facts  and  details  from  ... 

Encyclopedia  subject:  'Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  (France)'...  February  1B80  28July  1696 
Jean-Baptist*  Colbert.  Exception  Handier;  No  article, summary  ... 

wiwt.abso'utfei&tronomy  com/tfrt:rrit;)ialer_GMb!6itin  affairs  S3  tVar  200C-7SK- Acd_lo 

Also,  the  presence  or  absence  of  parentheses  does  not  appear  to  affect  the  NEAR 
search.  Proximity  operators  can  be  extremely  useful  in  finding  pages  with 
search  terms  that  may  not  be  in  a  precise  order  while  excluding  a  lot  of 
irrelevant  hits. 

Exalead  supports  both  limited  and  true  wildcard  searching. 

Exalead  supposedly  offers  both  automatic  truncation  (word  stemming)  and  the 
wildcard,  which  are  welcome  features  discarded  by  other  search  engines.  As  of 
now,  Exalead  is  the  only  major  search  engine  to  offer  truncation  or  a  wildcard.  On  a 
search  with  two  or  more  words,  stemming  is  supposed  to  be  automatic.  However,  I 
find  that  the  automatic  truncation  feature  is  so  capricious  as  to  be  useless: 
sometimes  it  works,  usually  it  doesn't.  In  a  search  for  [child  play  toy],  Exalead  does 
not  find  children,  plays/played/playing,  or  toys. 

However,  when  I  search  on  [child*],  Exalead  will  return  pages  with  children 
highlighted  as  a  search  result.  The  wildcard  also  can  be  used  inside  a  search  term, 
e.g.,  [kazak*stan].  However,  this  search  will  also  find  kazakh  and  kazak  as  well  as 
kazakstan  and  kazakhstan.  The  wildcard  option  is  listed  in  the  Advanced  search 
window  as  words  starting  with,  but  keep  in  mind  the  asterisk  can  be  used  inside 
words  as  well. 

Exalead  has  a  number  of  other  interesting  features.  For  example,  in  the  advanced 
search  window,  users  can  choose  among  these  search  method  options:  exact 

UNCLASsiFiEP//rorc  orriciAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


search,  forbidden  terms,  phonetic  search,  and  approximate  spelling.  Exact 
search  is  what  you  would  expect,  i.e.,  phrase  searching  inside  double-quotes. 
"Forbidden  terms"  is  a  different  way  of  saying  NOT  or  using  the  minus  sign. 

The  phonetic  search  sounds  great,  but  I  am  often  frustrated  by  it  because  so  many 
websites  misspell  so  many  words,  Exalead  is  going  to  find  those  misspelled  words 
first  (try:  [geneology]  to  see  what  I  mean).  However,  the  phonetic  search 
successfully  figured  out  that  [criptografy]  meant  [cryptography].  The  phonetic  search 
has  genuine  utility. 

Wel>  i  Imaoes 

Slfln-in  |  Preference? 

tlWAtfeS^cjfe^  Advaricadsearcri 

^-jf-  |soundslrke:cnptogroty; 

^:,,,~\  CS851/551 :  Cryptography  Applications  Bistro 

Homepage  for  Cryptography  Applications  Bistro  seminar  offered  during  Spring  2004  at  the 
University  of  Virginia  ...  GS  851/551  Cryptography  Applications  ... 

|  \w/-.y,  cs  *9fc  -  Add  ?o  si)Ci;ujfs 

O  VWeo  file:  AVI  (ortewayencTypl.avS>  -  21 a  Mo 
Cryptography  And  Netvvork  Security. 

This  site  about  cryptography  and  network  sacurity.  All  what  you  need  to  know  about 
cryptography  and  network  security..  Information  on  Cryptography  And  ... 

ciyptogmphy-and-nguvork-secuiity.dh-tr.itet/  ■  23  Jul  2006  -  39k  -  Md  :o 

— *•-!  CryptoSys  cryptography  software  tools  for  Visual  Basic  and  C/t> 

j-^H  CryptoSys  cryptography  software  tools  for  Visual  Basic  and  C/C+^C#  developers 
—  i!  Cryptography  software  tools  for  Visual  Basic  and  C/C++/C#  developers  The  ...  n  Sep       -  26k  -  A to  vrioricjls 

Related  terms 

*  Public  key  cryptography 
.  Sfrona  cfvptociraahv 
,  Quantum  cryptography 
.  Applied  Qryplotirgphv 
»  Elliptic  turves  in  cryptography 


eft  Audio  M  Video  @  RSS 

■  English 

*  Geruian 

^  CufTiputers 

^  Science  and  Emdronment 

Ffls  types 

*  Acrobat  (pdf) 
.  Text  (.tart) 
.  Word  (.doc) 

The  approximate  spelling  option  can  be  similarly  frustrating.  A  search  on 
[programme]  will  find  a  few  sites  containing  program,  programmer  or  programs,  but 
usually  the  results  are  for  the  actual  term  searched,  in  this  case  [programme]. 
However,  it  worked  very  well  with  [colour],  finding  a  good  mix  of  color  and  colour  and 
the  approximate  search  on  [geneology]  found  genealogy. 

What  I  like  much,  much  better  is  Exalead's  regular  expression  patterns  option, 
which  amounts  to  a  true  wildcard  search.  Here's  how  it  works: 

Use  a  forward  slash  (/)  at  the  beginning  and  end  of  the  term;  use  a  period  (.)  to 
indicate  one  missing  term;  if  you  are  not  sure  how  many  letters  are  missing,  use 
the  wildcard  (*)  after  the  period.  For  example,  the  query  [/crypt.*c/]  will  find 
cryptographic  and  cryptologic: 



DOCID:  4046925 



Wsb  i  images  Siflnin  |  Preferences 

|/crypt."c/  (  Web  Search  ]  Aa^r.ced  seaich 

Resulls  1-100  of  about  1,269,173  for  ;tiyp».c; 

C  Products  :  '■■  't^-'n.i>  r.r.:.>t  j- 

w*\v.ebaye):press  com  ■  Oet  Knew  on  eBay  Express.  Happy  Shopping. 

West  Memorials  •  Headstones  &.  Markers 

•AViAft'.woeirriS'.'Tipiiais-CQm  -  Crypt -  we  offer  affordable  cemetery  markers,  headstones,  monurnenls  and  cemelery  memorials.  Free 

International  Association  for  Cryptologic  Research 

further  research  in  ciypiology  and  related  fields,  ...  Crypto  2007.  August  19-23, 2007,  Sanla 

Barbara,  California,  USA.  ...  Workshop  on  Cryptographic  hardware  ... 

vvww.iaci.6rij/ ■  4k  -  :y.-i  b  ri'.v  "i  -r-: 

^  Dliectoiies: 

-  Science  and  Environment  >  Math  >  ...  >  Communication  Theory  >  Ciyjloaraphv 
*  Sxiance  arid ,.Enviion_mferit  >  Math  >  pj gan^ations 

-  Computers  >  Hacking  »  CrvpiograpivT- 

CryptoLogic  Inc  -  software  development  company  specializing  in  ... 
Cryptologic  is  an  Internet  software  development  company  wilh  leading  proprietary 
technologies  that  enable  secure,  high-speed  financial  transactions  over  ... 
\wAv.ciyr»tr»loyic  com/  ■  V?.  Oct  2005  ■  13k  -  .-cci  v .';;!■.  ji: 

^  Oiiecioiies: 

.  Computers  >  Software  >  Business  and  Eccnomy  >  E  Commerce  (Toronto) 
.  Business  and  £c<momy>  Corrifjutef?  and  internet  >  Software  froi&nio) 

Related  tenns 

.  Cryptographic  algrjnthms 

*  Cryptographic  suftwaifr 

*  Cryptographic  keys 

*  Cryptographic  proiocols 
.  Cryptographic  systems 


6ft  Audio  Q  Video  &  RSS 

.  German 

^  C&mpuUrs 

^  Science  snd  Environment 
File  types 
-  Acrobat  (  pdf) 
.  Te»t  f.txO 
.  Word  ( doc] 

Here  are  the  basic  rules  for  pattern  matching  (wildcard)  searches: 

The  first  character  is  always  a  slash  ( / ).  This  tells  Exalead  a 
special  pattern  will  follow. 

Within  the  pattern,  the  period  ( .  )  is  a  special  character  that 
can  represent  any  character. 

The  asterisk  ( *  )  stands  for  character  repetition,  i.e.,  any 
number  of  characters. 

The  pipe  (  |  )  stands  for  OR,  and  parentheses  are  used  to  group 

A  question  mark  (?)  is  placed  at  the  end  of  a  character  group 
to  make  that  group  optional. 

The  last  character  is  always  a  slash  (  / ).  This  tells  Exalead  this 
is  the  end  of  the  query. 



DOCID:  4046925 


In  this  example— [/mpg(1|2|3)?/]— Exalead  will  search  for  any  page  containing  the 
query  term  mpg  and  1  or  2  or  3.  It  will  also  find  pages  containing  only  mpg  because 
the  ?  makes  the  1,  2,  and  3  optional.  Without  the  ?  Exalead  will  only  find  pages 
containing  mpgl,  mpg2,  or  mpg3. 

Exalead  will  handle  complex  boolean  queries  in  the  simple  search  screen  or  from 
the  Advanced  search  window.  The  boolean  operators  Exalead  supports  are  AND, 
OR,  NOT  or  AMD  NOT  (in  caps).  A  typical  boolean  query  would  be: 

[(baseball  OR  football)  NOT  cardinals] 

In  addition,  there  are  two  other  operators  that  can  be  used  in  a  boolean  query: 
NEAR  and  OPT.  NEAR  finds  search  terms  within  16  words  of  each  other  and  OPT 
makes  a  query  term  preferable  but  does  not  require  it.  For  example: 

[(football  NEAR  cardinals)  OPT  "st  louis"] 

This  is  nice  to  know  because  most  search  engines  use  AND  as  their  default,  and  will 
not  return  results  unless  all  terms  are  found.  Check  the  difference  between  the 
results  for  these  two  searches  in  Exalead:  [buckyball  skateboard  OPT  flyswatter] 
and  [buckyball  skateboard  flyswatter]. 

Exalead  will  search  in  all  or  one  of  most  languages.  Use  either  the  syntax  language; 
followed  by  the  language  digraph  or  the  pulldown  menu  in.  the  Advanced  search 
window.  Also,  Exalead  offers  a  country  search  option  either  from  the  Advanced 
search  window  or  using  the  syntax  country:  followed  by  the  country  digraph. 

Exalead  does  not  recognize  diacritical  marks  at  this  time.  This  means  that  a 
search  on  [facade]  finds  both  fagade  and  facade.  However,  Exalead  will  handle 
some  non-Latin  character  sets.  Exalead  officially  supports  Unicode  (UTF), 
Windows  encodings,  and  miscellaneous  encodings  (Arabic,  Chinese,  Korean, 
Japanese,  and  Russian). 

Exalead  offers  limited  field  searching,  i.e.,  special  search  terms  to  restrict 
searches  and  make  them  more  effective.  These  special  operators  can  be  used  in 
both  simple  search  and  in  the  Advanced  search  window. 

>  language:  restricts  results  to  pages  in  a  -specific  language)  The  language 
syntax  uses  the  obsolete  two-letter  ISO  language  codes  (639-1).  Must  be 
used  with  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  Choose  a  language 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  language:  command: 

[language:de  welt]  finds  all  the  pages  indexed  by  Exalead  that  are  written  in 


DOCID:  4046925 


German  and  contain  the  keyword  "welt,"  which  has  a  very  different  meaning 
in  German  than  in  English. 

>  country:  restricts  results  to  pages  in  a  specific  country.  The  country  syntax 
uses  the  two-letter  ISO  country  codes.  Must  be  used  with  additional 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  Choose  a  country 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  country:  command: 

[country:de  wissenschaft]  finds  all  the  pages  indexed  by  Exalead  that  are 
purportedly  in  Germany  and  contain  the  term  "wissenschaft."  It  will  not  limit 
the  search  to  the  German  TLD  "de." 

>  site:  restricts  results  to  a  specific  website  or  domain,  excluding  specific  top- 
level  domains.  You  must  search  on  a  second-level  domain  for  site  to  work. 
May  be  used  with  or  without  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  on  a  given  site 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  site:  command: 

[]  finds,,  However,  it  will  not  find 

[]  does  not  find  the  pages  from  the  Iranian  (.ir)  top-level  domain. 
However,  []  does  find  all  the  pages  from  the  Iranian  government 
domain  indexed  by  Exalead. 

[  "statistical  data"]  finds  all  the  pages  at  the  Federal 
Reserve  website  indexed  by  Exalead  containing  the  phrase  statistical  data. 

>  filetype:  restricts  results  to  PDF,  MS  Word,  and  other  filetypes.  May  be  used 
with  or  without  keywords.  Exalead  converts  these  other  types  of  files  to 
HTML,  making  them  safe  to  view.  Select  [fhem&w]  to  see  the  HTML  version. 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  in  files  of  a  given  format 

To  search  by  specific  type  of  file,  use  the  syntax  filetype:  plus  one  of  these 



DOCID:  4046925 


html  or  htm 

standard  webpage 


Adobe  Acrobat 


MS  Excel  Spreadsheet 


MS  PowerPoint 


MS  Word 


Corel  WordPerfect  versions  6  &  7 


Rich  Text  Format 


MacroMedia  Flash  text  &  hypertext  link 



Examples  of  how  to  use  the  filetype:  command: 

[filetype:xls]  finds  all  pages  indexed  by  Exalead  that  are  in  Excel  spreadsheet 

[filetype:pdf  "white  paper"]  finds  all  pages  indexed  by  Exalead  that  are  in  PDF 
format  and  contain  the  phrase  "white  paper"  anywhere  in  the  text,  title,  or  url. 

>  intitle:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  a  specific  word  or  phrase 
anywhere  in  the  webpage's  title,  which  usually  appears  in  the  browser's  title 
bar  and  is  the  HTML  <title>  tag.  May  be  used  with  or  without  additional 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  in  the  title  of  the  page 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  intitle:  command: 

[intitle:amazon]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in  their  title 

["rain  forest"]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in 
their  title  and  mention  the  phrase  "rain  forest"  anywhere  in  the  document  (title 
or  text  or  anywhere  in  the  document) 

>  inurl:  restricts  results  to  pages  containing  a  specific  word  or  phrase  anywhere 
in  the  webpage's  url,  that  is,  the  webpage  address.  May  be  used  with  or 
without  additional  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  in  the  address  of  the  page 



DOCID:  4046925 


Examples  of  how  to  use  the  inurl:  command: 

[inurtamazon]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  anywhere  in  their 

["cosmic  ray"  inurl /spacecraft]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  exact  phrase 
"cosmic  ray"  anywhere  in  the  document  (title  or  text  or  anywhere  in  the 
document)  and  include  spacecra ft  anywhere  in  the  site's  url. 

>  link:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  that  have  links  to  a  specific 
website.  Will  work  without  the  full  url  (absent  the  http://)  but  the  preferred 
syntax  is  [link:http.7/].  Also,  the  link:  command  does  not 
work  beyond  the  top  level  of  a  site,  so  the  query  [] 
treats  the  "wx.html"  as  a  keyword.  May  be  used  with  or  without  keywords. 

Advanced  Search  >  Where?  >  on  pages  that  contain  a  given  link 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  link:  command: 

[link:]  finds  all  pages  linking  to  the  NOAA  homepage. 

[link:  drought]  finds  all  pages  linking  to  the  NOAA  site 
that  contain  the  keyword  drought. 

Exalead  Search  Services  and  Tools 

Exalead  does  not  offer  any  special  services  or  tools  such  as  news,  maps,  reference 
tools,  except  for  a  browser  toolbar  that  works  with  both  Internet  Explorer  and  Firefox. 
At  present,  the  two  types  of  specialized  Exalead  search  are  the  multimedia  (audio, 
video,  and  RSS)  refinement  option  and  image  search. 

Image  Search:  Exalead  offers  some  nice  options  with  its  image  search.  You  can  look 
for  images  of  specific  sizes  (small,  medium,  large),  computer  wallpaper  by 
resolution,  image  color,  layout,  or  filetype,  Exalead's  advanced  search  options  work 
in  image  search  as  well. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Web  !  Images 

Sign      I  Pi&terei-;f.q? 

(  Image  Search  j  Advanced  seaich 

Results  1-24  of  about  19.307  for ctssini 


Cosslrri  I  Bild... 
139x198-  22.2  Kb-  glf 

wwivfieciphys  lu-ijs  rja 

Cassini  picture 
213x150-13.7  Kb- gil 

irtmarihl  jpl  n^a  gov 

C.issltil  launch  i         The  Cassini  ... 

200x145-  6.8  Kb-  jpeg       j    200x  146-  8,1  Kb- ipeg 

eiiinor.  <.m  r,cm  i 

Cassini  Resources  at  EC9L, 
400  k  267 -16.5  Kb -jpeg 

250  x187- 10.6  Kb -Jpeg 

V?VA7  rom 

631  x  480  -  57.4  Kb -jpeg 
inn  [jicbene!  free  orlire 

Giovanni  Dommico  Cassini 
423  x588-  25.7  Kb -jpeg 
-WW  ?ltrrynl<LlFlfjK  M 


Small.  Medium.  Large 


.  3X:;biXi  (93) 

*  1?80x10^  (16) 
.  ISOCulM  (8) 

.  1920x1^0  tn 
Image  color 

*  Color  (67%) 

*  Ordy&cctle  (32%) 

.  Black  &  White  (0  1  %) 
.  U;ul?cape  (76%) 
.  Fortran  (21%) 

File  types 

.  -Jppg  (82%) 
.  Gil' (17%) 

*  !ras(p.B%) 
Seaich  within  results 

■  J  h 


The  Bottom  Line 

Exalead  is  not  in  the  Google  and  Yahoo  class  yet,  but  because  it  offers  unique  and 
important  features  dealing  with  truncation,  wildcards,  proximity  searching,  etc.,  it  is 
one  of  the  top-tier  search  services.  In  addition,  Exalead  offers  the  option  to 
preview  non-html  files  (e.g.,  Microsoft  file  types)  safely,  which  is  extremely  important 
given  the  security  dangers  that  plague  Internet  users.  Exalead  is  a  valuable  addition 
to  the  world  of  Internet  search. 



DOCID:  4046925 



During  2006  Teoma  and  Ask  Jeeves  ceased  to  exist  as  separate  search  sites  and 
merged  under  the  umbrella.  I  had  never  been  impressed  with  Ask  Jeeves, 
which  was  one  of  the  few  sites  that  continued  to  try  to  respond  to  users  questions, 
though  not  very  successfully.  Teoma  was  always  an  "also  ran"  in  the  world  of 
search.  However,  when  Barry  Diller,  former  Chairman  and  CEO  of  Paramount 
Pictures  and  Fox,  Inc.'s,  and  his  lAC/lnteractive  Corp.  acquired  Ask  Jeeves  this 
year,  things  changed  dramatically.  The  name  was  shortened  to  Ask,  the  annoying 
butler  icon  was  gone,  along  with  the  ubiquitous  ads  and  usually  unfulfilled  promise  of 
answers  to  natural  language  queries.  Ask  incorporated  Teoma's  search  algorithm, 
ExpertRank,  and  the  Teoma  site  went  away.  Now,  has  become  a  major 

One  of  the  most  striking  differences  is  obvious  as  soon  as  you  run  a  search.  Instead 
of  a  list  of  sponsored  links,  which  Google,  Live  Search,  and  Yahoo  all  display,  Ask 
shows  "zoom  related  search"  links,  designed  to  help  users  either  narrow  or  expand  a 
search.  Of  course,  Ask  still  serves  up  ads  with  its  search  results,  but  the  search 
company  is  putting  the  primary  focus  on  free  search  results  and  not  on  sponsored 

Customizing  Ask's  Settings 

Ask  offers  six  general  Settings: 

1.  Locations:  you  may  enter  a  specific  location,  including  a  street  address  or 
a  city,  state,  and  zip  code  for  the  US.  This  is  an  optional  feature  and  you 
can  sign  up  for  an  account  if  you  want  to  enter  multiple  locations.  This 
information  is  used  to  provide  tailored  search  results  relevant  to  your 

2.  Displaying  results:  Ask  lets  you  see  as  few  as  10  and  up  to  100  results  per 
page.  There  is  also  an  option  to  open  results  in  a  new  window. 

3.  Content  filtering:  Unlike  most  search  engines,  Ask  automatically  filters 
adult  content;  the  two  options  are  to  alert  the  user  when  content  is  filtered 
and  provide  a  link  to  it  or  to  minimize  adult  content  and  not  link  to  it. 

4.  Interface  language:  if  you  are  more  comfortable  working  in  another 
language,  Ask  can  display  in  dozens. 

5.  Make  Ask  your  Default  Search  Engine:  In  this  case,  you  are  telling  your 
browser  to  use  Ask  as  the  default  search  engine  from  the  browser  address 



DOCID:  4046925 


6.  Default  Ask  Site:  You  can  chose  one  location  from  a  list  including  the  US, 
France,  Germany,  Italy,  Netherlands,  Spain,  and  UK,  or  no  default  site. 
Your  results  will  vary  depending  on  the  default  site. 

The  other  setting  option  is  similar  to  Yahoo's  feature  that  lets  users  edit  the  search 
tools.  Here  are  the  options  Ask  offers;  you  can  select  only  the  ones  you  want  to 
appear  on  your  Ask  main  search  page. 

Semch  Tools  id 

ft  Web 

GL  News 

[JL  Maps  &  Directions 

/y  Weather 
H  Encyclopedia 
3*   Ask  for  Kids 
@  Dictionary 
Q  Blogs  &  Feeds 
Edit  Next » 

Search  Tools  Id 

P  Advanced  Search 

0  Bloqlines 

-v.  Currency  Conversion 

g  Desktop 

|   Mobile  Content 

^  Movies 

,5  MyStuff 

^  Shopping 

>A;  Stocks 

H  Thesaurus 

Edit         «  Back  Nest  » 

Search  Tools  IrJ 

%  Toolbar 

Unit  Conversion 
i£)  White  Pages 


€  Back 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Ask  Results  Page 

Once  you've  entered  your  search  terms  and  selected  the  Ask  Search  button,  Ask  will 
present  you  with  a  list  of  results  (hits).  For  each  result  returned  you  may  see: 

^■■^  com 

W^b  -  fmaqes    Mews  -  Bloqs  &  F»?eds  -  Shopninq  -  More  » 
[cardtnaj                                        S«aich  |    Advanced  V»5 

|  W«b  Search 

Encyclopedia:  Cardinal  (birdl  - ^  -  .- >/  ir  ~ , ,  fi^ 

The  CudiiMls  or  CardfnalMae  are  a  family  of  passerine  birds  living  in  North  and  South 
America  The^e  are  tobust.  seed-eating  birds,  with  strong  bills.  They  ars  typically 
associated  with  open  woodland.  The  sexes  usually  have  distinct  plumages,  the  family  is 
named  few  the  red  ..  More ...  

Olher  Matches  |  Arizona  Cardinals,  an  American  football  team    ,»]    Go  | 

Cardinal  Health 

CudlH  il  Heaith  is  ih 
health  ca?e  mdustiy 


ng  provide?  of  products,  services  and  technologies  supporting  lh& 


Bill  ol 

le  Northern  Ciidiuol 

^  QPtLorrLCardinal 

Figu,n      VJuSt  Female  Northern  Conliiiol  .  Fsgijre  4 

«fto  -u  .cm  :?  •r,vo-v-.oo  i-:  p^oro:  'n:o-cl  '<l ft  -  «.  <■  ,.:  ■  •  ■.  i-  |^ 

HJjnc.  . _ite  Bird,.  Ohio .SvaieBi/d,.^ K^uiy^Siare Bird  •  W9$tw/ 

Caidinnl.  Text  by  John  James  Audubon  from  Birds  of  Ametrca  .  .  THE  CARDINAL  GROSBEAK 
| Northern  C -ii <  |  .. 

*&>  •  >  T    si»   -1/  V,;.,,  ■  ";  •  - 

£nrrtmn  com  -  Northern  Cardinal  Bird  of  the  Week.  May  14-21,  1999 

.  biiding  com  Northern  Bird  of  llie  Week.  Nov  U-2i .  1999  .  Similar  species.  The-  male 
Northern  C  i$  ijnmislakeable 

marrow  /our  Soswch 

CVmliital  Biids 

Northern  Cactlinnl 

Ret!  Cinlimil  Bird 

€  militia  I  Nest 

Canlfnal  Birds  .And  How 
They  Live 

Caiholic  Co i  dfna!  pj* 

Omlinal  Health  ^ 
More  > 

Expand  You?  SzarcU 

Blue  Jay 


Bald  £a<jle 

Black  Boar 

Flowing  Dogwood 
Mere  ■* 

Related  Names- 

>  A  Smart  Answers:  Ask's  best  guess  about  what  you  want,  Smart  Answers 
provides  quick  access  to  encyclopedias  (Wikipedia,  Houghton  Mifflin,  or 
Columbia),  weather,  dictionary  results,  translations,  conversions,  etc.  Note 
that  "other  matches"  will  try  to  disambiguate  a  search  term  with  multiple 
meanings  such  as  [cardinal].  This  is  an  extremely  useful  way  to  find 
information  about  commonplace  topics,  such  as  [Rwanda]: 

^^^^^  ear 

Weh  ■  linages 

News  •  BIoqs  &  Feeds  ■  Shopping  ■  More  » 

Search  |    Advanced  Search 

Rwanda  www  |    '  ■ ' 
Capital:  Kigali;  Population:  6.440,620 

Location:  Central  Africa,  east  of  Democratic  Republic  ot  the  Congo 

Chiel  of  Stnte:  President!  Paul  Kagame,  Head  ol  Government:  Prime  Minister  Bernard  Makuza 

Languages:  Kinyarwarida  (olficial)  univer sal  Bantu  vernacular,  French  (official).  English  (official),  Kiswahii  (SwarvH)  used  in 
commercial  eerier  s  More  » 

Encyclopedia  I  BBC  Pioiile  I  Hisioiy  I  Hag  I  Maps 

US  Government  Tn*el  Info  I  Tourist  Attractions  |  Current  Weather  |  Lora)  Time 

Narrow  Your  Search 
Rwanda  Genocide 
Facts  about  Rwanda 
Rw.imi.i  People 
RwaticLi  Map 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  B  Webpaqe  Title  &  Description:  the  title  and  a  brief  summary  of  the  website. 

>  C  Binoculars  Site  Preview.  Ask's  Binoculars  Site  Preview  are  periodic  screen 
captures  of  the  browser  navigating  a  page.  To  view  the  site  preview,  users 
should  only  move  the  mouse  over  the  binoculars  because  clicking  on  the 
binoculars  takes  you  to  the  site.  The  mouseover  is  of  a  static  image,  so  it  is 
safe  to  view,  but  I  find  it  too  small  to  be  very  useful  beyond  revealing  the 
general  nature  of  a  site. 

>  D  Cached:  a  link  to  the  version  of  the  site  stored  by  Ask  with  the  date  and 
time  the  page  was  indexed. 

>  E  Save:  Ask  offers  this  service  for  web  and  image  searches.  When  users  click 
on  a  "save"  link  on  either  a  web  or  image  search,  for  web  searches  Ask  will 
save  the  title  of  the  result,  the  url,  the  description,  the  binoculars  icon,  and  the 
query  used  to  find  that  result.  For  image  searches,  Ask  will  save  the  name 
and  location  of  the  picture,  as  well  as  the  query  used  to  find  the  image.  Also, 
everything  saved  is  fully  searchable  so  all  saved  content  is  easy  to  find  again 
later.  However,  for  the  save  feature  to  work  properly,  users  need  to  allow 
search  history  to  be  enabled  (the  default).  If  you  do  not  want  Ask  to  save  your 
search  history,  go  to  My  Stuff  \  Settings  and  uncheck  "Record  all  my  searches 
into  my  'Search  History" 

>  F  Zoom  Related  Search:  This  is  a  popular  feature  retained  from  Teoma  that 
helps  users  either  narrow  or  broaden  a  search  "with  possible  alternative 
search  terms  which  appear  on  the  right  hand  side  of  the  Ask  results  page. 

•  Narrow  Your  Search:  helps  you  to  drill  down  into  topics  that  are 
specifically  related  to  your  search 

•  Expand  Your  Search:  allows  you  to  explore  topics  that  are  conceptually 
related  to  your  search 

•  Related  Names:  presents  a  list  of  names  that  are  conceptually  tied  to 
topic  options  within  the  'Narrow  Your  Search'  and  'Expand  Your  Search' 

>  G  More  Search  Types:  Selecting  any  of  these  other  search  options  causes 
Ask  to  search  automatically  for  images,  news  stories,  blog  entries,  etc.,  with 
your  search  term(s).  Site  Features,  "Zoom  Related  Search," 
<  features.shtml#relatedsearch>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Ask  Basic  Search 

Ask  assumes  as  its  default  that  multiple  search  terms  are  joined  by  the  AND 
operator,  so  that  a  search  on  the  keywords  [windows  explorer]  will  find  all  the 
webpages  that  contain  both  search  terms. 

Ask  will  not  return  any  results  if  there  is  no  webpage  containing  all  the  search 
terms.  Try  this  query  to  see  what  I  mean: 

[kong  spektioneer  synecdoche] 

Ask  does  not  appear  to  limit  the  number  of  search  terms. 

Ask  is  not  case  sensitive.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  anything  you  can  do  about 

Ask  does  not  offer  word  stemming  or  truncation,  i.e.,  searching  for  variations  of 
search  terms.  Ask  searches  for  exactly  the  term  as  you  enter  it,  e.g.,  a  search  for 
[window]  will  not  search  for  [windows]. 

Ask  automatically  clusters  search  results.  Multiple  hits  from  the  same  site  are 
indented  and  there  is  usually  an  option  to  see  more  results  from  a  specific  site. 

Ask  permits  the  use  of  the  OR  operator  in  simple  search.  The  OR  needs  to  be 

Beyond  the  use  of  the  OR  operator  in  its  simple  search,  Ask  does  not  support 
boolean  search. 

Searchers  can  delimit  phrases  using  double-quotes.  For  example,  if  I  search  on: 

[the  last  king  of  france] 

without  double-quotes,  Ask  will  ignore  the  "the"  and  the  "of  in  its  search.  I  noticed 
that  the  results  from  this  search  are  more  relevant  than  the  ones  I  received  from 
Google  for  the  same  query.  If  I  enclose  the  same  query  in  double-quotes,  Ask  will 
search  on  exactly  the  phrase  ["the  last  king  of  france"],  and  the  first  hit  links  to  a  site 
that  lists  all  the  Kings  of  France,  where  Louis  XVIII  can  be  readily  identified. 
Enclosing  searches  in  double-quotes  is  much  more  effective  for  finding  precise 
results  than  relying  on  automatic  phrase  searching. 

Ask  appears  to  ignore  stop  words  outside  double  quotes  only  when  other  search 
terms  are  used.  These  two  searches  will  return  identical  results: 

[the  last  king  of  france]  [last  king  france] 



DOCID:  4046925 


However,  if  I  search  for  [the],  Ask  returns  over  2  billion  hits.  If  I  add  another  search 
term,  e.g.,  [the  france],  that  query  is  identical  to  searching  for  [france],  so  the  stop 
word  is  ignored.  Nonetheless,  it  appears  that  if  you  search  only  for  stop  words,  Ask 
will  find  pages  containing  them  all,  e.g.,  [i  a  an  the]. 

Ask  does  not  seem  to  like  the  plus  sign  (+)  because  it  returns  an  error  message 
when  I  try  to  use  it.  By  default  Ask  searches  for  all  keywords  except  stop  words. 
However,  there  are  many  times  when  searchers  need  to  exclude  certain  terms  that 
are  commonly  associated  with  a  keyword  but  irrelevant  to  their  search.  That's  where 
the  minus  sign  (-)  comes  in.  Using  the  minus  sign  in  front  of  a  keyword  ensures  that 
Ask  excludes  that  term  from  the  search.  For  example,  the  results  for  the  search 
["pearl  harbor"  -movie]  are  very  different  from  the  results  for  ["pearl  harbor"]. 

Ask  treats  most  punctuation  marks  the  same  way,  as  links  in  a  search  string.  For 
example,  Ask  handles  a  search  for  [c-span],  [c.span],  ["c  span"],  and  [c?span] 
basically  the  same  way.  However,  a  search  for  [cspan]  with  no  space  or  mark  is 
treated  differently. 

Ask  Advanced  Search 

Ask  has  a  number  of  "query  modifiers"  to  restrict  searches  and  make  them  more 
effective  in  many  cases.  These  query  modifiers  can  be  used  in  simple  search  using 
the  following  syntax  or  on  the  advanced  web  search  page  using  the  appropriate 
menu  options.  Interestingly,  Ask  using  the  "must  exclude"  minus  sign  differently  from 
other  search  engines:  the  minus  sign  goes  after  the  command  syntax,  for  example, 
[inurhnasa  site: -gov] 

The  query  modifiers  Ask  supports  are: 

>  site;  restrict^  This  syntax  requires  a 


Advanced  Web  Search  >  Domain  or  Site 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  site:  command: 

[shuttle  site:www.]  finds  pages  about  the  space  shuttle  at  the  NASA 

["bulletin  officiel"  site:fr]  finds  pages  in  the  French  top-level  domain  about  official 

["bulletin  officiel"  site:-fr]  finds  pages  containing  the  phrase  "bulletin  officiel"  that 
are  not  in  the  French  top-level  domain.  Note  that  the  minus  sign  goes  after  the 
site:  syntax. 


DOCID:  4046925 


>  title:  or  intitle:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  containing  the  keyword  in  the 

Advanced  Web  Search  >  Location  of  words  or  phrases  >  In  page  title 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  title:  command: 

[title:amazon]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  word  amazon  in  their  title 

[intitle:amazon  jungle  rainforest]  finds  all  pages  that  include  the  words  amazon, 
jungle,  and  rainforest  in  their  title.  Using  intitle:  makes  this  search  function  the 
same  as  Google's  allintitle:  query.  Note:  use  a  hyphen  to  search  for  phrases 
using  the  intitle:  syntax  because  the  double-quotes  do  not  work. 

[-books]  finds  all  pages  that  contain  amazon  in  the  title  and  do  not 
contain  the  term  books  anywhere  on  the  page.  Note  that  you  must  put  the 
excluded  term  before  the  intitle:  syntax. 

[title:galileo]  finds  all  pages  that  contain  the  term  galileo  in  the  title 
but  are  not  at  any  website. 

>  inurl:  restricts  the  results  to  documents  containing  the  keyword  in  the  url. 
Advanced  Web  Search  >  Occurrences 

Examples  of  how  to  use  the  inurl:  command: 

[inurlmasa]  finds  all  pages  that  include  nasa  anywhere  in  the  url  (address) 

[inurl :nasa  site:-gov]  finds  all  pages  that  include  nasa  anywhere  in  the  url  of  sites 
that  are  not  in  the  .gov  top-level  domain.  Note  that  the  minus  sign  goes  after  the 
site:  syntax. 

[inurhshuttle  inurl:-nasa]  finds  all  pages  that  include  shuttle  in  the  url  but  exclude 
nasa  from  the  url.  Note  that  the  minus  sign  goes  after  the  site:  syntax. 

[inurhnasa  shuttle  sts-90]  finds  all  pages  that  include  both  nasa  and  shuttle  in  the 
url  of  a  site.  Used  this  way,  Ask's  inurl:  command  functions  the  same  as  Google's 
allinurl:  command,  that  is,  all  terms  must  be  in  the  url. 

[-shuttle  inurhnasa]  finds  all  pages  with  nasa  in  the  url  but  do  not  include  the  term 
shuttle  anywhere  on  the  page.  Note  that  you  must  put  the  excluded  term  before 
the  intitle:  syntax. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Ask's  Services  and  Specialty  Searches 

Ask  offers  a  number  of  special  features  designed  to  help  users  find  specific  kinds  of 
information  faster  and  more  easily. 

Blog  Search:  Ask  is  partnered  with  Bloglines,  the  most  popular  (and  my  favorite) 
RSS  feed  reader,  to  create  blog  and  RSS  feed  search.  The  blog  search  options  are: 

>  sort  by  date,  popularity,  or  relevance  (which  combines  date  and  popularity). 

>  sort  by  posts,  feeds,  or  news. 

>  binoculars  preview  last  five  posts  from  a  feed. 

>  options  to  subscribe  and/or  post  to  a  feed  using  several  different  applications. 

Vf*p  ■  Im^ri  '  91 ''V*  ^  *        '  Shopping  ■  r/nre 

Slogs'*  Feeds 

Posls  Ftt^ 
Sd-t  b\'  K*-!vv.irn;^  |  r/csi  Recen 

View  Posts,  Feeds,  or  News  Results 

1  ■   

2V '■ 1  ::       v.  if  Ms  S53«ti  mop* 
top  Feeds 

S*i3'-m  results  from  [at^u  3 

ijiv  Ooocie  Maps  Ma^hup  Rcincf  jp  Pan  1/2 

i   .    M  «<:•■         '    •!.'.:>.  '  !  iH:  "■  ■  I   •■■  '-'i  I  1    'T:.'i-    -  "  " 

The  abo^e  iink  shr>v=  an  e»:amp!e  r»su i  G?her  Ok  Google  Maps  Mashups.  this  UK  Gosste  Maps  mashups 
roundup  and  some  orher  aresi  Gocffle  Maps  apps 

Pie  Mofe,  TOPbar  i&BsiV:  

j  Post:  HK  Gfl0<|le  Maps  M.isIiud  Rtxititini?  P.nt  1  Z      Hi ; 

F««d:        }k  M.-|..  M.n.i.i 

!  H&  .'^  a  flnfrjl  UK 
C  JT&nl  mlu;maif)upl  •  Neartry 
*'  '     '  1  is  a  srie  Y/rth  heaps  ol  UK 
Hi*.  ,  Ikt  (arc  Ireland)  location  baitd 
inlotmalioiv  They  hs>B  taVsn 
informal  ion  and  crested 
s  c^sirrr liable  mashup 
application  with  s  huge  list  of 
orvcernsnd  information  UJyeis 

O  Oooij1*  Map*  Mante 
Q  Gnoytf  M.ips  API  CP  f  i&l 

L  3,.!  3ootjle  Map*  -  Whs 
knew  m.ips  could  be  tun? 

>d  States 


Binoculars  preview  last  5  posts 


^.   i  you  t>n  cf/eria^'  fa/n  vanous  UK  siies.  Example  siSe-fesds 
™  include  into  fron  weUOids  :c  and 
Ports. oig.ut.  IE  nan?  a  197;.  aJsa  fsa:u"35  Qgctjfe  Earth 
inje^rjElion.  <M0 IE  7n;s  mair  up  v/Ork3  best  in  Internet 

?  For  mote  <k-ivte  go  to 

a  jr. 


t..  .  y  m  MY  AOL 

Subscribe  or  Post  to  Blogs  from  pull-down  menus 

Funnily  encn.'Q  YAKc*y 

J:  a  redd1?  i 




DOCID:  4046925 


>  RSS  Answers  will  display  the  three  most  recent  entries  at  a  blog.  Obviously, 
only  a  limited  number  of  blogs  work  in  RSS  Answers,  but  it  is  a  quick  way  to 
see  what  is  new  at  your  favorite  blog  site.  Here  is  an  example  of  an  RSS 
Answers  for  John  Battelle's  Searchblog: 

Web  ■  Images  ■  News  ■  Blag*    Feeds  ■  Shopping  ■  Moie  3. 

(searchblog  !    j"  Search"  I    Advanced  Sewch 

John  Batteile'S  Searchblog  Find  most  recent  posts  from 

I  know,  It's  Too  Political  -  But  it's  really  worth  watching.  The  program's 

designers  say  existing  anticensorship  program  Found  B  hours  acj^: 

Confidential  Sources  ■  I  remain  deeply  concerned  about  the  erosion  of  press  freedoms 

in  this  country.  A  Times  case  regardi  '  1  /.'.^J/.jGlI^  OS: )G  Ml  P5T 

Mote  Europe:  Settlement  in  Belgium  -  Google  has  settled  with  Sofam  and  Scam,  two  news 

organizations  in  Belguim  that  had  been  disputing  ll/^/XOii  OH  45  A?.  PST 

Definitions:  Ask  will  present  a  dictionary  or  encyclopedia  definition  of  a  term  if  you 
phrase  the  query  as  [define  keyword],  [definition  of  keyword],  [the  meaning  of 
keyword],  or  [dictionary],  which  brings  up  the  Dictionary  Search  option: 


Web  *  Images  ■  News  ■  Blogs  &  Feeds  ■  Shopping  ■  More  > 

Search  |    Advanced  Search 

j|  Dictionary  Search 

Find  the  definition  on  |~ 
Search  multiple  dictionaries  on 
Find  more  instances  on  | 
Browse  by  topic  on 

Local  Search:  search  for  services  or  businesses  by  US  zip  code  or  city. 

Maps:  to  map  a  US  or  Canadian  location,  search  on  the  street  address,  city  and 
state  or  the  word  map  and  a  location.  Some  international  maps  are  now  available. 
See  the  section  on  maps  for  details. 

News:  links  to  news  stories  appear  when  a  search  term  matches  current  news 
stories.  Sort  news  by  date  or  relevance.  A  separate  Ask  News  page  is  available  at 

Travel  Shortcuts;  To  find  arrival  and  departure  information,  flight  delays,  airport 
status,  and  weather  conditions  at  a  US  or  Canadian  airport,  enter  the  airport's  three- 
letter  code  and  the  word  airport.  For  example,  to  information  about  Baltimore- 
Washington  International,  enter  [bwi  airport]. 

White  Page  Search:  search  for  US  phone  numbers  and  addresses  for  people, 
businesses,  government  offices,  doctors,  and  schools  in  the  U.S. 

UNCLASsiFiED/vron  ornciAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


Web  Answers:  This  option  is  the  remnant  of  Ask  Jeeves,  that  is,  Ask's  attempt  to 
provide  direct  answers  to  questions.  Users  may  write  a  natural  language  question  or, 
in  this  example,  if  an  answer  exists  to  a  commonly  asked  question,  such  as  the 
meaning  of  'ontology,'  the  Web  Answers  will  appear  under  the  definition. 

Web  Search 

Wei  -  Inyjis '  [jews  '  Slogs  &£<i?Jz  ■  Shopping  ■  Marg 

13  Definitions  of  ontology'  (an-Taia-ift'ft  - 1  definition- tm-  .  ■•-  ;  ^  - 

onSatCDjf  |fi  ^  T>ie  ttarch  of  metaphysics  iha1.  (Jssis  wto  the  namre  of  being 
f>a  To:  £ncvch?gfSia 

P r e &  Off,  ne  Oi cti cnafy 

Look  up  di Nonary  terras  inslanllyl  Froo  reference  <kiionary  toolbar. 

define  ontology  |w«i>A»swci| 

In  that  earnest,  an  ontology  is  a  speevJKHlon  U5Gti  ror  making  oncologic  al 

ontotojicdl  curninitrnent  is  given  befoy/. 

cjjo  ■  ~         :  ■  1-i  '  ,.  ,tjl  .       ;     ••  ■  f.h.     •      ■  •  H>e«  8  mme  Web  An«w« 


Ar,  e*!  ensile 

djto  • 

What  if  an 

...  f?Tf'%rr,bei 

Ciapositiva  6c 

e  formal  (tef^irlion  o) 

Web  Search 

'/■/eb  ■  l.mage?. '  lisK^  '  BJog^ajFejrds  ■  Sh^PJPJlS  '  More 
|dtfine  ontology 

Y„u  Search 
Oiitotogy  Philosophy 
Define  Onloloy^Ai 
Whal  is  an  QtMoiog^.V 

Ontology  VVhal  is  3n  Enarntte 
Ontology  Utrs^ 
Ontology  Dictionary 



How  to  defj  ^?Iiian^Eolog^ 

An  ontology  is  a  specification  of  a  conceptualization. ... 

-.  f  -   i.i  An  ontoto  is  a  specification  of  a  cone . 
•  -  1 1 ■  ,  .  .  ■    r  <  An  ontology  is  a. specification  of  a  core 

ExjMttti  2  ^iniil.n  answers  » 

Science  publications  in  hVL  ~  rewards  a  global  knowledge  base. 

Ontology  is  defined  as  a  description,  such  as  a  formal  specification  of  a  program,  of  the  concepts  and 
relationships  that  can  exist  for  an  agent  or  a  community  of  agents) 

 '   ■■  i  v       .  ■ 

Conversions:  The  Ask  conversion  tool  will  automatically  convert  world  currency, 
temperature,  weight,  length,  area,  and  cooking/volume.  Users  can  use  the  query 
[convert  amount  x  to  amount  y],  e.g.,  [convert  200  iraqi  dinars  to  pound  sterling]  or 
try  a  natural  language  query  such  as  [how  many  kilometers  are  in  a  nautical  mile]. 
The  conversion  tool  is  very  easy  to  use  and  impressive. 

Web  Search 

Web  ■  Images  •  News  •  Bloqs  &  Feeds  ■  Shopping  -  More  > 

(convert  200  iraqi  dinars  to  pound  sterling  Search  |   Advanced  Search 

4.0E-4  UK  Pounds  (GBP)  is  equal  to  1  Iraqi  Dinar 

Convert:  |~  |  Iraqi  Dinars  (IQD)  3 

Into:  [UK  Pounds ^GBP)™^™^"  ZJzl  Convert 

Disclaimer:  All  data  reflects  mid-market  rates  updated  every  30  minutes  by 


UNCLAssiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


Image  Search:  the  Ask  image  search  uses  "authoritativeness"  to  rank  its  results  and 
also  accesses  a  proprietary  image  index.  It  is  one  of  the  best  image  search  tools 
available.  The  image  search  appears  as  one  of  the  default  search  tools  on  the  right- 
hand  side  of  the  main  search  page.  There  is  no  advanced  image  search  and  no 
special  image  search  options.  However,  when  you  search  for  an  image,  zoom 
related  search  terms  to  expand  or  narrow  the  search  appear.  If  you  select  the  "save" 
option,  this  link  will  save  the  image  to  your  personal  "stuff,"  which  can  later  be 
accessed  via  If  you  select  "info"  about  an  image,  you  will 
then  see  detailed  information  about  the  image,  including  copyright  information,  and 
its  source  homepage  will  appear  in  a  frame  in  the  bottom  portion  of  the  screen. 

Web  Search 

Wat  4  Irnaii&s  News '  &PMj*Jj$ 
\(iaf. so  pntdogy 

•1  '  Shoppy  •  Mtrg 

SefUCit  /m««ii<rfSg«rch 

B  Definitions  of  ontology'  (On-toia-is)^  -  \  defi^cm- t;  < 
nmofegy  \n )  T>s  i: ranch  of  metaphysics  ifc3i  deals  vwnii  the  naiure  of  being. 
(if  To:  cncvclT&dia 

Free  On'm  Dictionary 

Look  up  uXttunaiy  li?trrrS  iri&iUnOy'  Fie&  ieterenc&  dnlionaiy  looiba» 

define  ontology  (WebAirawe 
In  that  content,  an  ontology 
onlolo^  cal  commitment  is  given  belcw 

<fiD  ■         .!■■  ;■ .  v-Jj-:  ■.       :■  - 

t5  A  *P#K| 

it  in  on  Ui«ti  for  making 

-  -^ee  y  moio  Web  Ansv/t! 


What  is  .in 

..  lerrsrrber 


Kirw  Vuj.r  Search 
Oiiloloqy  Philo;oj)i;y 
Pefitie  Oniolog^sl 
Wnari  h  an  Onlotogi-U? 

Ontology  What  Is  an  EsaTTipSe 
Ontology  Lf  ffify 
Onto  logy  Dictionary 

Web  Search 

Wen  ■  Irnaflg*  ■  •  Bfoni  ft  Fa?  ds  -  Shopping  ■  Mor? 

|<Jcfir>e  omoiogy 


Expand  all  answers  I  Gioup  all  answers 

VVr  ai'5  an  Ontology? 

An  onrology  is  a  specification  of  a  conceptualization, 

■  -  *  .»  i   -tj  An  ontology  is  s  specification  o*  a  con>: . 
ia-:-,.*   h  An  ontology  is  a  specification  of  a  cone 

Expand  Z  glmDru  answers 


Science  pu&ltcations  in  Xf-./i ,  towards  a  globa'  knowledge  base. 

ontology  is  defined  as  a  description,  such  as  a  formal  specification  of  a  program,  of  the  concepts  and 
relationships  that  can  exist  for  an  agent  or  a  community  of  agents) 

Ask  Image  Search  "Info"  Page 

Number  Search:  Ask  offers  many  types  of  number  searches.  The  numbers  Ask  will 
search  for  are: 

>  UPS  tracking:  enter  the  UPS  tracking  number  [1Z9999X99999999],  or 
enter  [ups  tracking]  to  bring  up  the  UPS  tracking  query  option. 


DOCID:  4046925 


>  USPS  tracking:  enter  USPS  plus  the  tracking  number  with  or  without 
spaces  [usps  9999999999999999999999],  or  enter  [usps  tracking]  to  bring 
up  the  USPS  tracking  query  option. 

>  FEDEX  tracking:  enter  FEDEX  plus  the  tracking  number  [fedex 
9999999999999999],  or  enter  [fedex  tracking]  to  bring  up  the  FEDEX 
tracking  query  option. 

>  DHL  and  Airborne  Express  tracking:  enter  DHL  plus  the  tracking  number 
[DHL  9999999999],  or  enter  [DHL  tracking]  to  bring  up  the  DHL  tracking 
query  option. 

>  ZIP  codes:  enter  a  US  ZIP  code,  either  five  or  nine  digits 

>  ISBN:  enter  any  International  Standard  Book  Number 

>  VIN  Information:  to  find  information  about  a  vehicle's  history,  search  on  its 
17-character  Vehicle  Identification  Number  (VIN) 



DOCID:  4046925 


More  Help:  Internet  Guides  and  Tutorials 

For  anyone  who  wants  additional  help  in  learning  how  to  use  the  Internet  more 
effectively,  many  excellent  resources  are  available  for  free  via  the  Internet.  Also, 
there  are  more  and  more  sites  appearing  to  help  new  Internet  users  get  started  with 
searching  the  web.  Some  help  you  choose  the  right  search  engine,  others  how  to 
formulate  a  query,  and  others  are  step-by-step  tutorials. 

The  Internet  Detective  Tutorial  is  a  free  online  tutorial  that  is  part  of  the  Intute:  Virtual 
Training  Suite,  a  set  of  "free  Internet  tutorials  to  help  you  learn  how  to  get  the  best 
from  the  Web  for  your  education  and  research... [created  by]  a  national  team  of 
subject  specialists  based  in  universities  and  colleges  across  the  UK."60  Not  familiar 
with  Intute?  It  is  the  newly  evolved  face  of  the  Resource  Discovery  Network,  a 
carefully  selected  and  evaluated  set  of  academic  research  resources.  The  Internet 
Detective  tutorial  focuses  on  how  to  evaluate  Internet  sources  for  quality  and 
authoritativeness,  how  to  avoid  wasting  time  on  questionable  websites  and 
searches,  and  how  to  avoid  violating  copyright  laws  and  plagiarism.  The  tutorial 
includes  a  set  of  practical  exercises  to  try  your  Internet  research  skills.  Although  the 
tutorial  is  aimed  at  university  research,  I  highly  recommend  it  for  all  readers.  The 
tutorial  requires  about  an  hour  to  complete,  but  it  is  designed  so  you  can  do  it  in 
more  than  one  sitting. 

The  Internet  Detective  Tutorial 
All  the  Intute  tutorials  are  available  at: 

Intute:  Virtual  Training  Suite 

The  following  are  tutorials,  guides,  and  search-oriented  sites  available  on  the 

BrightPlanet's  Guide  to  Effective  Searching  of  the  Internet 

Finding  Information  on  the  Internet:  A  Tutorial 

Internet  Tutorials  from  University  of  Albany  Libraries 

Internet  Scout  Report 

Intute:  Virtual  Training  Suite,  <>  (12  September  2006). 


DOCID:  4046925 


Pandia's  Goalgetter 
Phil  Bradley's  Searching  the  Internet 

Search  Engine  Watch  Tutorials  (old  but  still  useful) 1 

Web  Search  Guide 



DOCID:  4046925 


Specialized  Search  Tools  &  Techniques 

This  section,  which  first  appeared  in  the  2006  edition,  was  born  of  the  rapid  growth 
of  both  unconventional  search  techniques  such  as  Google  hacking  and  the  wildfire 
spreading  of  such  tools  as  online  maps.  This  year,  I  have  added  a  new  section  on 
Wikipedia  and  expanded  the  maps  and  mapping  section. 

"Google  Hacking" 

This  topic  has  received  a  great  deal  of  attention  in  the  world  of  Internet  search  in  the 
past  few  years.  While  this  activity  is  generically  referred  to  as  "Google  hacking,"61 
this  is  a  double  misnomer.  First,  to  limit  this  practice  to  "Google"  is  a  mistake 
because  many  of  these  kinds  of  searches  can  be  run  using  any  search  engine, 
though  they  are  clearly  going  to  be  most  effective  with  a  large,  powerful  search  tool 
that  offers  many  search  options,  such  as  Google.  Second,  this  is  not  hacking  in  the 
sense  that  most  people  use  the  term,  i.e.,  gaining  access  to  a  computer  or  data  on  a 
computer  illegally  or  without  authorization.  Nothing  I  am  going  to  describe  to  you  is 
illegal,  nor  does  it  in  any  way  involve  accessing  unauthorized  data.  "Google  (or 
search  engine)  hacking"  involves  using  publicly  available  search  engines  to 
access  publicly  available  information  that  almost  certainly  was  not  intended 
for  public  distribution.  In  short,  it's  using  clever  but  legal  techniques  to  find 
information  that  doesn't  belong  on  the  public  Internet. 

To  understand  how  this  information  has  found  its  way  into  search  engine  databases, 
we  need  a  quick  overview  of  how  search  engines  work.  Very  simply,  search  engines 
deploy  "spiders"  (aka  crawlers  or  bots),  which  is  actually  software  that  "crawls" 
websites  looking  for  new  sites,  updating  old  ones,  following  links,  and  dumping  all 
that  data  into  search  engine  databases  where  it  is  stored,  sorted,  and  eventually 
accessed  by  users.  There  is  nothing  illegal,  immoral,  or  even  fattening  about  search 

61  Let's  talk  about  the  term  hacking  for  a  minute.  A  hacker  is  someone  who  is  proficient  at  using  or 
programming  a  computer;  in  short,  a  computer  expert.  While  there  is  no  universal  agreement  on  a 
preferred  term  for  someone  engaged  in  illegal/illicit  computer  or  network  activity,  I  will  call  these 
"black  hat"  hackers  "malicious  hackers"  to  distinguish  them  from  "white  hat"  or  neutral  "hackers," 
meaning  proficient  or  expert  computer  users. 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  USE  ONLY 

engine  spiders.  Indeed,  without  them,  we  would  have  little  or  no  idea  what  is  "out 
there"  and  available  to  us.  The  problem  for  webmasters  is  that  it  is  their 
responsibility  to  keep  the  search  engine  spiders  out  of  any  parts  of  their  websites 
they  do  not  want  to  be  accessed  and  indexed  by  a  search  engine.  The  spider  is  not 
smart;  it  simply  knows  that  if  a  "door"  is  open,  it  can — and  will — go  in  and  crawl 
around.  Webmasters  must  tell  spiders  "do  not  enter"  (primarily)  by  the  use  of  the 
Robots  Exclusion  Protocol. 

Robots  Exclusion62  comes  in  two  basic  flavors:  either  a  metatag  that  can  be  inserted 
into  the  HTML  of  a  web  page  (usually  used  by  an  individual)  or  a  Robots  Exclusion 
Protocol  (robots.txt)  file,  a  specially  formatted  file  inserted  by  the  website 
administrator  to  tell  the  spider  which  parts  of  the  website  may  and  may  not  be 
indexed  by  the  spider.  If  a  robots  exclusion  is  missing  or  improperly  configured,  the 
spider  will  index  pages  that  the  website  owner  may  not  have  wished  to  have  been 

The  whole  problem  of  keeping  information  on  the  Internet  private  dramatically 
worsened  almost  overnight  a  couple  of  years  ago  when  Google  quietly  started 
indexing  whole  new  types  of  data.  Originally,  most  of  what  got  spidered  and  indexed 
was  HTML  webpages  and  documents,  with  some  plain  text  thrown  in  for  good 
measure.  However,  the  ever-innovative  Google  decided  this  wasn't  good  enough 
and  started  to  index  PDF,  PostScript,  and— most  importantly— a  whole  range  of 
Microsoft  file  types:  Word,  Excel,  PowerPoint,  and  Access.  Problem  was,  lots  of 
folks  had  assumed  these  file  types  were  "immune"  to  spidering  not  because  it 
couldn't  be  done  but  because  no  one  had  yet  done  it.  As  a  result,  many  companies, 
organizations,  and  even  governments  had  quite  a  lot  of  egg  on  their  faces  when 
sensitive  documents  began  turning  up  in  the  Google  database. 

That  was  then,  this  is  now.  You  might  think  people  would  have  learned,  but  judging 
by  the  amount  of  "sensitive"  information  still  available,  many  have  not.  Even  though 
search  engines  now  routinely  index  many  non-HTML  file  types,  many  individuals  and 
organizations  still  do  not  protect  these  files  from  the  long  reach  of  search  engine 
spiders.  Furthermore,  there  are  many  ways  for  sensitive  information  to  end  up  in 
search  engine  databases.  An  improperly  configured  server,  security  holes,  and 
unpatched  software  can  give  search  engine  spiders  unintended  access.  Quite 
frankly,  most  of  the  problems  boil  down  to  one  thing:  human  error,  either  through 
ignorance  or  neglect. 

What  kinds  of  sensitive  information  can  routinely  be  found  using  search  engines? 
The  types  of  data  most  commonly  discovered  by  Google  hackers  usually  falls  into 
one  of  these  categories: 

For  additional  information,  see:  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  personal  and/or  financial  information 

>  userids,  computer  or  account  logins,  passwords 

>  private,  confidential,  or  proprietary  company  data 

>  sensitive  government  information 

>  vulnerabilities  in  websites  and  servers  that  could  facilitate  breaking  into  the 

Now,  you  may  be  thinking  to  yourself,  "I  use  Google  all  the  time  and  I've  never 
encountered  this  type  of  information."  That's  not  surprising.  It's  not  usually  the  kind 
of  thing  you  would  stumble  across  inadvertently.  Normally,  one  would  have  to  be 
actively  looking  for  this  type  of  information.  Of  course,  many  of  the  documents 
Google  hackers  find  using  these  techniques  are  not  sensitive  and  indeed  are 
intended  for  the  public  Internet.  Only  a  tiny  fraction  of  the  over  eight  billion  pages  in 
the  Google  index  were  not  meant  to  be  made  available  to  the  public.  And,  it  so 
happens,  these  techniques  are  excellent  unconventional  ways  of  finding  useful 
information  that  might  not  be  discovered  using  routine  search  engine  queries.  Here 
are  some  of  the  typical  techniques  used  in  Google  hacking: 

>  search  by  file  type63,  site  type,  and  keyword:  many  organizations  store 
financial,  inventory,  personnel,  etc.,  data  in  Excel  spreadsheet  format  and 
often  mark  the  information  "Confidential,"  so  a  Google  hacker  looking  for 
sensitive  information  about  a  company  in  South  Africa  might  use  a  query  such 

[filetype:xls  site:za  confidential] 

a  similar  but  more  specific  search  could  involve  use  of  a  keyword  such  as 
budget  to  search  for  Excel  spreadsheets  at  Indian  websites;  for  example: 
[filetype:xls  site:in  budget] 

>  one  of  the  most  popular  Google  hacking  technique  is  to  employ  stock  words 
and  phrases  such  as  proprietary,  confidential,  not  for  distribution,  do  not 
distribute,  along  with  a  search  for  specific  file  types,  especially  Excel 
spreadsheets,  Word  documents,  and  PowerPoint  briefings. 

>  search  for  files  containing  login,  userid,  and  password  information;  note, 
even  at  international  sites,  these  terms  usually  appear  in  English.  This  type  of 
information  is  typically  stored  in  spreadsheet  format,  so  a  typical  search  might 

[filetype:xls  site:ru  login] 

It  is  critical  that  you  handle  all  Microsoft  file  types  on  the  Internet  with  extreme  care.  Never  open  a 
Microsoft  file  type  on  the  Internet.  Instead,  use  one  of  the  techniques  described  here. 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAi  iisf  omi  y 

>  miscon figured  web  servers  that  list  the  content  of  directories  not  intended 
to  be  on  the  web  often  offer  a  rich  load  of  information  to  Google  hackers;  a 
typical  command  to  exploit  this  error  is: 

[intitle:"index  of  site:kr  password] 

^  numrange  search:  this  is  one  of  the  least  known  and  (formerly)  one  of  the 
scariest  searches  available  through  Google.  Numrange  uses  two  number 
separated  by  two  periods  (dots)  and  no  spaces.  While  "legitimate"  numrange 
users  probably  will  want  to  indicate  what  the  numbers  mean,  e.g.,  weight, 
money,  pixels,  etc.  Google  does  not  require  any  special  words  or  symbols  to 
run  a  successful  numrange  search;  hence  its  power.  Numrange  can  be  used 
with  keywords  and  other  Google  search  options,  such  as: 

[site:www  61 7. .780] 

How  is  numrange  typically  used  in  Google  hacking?  It  used  to  be  extremely  effective 
in  finding  credit  card  numbers  and  social  security  numbers.  Because  of  the  publicity 
about  criminals  using  Google  to  look  for  private  data,  this  particular  search  no  longer 
works  for  credit  card  and  Social  Security  numbers,  which  is  not  a  bad  thing. 

The  disabled  "hack"  was: 

[numrange:4567000000000000.. 4567999999999999  visa]  or 
[numrange:222000000. .250999999  ssn] 
Now  if  you  try  these  searches,  you  will  see  this  message: 

Google --jam ..  ^^^^ — 

Not  Found 

The  requested  URL 

/sorry/ ? con tinue=ht tp : / /www. google . com/search%jEnum%3D100*26hl%3Den*261rt3D^26newwindowl3Dl%26saCc%3DoECl26q^3Dnumrange^25 

was  not  found  on  this  server. 

Lest  you  think  I  am  spilling  the  beans  here,  I  assure  you  I  am  not  revealing  anything 
that  is  not  already  widely  known  and  used  on  the  Internet  both  by  legitimate  and  illicit 
Google  hackers.  I  am  fully  indebted  to  Johnny  (johnnyihackstuff)  Long  for  many  of 
the  "Google  hacking"  techniques64  I  have  learned.  Please  use  the  information  he 
provides  judiciously  because  many  of  the  Google  hacking  techniques  he  discusses 
are  really  designed  for  cracking,  i.e.,  breaking  into  websites  and  servers.  That  is  not 

Johnny  Long,  Google  Hacking  for  Penetration  Testers,  Syngress:  Rockland,  MA,  2004. 



DOCID:  4046925 


something  I  encourage  or  advocate.  I  do  encourage  you  to  "hack"  your  own  website 
to  see  what  kinds  of  information  is  being  revealed  inadvertently  via  Google  and  other 
search  engines. 

Also,  a  lot  of  the  best  information  Johnny  offers  is  for  his  site  members  only,  and  I  do 
not  want  to  suggest  you  register  there.  Nonetheless,  Johnny's  briefing  slides  from 
the  2004  Black  Hat  and  Defcon12  conferences  are  available  at  the  official  Black  Hat 
Briefings  website  and  elsewhere  (so  much  for  registration).  I  have  also  found  his 
excellent  white  paper  "The  Google  Hacker's  Guide"  at  other  sites  that  do  not  require 
registration;  there  is  another  very  good  briefing  on  the  dangers  of  Google  by 
Sebastian  Wolfgarten. 

There  was  a  fair  amount  of  sniping  following  Long's  talks  at  Black  Hat  and  Defcon, 
mostly  of  the  "big  deal"  variety,  i.e.,  it  is  not  "real"  hacking  and  therefore  not  worthy 
of  presenting  at  Defcon.  However,  this  is  a  very  shortsighted  point  of  view  when  one 
considers  the  kinds  of  information  that  is  so  very  easily  available  via  Google,  et  al. 
How  would  you  like  to  see  your  Social  Security  Number,  credit  card  number,  and 
that  very  handy  little  three  digit  number  on  the  back  of  your  credit  card  used  for 
"verification,"  bank  routing  information,  mother's  maiden  name,  etc.,  in  the  next 
Google  hacking  briefing?  Yes,  all  this  kind  of  information  is  readily  available  (I 
know.. .I've  uncovered  quite  a  bit  of  it  myself).  And  this  doesn't  even  take  into 
consideration  all  the  other  website  weaknesses,  such  as  multiple  vulnerabilities  with 
IIS  6.0  Web-based  administration,  that  can  be  exposed  using  Google. 

Johnny  Long's  Googledorks  Page 

Johnny  Long's  "The  Google  Hacker's  Guide"  HackerQ7Q4.pdf 

Johnny  Long,  "You  Got  That  With  Google?"  Black  Hat  Briefings  and  Defcon12,  July 


Johnny  Long,  "Google  Hacking  Mini-Guide,",  7  May  2004  asp?p=1 70880 

Sebastian  Wolfgarten,  "Watch  Out  Google"  out  qooqle.pdf 

Joe  Barr,  "Google  Hacks  are  for  Real,",  6  August  2004 pl?sid=04/08/05/1236234 

Taken  all  together,  the  information  Johnny  Long  has  found  using  Google  (he  sticks 
with  this  one  search  engine),  combined  with  the  techniques  he  details  at  his  website, 
provide  an  excellent  tutorial  on  using  Google  to  find  stuff  that  really  should  not  be  on 
the  public  Internet  or  easily  accessible  via  a  search  query.  Furthermore,  the  greatest 
value  of  his  efforts  may  not  be  in  finding  useful  information  but  in  demonstrating  the 
vulnerabilities  of  any  given  website  and  the  necessity  of  taking  strong  measures  to 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASSlFIED//ron  ornciAL  U3C  ONLY 

ensure  the  information  that  gets  into  Google  (as  well  as  other  search  engine 
databases  and  the  Internet  Archive)  is  only  that  which  is  intended. 

Given  the  large  amount  of  "sensitive"  or  private  data  readily  available  via  Internet 
search  engines,  people  naturally  wonder  why  companies  and  individuals  do  not 
actively  try  to  remove  this  information.  Sometimes  they  do,  but  much  still  remains 
accessible.  Why?  Getting  private  information  "back"  is  harder  than  preventing 
its  disclosure  in  the  first  place.  There  are  steps  you  can  take  to  remove  your  data, 
but  as  hacker  Adrian  Lamo  says,  "removing  links  after  the  fact  isn't  a  very  elegant 
solution."  Nor  is  it  likely  to  be  terribly  effective.  There  are  a  number  of  reasons  for 
this,  but  what  it  boils  down  to  is:  it's  very  hard  to  put  the  genie  back  in  the  bottle. 

First  of  all,  you  have  to  find  out  if  your  data  is  "out  there"  in  order  to  ask  search 
engines  to  remove  it  and,  clearly,  many  people  and  organizations  are  not  playing 
defense,  that  is,  they  are  not  routinely  checking  to  see  what  is  indexed  from  their 
websites.  Let's  say  you  find  something  on  Google  that  shouldn't  be  on  the  public 
Internet.  The  first  thing  you  have  to  do  is  to  protect  the  sensitive  pages  on  your  site 
or  remove  them  entirely.  However,  even  when  you  have  removed  those  pages  from 
your  website,  this  doesn't  mean  they  can't  be  accessed.  Once  documents  are 
indexed  in  a  search  engine  database,  a  publicly  available  copy  of  those  documents 
(usually  referred  to  as  the  cache  copy)  may  remain  behind  for  days,  weeks,  even 

The  next  step  is  to  ask  Google  to  remove  your  sensitive  pages  from  its  database. 
However,  even  when  Google  removes  your  data,  there  are  literally  hundreds  of  other 
search  engines  around  the  world,  and  who  knows  what  they  have  indexed  from  your 
site.  It  will  not  be  an  easy  task  finding  out.  And  I'll  hazard  a  guess  that  not  all  of  them 
will  be  quite  so  accommodating  as  Google  in  removing  pages. 

To  make  matters  worse,  if  something  really  "juicy"  shows  up  in  a  search  engine, 
chances  are  someone  will  find  it  and  copy  it  to  another  website.  Once  this  happens, 
you  can  forget  about  removing  that  information  from  the  Internet.  To  further 
complicate  matters,  even  if  no  individual  comes  across  your  sensitive  data,  the 
Internet  Archive65  spider  is  almost  certainly  going  to  find  that  webpage  and  index  it  in 
the  Archive,  and  there  it  will  remain  until  and  unless  you  find  it  first  and  ask  the 
Archive  to  remove  it.  As  you  can  see,  the  genie  is  running  amuck!  Prevention  is 
much  easier  (though  certainly  not  easy)  than  curing  this  particular  disease,  so  it's 
vital  to  pay  close  attention  to  anything  you  put  on  a  website,  especially  something 
you  do  not  want  the  whole  world  to  see. 

65  The  Internet  Archive  is  a  non-profit  organization  that  was  founded  to  "build  an  'Internet  library,'  with 
the  purpose  of  offering  permanent  access  for  researchers,  historians,  and  scholars  to  historical 
collections  that  exist  in  digital  format.  Based  in  San  Francisco,  the  Internet  Archive  has  been 
harvesting  the  World  Wide  Web  since  1996,  to  create  one  of  the  largest  data  collections  in  the  world. 
The  Internet  Archive's  web  archive  contains  over  100  terabytes  of  data,  and  the  collection  is  growing 
at  a  rate  of  12  terabytes  per  month."  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Because  of  the  vast  amount  of  information  available  using  public  search  engines,  it's 
relatively  easy  to  find  lots  of  interesting,  amusing,  shocking  examples  of  sensitive 
information.  While  this  is  all  fine  and  good  for  entertaining  yourself  and  impressing 
your  friends,  what  we  are  really  after  is  useful,  meaningful,  and  actionable 
information.  Put  succinctly: 

It 's  Easier  to  Find  Anything  Than  It  Is  to  Find  Something 

So  how  do  you  find  "something"  useful?  While  it  isn't  easy  to  do  so,  I  can  make 
some  suggestions  that  might  help.  The  most  valuable  assets  you  have  are  your 
subject  matter  knowledge  and  your  creativity.  Add  these  to  a  few  search  engine 
strategies,  and  you  can  probably  find  many  relevant  and  genuinely  useful  pieces  of 
information.  The  strategies  I  recommend  for  finding  "something"  rather  than  just 
"anything"  are: 

Limit  the  search  by  site 

This  can  be  as  broad  as  a  county  [siteifr]  or  as  specific  as  an  individual  server  on  a 
company  website  [site:office.]. 

Try  to  be  as  specific  as  possible 

You  will  have  a  lot  more  success  searching  for  information  within  the  Chinese 
Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  []  than  looking  at  all  the  sites  indexed  for 
China  [site:cn]  or  even  for  the  government  of  China  [] 

Add  keywords 

Here's  where  your  subject  matter  knowledge  and  creativity  really  help.  You  are  the 
best  source  of  information  about  what  words  are  most  likely  to  yield  the  best  quality 
and  quantity  of  useful  information.  As  a  general  rule,  more  uncommon  words  work 
best  (consider  using  unusual  proper  names). 

Limit  the  search  by  file  type 

Most  of  the  best  information  found  by  Google  hackers  is  not  on  webpages  (HTML) 
but  in  other  types  of  files.  Try  all  or  most  of  the  file  types  one  at  a  time  (these  are  not 
the  only  searchable  file  types;  check  the  particular  search  engine's  documentation 
(Help  page)  for  others): 

filetype:pdf — good  for  large  documents  of  all  types;  widely  used  in  academia, 
government,  and  business;  many  PowerPoint  briefings  are  also  made  available 
in  PDF  at  the  same  website 

filteype:doc— good  for  internal  working  documents,  reports,  etc. 
filetype:xls— good  for  personnel  data,  computer  records,  financial  information 



DOCID:  4046925 


filetype:ppt — good  for  briefings,  which  often  contain  company  or  government 
plans  for  the  future 

Use  Google  hacking  techniques  to  search  inside  websites  requiring  registration 

You  will  frequently  encounter  a  website,  perhaps  a  database,  that  requires 
registration  to  view  its  contents.  On  occasion,  you  can  use  Google  to  get  at  that  data 
without  registering.  For  example,  let's  say  you  find  a  database  of  international 
companies  that  requires  free  registration.  Without  registering,  you  may  be  able  to 
use  Google  to  list  all  the  companies  and  even  get  a  look  at  the  individual  entries.  Try 
this  series  of  queries  or  something  similar: 

[  inurkdatabase]  or 

[site:www.  inurkdirectory]  or 

[  inurhindex] 

Then,  look  for  keywords,  such  as  companies,  and  move  to  the  next  level  query: 
[site:www.  inurl:companies] 


Presentation  by:  Gaurab  Raj  Upadhaya 
at  APOPS  Forum,  16  APNIC  Open  Policy  Meeting 
August.  21,  2003.  Seoul.  Korea 

DOCID:  4046925 


You  may  be  able  to  browse  through  the  list  of  companies  and  get  names, 
addresses,  phone  numbers,  etc. 

Search  in  the  native  language 

I  cannot  emphasize  strongly  enough  how  important  it  is  to  use  keyword  search  terms 
that  are  in  the  native  language  of  the  entity  you  are  researching.  The  Internet  is 
becoming  much  less  dependent  upon  English,  and  sites  written  in  languages  that  do 
not  use  the  Latin  alphabet  are  growing  by  leaps  and  bounds.  For  example,  a  search 
term  written  in  the  native  language  and  encoding  is  far  more  likely  to  yield 
interesting,  useful  results  than  the  same  word  transliterated  into  English.  Most  good 
quality  search  engines  now  correctly  render  non-Latin  search  terms  regardless  of 
how  the  term  is  transliterated  in  English.  A  search  on  the  Arabic  returns  very 
different  results  than  searching  on  [muhammad],  [mohamet],  [mohammed],  etc. 


Web    Images    Video    Ne^s    Maps    Desktop    moie  » 
1=  Sb-,0,  IS 

Web  Results  1  ■  100  of  about  25,800,000  for  0.06) .  seconds) 

Sheikh  Muhammad  Jebril  I  ck^      r^1  -  [  u^^JLD...m?.  I 

...  by  sheikh  Muhammad  Jebril's  spectacular  voice,  **—  f  tiaJij  ^j^1  jj^  "-^j 

YvV-vvjcb»Ujrr</  •     -     C".*.*'^.  •  .•L'iM.'1.?^ 

<JmJj  Ji\  ^i^jl  -  Jj        lAt  .■c-bjjl  •  [  lr:\- :!-;<■  r.  Ull-j  £•';]<•  I 

vvwv/.itfbiil  com/ai/inde«.htrn  -  33k  ■  \.i^  'r:M  •  '^MhiJ-:.^.}. 

Mohammad  Esfahani  Official  Web  Site  - 
Iranian  singer.  Profile,  discography,  and  pictures. 

aw/  rnonArrtmaiJ-esfaftam  mm/  -  10k  ■    h-J-.h'i  •  5inil<ti&«flfcs 

pholographing.landscape.Portrait.  ...  All  works  of  art  copyright  ©  MOHAME0  MANNAI.  All 
rights  reserved  Copyright  ©  2000-2006  MOHAMED  MANNAI. 

'av,v  mmannai  com.'  -  7k  ■  C.;k l-eil  ■  ^Hl-ik1 

MUHAMMAD  ALI  -  The  Greatest  Of  All  Time 

This  is  the  Official  website  of  Muhammad  All.  the  greatest  of  all  time. 

vw«'  22U  ■  (  ache- J  -  jw-kjssrje; 

Welcome  to  His  Highness  Sheikh  Mohammed  bin  fiashid  Al  Maktoum's  ... 

Official  site  of  Ihe  Ruler  of  Dubai,  who  is  also  the  UAE  Vice  President  and  Prime  Minister. 
Contains  news,  hrs  poetry  and  other  information  in  Arabic  and  ... 

■■w:  sfieiUmoharnmed  co  ae-'  -  2k  ■  C  ^"""(j  -  cim.;- :ii  R*a?± 

QJ  ,1^11  LTamjil  L^-^lil  fjj/Ji  ...  ■  [       j       M^hVi  p^O  ] 

*i j Jl  piuj  tiJj  f jlia  Jl  lilj  (Jl  '  i  J  .  j  (jMjII  ^iji^mII      _^tll         life  ... 

shtiii'hrfiof.?irfirned  co  ae/<f  abic/inde/.fiop  -  2k  -  ^(J^-J  ■  S!'.?.:!.!?.!..^^^::'.'. 
Al-Hairimadi  com  -  A  Website  for  All  is  a  website  with  information  on  Qatar,  Islam.  Arabic  music,  and  more, 

Come  on  in  and  enjoy  what  we  have  to  offer 

\v<vv:  al-hdnmiadi  com/  -  12k  -  ■  ^I'lIL'-ILL'^.T. 

Remember  that  Diacritics  Also  Affect  Searches 

Most  search  engine  algorithms  are  now  set  up  to  "read"  accented  search  terms 
differently  from  those  without  accents.  It's  easy  to  test  this  by  searching  first  for  a 
term  without  any  diacritical  marks  and  then  the  same  word  with  the  marks,  e.g., 
resume  vs.  resume. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Some  common  types  of  diacritical  marks: 

♦  acute  accent  ( f) 

♦  ring1  above  ( 0 )  used  for  angstrom  (A),  aka  krouzek 

♦  breve  (v ) 

♦  car  on  or  hacek  ( v ) 

♦  cedilla  f , ) 

♦  circumflex  ( A ) 

♦  umlaut1  or  diaeresis  ( " ) 

♦  double  acute  accent  ( ") 

♦  grave  accent  ( ' ) 

♦  macron  (  ) 

♦  ogonek  ( L) 

♦  spiritus  asper 

♦  spiritus  lenis 

V  Strictly  taken  not  diacritics  but  parts  of  the  character. 


Look  for  Misspellings  (Intentional  or  Accidental) 

I  am  constantly  amazed  by  the  frequency  of  misspelled  words,  urls,  file  names,  etc., 
I  encounter  on  the  Internet.  By  far,  most  appear  to  be  simple  mistakes,  often  made 
by  non-English  speakers  trying  to  cope  with  our  confusing  language.  These 
mistakes  tend  to  propagate  as  users  copy  and  paste  them  again  and  again,  which  is 
what  I  believe  happened  here: 

Fact  Index,  <http://www.fact-index.eom/d/di/diacrilic.html> 

DOCID:  4046925 



| e n I g i s h  ate ": www". ch i n m . cn 

linages    Groups    News    Frooqie    more » 

Advanced  Seaich 


Results  1  - 10  of  10  from  for  enlgish.  (0.30  seconds) 

jobs  Recruitment  #1]  a  $(E|iA4§¥!.  P7]i£i£itSli- 
iSii&mWBV*)  (ftsffi).        WA*?ttit#£ffili ...  doc/2004-03/1 6/conlenl_3153'l 4 . htm  -  23  k  -  Cached  -  SjnvQar  nag  as 

jobs  Recruitment  tpH  9  fl*(S|SA}gf|.  RflSi&itfiP- 
iftitW(1«)  (ftttff5).         W«^^itS5*  ...  doc/2004-03/ 1 6/contenl  3! 531B.htm  -23k  -  C&c_hed ;  -  Sjnylar  p^iie& 

jobs  Recruitment  tpU  B  lRE9|S4^gf5.  rfj&SMIiB&a  ( 
^T*gr«->  (2*)  (ft mm).         :  30  ...  doc/2004 -03/1 6/conl  9tit_315317.htm  -  23k  -  Cached  -  Similar  pag<?g 

jobs  Recruitment  tf»ll  9  JRP?|Sfi*S?S.  <21 
1S£:}>^K£tR>  Tffi»Stt£l?«».  «211»£'J^IS£tR...  doc/2004-04./06/content_321050.htm  -  9k  -  Cached  -  Similar  page? 

jobs  Recruitment  tpH  9  &P?]S£i2S$.  55if¥^0*gS( 
2-3£)  (ftffi  rfJ).  XflrJWftJfl  :  ft  M  fc«  ...  doc/2004-03/1 6/content_3'l 531 2. hlrn  -  30k  ■  Cached  -  Sjjr-ijar  aaqes 

Finally,  the  enormity  of  the  task  of  finding  meaningful  and  useful  information  on  the 
Internet  is  both  daunting  and  comforting:  daunting  because  we  know  we  can  only 
scratch  the  surface  of  all  the  data  and  comforting  because  there  is  an  almost 
limitless  pool  of  possibilities.  I  find  it  useful  to  keep  the  challenge  in  perspective  by 
recalling  that  a  study  published  in  2000  showed  "the  sixty  known,  largest  deep  Web 
sites  contain  data  of  about  750  terabytes  (HTML-included  basis)  or  roughly  forty 
times  the  size  of  the  known  surface  Web"67  In  short,  there  is  just  so  much  data  and 
information  available  via  the  Internet  that  no  institution,  no  government,  no 
computer,  and  certainly  no  individual  can  possibly  grasp  more  than  a  small  portion  of 
all  there  is. 

67  Michael  K.  Bergman,  "The  Deep  Web:  Surfacing  Hidden  Value,"  BrightPianet  .com,  July  2001 , 
<>  (14  November  2006),  Introduction. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Custom  Search  Engines 

This  topic  is  new  this  year  and  expands  upon  the  entries  on  Rollyo  and  Gigablast's 
Custom  Topic  Search  from  last  year's  edition.  During  2006  there  was  an  explosion  in 
the  number  of  custom  search  engines,  including  entries  from  Google,  Yahoo,  and 
Live  Search,  so  you  know  the  powerhouses  think  this  is  worth  a  try.  Whether  this 
trend  catches  on  remains  to  be  seen. 

The  phrase  "custom  search  engine"  is  very  misleading.  None  of  these  sites  permits 
users  to  create  a  new  search  engine.  What  each  site  does  in  its  own  way  is  to  let 
users  customize  an  existing  search  engine  to  search  specific  sites  in  specific  ways 
and  return  results  in  a  personalized  fashion.  Thus,  a  better  name  for  these  services 
would  be  customizable  searching,  but  that  moniker  is  clearly  unappealing.  Just 
remember  that  you  are  not  creating  a  new  search  engine  any  more  than  customizing 
a  car  is  building  a  new  automobile  from  the  tires  up. 

Most  of  the  custom  search  sites  operate  on  a  simple  principle:  they  automate  a  long 
"site"  search,  e.g.,  the  search  is  equivalent  to  [keyword(s)  AND  (site  1  OR  site  2  OR 
site  3. ..OR  site  n)],  where  n  stands  for  the  maximum  number  of  sites  you  are  allowed 
to  search. 

In  short,  the  proliferation  of  customizable  search  means  that  companies,  educational 
institutions,  government  agencies,  and  individuals  can  easily  put  the  power  of  the  big 
search  engines  such  as  Google,  Yahoo,  and  Live  Search  with  its  search  Macros  to 
work  creating  tailored  and  specialized  search  services  in  a  way  that  has  never 
before  been  possible.  Customizable  search  may  be  "the  next  big  thing,"  and  I 
believe  it  is  one  of  the  most  positive  examples  of  that  vague  but  ubiquitous  concept 
called  Web  2.0. 

Gigablast's  Custom  Topic  Search 

Gigablast's  Custom  Topic  Search  was  one  of  the  first  "create  your  own  search 
engines"  to  appear,  although  Gigablast's  creator  Matt  Wells  never  claimed  it  was 
anything  other  than  a  way  to  customize  Gigablast.  The  beauty  of  the  Gigablast  CTS 
is  that  it  reguires  no  software  installation  but  is  very,  very  simple  HTML  code,  so 
simple  anyone  can  edit  and  understand  it.  No  registration  is  required. 

Many  of  Gigablast's  features  were  primarily  designed  for  webmasters  instead  of 
users,  but  this  one  is  potentially  valuable  to  both:  "Build  Your  Own  Topic  Search 
Engine."  Gigablast  "allows  you  to  create  a  list  of  up  to  200  web  sites  (or  subsites) 
and  a  search  box  that  searches  just  those  sites."  Custom  Topic  Search  even  lets 
you  decide  if  you  want  Gigablast  to  cluster  the  results  for  you.  The  concept  behind 



DOCID:  4046925 


topic  search  is  that  you,  and  not  some  anonymous  marketer,  choose  the  sites  you 
want  to  search.  This  "tool"  (for  want  of  a  better  word)  is  amazingly  easy  to  use  and 
powerful.  As  someone  whose  eyes  glaze  over  at  the  mere  sight  of  code,  let  me  put 
this  in  "user"  language.  If  you  are  familiar  with  Google's  site:  syntax,  imagine  being 
able  to  have  a  "canned"  query  that  runs  against  up  to  200  websites  of  your  own 
choosing  and  lets  you  run  it  whenever  you  like  and  use  whatever  keyword(s)  you 
want  at  any  time.  The  query  on  Google  would  look  something  like  this: 

[keyword  OR  OR  OR  OR  (etc.)] 

The  problem  with  Google  is  that  multiple  site/domain  searches  are  cumbersome  at 
best,  and  they  quickly  run  up  against  Google's  32-word  limit.  Enter  Matt  Wells  and 
Gigablast.  As  the  creator  and  sole  proprietor  of  his  own  search  engine,  Matt  has  the 
luxury  of  being  able  to  add  new  options  easily.  I  think  CTS  is  his  best  innovation  yet. 
Even  if  you  are  as  HTML-averse  as  I  am,  this  code  is  so  easy  to  edit  that  it's  a  piece 
of  cake.  To  make  things  even  easier,  I  have  done  the  basics  for  you.  First,  however, 
I  highly  recommend  you  read  through  the  Gigablast  pages  below  on  the  concepts 
behind  CTS. 

Build  Your  Own  Topic  Search  Engine  of  Custom  Topic  Search 

Now  you're  ready  to  take  a  look  at,  edit,  and  try  the  CTS.  Copy  and  paste  this  HTML 
code  into  an  application  such  as  Notepad. 


<title>Gigablast  Custom  Search</title> 



Search  News  Websites 
<form  method- 'post"  action=""> 
<input  type- 'text"  name="q"  size="60"> 
<input  type-'submit"  value- 'search"  border="0"> 
<input  type="hidden"  name="sc"  value-  T> 

<input  type- 'hidden"  name- 'sites"  value-'"> 



This  is  a  bare  bones  version  of  the  CTS  code.  Now  you  can  play  with  the  code  and 
make  it  into  your  own  custom  topic  search  page.  I  should  mention  that  I  set  the  "site 
clustering"  option  to  ON  <input  type- 'hidden"  name-'sc"  value="1">  but  you  can 
reset  it  to  OFF  by  changing  1  to  0.  Once  you  save  as  an  HTML  file,  all  you  have  to 



DOCID:  4046925 


do  to  use  it  is  to  open  the  file  in  your  browser,  insert  keyword(s),  and  go. 
Obviously,  you  will  want  to  add  more  sites  to  search  (I  only  put  in  a  few)  and  change 
the  topic  to  something  of  interest  to  you  (I  chose  the  rather  bland  News  topic  for 
demonstration  purposes).  Also,  you  can  enter  sub-sites  or  more  specific  sites,  such 
as  or 

One  thing  to  keep  in  mind  that  is  you  are  searching  Gigablast's  database  of 
pages  from  these  websites,  not  the  sites  themselves.  The  "work"  that  goes  into 
creating  a  CTS  is  mostly  up  front  because  once  you  create  your  list  of  sites,  it  is  not 
a  complicated  matter  to  add  to  or  subtract  from  it.  I  can  easily  imagine  creating  a  set 
of  these  search  forms  on  a  variety  of  topics  using  existing  bookmarks. 


Rollyo  stands  for  "Roll  your  own"  search  engine,  meaning  that  you  select  the 
sources  you  want  to  search.  Rollyo  is  powered  by  Yahoo,  so  results  will  come  from 
Yahoo  only.  Rollyo  lets  users  search  up  to  25  sites  (not  a  huge  number)  and  also  try 
out  and  use  other  people's  "Searchrolls."  In  order  to  save,  share,  and  use  your 
Searchrolls  on  other  computers,  you  must  register  with  an  email  address  and  a  user- 
created  name  and  password. 

Rollyo  has  some  unusual  features.  For  example,  Rollyo  permits  users  to  upload  their 
bookmarks  to  create  Searchrolls,  edit  someone  else's  Searchroll  to  make  it  your 
own,  keep  your  Searchrolls  private  or  share  them.  Rollyo  searches  entire  sites  or 
you  can  limit  your  search  to  a  subdomain;  however,  you  cannot  limit  your  search  to 
directories  within  a  site,  e.g.,  in  this  case,  everything  after  the  slash  is  ignored: 
security,  news,  com/library. 

Rollyo  has  a  nice  little  bookmarklet  called  Rollbar  that  "gives  you  access  to  all  of 
your  Searchrolls  wherever  you  are. 

•  Search  any  site  you  visit,  from  the  same  spot  on  your  browser,  without 
having  to  dig  around  for  every  site's  search  page. 

•  Add  sites  to  your  Searchrolls  on  the  fly. 

•  Create  a  new  Searchroll  from  anywhere." 

One  of  the  most  attractive  features  of  Rollyo  is  the  ability  to  share  Searchrolls.  Here 
is  an  example  of  a  Searchroll  named  "Muslim  World  Views."  The  sources  searched 
are  on  the  left  side: 



DOCID:  4046925 



|T'ry  il  oul 

in:  |  Muslim  World  Views  Sea?ch 


Get  your  RollQar  ■  Add  a  Searchbox 


Q  Add  to  my  Rollyo 

Brought  to  you  by: 


enojish.aljazeer. . 
iisharqalawj a. . 

istamrepubli  , 
isliirngcnerat  . 
<il-bawGbo.i",o,  . 
arabicne^i.c  . my 

Latest  Custom  Blog  Results: 

Housemen's  working  conditions:  Making  it  more  bearable  for  junior  doctors 

"t:  T'ir.-iiJ 

Latest  Custom  News  Results: 

Housemen's  working  conditions;  Making  it  more  bearable  for  junior  doctors 

K*-  :t:i-.ti  Tlr.vsj  ■  O-it  11.  Iri-?  ■  -i  .00  PSA  ??T 

Baghdad  university  bombing  kills  70 

»•■:'>  iH-arrr  Tim*>s  -  J  jr.  i;\  WO"-  ■  :.  : :  j  ?;  ,*  t'VT 

Baghdad  university  bombing  kills  70 

!««-  9trW  Time;     C»of  31.  ..i:l?0  PST 

More  luitom  News  Results... 

Custom  Web  Results:  M«n-hr<!  .iv'P^t  Vi.tO<: 

ing  l  ;o  ,/u 

M  Jazeera  English  ■■  Archive 

Got  a  problem  with  burglars?  Try  leaving  an  apple,  a  carrot  or  a  piece  of  pizza  out  for  them.  ,. 
scene  [of  a  crime]  and  try  it  for  DNA,"  2arsky  told  New  ... 

^!^//ef)gliih.«lja:eei'4.r.^f/Nf'i.'*xer«5/1>{)305<lJ  £-1;) 

A. I  Jazeera  English  -  File  Mot  Found 

Provides  a  history  of  the  region,  as  well  as  news  and  analysis  of  the  Israeli-Palestinian  conflict. 

t-.rr.p  //engiiih  -*lj->:eec*  r^-.-T;F'/>  t* ret /SS^E*} AA-c 


»  Add  to  my  Pcllyo 

►  Edit  >.his  Searchroll 
V  Link  to  Searchroll 
»  Add  to  Firefox™ 

►  Share  with  a  friend 


Your  Personal  DJ 
for  (Tunes 

Free  Download! 

Rollyo  has  added  blog  and  news  searches  (again,  from  Yahoo)  to  the  results.  Rollyo 
makes  it  very  easy  to  create,  save,  and  edit  custom  searches. 

Google  Custom  Search  Engine 

Google  got  into  the  custom  search  game  rather  late.  In  October  2006  Google 
announced  its  own  version  of  a  custom  search  engine.  In  the  announcement, 
Google  said, 

"When  we  say  we're  letting  people  build  a  custom  search  engine,  we  mean  the 
whole  thing:  choosing  which  pages  they  want  to  include  in  their  index,  how  the 
content  should  be  prioritized,  whether  others  can  contribute  to  the  index,  and 
what  the  search  results  page  will  look  like. ..Here's  how  a  Custom  Search  Engine 
works:  organizations  or  individuals  simply  go  to  and 
select  the  websites  or  pages  they'd  like  to  include  in  their  search  index.  Users 
can  choose  to  restrict  their  search  results  to  include  only  those  pages  and  sites, 
or  they  can  give  those  pages  and  sites  higher  priority  and  ranking  within  the 
larger  Google  index  when  people  search  their  site.  Users  can  then  customize  the 
look,  feel  and  functionality  of  their  search  engine."68 

Google  Press  Release,  "The  Power  of  Google  Search  is  Now  Customizable,"  23  October  2006, 
<  search.html>  (17  January  2007). 


DOCID:  4046925 


After  a  telephone  conference  with  Google's  Marissa  Mayer  and  the  Google  product 
managers,  search  and  Google  expert  John  Battelle  shared  his  comments,  which  I 
think  are  excellent  insights: 

"While  similar  to  Rollyo's  innovative  custom  roll,  the  Google  CSE  adds  the  benefit 
of  allowing  users  to  roll  an  unlimited  number  of  sites  together  and  display  the 
results  on  their  own  site,  with  personalized  presentation.  Someone  on  the  call 
described  this  as  the  fragmentation  of  search.  The  ability  to  build  verticals  will 
allow  experts  to  build  specialized  engines.  But  while  the  engines  will  be 
individual,  the  collaborative  element  of  tagging  the  domains  encourages 
communities  of  knowledge  to  create  together.  So  while  each  will  stand  apart  from 
the  amazing  all-in-one  answer  box,  the  Custom  Search  will  also  allow  a 
thickening  or  deepening  of  intelligent  tags  in  Co-op,  which  feeds  the  one  box  that 
unites  them  all."  <> 

Not  surprisingly,  you  must  have  a  Google  account  to  use  this  service.  Also, 
Google  Custom  Search  includes  AdSense  sponsored  links  alongside  search  results, 
but  government  sites,  non-profits,  and  educational  institutions  are  exempt  from  the 
advertising  requirement.  To  see  the  Google  Custom  Search  in  action,  take  a  look  at 
Real  Climate. org's  internal  search:  <>  Even  better,  check 
out  Customsearchguide,  a  directory  of  Google  Custom  Search  Engines  that  others 
have  created  but  you  can  use.  Here  is  an  example  of  general  science  and 
technology  custom  searches. 

Control  Center 

Home  •  Register  ■  Login  -  Suggest 

General  Science  And  Technology  Search  Forms 
You  Aie  Heie:  Home  >  Technology  >  General  Science  And  Technology  Search  Forms 

Health  ■  Media  ■  Re<et«nct  •  Shopping  •  Society  •  Sports  •  Technology  ■  Trj»el 

Senidi  Foim 

Technology  Search  n/a 
Science  and  Engineering  Search  n/a 
Science  Wtkis  n/a 

Editor  Visitoi 
R.itlnij  R.ilimj 


Searches  science  and  technology  resources. 
Find  info  on  science  and  engineering. 
Searches  science-oriented  wiki  sites 

Welvm-isteis  A  Bloyyeis:  Link  here  &  encourage  people  to  use  and  vote  for  your  favorite  CSEs 

<a  hcef=  ! 
"heep  :  f  /vw*.  customsearchguide.  com/  categories/  techno  logy/ genera  l-science-fi 
Science  And  Technology  3earch  FDCms</a>  j 

home  •  link  to  us  •  about  •  legal  ■  privacy  ■  press 
Copyright  ©20D6,  Moving  Traffic.  Inc.  All  Rights  Reserved. 




DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Search  Builder 

Yahoo's  custom  search  option  requires  registration  and  is  very  similar  to  others 
create  your  own  search  sites.  Rollyo  predates  the  Yahoo  Search  Builder  and  also 
searches  the  Yahoo  database,  giving  you  a  good  idea  of  what  you  can  do  with  this 

I  discuss  creating  and  finding  search  macros  in  the  section  devoted  to  Microsoft's 
Live  Search. 

What  has  been  for  many  the  holy  grail  of  search  is  now  a  big  step  closer  to  reality. 
With  little  fanfare,  Amazon's  Alexa  subsidiary  announced  in  December  2005  that  it 
was  opening  up  its  search  tools  and  index  to  the  world  in  a  new  project  named  the 
Alexa  Web  Search  Platform  (AWSP) — and  for  a  very  modest  price. 

According  to  its  website,  "The  Alexa  Web  Search  Platform  provides  public  access  to 
the  vast  web  crawl  collected  by  Alexa  Internet.  Users  can  search  and  process 
billions  of  documents  and  even  create  their  own  search  engines  using  Alexa's 
search  and  publication  tools.  Alexa  provides  compute  and  storage  resources  that 
allow  users  to  quickly  process  and  store  large  amounts  of  web  data.  Users  can  view 
the  results  of  their  processes  interactively,  transfer  the  results  to  their  home 
machine,  or  publish  them  as  a  new  web  service." 

What  exactly  is  Alexa  offering  to  the  user?  In  essence,  Alexa  gives  the  user,  whether 
an  individual  or  organization,  access  to  the  same  kind  of  powerful  technology  used 
by  Google,  Yahoo,  and  Live  Search.  "Alexa  spiders  4  billion  to  5  billion  pages  a 
month  and  archives  1  terabyte  of  data  a  day.  The  new  platform  will  allow  developers 
to  build  their  own  search  engines."  The  goal?  To  democratize  web  search  by  taking 
it  out  of  the  hands  of  giants  like  Google  and  putting  it  into  the  hands  of  literally 
anyone  and  everyone.  The  implications  are  enormous.  And  it  appears  it  is  a  hit.  In 
fact,  within  a  very  short  time  of  its  initial  opening,  Alexa  had  to  cut  off  new 
applications  temporarily  because  it  was  overloaded  with  customers  wanting  to  sign 
up  for  the  new  service,  but  the  site  soon  reopened  registration. 

The  Alexa  Web  Search  Platform  (AWSP)  offers  the  user  the  capability  to: 

Live  Search  Macros 

Alexa  Web  Search  Platform 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  define  (search):  AWSP  has  a  much  more  robust  set  of  search  options,  syntax, 
and  APIs  than  other  search  engines  and  also  permits  the  use  of  stored 
(canned)  queries;  the  AWSP  "data  store"  contains  text,  html,  music,  video, 
images,  and  more  types  of  files. 

>  process:  users  can  search  the  entire  Aiexa  data  store  and  "are  able  to 
process  both  the  raw  content  and  the  metadata  extracted  by  Alexa's  internal 

>  publish:  the  output  of  the  search  can  be  anything  from  one  result  to  an 
entirely  new  vertical  search  engine,  for  example  a  new  video  search  engine 
or  a  new  search  engine  for  automotive  parts.  Quite  literally,  "by  making  use  of 
these  utilities,  a  user  might  introduce  a  great  new  search  service  to  the  world 
with  nothing  more  than  a  home  computer."69 

The  costs  are  modest  and  are  based  on  consumption  (you  pay  for  what  you  use  and 
not  for  a  subscription  or  service  contract): 

$1  per  cpu  hour  ($0.50  for  reserved  but  unused  hours) 

$1  per  GB/year  of  user  storage 

$1  per  50  GB  processed 

$1  per  GB  uploaded/downloaded 

$1  for  every  4,000  user-published  web  service  requests 

In  case  you're  curious,  Alexa  has  a  long  history.  Now  owned  by  Amazon,  Alexa  was 
created  by  Bruce  Gilliat  and  Brewster  Kahle  (of  Internet  Archive  fame),  and  until  now 
has  been  both  famous  and  infamous  as  the  technology  behind  the  controversial  web 
traffic  and  website  statistics  "What's  Related"  toolbar  feature  in  both  Netscape  and 
Internet  Explorer.  The  new  AWSP  is  actually  integrated  into  Amazon's  web  services 
platform,  something  no  one  has  done  before.70 

Simply  stated,  Alexa/Amazon  are  "renting"  their  huge  database  ("data  store")  to  any 
and  all  takers  for  a  remarkably  reasonable  price  and,  what  is  more,  offering  detailed 

69  Alexa  Web  Search  Platform  User  Guide,  Introduction:  What  Can  I  Do  with  the  Platform? 

<hUD://  User  Guide.htm>  (17  January  2007). 

70  There  is  one  example  of  something  similar,  which  came  to  my  and  some  others'  minds.  If  you  are 
familiar  with  IBM's  WebFountain  and  its  proprietary  implementations  for  specific  customers,  you  may 
see  some  similarities.  WebFountain  also  spidered  the  web  and  then  let  IBM's  customers  run  queries 
against  that  data  set  in  more  sophisticated  ways  than  simple  querying  (something  akin  to 
datamining).  However,  the  problem  with  WebFountain  and  its  progeny  was  that  IBM  had  to  write  the 
programs,  and  thereby  hangs  a  tale  of  woe.  For  more,  I  recommend  Jeff  Dalton's  blog  entry  on  this 
topic  (I  think  he  nails  it).  Jeff  Dalton,  "Alexa  Web  Search  Platform:  IBM  WebFountain  2.0,"  Jeffs 
Search  Cafe,  <> 



DOCID:  4046925 


user  support  on  how  to  maximize  the  effectiveness  of  this  data  to  get  the  most  out  of 
it.  The  customer  is  empowered  to  write  his  own  program  to  run  against  the 
Alexa/Amazon  data,  download  the  results  (metadata),  and  even  create  his  own 
private  search  engine  on  their  platform.  Perhaps  I  am  wrong,  but  this  could  be  a 
huge  development,  perhaps  even  a  major  change  in  the  way  we  use  the  web. 

Amazon  Web  Services  Platform 04-1 30841 6-9976726?node=3435361& 

Alexa  Web  Search  Platform  (beta) 

Alexa  Web  Search  Platform  Users  Guide  User  Guide.htm 

More  Custom  Search  Sites 

There  are  other  sites  offering  customized  search  that  you  may  want  to  experiment 
with  to  find  one  that  best  suits  your  needs.  Search  expert  Phil  Bradley  reviews  some 
of  these  custom  search  sites  in  a  two-part  article  on 

"Search  Your  Own  Way,"  Part  I,  and  Part  2, html?page=3623482 

Eurekster's  Swicki  http ://swicki . eu re kster. com/ 


Fagan  Finder 

The  Fagan  Finder  site  has  been  a  boon  to  searchers  for  some  time  not  so  much 
because  of  its  basic  interface,  which  is  a  good  but  unexceptional  megasearch  tool, 
but  because  of  the  many  other  "useful  tools"  site  creator  Michael  Fagan  has  made 

Fagan  Finder  File  Format  Search 

Instead  of  having  to  visit  a  number  of  different  search  engines  to  search  for  files  in  a 
variety  of  formats,  users  can  now  go  to  the  Fagan  Finder  "search  by  File  Format" 
page,  which  is  still  in  beta  testing  but  appears  to  be  running  just  fine.  By  selecting  a 
specific  file  format,  e.g.,  Microsoft  PowerPoint,  Fagan  Finder  automatically  shows 



DOCID:  4046925 


which  of  the  search  engines  is  capable  of  searching  for  that  particular  type  of  file. 
Not  every  search  engine  on  the  list  searches  for  every  file  type. 

Also,  keep  in  mind  that  the  Fagan  Finder  file  type  search  for  XML  is  less  precise 
than  going  directly  to  Google  or  Yahoo  and  searching  by  filetype:  in  Google  and  by 
originurlextension:  in  Yahoo.  If  you  use  one  of  these  search  engines,  you  can 
specify  that  you  only  want  to  search  for,  say,  those  files  that  are  .rss  by  entering  the 
query  [filetype:rss]  or  [originurtextension:rss].  These  queries  will  return  only  those 
documents  in  RSS  format,  not  those  in  XML  or  RDF.  So  I  recommend  using  the 
Fagan  Finder  search  by  file  type  for  files  types  other  than  XML,  RSS,  or  RDF.. 

iFagarv  Fihder;>SearcHibv  Pile  Format  (betij 

File  Foitunt: 

UlAcioDe  Portable  Document  Format 
f  ijiS)Adobe  PostScript 
C  ^Microsoft  Excel 
<~  |F|  Microsoft  PowerPoint 
C  ^Microsoft  Word 
<**  Q  Microsoft  Works 
C  Q  Microsoft  Write 
C  ©Rich  Text  Format 
C  K  Corel  WordPerfect 


rfjg  Lotus  1-2-3 

<~  f$  Lotus  WordPro 

C     Star  Office 

C  g]  MacWrite 

<~  [§  Macromedia  Flash 

<"  U  Text 

C  caXML 

C  [gj  AutoCAD 

Senich  Engine 

f  Google  jnio 
c  Yahool 
r  Gigabiast 
c  Teoma 
("  Exaiead 
C  scirus 
C  sensls 

About  this  Tool 

This  tool  uses  enables  easy  access  to  searching  for  various  non-HTML  (standard  web  page)  file  formats.  Certain  documents  are  commonly  used  for  different 
purposes;  for  example  many  academic  papers  are  in  Adobe  Portable  Document  Format  Because  this  toot  makes  use  of  other  tools,  it  is  limited  by  their  functionality. 
Searching  in  Googje  for  XML  files,  for  example,  uses  the  file  extensions  xml.  rdf  and  rss;  which  means  that  not  all  XML  files  are  included,  and  some  non-XML  files 
may  be  included. 

File  Viewing 

Different  Be  formats  require  different  software  to  view  those  files.  Adobe  Portable  Document  Format,  for  instance,  requires  Adobe  R?adtf . 
Scirus  and  Sensis 

Scirus  is  a  search  engine  for  scientific  information;  it  includes  Adobe  Portable  Document  Format  files  in  addition  to  standard  web  pages.  It  is  powered  by  Fast 
Search  &  Transfer,  the  former  owner  of  the  AUthfcV/eb  search  engine.  Sensis  is  a  search  engine  which  has  both  "world"  and  "Australia"  options.  Restricting  by  file 
format  is  not  perfect  yet.  as  some  results  returned  may  not  be  of  the  requested  type. 

Fagan  Finder  Search  by  File  Type 


The  indefatigable  Michael  Fagan  also  introduced  a  beta  version  of  a  new  tool, 
URLinfo,  in  mid-2004.  URLinfo  fills  a  void  created  when  AlltheWeb  effectively  shut 
down  and  took  with  it  the  useful  "url  investigator."  While  Yahoo  now  offers  Site 
Explorer  and  Google  a  lame  version  [],  Fagan's  URLinfo  provides 
many  more  options  for  exploring  a  site.  As  with  everything  he  does,  Fagan  has  gone 
all  out  with  URLinfo,  almost  to  the  point  of  providing  too  many  options!  However,  he 
has  done  a  smart  thing  in  keeping  the  main  URLinfo  page  simple,  "hiding"  the  nearly 
85  investigative  tools  in  his  toolkit  behind  a  variety  of  tabs.  I  think  URLinfo  is 
important  and  valuable  enough  to  spend  time  looking  at  most  of  the  options  in  some 



DOCID:  4046925 


Here  is  a  snapshot  of  the  URLinfo  main  page. 

•FdaaNFif^ei^Se^l^bviFile  Format  (beta) 

File  Search  Engine 

^  ©Adobe  Portable  Oocument  Format  C  §§  Lotus  1-2-3  <?  Google  info 

<"  S  Adobe  PostScript  C  Q  Lotus  WordPro  C  Yahool 

C  *S]  Microsoft  Excel  C  fy>  star  Office  C  Gigablast 

C  ^Microsoft  PowerPoint  C     MacWrite  C  Teoma 

r  ^Microsoft  Word  C  g Macromedia  Flash  r  Exalead 

<~  0  Microsoft  Works  r  {£)  Text  C  Scirus 

"  3  Microsoft  Write  r  saXML  C  sensis 

r  Q  Rich  Text  Format  f"  ^AutoCAD 
r  R  Corel  WordPerfect 

About  this  Tool 

This  tool  uses  enables  easy  access  to  searching  for  various  non-HTML  (standard  web  page)  file  formats.  Certain  documents  are  commonly  used  for  different 
purposes;  for  example  many  academic  papers  are  in  Adobe  Portable  Document  Format.  Because  this  tool  makes  use  of  other  tools,  it  is  limited  by  their  functionality. 
Searching  in  Google  for  XML  files,  for  example,  uses  the  file  extensions  xml.  rdf,  and  rss;  which  means  that  not  all  XML  files  are  included,  and  some  non-XML-  files 
may  be  included. 

File  Viewing 

Different  file  formats  require  different  software  to  view  those  files.  Adobe  Portable  Document  Format,  for  instance,  requires  Adobe  kthder. 
Scirus  and  Sensis 

Scirus  is  a  search  engine  for  scientific  information-,  it  incfudes  Adobe  Portable  Document  Format  files  in  addition  to  siandard  web  pages.  It  is  powered  by  Fast 
Search  A  Transfer,  the  former  owner  of  the  AUtheWeb  search  engine  Sensis  is  a  search  engine  which  has  both  "world"  and  "Australia"  options.  Restricting  by  Ele 
format  is  not  perfect  yet.  as  some  results  returned  may  not  be  of  the  requested  type. 

Note  the  eleven  tabs  at  the  top,  behind  each  of  which  is  a  range  of  investigatory 
options.  For  help  using  URLinfo  simply  click  on  the  dark  blue  [info]  link  on  the  far 
right.  The  first  step  in  using  URLinfo  is  to  enter  a  url  (address)  in  the  search  box  at 
the  top  of  the  page.  Keep  in  mind  that  if  you  enter  a  url  in  the  search  box  and 
simply  hit  return,  you  will  be  taken  to  that  webpage,  not  to  information  about 

Entering  a  url  can  prove  to  be  more  problematic  than  you  might  think  because  not 
every  URLinfo  tool  can  handle  the  same  format.  For  example,  in  the  General  tab,  the 
one  most  users  are  likely  to  use  most  frequently,  you  will  get  very  different  results 
depending  on  the  type  of  url  entered.  For  basic  .com,  .org,  .net,  .info,  .biz,  and  .us 
domains,  Domain  Tools  is  great.  However,  for  any  other  top-level  domain,  you  must 
use  Global  Whois,  and  it  will  not  search  on  anything  but  first-level  domain  names. 
This  means  that  neither  Domain  Tools  nor  Global  Whois  can  look  up 
[].  Global  Whois,  however,  will  find  first-level  domains  such  as 
[].  This  does  not  mean  you  cannot  find  information  about 

Take  a  look  at  the  results  from  the  first  tab,  Alexa. 

As  you  can  see,  you  get  lots  of  data  about  the  Russian  Duma  website.  Note  that 
there  are  many  additional  useful  links  from  the  Alexa  page,  including  one  to  the 
Internet  Archive's  Wayback  machine. 



DOCID:  4046925 




Web  Search 

Web  Directory 
Get  Traffic  Details    t*p  500  -  mcv*.-s  &  st>  ju*™ 

Category:  T&P  >  World  >  Russian  >  CTp&Hbtn  riewoHbi  >  Eepona  >  Pora-ia  >  rocvAflpcTeo  >  ?SKOKAf>Te/ifcH*H  ena?Tb  >  rccv^apcT p eHHaa  flvMft 

ct>eflepanbHOro  CoSpoHMfl  fcfe  l/ 

Pocchmckom  <l>eflepa... 

OftpML^najibHufi  cepeep.  McTopwa  k  perflawewT 
TocyAapciBeHHOH  flyMbi,  HmJiopMai^iin  0  ee 
3aKOHOflaTe^bHofi  AeaTe^bHOCin.  £JenyTaTCKHH  Kopnyc. 
3aK0H0flaTe^bCTBO  PCD  HH<|)cipMau1Hfl  npecc-cjiy>K5bi. 

$  Overview 

$  Traflic  Details 
Relateti  Links 
<>  Sues  Unking  in 

Sponsored  Links 

Money  you  never  knew  you 
were  missing! 

f-'iee  Conyoo  Netpass 

Free  Access  to  the  Web's  Top 

Subscription  sites1 

Vorjt  AC  Here 

Traffic  Rank  for  gov  ru:  14.249 

Share  your  thoughts 

Write  a  icview  on 
Amazon  torn.. 

Jz-rnad  a  friend  about  this 

Quick  PicK 

People  who  visit  this  poge  aiso  visit: 

.  Akdi  ru/gd  >..v,v  ^-J-  mai-;  -  Site  info 

.  Prctterno  iu  ~ -r^'.it'1-,v,'.'iiK-.  n-  -  Site  info  12; 

.  Mmist  .vv-v.';r.-rt.n,.Sife info,=: 

•  Government  (jov  nJ  -^—-.yowi  r  n-.i.-~t      ru  -  Site  ini'o 

•  •    •*.•>:•.•  '.'•:•■} f ,1    -  Sito  info  <s 

•  Lithuania  •.->..,■  lm=i  i  -  Sit?  info 

.  Cabinet  of  Ministe  is  of  Ukiame  .v.-.-.v.i-nn.y-j.  JW  -  Site  info 

.  GwBrii'ji  Rom  '.■■/•>-  .■  ^  ir  -  Site  info 

.  Pnvpmmont  on"  1, .  Kin-r-.  rs*  r>      i<  -  Site  infn  =: 

The  Alexa  database  contains  site  statistics,  contact  information,  similar  pages,  and 

What  is  Alexa?  Many  things,  but  most  interesting  and  useful 
is  Alexa's  Site  Information: 

"Alexa  has  built  an  unparalleled  database  of  information  about 
sites  that  includes  statistics,  related  links  and  more.  All  of  this 
information  can  be  found  on  Alexa's  Site  Overview  pages, 
Traffic  Detail  pages  and  Related  Links  pages.  To  access  these 
pages,  simply  type  the  URL  of  any  site  into  the  Alexa  Search 

Alexa  Site  Information, 



DOCID:  4046925 


Fyan  Finder's  ITRLinfo  |hflp7/  viewpsge     deeu-  HD 

General |  |Links|  |Stnaiiar|  |Cachc|  | Search)  |Eloga/Fcedsl  [Translate]  [Trackl  [Fostj  [Develop]  |Mi8c| 

About  UKLuiio 

Alaa  Wiiois  Source  Global  Whois  SurfWax  Stumble  Upon  7Sgfch  roetaEUREKA  Furl  Giliea  Semantic  data  cKtractpr  FyterSearch  llniol 

Travel  Back  in  Time! 

Use  the  Wayback 
Machine  to  see  how 
r'ocyAapciBsm-iaa  /lyna 
CeflBpa/ibHOrD  Cof5paHnq 
^occuhckcm  ^e/jepa  .. 
looked  in  the  past. 

Track  Your  Website 

The  NEW  HitslJnk  tracks  even 
more  live  data  on  your 
visitors,  with  advanced 
keyword  analysis 


Tdke  A  Fret;  Trial 

Site  Slat:**  for  gov.m: 

♦  58.371  (*852) 

♦  Speed:  Very  Fast  (95%  of  sites  are  slower),  Avg  Load  Time:  .4  Seconds  (whet's  this?) 

♦  Other  sites  that  link  to  this  site:  172 

♦  Online  Since:  lO-Jul-1997 

Contact  Info  lor  gov.n.1: 

0  See  Traffic  Detail. 


+  7  D9S  2062B63,  Fax;  +7  09S  2067355 

User  Reviews  for 

Be  the  first  person  to  v-nte  a  review  of  this  site  on! 

Look  for  similar  sites  by  categor  y: 

♦  World  /  Pussiar,  /  dpaHbi  11  pernoHbi  /  Eepona  /  Poccnq  /'  TocyAapcTBo  /  ?aK0HQA<3Te.riDHafi  bfscto  / 
rocvA^pcTeeHHas  Ay^a 

•  World  /  Russian  /  CTpaub;  n  pernoHbi  /  EEpona  /  Poccn-q  /  rocyAapcieo 

Let's  look  at  a  different  url  for  the  SurfWax  results.  What  you  are  seeing  are 
"SurfWax  SiteSnaps™,  [which]  count  the  number  of  links,  images,  words,  and  forms 
on  a  page,  shows  the  meta  description  tag,  and  extracts  'key  points'  and 
'FocusWords.'"  This  is  a  very  useful  way  to  analyze  a  website  without  actually 
visiting  it,  though  the  amount  of  information  is  considerably  less  for  some  sites  than 
others,  cf., 

F.wm  Finder's  URLinfo  i  view  pegs     dear  §3  >;  Abx-ur  UPLinfo 

|General|  \hmk]  [sitnJarl  |clche]  |Search|  |BicgaTeeds|  |Trans)a:e|  [Track]  |Pogt]  |Devetop|  |M«c|  

Alexa  Whois  Source  Global  Whois  SuifWaK  S^^jeUi^?  75eaidi  rnctaEUREKA  rurt  Gibao  Saragl^tiata  cxtxactcr  F^oa-Seai-ch  fiiifol  

SurfWax  SiteSnaps  ™  cpjt.m  pending  [  H*i£  ] 

National  Library  of  Australia 

t±ip^#?<\v  a'Aii!>y..f!y 

Links.  32  ♦  Image s~20  ♦  Words.  303  *  Forms  0 

Author  Summary 

Our  collections  and  services  underpin  Australian  cultural  life  and  intellectual  pursuits.  We  are  the  preeminent  source  for  the  documentary  record  of  Australia  and  its  place  in 
the  world.  This  site  provides  access  to  our  catalogue  and  links  lo  other  information  resources,  details  of  our  collections  and  services,  upcoming  events  at  the  Library;  the  NLA 
Shop  and  information  on  our  initiatives  in  the  field  of  information  management. 
Site's  FocusWords 

^  flusttjlujn  Ltbi'nts  tjalw.-aj 

<V  oh  0410  6=7  684 

^  collection*  t-t  A'jriiiltJi  riatiMvil 

<V  ^mt-iM-i  <jtJlo3'.^f  >M'jitu1ijri  libiiiitif 

^  w»'o«'.ift  jn<t  pij^tirifcctf 

^  E*hlbltifrnt  CijplJiff  'phana  swtferr-  the  mjir. 

^  ■i-uiocs  iitocyES  p»t APISES  ^  rtctuitfevri'.»li» 

^'■HOME  C-IT^LOC-UE  t-S-K  <K    rUlf  and  li:»it<-ry  tit-rainy; 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  next  tab  is  a  link  to  Stumble  Upon,  a  collaborative  bookmarking  service.  If 
people  who  belong  to  the  service  have  recommended  a  site,  Stumble  Upon  will 
show  who  they  are,  any  comments,  the  category  it  is  in,  and  the  page  size.  The  tab 
for  7Search  brings  up  some  interesting  results,  including  the  website's  traffic  ranking 
(how  many  people  visit  it),  number  of  links  to  the  site,  link  popularity,  language,  area 
of  service,  contact  information,  Open  Directory  category,  and  "TrustGauge." 
TrustGauge  is  a  commercial  program  that  measures  how  "trustworthy"  a  site  is  in 
terms  of  such  things  as  the  amount  and  quality  of  contact  information,  secure  billing, 
third  party  validations  (e.g.,  Truste  seal),  and  what  people  think  of  the  site. 

Faaan  Favfei-'s  LTRLinfo  [h«p:/Aww.tateh.nei  viewpage     deer  El3  >,  About  TJPXiaft- 

GcficralljLinksl  1  Similar!  |Cache|  |Search|  |Blogs/Feeds|  [Transit  pTVack]  |Pogt|  |Develop|  |Misc|  

Atcxa  Whois  Source  Global  Whois  3urfWs«  Stumble  Upcn  /Search  mriaEXJREXA  Furl  D&icip.ijs  Oibco  Semantic  data  extractor  FybtrSearch  [infoj  

Seal  of  Approval  from  VandaterfSite.coro 

C.on-,r,-,  urocele  vh-fc  of  yo'jr  {>nlir,t,  t<JllCi*i \s,  bu;ld  fct-jrt  vttfc  y^Uf  ?it^ 
i'i£:tnrf .  sn.i  irnpravt  vour  c>ver?'l  image       ^MMrrcsr/  tin  truft  you! 

TrustGauge  Domain  Info  for  "' 


Patestmian  movement  (oortded  by  Yass&r  Arafat. 

Contact  Info  i  in  alio  n: 

Sits  InfDimatiDn: 
Laitguage:  N/A 
Are*  of  Service  n/a 

Sea  haw  usgd  10  look. . 

Wehmastei  lufoi motion 

Increase  yom  1  rnslGaiige13  Scoie! 
Add  yoin  website  infoim.ition  here 

OigatilZAtlon  Baling  Infoimatlon: 

Tr.tfflc  ronfchtg  imoiig  aO  sites: 

334,003  • 

RiithirtQ  in  its  category':  7 
provided  fit*  by  Rirktria.c&r| 


prouldtd  fi«t  by  J,MT£iHiflt.tCn 

LrnKs  pointing  to  this  stle:  '  .738 

Link  regularity  ranking:  70.776 

provided  fitt  by  LlnijT^'r'ou.ctini 

Ofgyn'uition  Reviews:  N/A 

WebSite  Reviews:  NfA 
Reviews  S  Con,pb§ntsnftV'!  r.tnk&  This  sit©  ?/  in  its  category: 
Clftso  | 

The  remainder  of  the  General  tab  links  are: 
meta  EUREKA 

metaEUREKA  shows  information  about  the  page  (last  modified  date,  page  size), 
meta  information  (description,  keywords,  author),  web  server  information,  and  the 
number  of  backlinks 


Furl  is  a  collaborative  bookmarking  system.  This  tool  allows  you  to  see  the 
comments  others  have  written  about  a  webpage.  is  a  collaborative  bookmarking  system.  This  tool  allows  you  to  see  the 
comments  others  have  written  about  a  webpage. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Gibeo  allows  anyone  to  annotate  any  part  of  a  web  page,  and  others  can 
comment  on  the  annotation.  Gibeo  requires  registration. 

Semantic  data  extractor 

The  Semantic  data  extractor  finds  information  about  a  page  (metadata,  page 
outline)  by  looking  at  its  HTML  code. 

The  next  tab  is  for  Links.  This  is  pretty  straightforward.  The  first  two  links  are  to 
Yahoo,  the  first  for  the  link:  command  (links  to  a  specific  page)  and  the  second  for 
the  Yahoo  Site  Explorer  or  alternately  linkdomain:  command  (links  to  a  website).  The 
next  is  the  Live  Search  (MSN)  link:  search,  and  then  the  Google  link:  command, 
which  no  longer  shows  all  links  as  it  once  did.  Gigablast  does  not  show  all  links  to  a 
page,  either. 

The  links  from  blogs  is  a  very  useful  service  because  it  lets  you  check  to  see  if  a 
website  is  mentioned  in  a  number  of  weblogs  very  quickly  (I  expect  Technorati  to 
give  the  best  results). 


Intelliseek's  Blog  search  (was  not  working  when  I  tried  it) 


Backlinks  from  blogs  known  to  Bloglines,  an  online  RSS/Atom  aggregator. 

Blogdex  is  defunct. 


Backlinks  from  blogs  known  to  the  Technorati  blog  indexer.  Each  result  is  shown 
with  an  extract  containing  the  link. 


Backlinks  from  blogs  known  to  the  Feedster  RSS/Atom  search  engine. 

Backlinks  from  blogs  known  to  the  BlogDigger  RSS/Atom  search  engine. 


Backlinks  from  blogs,  known  to  the  Waypath  blog  indexer,  each  is  listed  with  the 
date  that  the  link  was  first  seen  and  an  extract  from  the  page  Unlike  some  other 
backlinks  tools,  Waypath  lists  the  permalinks  rather  than  blog  home  pages. 


Backlinks  from  blogs  and  news  websites  known  to  the  Daypop  search  engine. 

BlogRolling  is  a  service  for  bloggers  to  include  blogrolls  (lists  of  blogs)  on  their 
own  blogs.  This  shows  what  users  include  the  given  site  on  their  blogroll. 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 



Backlinks  from  blogs  (as  well  as  the  date  of  linkage)  known  to  the  Popdex  blog 

The  Similar  tab  is  not  entirely  self-explanatory.  Alexa,  UCmore,  Furl,  and  Google  all 
try  to  show  related  or  similar  websites,  though  not  in  the  same  way.  Alexa  shows 
'people  who  visit  this  page  also  visit...';  UCmore  clusters  related  pages  by  topic; 
Furl  is  a  collaborative  bookmarking  tool,  so  it  only  shows  pages  bookmarked  by  the 
same  person  (of  dubious  use);  and  Google's  related  pages  is,  in  Fagan's  and  my 
opinion,  of  poor  quality.  Google  News  will  show  related  news  articles,  but  only  if  the 
original  article  has  been  indexed  by  Google  News.  The  Waypath  tool  looks  for  blog 
entries  about  a  website,  and  Waypath  is  showing  no  links  to 
and  two  hits  on  There  is  obviously  a  problem  with  this 
specific  search. 

The  Cache  tab  is  much  more  useful  at  this  time.  Fagan  has  done  us  all  the  great 
service  of  bringing  the  search  tools  that  cache  webpages  together  so  they  can  be 
searched  from  one  convenient  interface.  Also,  URLinfo  makes  it  possible  to  see 
Google's  cached  pages  without  images,  style  sheets,  or  forms  with  Google 
(plain).  Openfind  is  an  Asian  search  engine  and  does  not  yet  have  an  English 
version.  I  was  unable  to  figure  out  how  their  caching  works  because  of  the  language 
barrier.  For  news  and  blogs  Daypop  caches  each  page  it  crawls.  "Its  cache  is  often 
the  most  up-to-date  copy  of  the  page,  and  it  shows  the  exact  time  that  the  copy  was 

Here's  the  low-down  on  the  other  general  cache  tools  at  Fagan  Finder: 
Internet  Archive 

The  Internet  Archive  has  been  crawling  the  web  and  caching  pages  since  1996. 
The  Wayback  Machine  allows  you  to  view  the  copies  made  during  any  of  those 
crawls,  and  also  to  compare  any  two  versions  of  the  same  page. 


When  Google  crawls  the  web,  it  stores  a  copy  of  each  web  page.  This  is  the 
most  recent  copy.  This  can  also  be  used  as  a  means  of  viewing  some  non-HTML 
files  converted  to  HTML. 

Google  (plain) 

Google's  stripped  cache,  with  images,  styles  (style  sheets),  and  forms  removed. 

Gigablast  does  not  provide  direct  access  to  its  cache.  You  must  follow  the  link 
labeled  [archived  copy].  Gigablast's  cache  shows  the  date  on  which  the  copy 
was  made. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Openfind  is  an  Asian  search  engine;  their  English  version  is  under  construction. 


Spurl  is  a  collaborative  online  bookmarking  tool.  Whenever  someone  using  Spurl 
bookmarks  a  page,  a  cached  copy  is  stored.  So  Spurl  may  contain  many  different 
copies  of  the  same  page  on  different  dates  and  times,  which  can  be  accessed 
from  a  selection  box  at  the  top  of  any  Spurl  cached  page. 


This  is  the  cached  version  of  a  web  page  from  when  it  was  last  crawled  by 
IncyWincy.  That  date  is  shown  at  the  top  of  the  page. 

Scrub  The  Web 

Cached  version  of  the  page  from  the  Scrub  The  web  search  engine. 


Cached  version  of  the  page  from  the  Ay-Up  search  engine. 
Objects  Search 

Cached  version  of  the  page  from  the  Objects  Search  engine.  Objects  Search  has 
a  small  index,  so  don't  expected  every  page  to  be  cached.  After  using  this  tool, 
follow  the  link  below  the  page  you  want  labeled  'cached.' 


This  is  the  cached  version  of  a  web  page  from  when  it  was  last  crawled  by 
SearchSpider.  Most  pages  appear  to  have  been  last  cached  during  July  2003. 

The  Search  section  is  pretty  much  self-explanatory,  except  that  MSN  searches  Live 
and  Teoma  searches  Ask.  Fagan  explains  the  Bloqs/Feeds  tab  very  well  for  those 
who  are  interested  in  searching  weblogs  and  RSS  or  Atom  news  feeds.  The 
Translate  tab  simply  sends  your  request  to  Fagan  Finder's  superb  Translation 
Wizard  discussed  in  the  online  dictionary  and  translators'  section.  The  Track  and 
Post  tabs  are  in  general  not  going  to  be  useful  for  most  of  you  in  your  work 
environment.  The  Develop  tab  offers  an  excellent  selection  of  web  authoring 
resources  such  as  validation,  editing,  spelling,  cacheability,  and  keyword  analysis 
tools.  One  tool  users  may  not  recognize  and  which  could  prove  quite  useful  is 
Traffic  from  Alexa.  Here's  Fagan's  description: 

'Shows  a  (logarithmic)  graph  of  a  website's  (not  a  web  page)  popularity  over 
time,  as  determined  by  Alexa.  Alexa  gathers  this  data  from  users  of  their  toolbar. 
The  six-month  graph  is  shown  by  default.  You  can  also  use  this  tool  to  compare 
the  popularity  of  a  second  website.  Also  shown  are  popular  subdomains,  reach 
per  million  users,  average  page  views  per  user,  etc.' 

I  find  the  graphic  representation  is  so  much  clearer  than  the  results  from  a  tool  such 
as  Google  PageRank  (which  is  not  a  Google  product,  by  the  way).  Traffic  also  lets 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCi_AssiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  uoc  only 

users  compare  two  sites  and  shows  you  "Where  do  people  go"  on  the  site.  It's  a  gold 
mine  of  data  about  the  sites  in  Alexa's  top  100,000;  unfortunately,  most  of  the  sites  I 
wanted  to  research  were  not  in  that  top  group,  so  no  statistics  were  available  when  a 
site  fell  below  the  100,000  threshold. 

In  case  the  Google  PageRank  tool  confuses  you,  it  normally  requires  users  to 
download  and  install  the  Google  Toolbar.  However,  you  can  access  the  Google 
PageRank  option  from  URLinfo  without  the  Google  Toolbar.  The  results  look  rather 
mysterious,  but  the  PageRank  is  there.  In  the  following  example,  AOL's  home  page 
has  a  page  rank  of  8  (where  10  is  the  highest... and  Google  gets  a  10  ranking,  by  the 
PR  Toolbar:  9 
PR  Actual:  9 

Finally,  under  Misc  you'll  find  the  tools  that  didn*t  quite  fit  anywhere  else.  One  word 
of  caution  about  BugMeNot:  this  is  a  service  for  sharing  login  information  for 
websites  that  require  user  registration  and,  as  such,  its  ethics  is  questionable.  I  do 
not  recommend  using  it.  It  may  also  violate  organizational  Internet  usage  rules. 

I  think  URLinfo  will  prove  to  be  a  very  useful  if  not  indispensable  tool  for  researchers, 
but  I  also  think  the  key  to  using  it  effectively  is  not  using  every  bell  and  whistle. 

Fagan  Finder's  URLinfo  beta 



The  2007  edition  is  the  first  to  include  a  separate  section  on  and  discussion  of 
Wikipedia  and  the  entire  "wiki"  phenomenon.  The  extraordinary  growth  and  success 
of  Wikipedia  demand  recognition  and  comment.  Although  the  numbers  change 
constantly,  in  mid-2006,  Wikipedia  sites  were  the  twelfth  most  visited  Internet  sites 
among  US  properties,  up  over  300  percent  from  the  previous  year.71  On  March  1, 
2006,  Wikipedia  reached  one  million  articles,  and  "the  site  receives  as  many  as 

71  Safa  Rashtchy,  et  al.,  "Silk  Road:  Solid  Search  Results  Could  Boost  the  Sector,"  PiperJaffray 
Industry  Note,  10  July  2006,  available  at  John  Battelle's  Searchblog, 

<httD://>  [PDF]  (14 
November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


fourteen  thousand  hits  per  second."72  Just  what  is  the  Wikipedia  itself  and  the  wiki 
concept  in  general  that  have  led  to  a  level  of  success  that  is  nothing  short  of 
astounding?  For  an  excellent  overview,  I  turn  to  my  colleague  Diane  White's  article 
from  an  internal  publication  many  of  you  read,  The  Worthwhile  Web.  In  the  May 
2006  edition,  Diane  wrote: 

"In  true  Ouroborosian  fashion,  the  Wikipedia  defines  itself  as  a  'multilingual  Web- 
based  free-content  encyclopedia... written  collaboratively  by  volunteers,  allowing 
most  articles  to  be  changed  by  anyone  with  access  to  a  web  browser  and  an  Internet 
connection.'  It  exists  as  a  wiki,  which  again  Wikipedia  self-defines  as  'a  type  of 
website  that  allows  anyone  visiting  the  site  to  add,  remove  or  otherwise  edit  all 
content  very  quickly  and  easily,  often  without  the  need  for  registration.'  Truly 
collaboration  to  the  extreme,  wikis  are  the  latest  trend  in  open-ended  community 
involvement  and  public  debate.  But  it  also  conjures  fears  of  authority  and  validity  run 
amok,  and  general  mischief  and  vandalism.  Wikis  are  popping  up  everywhere;  but 
just  what  are  they,  and  how  did  they  become  so  ubiquitous?  More  to  the  point,  can 
they  be  trusted,  or  are  they  just  the  work  of  a  few  people  with  big  egos  and  lots  of 
time?... The  term  wiki  is  a  shortened  form  of  the  Hawaiian  language  term  wiki  wiki, 
which  is  commonly  used  as  an  adjective  to  denote  something  quick  or  fast.  It  is  also 
sometimes  interpreted  as  the  backronym  for  What  I  Know  Is.  The  invention  of  the 
wiki  is  credited  to  Ward  Cunningham,  author  of  the  book,  The  Wiki  Way  (Addison- 
Wesley  Longman,  March  2001,  ISBN  0-201 -71 499-X).  The  first  wiki,  WikiWikiWeb, 
was  created  in  1994  and  installed  on  the  web  by  Cunningham  in  1995.73 

"Once  begun,  almost  anyone  can  edit  a  wiki,  often  without  actually  registering  to  do 
so.  Wikis  can  be  on  any  subject,  on  every  subject,  and  in  multiple  languages.  The 
most  famous  wiki,  Wikipedia,  was  begun  in  2001,  initially  as  part  of  a  broader,  peer- 
reviewed  project  and  later  as  a  stand-alone,  'neutral  point  of  view'  product.  Guided 
from  the  beginning  by  Larry  Sanger  and  Jimmy  Wales,  today  it  is  available  in  over 
100  languages,  with  over  1  million  articles  in  the  English  edition  alone... 

"Questions  of  Validity  and  Reliability 

"But  can  Wikis  be  trusted?  From  almost  the  beginning,  people  have  questioned  the 
wiki's  seemingly  radical  departure  from  traditional  methods  of  scholarship;  that  is, 
the  use  of  a  community  of  interested  parties  instead  of  the  work  of  appointed 
experts.  In  the  December  2005  issue  of  Nature,  there  began  a  major  debate  over 
which  site  was  more  'right,'  Wikipedia  or  the  fee-based  ($85/year)  Britannica  Online; 
with  the  conclusion  being  that  'Wikipedia  comes  close  to  Britannica  in  terms  of  the 

72  Stacy  Shiff,  "Can  Wikipedia  Conquer  Expertise?"  The  New  Yorker,  24  July  2006, 
<  fact>  (14  November  2006). 

73  "Wikipedia,"  Wikipedia:  The  Free  Encyclopedia,  <  >  (23 
August  2006). 


DOCID:  4046925 


accuracy  of  its  science  entries.  From  there  it  has  escalated,  with  refutations  and 
calls  for  retraction  from  Encylopaedia  Britannica  and  heated  responses  from  Nature. 
Wikipedia  itself  has  steered  clear  of  this  particular  fray;  however,  it  does  attempt  to 
respond  to  criticism  and  has  a  page  on  its  site  for  common  criticisms.  It  also 
addresses  issues  such  as  copyright,  vandalism,  and  authorship. 

"So  what's  the  bottom  line?  The  same  as  it's  always  been.  When  performing 
thorough  research,  be  it  Internet-based  or  otherwise,  the  onus  is  always  on  the 
researcher  to  check  sources,  validity,  and  authority.  The  speed  and  relative  ease  at 
which  changes  can  be  made  to  a  wiki,  while  good  for  consensus  correction  and 
corroboration,  are  not  so  good  for  measured  and  thoughtful  debate.  A  number  of 
articles  in  Wikipedia  are  sourced,  but  many  are  not,  and  just  because  it's  on  the 
Internet,  does  not  mean  it  is  true.  In  addition,  merely  because  it's  free  does  not 
mean  Wikipedia  is  more  suspect  and  Britannica  is  more  reliable.  There  is  an 
argument  to  be  made  for  being  so  passionate  about  a  topic  that  you  feel  the  need  to 
share  that  passion  with  the  world.  But  one  man's  passion  is  also  another's  conceit. 
There  is  a  counter  to  every  argument,  a  rebuttal  to  every  claim. 

"Like  it  or  not,  wikis  and  wiki  behaviors  have  entered  the  mainstream,  just  like  blogs 
and  MySpace  and  the  iPod.  Love  it  or  hate  it,  if  you  are  involved  in  open  source 
research  you  need  to  know  about  wikis."75 

The  Wikipedia  Itself:  The  Good,  the  Bad,  and  the  Dubious 

As  Diane  White  clearly  indicates,  there  are  many,  many  wikis  now  available  on  the 
Internet,  and  their  numbers  continue  to  increase  at  present.  I  want  to  focus  on 
Wikipedia  itself  because  it  remains  the  center  of  the  wiki  universe  and  thus  far 
shows  no  signs  of  decline.  Many  Wikipedia  critics  mourn  the  decline  of  traditional 
encyclopedias  because  they  are  thinking  of  an  encyclopedia  such  as  Britannica  in  its 
current  form,  that  is,  "the  most  authoritative  source  of... information  and  ideas,"  the 
"definitive  source  of  knowledge."76  According  to  Tom  Panelas,  Britannica's  Director 
of  Corporate  Communications,  "We  can't  cover  as  many  things  as  they  [Wikipedia] 
do  but  we  wouldn't  even  try  to.  What  they  do  is  very  different  from  what  we  do.  We 
don't  have  an  article  on  extreme  ironing,  and  we  shouldn't."77 

74  Jim  Giles,  "Internet  Encyclopaedias  Go  Head  to  Head,"  Nature,  14  December  2005  (last  updated 
28  March  2006),  <>  (14  November 

75  Diane  White,  "Wikis  and  the  Wikipedia,"  The  Worthwhile  Web,  May  2006, 

76  Paula  Berinstein,  "Wikipedia  and  Britannica:  The  Kids  Are  All  Right  (And  So's  the  Old  Man)," 
Information  Today,  March  2006,  <>  (11 
September  2006). 

77  Berinstein. 



DOCID:  4046925 


However,  Britannica  today  (and  by  extension  any  other  encyclopedia)  is  very 
different  from  Britannicas  of  the  past.  In  thinking  about  this  controversy,  I  was 
reminded  of  a  passage  in  The  Fatal  Shore,  Robert  Hughes'  masterpiece  about  the 
founding  of  modern  Australia.  Hughes  writes  about  one  transported  convict,  Thomas 
Palmer,  who  finished  his  sentence  and  went  into  business  with  his  close  friend  John 
Boston.78  Neither  man  had  much  business  experience,  "but  they  possessed  a 
singular  advantage:  the  only  encyclopedia  in  the  colony.  With  it,  they  taught 
themselves  to  make  beer.  Then  they  learned  how  to  make  soap.  Next  they  looked 
up  'ship'  and,  after  some  trial  and  error,  contrived  to  build  a  somewhat  cranky  but 
adequate  small  vessel  for  trading  stores  to  Norfolk  Island."  [emphasis  added]79  Their 
lone  encyclopedia  probably  made  it  possible  for  these  men  not  merely  to  survive  but 
to  thrive  in  this  perilous  new  world. 

The  modern  encyclopedia  is  very  different  from  the  encyclopedias  of  earlier 
centuries,  which  bear  rather  more  resemblance  to  the  Wikipedia  than  to  the  current 
Britannica  in  that  the  older  encyclopedias  were  not  only  "sources  of  knowledge"  but 
also  "practical"  how-to  guides  and  almanacs.  In  other  ways,  however,  encyclopedias 
are  and  always  were  quite  different  from  the  Wikipedia.  They  have  always  relied 
upon  paid  experts  whose  work  is  reviewed  and  edited.  And  they  have  always  been 
for-profit  enterprises. 

Wikipedia  relies  almost  entirely  upon  individual  users  to  create,  edit,  maintain,  and 
often  argue  about  its  entries.  It  is  free  and  carries  no  advertising;  it  is  a  nonprofit  and 
has  a  tiny  staff. 

>  For  practical  purposes,  Wikipedia  has  no  physical  limits:  it  could  conceivably 
continue  to  expand  indefinitely,  something  no  print  encyclopedia  could  ever 

>  Its  content  is  "open,"  that  is,  almost  any  topic  can  be  included]  traditional 
encyclopedias  generally  do  not  include  "how-to"  instructions  ("How  to  draw  a 
diagram  with  Microsoft  Word"),  new  or  transient  popular  culture  ("24:  The  TV 
Series"),  or  breaking  stories  ("JonBenet  Ramsey"). 

>  Wikipedia's  heavy  emphasis  on  current  events  and  popular  culture  bespeak  a 
prejudice  of  the  present  at  the  expense  of  the  important:  it  favors  the 
fashionable  over  the  important. 

78ln  what  must  be  one  of  the  most  profound  examples  of  friendship  since  Damon  and  Pythias,  Boston 
actually  traveled  voluntarily  with  his  wife  to  New  South  Wales  to  "keep  Palmer  company."  Anyone 
who  has  read  about  a  sea  voyage  from  England  to  Australia  at  that  time  knows  the  trip  in  and  of  itself 
was  a  major  sacrifice.  Robert  Hughes,  The  Fatal  Shore  (New  York:  Vintage  Books,  1988),  180. 

79  Hughes,  180. 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Wikipedias  are  available  in  229  languages.  These  are  not  always  just 
translations  of  the  English  language  Wikipedia  but  often  contain  their  own 

>  Wikipedia's  eight-word  self-description — "neutral  and  unbiased  compilation  of 
previously  written,  verifiable  facts" — usually  keeps  out  articles  about  "my 
funniest  dreams  and  what  they  mean"  (no  original  "research"  allowed),  but 
firefights  over  controversial  topics  and  outright  vandalism  occur  on  a  regular 

>  In  2006  comedian  Steven  Colbert's  amusing  rant  against  "wikiality"  and 
"truthiness,"  i.e.,  that  reality  and  truth  are  what  the  most  people  say  they  are, 
and  his  charge  to  his  viewers  to  change  a  Wikipedia  article  on  African 
elephants  caused  the  entire  site  to  go  down  temporarily.  His  point  is  well 
taken:  if  enough  Wikipedians  agree  that  the  earth  is  flat,  then  the  Wikipedia 
will  reflect  that  "wikiality."  While  that  is  an  absurd  example,  people  vehemently 
(and  often  violently)  disagree  over  the  most  basic  topics  (try  to  think  of 
anything  that  isn't  controversial). 

>  Wikipedia  "does  not  favor  the  Ph.D.  over  the  well-read  fifteen  year  old."80 
While  the  democratization  of  knowledge  and  information  has  a  certain  appeal, 
the  fact  that  Wikipedia  pages  dealing  with  policies,  rules,  administration, 
coordination,  and  other  metadata  now  comprise  thirty  percent  of  Wikipedia 
indicates  that  the  free-for-all  nature  of  Wikipedia  is  giving  ground  to  the  harsh 
reality  of  the  need  for  "crowd  control."  There  is  a  fine  line  between  democracy 
and  mob  rule. 

>  There  is  no  "weighting"  of  the  relative  significance  of  any  topic:  compare  the 
Wikipedia  entries  on  the  Beatles  v.  Boethius.  Judged  by  sheer  quantity, 
articles  on  popular  culture  far  exceed  those  of  traditional  scholarly  topics. 
Given  its  potentially  limitless  size,  this  may  not  be  a  drawback,  but  if 
everything  from  "The  Simpsons"  to  "The  Nicomachean  Ethics"  is  on  an  equal 
footing,  then  aren't  we  back  to  the  Colbert  criticism  that  all  objective 
standards  are  obliterated? 

>  Diane  White  correctly  identified  Wikipedia's  "ouroborosian"  nature:  it  is  fiercely 
self-referential  in  that  all  the  works  cited  in  this  creature  of  the  Internet  are 
also  on  the  Internet. 

>  Some  critics  maintain  that  emergent  enterprises  such  as  Wikipedia  reflect  an 
"online  collectivism"  that  lead  to  a  kind  of  group  think  and  produce  poor 
quality  results  that  both  appeal  to  and  are  a  product  of  the  lowest  common 

Shiff.  "Can  Wikipedia  Conquer  Expertise?" 



DOCID:  4046925 


denominator.  For  more  on  this  topic,  read  Jaron  Lanier's  now  famous  think 
piece  "Digital  Maoism"  and  the  many  responses  to  it  on 

>  Finally,  Wikipedia  has  no  editorial  quality  review.  Traditional  encyclopedias  do 
not  guarantee  zero  mistakes;  what  they  do  promise  are  "strong  scholarship, 
sound  judgment,  and  disciplined  editorial  review."82 

All  this  being  said,  nothing  is  going  to  stop  people  from  using  Wikipedia  as  a 
reference,  in  many  cases,  their  primary  source  for  information.  Some  search 
engines — for  example,  Ask — now  proudly  display  Wikipedia  responses  at  the  top  of 
the  results  list.  Most  will  return  Wikipedia  links  near  the  top.  The  best  advice  I  can 
give  you  vis-a-vis  Wikipedia  and  related  community  generated  resources  is  as 

>  Use  multiple  sources:  Do  not  as  a  rule  rely  on  Wikipedia  as  your  sole 
reference  or  source  of  information.  Any  Wikipedia  entry  that  is  not  well 
sourced  should  raise  a  red  flag. 

>  Trust  but  Verify:  Look  for  verification  of  Wikipedia  information  from  sources 
such  as  traditional  references  that  have  been  through  editorial  review: 
encyclopedias,  dictionaries,  scholarly  (peer-reviewed)  publications,  university 
websites,  books,  etc. 

>  Follow  those  links:  The  best  thing  about  Wikipedia  in  my  opinion  are  the 
external  links  from  entries;  with  the  virtual  demise  of  web  directories, 
Wikipedia  fills  that  void  by  supplying  excellent  links  to  what  are  often  the  best 
websites  on  a  topic. 

>  Be  skeptical:  The  more  controversial  the  topic,  the  more  skepticism  you  need 
to  apply  to  the  Wikipedia  entry.  For  example,  the  article  "Asteroid"  is  quite  well 
done,  but  there  isn't  quite  the  controversy  about  that  topic  that  there  is  about, 
say,  Hezbollah,  an  article  that  was  locked  because  of  vandalism. 

Wikipedia  has  an  internal  search  option,  but  as  any  Wikipedia  user  knows,  it  is  not 
the  best  way  to  search  Wikipedia.  First,  unlike  virtually  every  search  engine  on  the 
web,  its  default  is  OR  not  AND,  meaning  it  searches  for  ANY  of  the  terms  you  enter. 
To  search  Wikipedia  content  you  are  better  off  using  a  separate  search  engine, 
either  one  of  the  major  search  engines  or  a  specialty  search  tool  designed  to  search 

Jaron  Lanier,  "Digital  Maoism,",  June  2006, 
<  culture/lanier06/lanier06  index.html>  (14  November  2006). 


"Britannica  Rips  Nature  Magazine  on  Accuracy  Study,"  Encyclopedia  Britannica  Corporate 
Website,  24  March  2006,  <>  (14  November 



DOCID:  4046925 


How  to  Check  Links  from  Wikipedia 

Wikipedia  has  a  special  page  that  lets  users  easily  check  to  see  which  Wikipedia 
pages  have  links  to  a  specific  webpage.  It  even  includes  a  wildcard  function.  Here's 
how  it  works.  You  can  search  for  a  specific  link  or  a  very  general  one.  Here  are 
examples  of  both,  starting  with  a  general  search  using  a  wildcard  [*.]: 


Search  web  links 

Awldc&fd  may  be  u«d,  at  The  51311  of  the  namt>  only,  fo<  e>:3jrurf&  ".rtVkipedia  org". 
|".''0.$agov   *  Search  | 

Showing  bplaw  up  to  50  results  starting  with  #1. 
view  (jmww*  5$ J  (2Q I  <:0  J IQC I  m  I 

2  h;lM  .''si^.i  qq  ■  ^  luirced  from  Us<?'  ia!k  kWlXQ 

3  !icif)..'.v..Vf  ^i?linJ(«i3  from  Ai-f  naff ircei^Qi 

4  VtfJr«         ,j>--        >•  i>^s«  3«>».    linked  (rent  Walta;*  fj-ghl  facility 

5  h'iji  /.•vvw  j".';  ; ■.  :.>:v  rrcsa  tpui-<--zy'^ Xf>: r. c  '■ : jpyc^ ixrfced  from  Image  KhMiorkl  jpy 

6  hup  ''V/'-Vor'.'.-  :•  -vf  r^-;a  cjtK. J. i,  tjur'  j  i i i-'tP links c  ftero  V/alfaps  FFsght  Facility 

7  t;'!p  -'A-v^v  •-,«-•  -j fjfAv'^-.frsfrii  reoter^n.i J"- / i^f*vy  j'i-j    linked  frwn imaai?  langley  research  cert  jMjpg 

8  kip        ;>;-,.;  uOHjifM9^u^?«j«'  ium:?  finked  from  R-sfcofi  T  Jones 

9  h'.ii:  ;;v)KM  in-  4  n  .j^puj-V-  te:'/:  ittv:  l£  fated  tan  Talk  G^Ulai  ttai* 

10  f<rm  /.•fjiw?  n  ic  i  'j-v^pft«1'ip-''/l'  H  /  i>'r<)y  linked  from  Con?  ugbula 

1 1  -v^orj.r.vV  5     ■/npod.'  jf -^CSI I  r^r-)^  linked  from  Hrpio  siir  sysiem 

12  i=*lt'  /■"Hjiijd  :r.j;  i  y  '^o&jr^X".?':  \>U      Imked  from  Trip!*  star  system 
t3  h:tp  //.^p-.>c!  r.-i^  t^^o-I-i^;^.'  :  I  v.  ltimid*  fccked  from  Talk'Mrttnda  (mwr.) 
M  hup  '.-riivd  r:K3  5:  -Mp«j  j-5??8C  ■  26     la1  fcr.ked  from  To!k.Afi!3!C& 

15  h'trj  /^[.oti  r-^H  'jv.v'<»7;odf3;'.3oCrC2  hu<  It?  linked  from  Bys-t  Cluster 

16  hap-/;*|.pj  nn  pr--'ivcou    ::'r..\iwk-tnv. _ _o  html  3  finked  from      Operating  bud<j« 

17  h:ip  /^}jpU  i,.,.*  :.--d^/'^„tVJ\>!fiivn.'^.':'.4t:i.iit      linked  ft  om  Gary  A  Klein 

18  h'fi;         n.i"-  ?     ^'-^  Inked  from  C>uds  arid  I  he  Csith's  Raiianl  Ensr^y  Sysiem 

19  h:ijr<,'o^!.irt  n^r.-i  ^jn  blinked  from  A^jj^-jlFihle) 

20  h:ff>  ^<i,|:^  nd. 

21  i^ip/..^v,; 

'"v?  linked  frotri  Irnajje  Dry£ja!$k».;r..o 

,0  ^r;8-  vi.'.t"i'.|riio     ..ftf!!'-i.i  nripr^  linked  from  Aff^nce d  Miauwaye  Scunding  Unit 

22  hutv^.^ir  ;rT  m 1 1  ? ' .V^ronsu' : :        l.tC  J  hrrr-131  Irnked  from  ImaQ^SikoisNy  K-wrn^,  diagona*  ^ewjpg 

MiA-t  \i-:.-«c.M^w  -  '^5 i tO  h1n-!5  bnUd  fiom  S^nky  E:'^ck  Hawk 
NV|j.-(rjo«.'A-:irob!--.  -^/A'X^i^  him! blinked  from  lm^§  Lan?     af?  ?SCpix  jpo 

:j'AaFoU!c';  ^/^630-!37  i.h;mt  ^  linked  firom  Earth  flag 
»;1  ..^«;..'.''..uJi>t..'-j  ..Vri'^Dis?  ».:;.'•! i?  linked  iVorn  Esith  flaq 

Irk:        y:  nv 


25  h'lti  fi.i: 
25  h'.lu       i.,  if-;. 

Search  Web  Links  at  Wikipedia 

http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=Special%3ALinksearch 

There  are  literally  hundreds  of  results  for  this  query.  However,  you  can  limit  your 
search  to  a  specific  page  [],  which  in  this  case 
returns  one  result: 


uNCLASsiFiEP//rorc  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


special  page 

You  can  support  Wikipedia  and  the  Wikimedia  Foundation 

\  Search  web  links 

WiKlPliDlA         '    From  Wikipedia,  Uie  free  encyclopedia 
The  I'viie  BuydhpedU 

navigation  _  A  wildcard  may  be  used,  at  the  start  of  the  name  only,  for  example  "*.  wikipedia.  org", 

o  Main  Page 
h  Community  Portal 

\  Search 

a  Featured  content  ,  j    Showing  below  up  to  1  results  starting  with  #1. 

a  Current  events  i  \    View  (previous  50)  (next  50)  (20  |  50  |  100  |  250  |  500), 

&  Recent  changes 
a  Random  article 

1.  httpr/Jleonid.  linked  from  Leonids 

a  Help  \    View  (previous  5D)  (next  50)  (20  |  50  |  100  |  250  |  500). 

This  is  a  very  useful  tool  if  you  need  to  find  out  what  pages  in  Wikipedia  link  to  a 
specific  site.  Be  sure  to  follow  these  basic  rules  for  using  this  feature: 

1 .  a  full  domain  name,  e.g.,  []  (this  will  only  find  links  to  this 
specific  domain)  OR 

2.  a  partial  domain  name  with  a  wildcard,  e.g.,  [*.]  (this  will  find  links  to 
any  site  at,  such  as  OR 

3.  a  full  domain  name  plus  directory  and/or  webpage,  e.g., 
[]  (this  will  find  links  only  to  this  specific 

Some  Wikipedias  other  than  the  English  language  version  have  a  similar  page.  For 
example,  the  German  language  Wikipedia  link  search  page  is: 

If  you  use  the  English  Wikipedia  link  below  and  substitute  the  appropriate  language 
digraph  for  the  "en,"  you  can  find  these  non-English  language  link  search  pages. 
See  this  page  <  of  Wikipedias>  for  all  the 
Wikipedias  and  the  appropriate  digraph. 

Search  English  Wikipedia  Web  Links 

http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.  php?title=Special%3ALinksearch 

Wiki  Search  Engines 

FUTEF  (Beta) 

FUTEF,  which  uses  is  own  proprietary  search  engine,  provides  both  a  list  of 
relevant  articles  but  also  a  list  of  related  categories  that  can  be  used  to  further 
refine  a  search.  FUTEF  handles  non-Latin  searches,  something  not  every 
Wikipedia  search  engine  can  do.  Try  a  search  on  Ipupvn  and  you  will  see  that 
FUTEF  finds  this  term  in  the  English  language  Wikipedia. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Qwika  indexes  English,  German,  French,  Japanese,  Italian,  Dutch,  Portuguese, 
Spanish,  Greek,  Korean,  Chinese  and  Russian  wikis;  the  original  content  is 
combined  with  machine  translated  content  to/from  English.  However,  when 
searching  for  a  non-Latin  term  Qwika  will  only  find  that  term  in  the  international 
Wikipedia  not  the  English  language  Wikipedia  even  if  it  is,  e.g.,  Ipupvr|. 


LuMirX  uses  AJAX  technology  and  searches  English,  German,  Japanese, 
French,  Polish,  Italian,  Swedish,  Dutch,  Portuguese,  Russian,  Danish,  Spanish, 
Finnish,  Norwegian,  Hungarian,  Turkish,  and  Chinese  Wikipedias.  However, 
when  searching  for  a  non-Latin  term  LuMriX  will  only  find  that  term  in  the 
international  Wikipedia  not  the  English  language  Wikipedia  even  if  it  is  there,  e.g., 

Clusty's  Wikipedia  Search  (English  only) 
One  of  the  best  Wikipedia  search 
Clusty  not  only  searches  the 


Wikipedia,  it  clusters  the  results  into  easy  to  understand  categories  that  make  it 
possible  to  zero  in  on  the  appropriate  subtopic.  Its  main  drawback  is  that  the 
search  is  limited  to  the  English-language  Wikipedia. 

Web+  |  News  j  images  j  Shopping  j  Wikipedia  [  Biogs  j  Jobs  |  Customize! 


CIuilM  bif:  |  Topics 
All  Results  (200) 
Pni.iUel  Uvea  (36) 
CTntnlitis  (2) 
Alexaiidoi  (25) 
Lenei-  Moi.iH.i  (5) 
PluMich  ci.itei  (3) 

Sitoiijj]  (1  2) 
Hmti.i  Poini'ilms  (1 0) 
.  Meie.  Expl.ilns  (5) 
Ponmey.  M<ik»s(6) 
more  |  all  clusters 

.Cluster  | 

Top  200  results  of  al  (east  568  retrieved  for  Ihe  query  plimrcli  [Details) 

i.  Plutarch  ©  * 

Mestrius  Plulaichus  (cz  46-ca.  post  127)  was  a  Giaek  historian,  biographer,  and  essayist.  Born  in 
Ihe  small  town  of  Chaeionea,  in  trie  Greek  region  known  as  Boeotia.  probably  during  Ihe  iftign  of  the 
Roman  Emperor  Claudius.  Plularch  travelled  widely  in  the  Mediterranean  world,  including  twice  to 
Rome.  He  had  a  number  of  influential  Roman  friends,  including  Soscius  Senecio  and  Fundanus,  both 
important  Senators,  to  whom  some  of  his  later  writings  were  dedicated.  He  lived  most  of  his  life  at 
Chaeronea.  and  was  initiated  into  Ihe  mysteries  of  the  Greek  god  Apollo.  However  his  duties  as  the 
senior  of  the  Iwo  priests  of  Apollo  at  the  Otacle  of  Delphi  (where  he  was  responsible  for  interpreting  the  auguries  of 
the  Pylhia  or  priestess/oracle)  apparently  occupied  litlle  of  his  time  -  he  led  a  most  active  social  and  civic  life  and 
produced  an  incredible  body  of  writings,  much  of  which  is  still  extant 
<?n.-*ikinerjia  or^iKi/Piirtarrii 

?.  Plutarch  of  Eretria  Q  ^ 

Plutarch  (in  Greek  rUouTnpxof,,  'wed  4th  century  BC)  was  a  tyrant  of  Eolria  in  Euboea.  Whether  he  was  the 
immediale  successor  of  Thernison.  and  also  whether  he  was  in  any  way  connected  with  him  by  blood,  are  points 
which  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining.  Trusting  perhaps  to  the  influence  of  his  friend  Meidias,  he  applied  to  the 
Athenians  in  354  BC  for  aid  againsl  his  rival,  Callras  of  Chakis,  who  had  allied  himself  with  Philip  of  Macedon,  The 
application  was  granted  in  spite  of  Ihe  resistance  of  Demosthenes,  and  the  command  of  the  expedition  was  entrusted 
to  Phocion.  who  defeated  Caltias  al  Tamynas  in  350  BC.  But  the  conduct  of  Plutarch  in  the*  battle  had  placsd  Ihe 
Athenians  in  great  jeopardy,  and  Ihough  it  may  have  been  nothing  more  than  rashness,  Phocion  would  seem  to  have 
regarded  h  as  treachery .  for  he  thenceforth  treated  Plutarch  as  an  enemy  and  expelled  hirn  from  Erelria 
en  -vikt^edia  GipyVMa^!utaich_('j_Eio'ii;> 

3.  Plutarch  (crater)  n  &. 

Plutarch  is  a  lunar  impact  crater  that  lies  near  ihe  north-northeastern  limb  of  the  Moon,  just  to  the  south  of  the 
irregular  Seneca  crater  To  the  southeasl  is  the  flooded  Cannon  crater.  The  proximity  of  this  crater  to  the  limb  causes 
it  to  appear  foreshortened  when  viewed  from  the  Earth,  but  it  is  actually  a  circular  formation, 
an  ^kippfM  pr^WrK'PiiitarcMciaier) 

4,  Parallel  Lives  a  s 

Plut.nch 's  Lives  of  the  Noble  Greeks  and  Romans  is  a  series  of  biographies  of  famous  men,  arranged  in  tandem  to 
illuminate  their  common  moral  virtues  or .  .  lived. As  he  explains  in  the  first  paragraph  of  his  Ufe  of  Alexander , 
PluMtch  was  not  concerned  with  writing  hislories.  as  such,  but  in  exploring  the  influence  .  .  the  historic  figures,  there 
are  also  links  to  several  on-line  versions  of  Plutarch's  Lives  ,  see  also  'Other  links"  section  below  0  Dry  den  is 
famous  for .. 



DOCID:  4046925 



Launched  in  early  2007,  Wikiseek  was  created  with  the  assistance  of  Wikipedia, 
although  it  is  not  a  part  of  Wikipedia.  "The  contents  of  Wikiseek  are  restricted  to 
Wikipedia  pages  and  only  those  sites  which  are  referenced  within  Wikipedia, 
making  it  an  authoritative  source  of  information  less  subject  to  spam  and  SEO 
schemes.  Wikiseek  utilizes  Searchme's  category  refinement  technology, 
providing  suggested  search  refinements  based  on  user  tagging  and 
categorization  within  Wikipedia,  making  results  more  relevant  than  conventional 
search  engines."  <>  Wikiseek  uses  AJAX  technology  to 
create  changing  "tag  clouds"  of  possible  terms  as  you  type. 

This  is  a  good  way  to  find  articles  within  English  language  Wikipedia  and  to 
search  sites  referenced  in  Wikipedia,  but  it  is  by  no  means  a  substitute  for  a 
general  search  engine.  Results  from  Wikipedia  are  identified  by  the  W  icon.  The 
tag  cloud  that  appears  at  the  top  of  each  successful  search  is  designed  to  show 
related  categories  to  help  users  either  narrow  or  broaden  a  search.  Keep  in  mind 
these  are  user-generated  tags,  so  many  of  them,  e.g.,  "Japanese  terms,"  do  not 
correspond  to  Wikipedia  categories. 


A  b?uer  vvsv  to  search  Wikipedia      seandbtniS^  I 

Disasters  o.-m.s  History  of  Southeast  Asia 

sh.^i Tsunami 

All  Results  1  -  10  of  about  3,369  for  tsunami  (0.01  seconds) 

\V  Tsunami  Sponsored  Unks 

For  other  meanings  of  tsunami.see  tsunami  (disambiguation)  ,  ,.A  tsunami  (pronounced  or )  is  a 
series  of  waves  created  when  a  body  of  water,  such  as  an  ocean  is  rapidly  displaced  on  a  massive 

Surplus  Military  Tents 

Over  2,500  Tents  In  Stock  US  Mil.  Surplus 

scale'  a  Relief  Goods 

en.W  -  <:  "H-!  '•■  <S>  www.atmytertts.Fxim 

W  Tsunami  warning  system  Fun  Acrivity  Patches 

This  gives  time  for  a  possible  tsunami  forecast  to  be  made  and  warnings  to  be  issued  to  threatened  Tsunami  Relief  Patch  In  Stock  and  ready 

areas,  if  warranted.  ..A  tsunami  warning  system  is  a  system  to  detect  tsunamis  and  issue  warnings  to  to  snip- 

,  wv-',y.advanrageernDlf?m.con" 
prevent  loss  of  life  and  property. 

en.wik-pedio.orgAvik^Tiunam^warning^rv...  -  >?J  t  -.?■:[■■■.&  Tsunami  Relief 

Medicai  Reiief  for  Tsunami  Victims  BBB 

Tsunami  Pictures  -  Tsunamis  .corn  -  Tsunami  Pictures  wise  Giving  Alliance 

Tsunami  E-mail  and  Website  Scams  ..Tsunami  Charities  Information  ...Tsunami  News 

...H0ME&.. .Missing  People  ...Prayer  and  Reflection  Room  News  in  Picture^ 

■vw*. tsunamis. comAstinami-pictures.html  The  last  unidentified  victims  of  the  boxing 
Tsunami  Bomb  : : 

day  Tsunami  laid  to  rest 

www  ,thefirstpost/:<j  -uk 

Tsunami  Victims 

He  wins  the  award  for  our  longest-working  employee,  clocking  in  at  almost  exactly  3  years!  We  are 
very  sad  to  see  the  5th  member  of  Tsunami  Bomb  go,  and  hope  he'll  be  happy  in  the  real  world. 

ww-#  ArtJcle  !n  BusinessWeek  Read  it  online. 

Free  Trial  I 

Tsunami  Bomb  Lyrics 

Tsunami  Bomb  -  Home>  T>  Tsunami  Bomb  Lyrics  ..Tsunami  Bomb  Lyrics  ...News  ...Contact  us  Visit  Western  Union  Today 

...Request  ...We  Like  ...Search  for:  Help  recent  disasTier'vTctims.  Find  out  how 

wv.'^.lvTicf^^artist&^J^r^O.html  to  send  money  online. 

w .  W  e  s  t  e  m  ij  n ;  o  n .  co  m 

Tsunami  is  a  set  of  ocean  waves  caused  by  any  large,  abrupt  disturbance  of  the  sea-surface.  ...The  1  ie  nomine  Vv'or  V?ar 

.      .     '  .  ,  ,  Find  out  what  Nostradamus  says  about 

Tsunami  Story  ...Click  tD  see  an  animation  or  a  tsunami  generated  by  an  earthquake.  tne  vears  2007  -  2012^orY.html 

The  drawbacks  to  Wikiseek  are  that  it  only  searches  the  English  language 
version  of  Wikipedia  and  it  cannot  parse  non-Latin  languages.  It  touts  itself  as 
an  "authoritative  source  of  information  less  subject  to  spam  and  SEO  schemes," 



DOCID:  4046925 


but  a  search  for  [viagra]  will  quickly  prove  it  is  no  better  (in  fact  worse)  than  the 
major  search  engines  in  filtering  spam.  There  are  no  preferences  to  change  the 
number  of  results,  for  example,  or  to  limit  the  search  only  to  Wikipedia  or  only  to 
links,  but  since  Wikiseek  is  still  in  Beta,  these  features  may  appear  later. 
Wikiseek  also  offers  a  Firefox  plug-in  to  add  Wikiseek  to  the  Wikipedia  search 
form  on  all  Wikipedia  pages. 


WikiWax  also  uses  "Look  Ahead"  AJAX  technology  to  show  very  extensive  lists 
of  dynamically  generated  related  terms.  However,  WikiWax  cannot  parse  non- 
Latin  search  terms,  e.g.,  Ipupvr|. 


your  quick  index  to  Wikipedia 



.u  ^uuy;  

Pluto  (god) 

Pluto  (manga) 

Pluto  (mythology) 

Pluto  (planet) 

Pluto  Bulsara,  Farrokh 

Pluto  debate.  The 

Pluto  Express 

Pluto  Junior 

Pluto  Kuiper  Express 

Pluto  Nash,  The  Adventures  of 

PLUTO  reactor 

Pluto  Saves  the  Ship 

Pluto  Shervington 

Pluto  Water 

Pluto,  Aspects  of 

Pluto,  Astronomy 

Pluto,  Breakfast  on 

pluto,  Destination 

Pluto,  Geology  of 

Pluto,  Jupiter,  Neptune  and 

PLUTO,  Operation 

Pluto,  Planet 

Pluto,  Private 

Pluto,  Project 

Pluto,  Religion 

Pluto,  Sailor 

Pluto,  Zoltan 

Pluto's  Kiss 

Pliitn'c  mnnng  

Using  Search  Engines  to  Search  Wikipedia 

Yahoo  now  includes  Quick  Links  for  any  Wikipedia  results.  For  example,  a  Yahoo 
search  for  [internet]  will  return  Wikipedia  as  result  number  eight  and  will  include 
"Quick  Links"  to  specific  Wikipedia  articles  on  this  topic: 

b.  Internet  -  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia 

The  Internet  is  the  worldwide,  publicly  accessible  network  of  interconnected  computer  networks  that  transmit  data  by 

Ting  using  the  standard  Internet  Protocol ... 
"Quick  Links:  Creation  of  the  Internet  -  Today's  Internet  -  Internet  protocols 
prTs?frif«iifl^if pAwj k j/j i tip 1 1 1 e i  -  57k  -  Cacfird  -  More  from  Ir 


DOCID:  4046925 


You  can  further  restrict  the  search  to  Wikipedia  by  clicking  on  "More  from  this  site," 
which  is  an  excellent  way  to  search  Wikipedia  using  Yahoo: 

Web  ;  images   Video  :  Aucho  ■  Directory  :  Local  :  News  ;  Shopping  ;  More  * 

yXHOO!  search  f  internet  i  iSee 

WvWel)     Sewch  ££ry£gs     |     Advanced  Search  P-elcienc 

 -  —  -  ■ 

Search  Results  i  -  1Q01  about  232,000  tor  jma n<*  -  0 05  sec.  fAbounthu  t>«<i*i 

Q  Also  try;  internet  explorer  frqe  internet,  internet  radio,  internets  More... 
(*X  Vour  search  was  rsstricled  to  "en.wikipedin.oig".  Forbore  matches,  try  searching  all  sources  instead. 

1.  InterneT^Vlkli.i^Ulid.  rng  rree  encyclopedia 

The  Internet  (also  known  simply  as  the  Net)  can  be  briefly  understood  as  "a  network  of  networks".  Specifically,  it  is  the 
worldwide,  publicly  accessible  network  of  ... 

Quick  Links:  Creation  of  the  Internet  -  Today's  Internet  ■  Internet  piotocni; 
v-i|.itjedi^.'")!fi/>v'k'']iiieiin>t  -  '}','?  -  0  *:!>.-:: 

2.  Internet  Explorer  -  Wikipedia 

Encylopedia  article  about  Internet  Explorer,  Microsoft's  web  browser.  Covers  its  history,  features,  component 

architecture,  common  criticisms,  and  market  share. 

Category         ;      JmH:.|.v  .£? !.: I 7 .<!': ,.} 

en.wi-inpr.lM  0 r rj-',v  i/l nte « 1 1  <: I  ^ ^ )  1 1 .j f e •  -       -  v.  ;\ 

3.  Internet  troll  -  VVi kipedra.  the  free  encyclopedia 

In  Internet  terminology,  a  troll  is  someone  who  comes  into  an  established  community  such  as  an  online  discussion 
forum,  and  posts  inflammatory,  rude,  repetitive  or ... 
Quick  Links;  Ely-noloi^  -  Vicious  circles  ■  Troll  culture 
en.wkipedid.orjj/y*iki/lnteinei...troII  ■  3?k  -  Cached  ■  Saw 

4.  History  of  the  Internet  -  Wikipedia.  the  free  encyclopedia 

The  history  of  the  Internet  dates  back  to  the  early  development  of  communication  networks.  The  idea  of  a  computer 
network  intended  lo  allow  geneial  communication  among  ... 

Quick  Links  Before  t  ie  Internet  -  A  lack  of  inter  networking  -  Three  terminals  and  ao  ARPA 
en.wikipedia.ory/tiviki/f-li&iorv_ofjhe_lnieiuet  -  rAi  -  csl      •  -.^y? 

You  can  also  use  the  site:  syntax  to  search  just  the  Wikipedia  (or  Wikipedias,  if  you 

like)  in: 




Gooqle  httD:// 




Windows  Live  Search  httD:// 








Clusty  (site:  and  host:  are  interchangeable,  but  Clusty  has  a  special  Wikipedia 

search  option) 

This  is  an  especially  useful  option  for  non-Latin  searches,  such  as  [ 
Qe§me],  which  returns  results  not  only  from  the  English  and  Turkish  Wikipedias  but 
from  the  German  and  Serbian  Wikipedias  as  well: 



DOCID:  4046925 


TEXHOO^  SEARCH  |  Cesme 

Web  ;  Images  j  Vidj-n  j  Audio  j  Pnedmy  I  Local  j  News  j  Shopping  !  N 

Answers    Search  Services    I    Advanced  Se; 

Search  Results 

1  - 100  of  about  31 1  (rom  for  £e$me  - 1  £3  sec 

1.  Cesrne  -  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia 

fesme  is  a  town  on  the  west  coast  of  Turkey  and  one  of  the  districts  of  Izmir  Province.  It  is  a  prominent  center  of 
international  tourism  in  Turkey  and  is  famous  for ... 
Quick  Links:  S?q  also  -  External  links 

&n.wiHpe(liii.<»iy/Wiki/Qe5rri8  -  1i3k  -  taghad  -  klgr*  horn  tfiiv-  site 

2-  Hi'^a,  C^?rne  -  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia 

llica  is  a  small  village  near  ^esrne  (pronounced  Tcheshme).  which  is  a  distnct  of  Izmir  Province  in  <^e$me  Peninsula  in 
the  extreme  western  tip  of  Turkey. 

Quick  Links:  Aegean  isgion  of  Turkey  geography  stubs  ■  District*  of  Izmir  -  jrmii 
en.wik}j>e<!i.voiyAviki/'fl%Ci%Bic3._%C3%87e%C5%9Fme  -  13^  -  Cadibd  -  '-.'lore  tujtn  rr^s  siie 

3.  Cesme  -  Wikipedia  -  tlif?  w\* 

fe$me  [J  ist  ein  Ferienort  etwa  100  Kilometer  westlich  von  Izmir.  Der  Name  "£esme ',  zu  Deutsch  "Brunnen".  leitet 
sich  von  der  groften  Zahl  dieser  ab. 
Quick  Links:  Pit  in  der  Turkei 

Js  vvikjpe(lio.n.|.|/wi<i/%C3%l:j7f%C5,y;.9Fi-n8  -   ".■  '<:  -  v,"  hef?  -  ^oi .i^'..'^" 

4.  Cezaviili  Gazi  Hasan  Pasha  -  Wikipedia.  the  free  encyclopedia 

Cezayirli  Gazi  Hasan  Pasha  (1713-1730),  (Hasan  Pasha  of  Algiers)  was  an  Ottoman  grand  vizier  and  a  navy  and  army 
commander  of  the  late  1Bth  century, 
Quick  Links;  References 

e«.wiki|teiH«i.i>i«j/wiki/Cezayirli_Gazi_Has3n_Pasha  -  '•■5k  -  Cached  -  Mote-  T'rom  thia  ^ite 

5.  Cesme  -  Vikipedi 

...  anlam  aynm  sayfasi.  Ce?me  kavraminin  farkli  kullanimlarini ...  Retrieved  from  "http://tr.wikipedia.orfi 
/wiki/%C3%87e%C5%9Fme"  Sayfa  kategorisi:  Aniam  aynm  ... 

iLwiki|>e»lio.i>f yAviki/'Cefm-i  -  •  Ok  -  Cached  ■  ivk=;e  from  this  ^j? 

6.  Mehmet  Culum  -  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia 

Mehmel  Culum  is  a  contemporary  Turkish  novelist  who  was  born  in  a  western  town  of  Turkey  called  f  esme  in  1948.  He 
studied  political  sciences  at  the  University  of  Ankara. 
Quick  Links:  European  writer  stubs  -  Turkish  people  stubs 
Bri.wik^^'lirt.oiij/vvik't/tVlehiiii?!  Cutum  -  13k  -  Cached  -  MPr!?...!!M^l.§?X 

7.  Marinas  in  Turkey  -  Wikipedia,  the  free  encyclopedia 

www  nnrthftrtrnm 

To  search  language-specific  Wikipedias:,  e.g., 
[  nordafrika] 

To  search  all  Wikipedias: 




DOCID:  4046925 


Maps  and  Mapping 

Maps  and  mapping  technology  continued  to  expand  and  improve  during  2006,  in 
large  part  because  of  competition  with  Google  Maps.  Virtually  all  the  online  maps  get 
their  data  from  one  of  two  companies:  Navteq  or  Tele  Atlas.  It  is  what  each  map  site 
does  with  that  data — how  it  implements  its  user  interface  and  what  features  it 
offers — that  makes  it  distinctive.  Google  Maps  and  Google's  downloadable  property 
Google  Earth,  helped  inspire  a  cottage  industry  of  what  are  termed  "mashups,"  a 
music  industry  term  transformed  into  computer  slang  meaning  to  "mix  at  least  two 
different  services  from  disparate,  and  even  competing,  websites."  The  best  known 
mashups  involve  overlaying  data  such  as  crime  statistics  onto  Google,  Yahoo,  Live 
Search's  Virtual  Earth,  and  other  maps. 

Some  of  these  innovations  are  detailed  in  Untangling  the  Web\  others,  while  no 
doubt  useful  in  their  own  right,  do  not  address  specific  research  needs  of  this 
audience  and  are  best  left  for  other  venues. 

Google  Maps  &  Google  Earth 

During  2005,  Google  and  Microsoft  both  introduced  a  new  dimension  to  their  map 
sites  with  satellite  maps.  Google  uses  the  Keyhole  technology  it  purchased  in  2004 
and  Microsoft  uses  its  own  TerraServer  data  to  generate  its  satellite  maps  at  its 
Virtual  Earth  page.  Google  went  one  step  further,  combining  its  satellite  imagery  with 
its  traditional  maps  to  offer  a  "hybrid"  view,  which  overlays  a  map  onto  the  satellite 
image  of  the  U.S.,  Canada,  most  of  Europe,  and  Japan.  Google  is  facing  stiff 
competition  not  only  from  its  US  competitors  but  also  from  exceptionally  fine 
European  mapping  companies.  See  below  for  a  comparison  between  Google  and 
Mappy  in  the  European  map  market. 

Google  Maps  allows  users  to  toggle  among  map,  satellite,  or  hybrid  (labeled)  views. 
Google  Maps  uses  the  now  ubiquitous  address  bubbles  that  can  be  closed  and  the 
ability  to  get  directions  between  locations.  Google  Maps  is  one  of  the  best  sites  for 
navigating  around  the  map  smoothly  using  with  the  mouse.  In  mid-2006  Google 
Maps  added  the  zoom  in/out  feature  using  the  mouse  scroll  wheel. 

Google  Maps  also  has  a  preview  window,  a  small  window  inside  the  larger  map 
window  that  shows  a  small  image  of  the  larger  map.  The  intent  is  to  let  users  see  a 
larger  view  of  an  area 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Maps  Hybrid  View  with  Preview  Window 

During  2006  Google  also  "updated  the  satellite  data  used  for  Google  Maps  so  it  now 
has  the  many  updates  recently  made  to  the  Google  Earth  database.  This  means  the 
new  high  resolution  data  for  all  of  Germany,  many  places  in  Europe. ..and  many 
other  places  are  now  available  to  Google  Maps  users. 

Google  Earth  represents  a  revolution  in  mapping  technology.  Google  Earth  is  a 
geographic  search  and  "fly"  tool  that  combines  the  detailed  three-dimensional 
satellite  imagery  from  Google's  Keyhole  property  with  Google's  local  search  and 
direction  finding  available  at  Google  maps.  Google  Earth  lets  users: 

>  Fly  from  space  to  your  neighborhood.  Type  in  an  address  and  zoom  right  in. 

>  Search  for  schools,  parks,  restaurants,  and  hotels.  Get  driving  directions. 

>  Tilt  and  rotate  the  view  to  see  3D  terrain  and  buildings. 

Frank  Taylor,  "Google  Maps  Gets  Huge  Satellite  Update  from  Google  Earth,"  Google  Earth  Blog, 
24  April  2006,  <>  (30 
October  2006). 


UNCi_AssiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  UOC  ONLY 

DOCID:  4046925 


>  Save  and  share  your  searches  and  favorites.  Even  add  your  own 

The  Google  Earth  data  is  not  limited  to  the  US.  "The  whole  world  is  covered  with 
medium  resolution  imagery  and  terrain  data.  This  resolution  allows  you  to  see  major 
geographic  features  and  man-made  development  such  as  towns,  but  not  detail  of 
individual  buildings.  Additional  high-resolution  imagery  which  reveals  detail  for 
individual  buildings  is  available  for  most  of  the  major  cities  in  the  US,  Western 
Europe,  Canada,  and  the  UK.  3D  buildings  are  represented  in  38  US  cities  (the 
major  urban  areas).  Detailed  road  maps  are  available  for  the  US,  Canada,  the  UK, 
and  Western  Europe.  And  Google  Local  search  is  available  for  the  US,  Canada,  and 
the  UK."85  And  all  this  is  free  for  personal  use  and  does  not  require  registration. 

All  the  news  about  Google  Earth  is  not  good,  however. 

>  it's  a  download,  which  means  many  organizational  policies  will  prohibit  its  use 
on  the  job. 

>  it  will  not  run  on  Apples. 

>  it  is  only  designed  to  work  on  Windows  XP  or  2000  (other  MS  operating 
systems  are  not  supported). 

>  it's  designed  to  run  on  broadband  Internet  connections,  so  I  do  not 
recommend  running  it  on  a  slow  connection. 

>  it  requires  a  3D  graphics  card:  3D-capable  video  card  with  16MB  VRAM,  but 
many  common  graphics  cards  are  not  supported. 

>  while  the  basic  software  is  free,  there  are  two  upgrades,  a  yearly  subscription 
for  Google  Earth  Plus  with  higher  resolutions,  GPS  support,  etc.,  and  a  more 
expensive  business  and  professional  version  called  Google  Earth  Pro  (a  7- 
day  free  trial  is  available  if  you're  curious). 

However,  if  you  are  able  to  use  Google  Earth,  it  is  amazing.  I  recommend  using  the 
extensive  Google  Earth  help  files  available  at  Keyhole.  One  of  the  hottest  trends  on 
the  web  at  the  moment  is  map  hacks  or  mash-ups.  The  Google  Earth  Hacks  website 
brings  you  lots  of  free  downloads  designed  to  be  used  in  conjunction  with  Google 

Google  Earth 
Google  Earth  Help 

Google  Earth,  <>  (30  October  2006). 

Google  Earth  FAQ,  <>  (30  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Earth  Hacks 

Google  now  has  street-level  mapping  capabilities  for  Andorra,  Australia,  Austria, 
Belgium,  Canada,  Czech  Republic,  Denmark,  Finland,  France,  Germany,  Gibraltar, 
Greece,  Hungary,  Ireland,  Italy,  Japan,  Liechtenstein,  Luxembourg,  Monaco, 
Netherlands,  New  Zealand,  Norway,  Poland,  Portugal,  Russia  (Moscow  only),  San 
Marino,  Slovakia,  Spain,  Sweden,  Switzerland,  Turkey  (Istanbul  only),  the  United 
Kingdom,  and  the  United  States.  Although  no  separate  websites  exist  for  most  of 
these  country  map  sites,  I  expect  they  will  eventually. 

At  present,  Google  has  map  websites  for  these  countries: 

>  UK  &  Ireland  — 

>  Canada  — 

>  Australia  (includes  New  Zealand)  — 

>  China  — 

>  Germany  — 

>  Spain  — 

>  France  — 

>  Italy  — 

>  The  Netherlands  — 

>  Japan  — 

Google  began  offering  local  search  and  maps  specifically  for  Japan  during  2005. 
Both  sites  are  in  Japanese.  However,  Google  maps  Japan,  which  offers  both  street- 
level  and  satellite  images  for  some  of  Japan,  recognizes  input  in  romaji  (Latinized 
spellings  of  Japanese  words).  Here  is  a  search  on  [Tokyo]  showing  the  results  in 
Google  maps  satellite  images. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Maps  Japan 

Google  Maps  and  Google  Earth,  also  helped  inspire  a  cottage  industry  of  what  are 
termed  "mashups,"  a  music  industry  term  transformed  into  computer  slang  meaning 
to  "mix  at  least  two  different  services  from  disparate,  and  even  competing,  websites." 
The  best  known  mashups  involve  overlaying  data  such  as  subway  routes,  and  crime 
statistics  onto  Google,  Yahoo,  Live  Local,  or  other  maps.  This  is  a  Google  Maps 
Mashup  showing  cellular  towers  in  Boston  using  the  Hybrid  view,  i.e.,  street  and 
satellite  maps  combined. 


DOCID:  4046925 


Cell  Phone  Tower 

CgfYimcors  Towers 


3]  Go 

antennas  last 
updated  on 
Sept  19,  2005 

Cell  Phone  Buying  Gu 

1.  Whv  Ceil  Phones  G. 


■  2.  Finding  Cell  Phone 

3.  Choosino  The  ftiqht 
Cetl  Phor^e 


tell  Phon^  Reviews 

Sam  sum  SGH-E63.S 
Nokia  &IQ2 
•  LG  VX98Q0 
Motorola  ROKR  El 
Motorola  SlVfi  L7 
Motorola  E615 

■  Motorola  V330 
Samsung  SGH»P??7 

Microsoft's  Live  Local  Powered  by  Virtual  Earth 

Microsoft  fought  back  with  some  amazing  technology  of  its  own  called  Virtual  Earth. 
With  the  appearance  of  Windows  Live  and  Live  Local,  Virtual  Earth  became  the 
power  behind  these  searches  and  the  former  Virtual  Earth  site  now  takes  users  to 
Live  Local. 

Compare  Google  Maps'  highest  resolution  hybrid  view  of  the  Natural  History 
Museum  in  Washington,  D.C.,  with  the  highest  resolution  image  of  Windows  Live 
Local  aerial  view,  with  labels.  You  can  see  that  Google  Maps  (using  satellite  imagery 
from  Google  Earth)  now  has  the  edge  in  better  resolution  and  also  offers  a  larger, 
easier  to  view  image.  Also,  I  find  Google  Maps  not  only  much  faster  to  load  but 
easier  to  search  and  navigate. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Maps  Hybrid 


jjfM  live  local 

W«b         Imigts  Local         QnA-  Morn' 

liveiearch.podtaits        j     Product!  -  -     [     F«ed»  >»  1         Academit-;  Video- 

See  haunted  places 

Did  you  know  that  th£  first-class 
swimming  pool  on  the  Queen  Mary  is 
a  Doputar  spot  for  ghost  sightings? 

Welcome    Collection?  »    Driving  directions    Traffic    Locate  me    Share  -    Print » 

See  famcui  Ktu^ted  t !acejf_f m  a !j 
over  trie  world 

Popular  searches 

■  Restaurants 

■  Dry  cteaners 

■  Movies 

■  Annliv»nr,f>< 



DOCID:  4046925 


Windows  Live  Local  powered  by  Virtual  Earth 

However,  Windows  Live  Local  has  one  amazing  feature  that  Google  Maps  does  not. 
Windows  Live  Local  offers  "Bird's  Eye  View,"  which  are  images  licensed  from 
Pictometry  International  at  a  45-degree  angle  instead  of  directly  overhead.  "To  date, 
Pictometry  information  is  available  for  geographic  areas  accounting  for  about  25 
percent  of  the  U.S.  population,  including  the  greater  metropolitan  areas  of 
Manhattan,  Seattle,  Los  Angeles  and  San  Francisco.  Microsoft  will  continue  to  work 
with  Pictometry  to  shoot  more  landscapes,  with  a  focus  on  highly  populated  areas 
and  tourist  destinations  such  as  Las  Vegas,  which  already  shows  up  in  bird's-eye 
view."86  More  locations  are  being  added. 

livesearch,  podcasts  Products  Feeds  Academic  Video 

\  More*- 

Welcome    Collections  ▼    Driving  directions    Traffic    Locate  me    Share  ▼    Print  ▼ 

Clicking  the  rotation  arrows  (N  S  E  W)  in  the  navigation  panel,  displays  a  360° 
panoramic  view  that  is  genuinely  breathtaking.  If  you  right-click  anywhere  on  the 
map  you  can  add  your  own  pushpins.  Live  Local  also  offers  a  "Scratch  Pad"  to  make 
notes  about  a  location.  For  users  who  want  to  learn  more  about  using  Bird's  Eye 
View  and  Live  Local  maps  in  general,  there  are  several  blogs  devoted  to  Windows 
Live  Local  that  I  find  far  more  useful  than  Microsoft's  Live  help. 

Windows  Live  Spaces/Virtual  Earth 

Susan  Kuchinskas,  "Windows  Live  Local  Offers  a  New  View,",  8  December 
2005,  <>  (30  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Virtual  Earth  Developers 
Bird's  Eye  Tourist 

Early  in  2006  the  Virtual  Earth  Team  introduced  street  views  (something  only  A9  had 
previously  tried  to  do  in  the  US).  Here's  the  announcement: 

The  Virtual  Earth  team  is  pleased  to  launch  a  preview  of  a  new  feature  we  have 
been  working  on  -  interactive  Street-side  browsing.  You  can  try  it  out  at  Street-side  imagery  allows  you  to  drive  around  a  city 
looking  at  the  world  around  you  as  if  you  were  in  a  car.  But  unlike  the  real  world, 
you  can  stop  your  car  anywhere  you  like  and  rotate  your  view  around 
360degrees.  Currently  we  have  street-side  imagery  for  San  Francisco  and 
Seattle  online.87 

I  love  this  technology  because  there  is  nothing  like  being  able  to  "walk"  or  "drive" 
through  an  unfamiliar  location  to  get  your  bearings.  However,  with  the  demise  of  A9 
Maps,  I  am  not  sure  this  type  of  "you  are  there"  technology  is  here  to  stay.  The 
excellent  European  sites  that  offer  similar  options.  France  Telecom's  Pages  Jaunes 
and  Spain's  Callejero  Fotographico  offer  similar  "stroll"  technologies. 

Virtual  Earth  Technology  Preview  http.7/preview. 

Sean  Rowe,  Program  Manager,  Virtual  Earth,  Live  Search  Weblog,  28  February  2006, 
<  >  (31  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


At  the  end  of  2006  Microsoft  announced  Virtual  Earth  3D,  which  offers  truly 
stunning  views  of  many  US  cities.  The  downside  of  this  technology  is  that  it  requires 
Internet  Explorer  and  certain  other  Microsoft-specific  software  in  order  to  run. 

Microsoft  Research,  in  partnership  with  the  Government  of  India's  Department  of 
Science  and  Technology,  is  working  on  an  interesting  project  powered  by  Microsoft 
Virtual  Earth  technology.  According  to  the  website,  "The  primary  goal  of  this  project 
is  to  explore  novel  and  effective  ways  to  collect  and  disseminate  geospatial  data  and 
leverage  multi-lingual  technologies  within  maps.  We  currently  have  fairly  limited 
data— 1 :1  M  India-wide  data  as  well  as  1 :8000  Bangalore  city  data."88 

Right  now,  the  only  street-level  maps  are  for  Bangalore;  users  cannot  add  pushpins 
(I  tried  unsuccessfully  to  view  them  but  neither  the  annotation  nor  street  search  was 
working).  However,  the  concept  is  a  good  one.  Imagine  having  street-level  and 
perhaps  even  aerial  maps  of  an  entire  country  in  all  that  country's  languages.  Even 
now,  you  can  view  the  maps  in  English,  Hindi,  Tamil,  and  Kannada,  although 
Microsoft  does  caution  there  are  inevitably  errors  in  their  rendering  of  the  place 
names.  There  is  no  doubt  this  is  an  interesting  experiment  and  I  feel  pretty  confident 
MS  didn't  pick  India  randomly. 

Here's  a  shot  of  a  portion  of  Bangalore  rendered  in  Hindi: 

Virtual  India 

i  Vtrt  ua(  Co  r1ti 

road     -f  i 

A  ifi       f  !*J 


Eic'iph  srrerr 

l[Use  current  map  v»ew] 

tf*^»|t   To^zw   xprrwrn  ^i^'f! 

a  3 

i   s  3 

Microsoft  Research  Virtual  India  Project 
Virtual  India  Website 

Welcome  to  the  Virtual  India  Project!  Microsoft  Research-15,  2006, 
<>  (30  October  2006). 


DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Maps 

In  early  2006  Yahoo  Maps  introduced  high-resolution  satellite,  aerial,  and  hybrid 
images  of  the  US,  medium  resolution  imagery  of  the  rest  of  the  world,  and  medium 
resolution  global  maps  and  overlays.  Yahoo  Maps  imagery  is  provided  by  Aerials 
Express  and  icubed.  Despite  what  you  may  read,  Yahoo  Maps  is  using  both 
satellite  imagery  and  aerial  photography,  i.e.,  photographs  taken  from  airplanes. 
Here's  what  Yahoo  had  to  say  about  this  development: 

Here  are  the  highlights: 

Comprehensive  Nationwide  Satellite  Imagery  Coverage 

Wall-to-wall  coverage  within  the  lower  48  states  in  the  US.  We  are  going 
for  the  best  coverage  nationwide,  from  the  streets  of  New  York  to  every 
inch  of  Redding,  CA. 

Global  Satellite  Imagery 

The  product  features  global  images  at  15  meters  per  pixel  (zoom  level  5, 
medium  resolution),  which  basically  lets  you  find  and  see  every  city,  town, 
and  major  land  feature  in  the  world  at  medium  resolution. 

Global  Maps 

We're  releasing  maps  and  overlays  at  medium  resolution  for  the  whole 
world  as  well.  This  should  help  you  view  not  only  the  suburbs  of  Bangkok, 
Thailand,  but  also  help  see  the  context  of  the  imagery  in  hybrid  mode. 


The  new  imagery  and  global  maps  are  available  for  API  developers 
<>  on  the  Yahoo!  Developer 
Network,  <>  So  whether  you're  new  to  the 
world  of  mashups  or  an  experienced  hacker,  there  is  no  better  time  to 
show  off  what  you  can  do. 

Better  Views 

In  addition  to  getting  all  the  data  we  can,  we're  processing  the  satellite 
imagery  to  make  the  visuals  more  aesthetically  pleasing  for  users.  We're 
blending  away  seam  lines  and  normalizing  the  color  pallet  to  create  a 
continuous  plane  of  imagery.89 

89  Michael  Lawless  and  Vince  Maniago,  "Mo'  Beta  Maps,"  Yahoo!  Search  Blog,  11  April  2006, 
<>  (30  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Of  course  the  first  question  is  how  do  Yahoo's  images  stack  up  to  Google's  and 
Microsoft's?  Here  are  three  screenshots  of  downtown  Washington,  DC  (Microsoft's 
Virtual  Earth  imagery  slightly  obfuscates  the  White  House  and  surrounding  areas,  so 
I  chose  a  clearer  image  of  downtown  DC). 

Yahoo  Maps'  hybrid  image  of  the  White  House  and  surrounding  areas  using  Yahoo 
Maps  Local  (Beta), 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Maps'  hybrid  image  of  the  White  House  (at  this  resolution,  the  hybrid 
identifications  disappear;  there  is  actually  one  closer  degree  of  resolution,  but  it  is 


DOCID:  4046925 


Microsoft's  Virtual  Earth  "Bird's  Eye  View"  of  downtown  Washington,  DC. 

Yahoo  offers  three  APIs— their  own  Simple  API,  AJAX,  and  MacroMedia  Flash — for 
use  with  Yahoo  mapping  technology.  The  Simple  API  lets  users  create  customized 
Yahoo  maps  using  just  a  text  editor.  By  offering  several  different  options  for  creating 
mashups,  Yahoo  appeals  to  differing  levels  of  expertise,  from  "no  programming"  to 
fairly  sophisticated  embedded  scripts.  Yahoo  maps  also  offers  "building  block  APIs" 
including  geocoding,  Yahoo  Local,  traffic  information,  and  map  images. 

Building  Block  Components 
Several  Yahoo!  APIs  help  you  create  a  powerful  and  useful 
Yahoo!  Maps  rnashups.  Use  these  together  with  the  Yahoo! 
Maps  APIs  to  enhance  the  user  experience. 

Geocoding  API  -  Pass  in  location  data  by  address  and  receive 
geocoded  (encoded  with  latitude-longitude)  responses. 

Map  Image  API  -  Stitch  map  images  together  to  build  your  own 
maps  for  usage  in  custom  applications,  including  mobile  and 
offline  use. 

Traffic  APIs  -  Build  applications  that  take  dynamic  traffic  report 
data  to  help  you  plan  optimal  routes  and  keep  on  top  of  your 
commute  using  either  our  REST  API  or  Dynamic  RSS  Feed- 
Local  Search  APIs  -  Query  against  the  Yahoo!  Local  service, 
which  now  returns  longitude-latitude  with  every  search  result  for 
easy  plotting  on  a  map.  Also  new  is  the  inclusion  of  ratings  from 
Yahoo!  users  for  each  establishment  to  give  added  context. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  offers  a  great  deal  of  help  to  developers  who  want  to  use  these  APIs  to 
create  customized  maps.  Yahoo  also  permits  third  parties  to  host  Yahoo  map 
mashups  on  their  own  sites,  which  is  something  important  for  researchers  to  look 

USGS  M>2.5  Earthquakes  f\ 

Real-time,  worldwide  earthquake  list  for  the  past  7  days 
Wed,  30  Nov  2005  08:26:59  PST 

Yahoo  is  adding  non-US  local  maps,  using  mapping  technology  provided  by  other 
sources,  such  as  Map24  for  European  locations.  Here  is  a  sample  of  what  you  get 
for  Germany.  Notice  the  choice  between  static  and  dynamic  maps,  which  allow 
users  to  move  around  the  map  using  a  mouse.  At  this  time,  I  recommend  skipping 
Yahoo  Local  in  Europe  and  going  directly  to  Map24,  which  is  much  better. 



DOCID:  4046925 

uNCLASsiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  uoc  ohlv 

"W*  — _   _  _Mm_  ft  Such  en  nach: 


Stadt,  Ort  oder  Postleitzahl : 

jMunchen,  Bayern 

P~  Diese  Adresse  speichern 

l]  Suche  I 

Munchen  >  Reise  und  Tourismus  >  Hotels 

Ercjebrii^se  Ernebnisse  1  -  to  von  720  Ergebnissen  hotel  Munchen,  Bayern 

Ihr  gunstiqes  Hotel  in  Munchen  bei 

Qualitatshotels  mit  Tiefstpreisgarantie  sicher  online  buchen. 
www. hotels  .com 

Top  Hotels  in  Munchen  bei 

Gunstige  Hotels  in  Munchen  bequem  &  sicher  online  buchen. 


Sortitn&n  nwlv.  Top  Ergebnisse  |  Entfernung  |  A-Z 

In  Partnerschaft  mit  DasOrtliche 

1,  Savoy  Hotel,  Renner  Hotels  Savoy  * 

(0  89)2  87  87  -0       Arnalienstr.  25 

80333  Munchen  0,98  km 
Karte  |  Routenplanei 

Alle  anzeiqen:  Hotels 

f'Ober  diese  Seite) 
Gpcnsoren  Links 


zeige  Ergebnisse  inner  halb: 
|  Entfernung  "  |  Los  | 

vom  Zentrum  aus  Munchen.  Bayern 

-A  Groftere  Karte 

2.  Steigenberqer  Hotels  AG  Verkaufsburo 
Munchen  * 

(0  89)  23  88  83  -  3      Sendlinger  Str.  46 

80331  Munchen  0,98  km 
Karte  |  Poutenplaner 

Alie  anzeigen:  Hotels 

3.  Anna  Hotel  Hotels  * 

(0  89)  5  99  94  -0       Schutzenstr.  1 

Statisch  I  Dynamised 

Lt3s    ^  ^tb?—  

iTte'a  f  Vl      ■"^s*Sw   I  1-  Savoy  Hotel,  Renner 
U^yi  -.i.  ^-i  Hotels  Savoy 

80335  Munchen  1,21  km 
Karte  |  Routenplaner 

Alle  anzeigen,  Holeis 

Yahoo  Maps 
Yahoo  Map  APIs 

[u  ]■-»«.  . 

iWmIK'h^*>       ii'ihchen  * 

ft  map; 

0.5  mi 

1  km 


Ask  Maps 

The  maps  at  come  from  two  familiar  sources,  Navteq  and  GlobeXplorer. 
However,  what  Ask  has  done  with  the  source  material  makes  them  worth  a  special 
mention.  As  with  other  mapping  sites,  such  as  Google,  Ask  Maps  allows  users  to 
choose  between  "aerial"  and  "physical"  views  with  labels  on  or  off  (in  Google,  this 
means  map,  satellite,  or  hybrid  (labeled)  views).  Ask  Maps  also  uses  address 
bubbles  that  can  be  closed  and  the  ability  to  get  directions  between  locations.  As 
with  Google  Maps,  Ask  Maps  offers  the  zoom  in/out  feature  using  the  mouse  scroll 



DOCID:  4046925 


Ask  Maps  adds  the  ability  to: 

>  Show  or  hide  directions  (this  is  especially  useful  when  you  have  very  long, 
complicated  directions). 

>  Choose  between  driving  and  walking  directions;  this  is  extremely  useful  when 
you  are  dealing  with  locations  that  have  a  lot  of  one-way  streets,  for  example. 

>  Maximize  the  map  with  a  simple  click  of  the  mouse,  something  Google  Maps 
cannot  do  that  annoys  me  to  no  end. 

>  The  ability  to  add  another  location  is  much  easier  than  with  other  mapping 
sites;  right-click  to  add  a  push-pin  location  to  the  map. 

WlMjW  |5J5i2h3l0afcandCrt 


j  Seat  cii  the  Web  | 

1    Hap*  J.  Direction! 


p  St.iri  lotdilon: 

W,tFK[H<|  <^ 

z  ■'irrJl^.J'  u  <-  27nifii 

ON  MK.  CAN  .p  - 5  in\var&?  P«t 
Union  RiJ 

fumkirjiit' onP<MHf<»<HtlVl 
3.   "uiiiRmjIiI  .  cnLdVji^ng^Av*  E 
-I.   iam  Hcti     HM*tyfr|«iT m 

5.  TumRiijIrt  '.  cnflin.liOj  Lu 

6.  'inn  lun  on  Mm  ilh  doiii  h<i 

7.  Antic  irtB»H  K.tih<MU  Sij. 
SctthOir.ii.fli,  UN  MIC  CAN 

'M-tr-s  uiipf.'  r,< 

^  tint  lor.Ufmi: 

[Bai  Hdrrpur  bq. Sta'o^jsh,  CM M1 C 

r:  1. 1  b*ckio 

*  Go 

In  addition  to  the  US  and  Canada,  Ask  Maps  also  offers  coverage  of  parts  of 
Europe.  To  see  the  current  coverage,  I  recommend  you  check  GlobeXplorer's 

Ask  Maps 

GlobeXplorer's  Worldwide  Satellite  Imagery 



DOCID:  4046925 


International  Map  Sites 

I  highly  recommend  Map24,  which  offers  country  and  city  maps  for  many  interna- 
tional locations.  Map24  is  one  of  the  most  technically  sophisticated  free  web-based 
map  such  as  Google  Maps  or  Virtual  Earth.  As  with  these  sites,  Map24  offers  map, 
satellite,  and  hybrid  views.  The  site  is  set  to  redirect  you  to  your  country's  map 
page,  so  if  you  want  to  see  all  the  available  international  maps,  you  need  to  select 
Language:  Change  to  see  all  the  available  languages  and  countries  associated  with 
them.  For  example,  Portuguese  is  only  associated  with  Brazil  at  Map24  even  though 
a  less  detailed  map  of  Portugal  is  offered. 


a  MyMap24:  Login 
«  Map:  stake  | 

=  Language.  Change 

Myh4ap24  Products  Help 

Map24  -  International 

Map24  is  available  in  several  languages  for 
different  countries  around  the  World  Please 
choose  your  desired  version 

|  Change  country  and/o r 

Language  Country 


E=  as 
II  □ 

■  m 

Nederlands"  1 1 










hum—  n 


The  global  Map24  team  is  growing  Look  for  more 
countries  and  language  versions  in  the  near  future. 

-  Seamless  zoom 

-  Smooth  actions 

-  Extensive  searches 

MapTP  Fleet  Syctem 

Services  FleetBoard  and 
MapTP  make  Transport 
companies  drive 

MapTP  Freight  Charter 

TimoCom  TRUCK  & 
CARGO  integrates 
MapTP  mapping 
technology  forroughfy 
16.000  customers. 

>  note- 

Information  Week  recommends  Map24 

Map24  is  a  useful  tool  for  road  warriors  It 
goes  beyond  simple  point- to- point 

=  more 

New!  Free  Map24  AJAX  API 


As  of  nowMap24  is 
offering  developers  a 
Map24  AJAX  API. 

eCourier  Firmly  On  the  Map  Thanks  to 

eCourier.  Uie  company 
er        '       that  changed  the  way 
packages  are  delivered 
across  London  and  the 
UK.  celebrates  a ... 

BuslnessMap24  Easy  has  arrived.  Try 
our  free  7 -Day  trial! 

BusinessMap24  Easy  is  a  powerful  store 
locator  for  your  personalized  web 
presence . 


Maporama  is  especially  useful  because  it  has  a  number  of  detailed  city  and  country 
maps.  At  present,  Maporama  offers  more  than  63  countries/locations.  Where  else 
are  you  going  to  find  a  street  map  of  Riyadh,  Saudi  Arabia?  Not  every  country  or  city 
is  this  detailed,  but  Maporama  is  an  indispensable  map  and  directions  tool. 



DOCID:  4046925 



5^;!f Moot;ps'| i^owoil.^./ ... .:  ^^^^  .  ■       "  '  \  . 

•  CUSTOMERS  |  m 




'■  1 

S^"7^ T^t"SF^F^  ,  pERSO^LISE  YOUR  MAP  ^ 


i  :  .  -r 

22    ■'  !  j 


.".  Riyadh  ** 

R1YADH()  -  Saudi  Arabia 

24.64  (24°38')  |    46.71  (46°42') 

{  ♦  Wir  nil: 

r~~™ —  -ttr  j 







Despite  not  having  the  most  felicitous  of  names,  Mappy  is  nonetheless  a  wonderful 
map  site.  Mappy's  parent  company  is  Pages  Jaunes  Groupe.  Mappy  recently  added 
aerial  views  of  a  number  of  European  cities — 26  total  as  of  now — in  France, 
Spain,  Belgium,  Germany,  and  the  Czech  Republic  (only  Prague  for  now).  The  aerial 
photo  maps  require  MacroMedia  Flash. 

Here  is  Mappy's  aerial  view  of  Flora  Park  in  Amsterdam  at  the  closest  resolution; 
pay  special  attention  to  the  roof  of  the  large  building  where  the  arrow  is  pointing: 



DOCID:  4046925 


Not  to  be  upstaged,  in  early  2006  Google  "updated  the  satellite  data  used  for  Google 
Maps  so  it  now  has  the  many  updates  recently  made  to  the  Google  Earth  database. 
This  means  the  new  high  resolution  data  for  all  of  Germany,  many  places  in 
Europe. ..and  many  other  places  are  now  available  to  Google  Maps  users.  Here  is 
the  Google  Maps  hybrid  image  of  the  same  location  at  the  closest  resolution  Google 
Maps  offers: 

90  Frank  Taylor,  "Google  Maps  Gets  Huge  Satellite  Update  from  Google  Earth,"  Google  Earth  Blog, 
24  April  2006,  <  maps  and. html>  (30 
October  2006). 


DOCID:  4046925 


As  you  can  tell  even  from  these  snapshots,  the  Mappy  image  is  not  as  clear  as 
those  provided  by  Google.  Also,  Google  Maps  continues  to  be  the  hands  down 
winner  in  navigating  around  the  map  smoothly. 

Mappy  is  very  good  not  only  for  travel  directions  but  also  for  identifying  local 
landmarks,  hotels,  cash  machines,  parking  lots,  etc.  None  of  the  other  mapping  sites 
can  match  Mappy  in  these  areas  yet,  but  it  is  clear  the  competition  is  fierce  and  map 
sites  and  services  are  oniy  going  to  get  better  and  better. 

Mappy's  Aerial  Photos  (select  Maps  |  Aerial  Photos) 

Street-Level  Map  Views 

Both  France  Telecom  s  Pages  Jaunes  and  Spain's  Callejero  Fotographico  (Pho- 
tographic Street  Guides)  offer  street-level  views  of  cities  using  "stroll"  technologies. 
These  sites  require  the  Macromedia  Flash  plug-in  to  use  the  visual  maps.  Both  sites 
are  worth  a  visit  because  they  are  both  impressive  and  potentially  very  useful  if  you 
ever  need  to  see  a  specific  place  in  one  of  a  number  of  French  or  Spanish  cities. 
This  is  a  snapshot  from  Pages  Jaunes  of  the  Place  du  Carrousel  in  downtown  Paris. 
Note  especially  the  icon  below  the  photograph  that  lets  you  get  a  full  360-degree 
view  of  the  location: 


DOCID:  4046925 


France  Telecom's  Pages  Jaunes 
Spain's  Callejero  Fotographico 

Are  they  perfect?  Of  course  not,  but  these  sites  do  I  think  point  to  a  future  in  which  a 
variety  of  technologies — the  Internet,  GPS,  digital  photography— will  be  used 
together  in  increasingly  creative  ways  to  open  the  world  in  ways  we  are  only 
beginning  to  imagine. 


ViaMichelin  maps  cover  the  US  and  Canada  as  well  as  virtually  all  European 
countries.  In  fact,  for  Europe,  ViaMichelin  is  hard  to  beat,  especially  for  driving 
directions.  Look  at  this  street-level  map  of  Lisbon  (remember,  as  excellent  as  Map24 
is,  it  doesn't  cover  Portugal).  Users  can  even  look  for  such  things  as  speed  cameras 
and  roadwork. 


Dfhfito  dlf eciloiis  |  Hotels  |  Toiuisin  |  Mowing  |  ©My VtaMlchelbi  |  CPS  Navtgtitioii 


Find  a  mop  in  the  UK  and  alt  over 


|  Portugal 

Postcode,  region. .  City,  aica 

Hotels  nearby 

^  Search  all  hotels 
<~  Search  by  date 

Departure  date 


No  of  persons:  \2  \ 
More  criteria 

Ucerul  addresses  nearby 

I  Print  |  Send  bye-mail 


N  -0 

K  do  & 

l^eamsiai         ?       v  So 


a         Jotiw  Aniprto  £ 

L         )DeMac«to  S  a 

Ctly    ;  5^5 

I  use  this  map  as  your  default  map  |  Create  a  link  to  this  map 



V*J  Largo  do 
Tr*&*  -  ^ 

I (jo  do  &  thipdo 

'.i  iff       <  v 

:  O'i  |  E*^  Dos  L  ties Tfc  ,4fc  lAf9° 
3  %  ft  ^         :  cr%„        l»'8o  * 


.24  ■ 



R(iB-Vi!w  Cordon 

5*v  A*1 

\tF  ^  LfliuptloMarqtrtp 
Bus  da  wiinJen* 

©  Tele  Atlas 

ViaMichelin  (Europe,  US,  Canada) 

Best  Mapping  Sites 

Ask  Maps 

France  Telecom's  Pages  Jaunes 
Google  Earth  (must  be  downloaded) 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Maps 




Multimap  (excellent  source  of  maps  worldwide) 

Spain's  Callejero  Fotographico 

Mappy  (Europe) 

ViaMichelin  (Europe,  US,  Canada) 

Windows  Live  Local/Virtual  Earth 
Yahoo  Maps 

Best  Map  Metalndices 

About's  Maps 

Martindale's  "Virtual"  Geoscience  Center  5  GG.html 

Odden's  The  Fascinating  World  of  Maps  and  Map-Making 

Perry-Castaneda  Library  Map  Collection  at  the  University  of  Texas  Austin  collection/map  sites/map  sites.html 

ReisWijs  Route  Planner  Metasite 



DOCID:  4046925 


"Mystery  Hits" 

I  followed  all  these  suggestions  but  I'm  still  getting  hits  that 
seem  completely  unrelated  to  my  query.  Why?  There  are  a 
number  of  possible  explanations: 

1)  You've  included  "stop"  words  that  may  be  read  as 

2)  You're  the  victim  of  misleading  keywords,  e.g.,  "lutefisk" 
was  included  as  a  metatag  keyword  by  the  St.  Paul  Star 
Tribune  because  of  its  popularity  in  Minnesota  to  drive 
traffic  to  the  website. 

3)  You're  the  victim  of  "tiny  words"  (font  so  small  as  to  be 
invisible)  or  "hidden  text"  (text  and  background  are  the 
same  color)  on  a  webpage,  both  of  which  are  often  treated 
as  spam  by  search  engines. 

4)  The  webpage  may  have  changed  between  the  time  it  was 
indexed  and  today. 

5)  You're  the  victim  of  flawed  search  software. 





Uncovering  the  "Invisible"  Internet 

One  of  the  most  frustrating  things  about  Internet  search  tools  is  the  fact  that  even 
the  best  index  only  a  portion  of  the  web,  much  less  the  entire  Internet.  The  deep 
(aka  hidden  or  invisible)  web  continues  to  elude  most  search  services  and  users 
seeking  to  plumb  its  depths.  We  are  still,  for  the  most  part,  dependent  upon  specialty 
tools  and  sites  to  help  us  find  and  exploit  deep  web  resources.  The  challenge  is  how 
to  access  that  part  of  the  web  that  remains  invisible  to  search  engines.  It  is  important 
to  understand  that  search  engines  are  generally  designed  to  index  a  certain  subset 
of  the  Internet:  web  pages  and,  in  some  cases,  certain  types  of  files,  e.g.,  video, 
audio,  PDF91.  Furthermore,  most  search  engines  limit  their  web  page  and 
document  indexing.  For  example,  Google  used  to  index  approximately  the  first 
100KB  of  HTML,  and  reportedly  the  first  megabyte  of  PDF  documents,  but  in 
October  2005,  Google  dramatically  increased  the  size  of  its  cache  limit,  although  no 
one  knows  for  sure  what  that  limit  is.  Yahoo  indexes  at  least  the  first  500KB  of  HTML 
and  PDF  documents.  In  any  event,  long  documents  usually  are  partially  invisible  to 
these  and  other  search  engines.  You  cannot  rely  upon  a  search  engine  spider  to 
index  long  documents  in  their  entirety. 

A9  Search 

At  the  end  of  September  2006,  A9,  the  Amazon. corn-owned  search  property,  made 
sweeping  changes,  some  good  and  some  bad.  Contrary  to  what  some  search 
bloggers  said,  A9  is  not  "dead"  (at  least  not  yet).  But  some  of  A9's  best  features  are 
gone.  As  I  feared,  not  enough  people  used  the  wonderful  "street  view"  map  resource 
and  now  it  is  gone.  As  of  September  29,  2006,  A9  "discontinued  A9  Maps  and  the 
A9  Yellow  Pages  (including  BlockView™)  ...  [and]  discontinued  the  A9  Instant 
Reward  program,  and  the  A9  Toolbar  and  personalized  services  such  as  history, 
bookmarks,  and  diary."  Other  changes  include  "a  new  continuous  scrolling  feature, 
so  you  no  longer  have  to  bother  with  next  and  previous  buttons  to  move  from  one 
page  of  results  to  the  next.  You  can  now  also  drag-and-drop  the  columns  to  change 

91  Google  was  the  first  major  search  engine  to  routinely  index  the  content  of  many  file  types,  including 
pdf,  ps,  xls,  doc,  ppt,  and  others.  See  "Google's  Frequently  Asked  Questions  —  File  Types," 
<  filetypes.html>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


their  order  on  the  page.  A9  had  earlier  switched  from  Google  to  Windows  Live 
Search  for  its  web  and  news  searches. 

Another  big  change  that  is  not  perhaps  obvious  to  the  casual  user  is  that  A9  no 
longer  offers  (or  requires)  that  users  log  in  and  have  every  single  query  ever  made 
at  A9  recorded  and  retrievable.  I  do  not  think  that  A9's  eliminating  the  retention  of 
personal  search  data  is  an  accident  given  some  infamous  "leaks"  of  personal 
information  by  search  services.  In  the  past,  I  had  recommended  using  the  "generic" 
A9  interface  if  you  did  not  want  to  log  in  to  use  A9;  that  requirement  is  now  obviated. 

The  A9  homepage  looks  quite  different.  Notice  that  there  are  a  number  of  options  for 
searching  that  include  dropdown  menus  to  check  the  sources  you  wish  to  search. 



quick  sttfl  i  fefeience 

@j  w«b  by tiv  fi)  reference  *m>wt-f 

rrcwstiyfc  .   w«irth<i  by  orrewerrijconi 

0  w#*nnfu  H*-tJVE$T  clot  IU* 

All  Amazo  AbouLcwn 

Boost  PgojMg 

books  hy-Jtmazon 

i  news  j 

_'  fiiwtory  Itewa 


@J  Webslvtfo  Photo* 
■  _  i  fAy  Image  $eorcli 

_  i  iStockphoto 

S*«  what's  new  and  changed  on, 
Retrieve  your  Bookmark?  and  Diary  entries, 

While  this  is  nice,  it  is  not  much  of  an  improvement  over  the  old  A9.  Also  note  the 
"add  a  search  group"  option  on  the  right  side  of  the  page.  If  you  click  on  that  link,  you 
will  see  the  other  search  categories  you  can  add  to  your  main  A9  search  page  to 
tailor  it  to  your  own  needs. 

92  "What's  New  at,"  A9,  29  September  2006,  <http://a9.eom/-/companv/whatsNew.jsp>  (5 
October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


add  to  your  search  group  list 

BeslSJuff.  Classified,  PncQflo.(Om,  Elettrtinics, 9a eBii  Search,  com.  Newllsetlfluyer  com.  ThmkOeek 

i  -  "- ' 

Indeed  Jobs,  Job  Seated  Preferred  Jobs,  Jobs,  LalPiD. 

Jdti  group 

Full,  Wet)  Search.  Enlh,  Re- QUEST  dot  He\,  RS3 &Mam  Feeds. 
a9  columns 

j  an  <f  roup 

books  by  Amazon.  RedUohtOteen,  i£bn24,  LsmSan 
Library,  MiamiU  Library  C,  MerV/i 

add  group 

KaiJeis. ThinkOeek,  CPAN.  CoiJa-se.  RFC 
Seartn.  Web  Seared,  javadocs,  develop  erwcrks 

ado  #raup 

PubMed,  CP3C  Recall, 
add  group 

create  your  own  group 

groups  1  H 

There  is  a  great  deal  of  customization  available  at  A9.  By  selecting  "edit  groups"  you 
will  be  given  the  choice  of  nearly  500  sources  either  to  add  to  the  default  search 
groups  or,  more  likely,  to  create  your  own  custom  group  and  add  sources  to  it.  For 
example,  you  can  easily  create  a  Blog  Search  custom  group  to  appear  on  the  A9 
homepage  or  you  can  edit  the  basic  groups,  adding  and  subtracting  sources. 

Another  change  at  A9  that  has  not  received  the  attention  it  deserves  is  the  addition 
of  "Web  Booster"  results.  Web  Booster  is  the  Convera  Excalibur  web  search 
service,  which  Clusty,  Highbeam,  and  Govmine  also  use:  "Web  Booster  makes 
standard  search  better  by  digging  down  into  all  the  results  pages  you  don't  have 
time  to  read  and  pulling  up  information  that  you  would  otherwise  miss.  It  is  kind  of 
like  having  a  search  helper  who  goes  and  gets  information  that  might  be  of  interest." 
In  other  word's  Web  Booster  is  a  "deep  web"  resource,  and  it  is  a  default  search 
option  on  A9's  quick  start  menu.  A9  also  retains  what  I  think  is  one  of  its  best 
features,  i.e.,  results  by  column.  Results  from  each  of  the  search  resources  you 
choose  to  search  appear  in  separate  columns  that  are  easily  resizable.  No  other 
search  service  offers  anything  quite  like  this. 

UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 



ll<:1|J   =  piiffcleiKrrS 


search  groups: 

web  by  Svt.coni 
§5  book*  by  jmaiOn 
85  tetettitcelty 

Sf  new4  try  Ihrex  wn 

Blog  Sew  ch 




."HWientrA*  scroll 

1  The  (ran 

^   j  Ahmadi 


and  the 



3  2006  Irar 
Nuclear  Tl 
TfflHf  0»©vernme 
'iS  and  Milltar 
^  Document 

i  rtti  CTtfSrSwfffl 


«  Personalities 

♦  Encyclopedia 

♦  Wkipedia 

ijlh.'Vi  matching  :c pics- 


•  Aradan.  Iran 

•  List  of  mayor i 

•  Kazem  Vazirl 

•  Mohammad-All 

•  Mohammad 

•  Controversies 

•  Bizhan 

•  Manouchehr 

•  Safdar  Hossefni 

-  f  ^ Windows Uve 

1  Irim  Open* 
Nuclear  Sites  to 
Foreign  Tourists 

TEHPWI.itsii  fliriM-rnt 
>V*»'<?jn  AlwiriArtmeHd  ^ 

■*>?;:;  i>l  l  in'i'  fitiV.Hrai 

raiittr.  lo  icwE^tjwc;:  n 

6tOJ*ftm  f-OTiJSCn ,<J9*C3M, 

i'.sle-i  (ji  {stav-asan  f  tffMrtcU 

2  Rfce  Fhhes  For 
Arab  Allies  A*pin$t 

."Aarvroy,i  AltmJMto«jJ<1 

u.^k»!  ?iy  a<      ^s(WA'  his 
RjjCI:W  (.tUf^r .  <Jrttf 

svrw-tcc*t     h;  wcw 

3  Tehran  cays 
nuclear  consortium 
decision  has  still  to 
be  made 

I  he  eMftHrTOr.  ^od  Ihtf 

Ahrniidtnctwl  hi!  rrj-i-e  ilr- 
i«'je  art  ye*  s!  lit?  U">ted 

Web  Booettr 
7  result* 

J  t 

Uflklmj  For  Thk? 
,Thnititllne|.nl  ' 

4  Controversy 
Ntidear  Dispute  with  Meik*l  Ptislies 
Kiubi.m  bij>fomd1k  Roll? 

llllPIU.lti«ll.»l  <C2S--li~>i 

ULOGWOHI'ib;  tiusli:  Uii 
D^e*  itoi  'Iwinie 

5  Biography 

$CG  1  liiiwndtiiHirtl  fiKk 

6  Poll  P.eiuhs 

A9's  web  and  Web  Booster  results  also  include  something  called  "Site  Info."  Simply 
moving  the  mouse  over  the  "Site  Info"  box  brings  up  this  Alexa  feature  that  shows 
various  types  of  information  Alexa  has  collected  about  the  site. 


betp  1  |>iefej«nc*s 

search  > 

search  groups: 

?.?3tth  3ouices  by  loinc. 
,  quick  stan 

0  web  hy  liv*.cs>m 
i  booke  by  Jmaion 


'■  itttrtnct  by 
answers. com 

i  ntws  hy  live.totn 

i  wlltipedrR 


!  Wet>  Boo  tier 

Blog  S«af  th 

;  People 

_j  Companies 

IIIO)  C  30UICCS... 



Bl4IJ*S?<  nclt 
on  the  wflb... 

2.629779  results 
1  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention 

CDC  oftos  lips  (or  travetefs"  heaah.  Ironing  and  employment  itsources.  news  updates,  and  reports  on  Ihe  sp/ead  of  dangerous  distases. 


ows  Lve 

2  Travei 

-<Tli  I  CDC 

US  -  Cemeis  foi  Pisedse  Conlrol  and 
Pieveniion  (CUQ 
c()c  gov 

About  this  site: 

.  Triff.cfljl*; 

•  Silts  lh*t  Lj<*  Nti»- 

•  Onhni>  Sinw:  2?.Agg  9l 

People  who  visit  ihis  page  also  visit: 

•  rCK,'J  ariJ  Drvxj  AijKiiriiplratl^l'i  Eusyi 

s  outbreak  alerts,  reference  mmerial.  destinBtlon  updates,  cruise  sh'p  rispecdon  scores,  recommended 

&  Response  Site 

,  lab  Informal  ton,  emergency  preparedness  tor  business,  preparation  and  planning,  and  surveflance. 

>rism  Updates 

kI  by  the  Centers  tor  Disease  Control  and  ...  Department  ot  Hearth  and  Human  Services.  Centers  tor  Disease 
aclwd  -  ft  inio 

cal  administration  o*  «s  District,  irellotinB,  pianrmrj  and  managing  community  p'ogrammes.  Worrnatlon  about  Is 


CDC  WONOER  is  a  system  tor  dtserrefKitrtg  PuWrc  HeeSh  data  end  mormaiion, 
effects  atler  vaccination  by  . 
httpr^onder  ede  gov/- Cached  -  s««fc>ie 

,  New  Data*  Vaccine  Adverse  Event  Reports  Released  .  Reports  o(  adverse 


DOCID:  4046925 


In  early  2006,  two  great  resources  came  together.  A9  added  people  search  using 
the  excellent  Zoomlnfo  search  tool.  Zoomlnfo  (formerly ,  Eliyon)  is  a  "web 
summarization"  site  that  contains  over  26  million  summaries  of  people  on  the  web. 
According  to  its  FAQ,  "Zoomlnfo  automatically  and  continuously  grows  its  base  of 
Web  Summaries  from  corporate  and  personal  websites,  government  filings,  press 
releases  and  other  public  sources.  All  information  found  by  Zoomlnfo  and  used  to 
create  your  Web  Summary  comes  from  public  sources  and  can  be  found  by  anyone 
by  using  most  major  search  engines  like  Yahoo  and  Google."93  What  Zoomlnfo  does 
for  the  user  is  to  summarize  that  data  and  present  it  in  easy  to  handle  small 
packages.  Basically,  Zoomlnfo  does  some  of  the  "leg  work"  for  you. 

Zoomlnfo  is  not  one  of  the  default  settings  on  the  A9  homepage,  so  you  will  need  to 
add  it  by  selecting  "add  a  search  group,"  "Edit  groups,"  search  for  Zoomlnfo,  and 
add  the  Zoomlnfo  People  and/or  Company  search  to  your  A9  homepage.  Here  are 
the  results  for  an  A9  people  and  book  search  on  Brewster  Kahle  of  the  Internet 
Archive  fame: 

help  :  pfefeiericaa 

[  biewster  kahte 

\   soarch>  ?l 

O  web  by 
P)  books  i>y  Amazon 
[J  reference  by 
answer  s.coni 
G  newc  l>yllv».<om 
fj  vvikipedta 
!  J 
Q  Web  Boostei 
{  _'}  Bloij  Sew  ch 
@  People 
Q  Companies 
moie  ftouicee.., 





on  Iho  wott... 

Zoomlnfo  Person  Search  for  brewster  kahle 

5  results 

1  Brewer  Kahle  -at  Internet  Archive  organization 

said  Kalile,  slanting  at  the  podium  inside  ttie  Coition  Gate  Club.  -  Founder  of  the  Internet  Ai chive,  Kahle  Is  an  ebuHent...  (mcne) 

2  Brewster  Kahle  «  The  IESG 

3.  It  Is  w»h  regret  thsl  I  report  that  Bernhard  Stockman  has  resigned  as  Co-Director  ot  the  Require  me  rvt?  Aie.i  of  the  IESG,...  (more) 

3  Brewster  Kahle  at  European  Union 

Biet*stei  Kjhle  Joint  Reoeaich  Commission,  European  Union 

j  4  Brewster  Kahie  at  Joint  Research  Commission  ,  European  Union 

I    Browser  K.ihte  Joint  Reqeji  eli  Commrsoion  ,  European  Union  - 


!  5  Brewster  Kahle  at  Life  Liberty  and  the  Pursuit  of  Nappines 

!    Biewctei  Kahle 

•liUI  I  fttn<>ve  Sftiii  cli 

Now,  when  I  click  on  the  first  hit  under  people  summaries,  I  get  a  rather  impressive 
dossier  on  Kahle.  I  can't  show  you  nearly  all  of  what  is  on  this  page — this  is  just  the 
top  part  of  an  extensive  entry  that  you  will  note  was  "automatically  generated  using 
234  references  found  on  the  Internet." 

FAQ,  Zoomlnfo,  <http://www.zQominfo.eom/#  >  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


!  ■;>. 

i   m  l 

Be  fcund 

About  Us 

Mr.  Brewster  Kahle  This  is  me 

Board  Member 

Electronic  Frontier  Found-aticm 

tmpioyment  History 


inter  net  A?chve  -  San  h&icsco,  C^ifonv 

^  Punt  View. 

Board  f^rroa 

Eiedcton::  rr  enter  f  CJP^dcCiori 

Or  a  if  ssfcians 

Ctwitabas  Oi  senator*  F. 


Inter-net  Antfcve 

Media  &.  Internet 

Swardh  £rt£.nt^  ^.  lotctxcd  Portals 

Ate^a  internet 

I^iNji  matior*  Colteccion  &  fcelivei  y 

Show  A(l 


Colleagues  &  Aisocfate^ 

v-  =  verifcsd         ^  =  Uox  V=n?ied 

Zoomlnfo  also  searches  for  "companies,"  but  keep  in  mind  that  they  index  more 
than  just  companies  or  businesses — you  will  find  all  sorts  of  organizations, 
associations,  academies,  etc.,  in  their  database. 




Powers  «ueh 

About  Us 

Alcatel  SA 


26501  W.  Agoura  Rd. 
Calabasas,  CA  91301 

Phone:  (818)707-1220 
Fax:  (918)  707-6298 

WebsRe:  ww.alc.a' 

Industry:      r4anuFacturmg,  TelMommunitatiori  Equipment 
Revenues:    $15.1  BiPJon 
Employees:  263516 

Th«  summary  was  automat icafly  generated  using  reformation  found  on  the 
Internet,  Vfe/j  selected  web  t?ferenw 

Company  Description 

Akace!  provide*  communications  solutions  to  telecorrminicabon  carriers,  Internet 
service  providers  and  enterprises  for  delivery  of  voice,  data  and  video  applications  I 
their  customers  or  employees.  Alcatel  brings  its  leadnrj  posrtion  m  fixed  and  mobile 
broadband  networks,  applications  and  services,  to  help  its  partners  and  customers 
b^d  a  user -centric  broadband  world.  With  sales  of  EURO  13. 1  twhon  and  58,000 
employees  in  2005,  Alcatel  operates  in  more  than  130  countries. 

BeFound  Pro  Feature* 

Show  till  tiCO&&*1  3t  Alcdttl  5A 
Show  cwnpslitors  cc  Akate!  SA 


White  Paper* 

3>ralfiQr  VVhfce  Paper:  Coweroenl 
Transport  Networks 

Stratt^  J  Writs  Papii :  3ey&"«l 
Ken-Speed  Inters  ■  tfuilritrig 
MuJti-Servlco  Broadband 

Me*m  Ethernet.  quality  or  Services: 
Teetwtagy  White  P-sctr 

3NE  T 

Summary  loots 



DOCID:  4046925 


You  can  also  go  directly  to  Zoomlnfo  to  search  companies  and/or  people. 

Other  features  and  facts  about  A9  you  should  know: 

>  "A9  Lite  (  is  a  version  of  that  has  been  designed  to  work 
on  older  web  browsers  as  well  as  many  mobile  devices.  A9  Lite  does  not 
require  JavaScript,  so  if  JavaScript  on  your  browser  is  turned  off,  or  if  you 
have  an  older  browser,  you  will  automatically  be  sent  to  A9  Lite.  A9  Lite 
provides  limited  functionality,  and  does  not  have  search  groups,  continuous 
scrolling,  or  the  ability  to  add  additional  search  sources."94 

>  advanced  Live  search  options  are  available,  and  Live's  special  web  syntax 
appears  to  work. 

>  continuous  scroll  eliminates  need  to  click  to  see  more  results. 

>  cached  option  is  available. 

>  no  "similar  pages"  or  "more  results  from..."  options. 

Clearly,  Amazon  is  ambivalent  about  A9  and  its  future,  but  given  Amazon's 
extraordinary  accomplishments  and  the  company's  innovative  approach  to  providing 
information  (and  selling  stuff),  I  hope  A9  will  not  merely  survive  but  thrive. 

A9  Lite 

Book  Search 

Google,  Amazon/A9,  Microsoft's  Live  Book  Search,  and  Project  Gutenberg 
<>  provide  an  invaluable  service  for  researchers  that  is  not 
duplicated  by  any  other  type  of  search.  This  new  approach  to  search  is  nothing  short 
of  a  revolution  in  the  way  we  are  able  to  discover,  access,  and  use  information.  Book 
search  results  are  frequently  better  in  terms  of  authoritativeness,  utility,  and 
thoroughness.  However,  I  have  found  that  the  overlap  among  the  three  book  search 
services  appears  to  be  even  less  than  the  overlap  among  web  searches. 

A9  Help,  <http://a9.eom/-/company/help.isp#lite>  (10  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


If  you  are  serious  about  in-depth  research,  you  must  use  book  search  sites.  The  fact 
is,  the  information  avaitabie  through  book  search  is  for  the  most  part  entirely 
different  from  that  provided  by  web  search.  I  urge  you  to  use  this  deep  web 
source,  which  Newsweek  correctly  described  as  "a  lightning  bolt  from  the  future."95 

Amazon's  "Search  Inside  the  Book" 

A9  (select  "books  by  Amazon") 

Amazon  (search  "Books") 

Despite  its  many  options,  the  main  reason  for  using  A9  is  Amazon's  Search  Inside 
the  Book  feature,  a  major  and  unique  tool  for  researching  the  invisible  web.  Until  I 
started  using  it,  I  did  not  realize  how  important  and  valuable  this  feature  is  for 
researchers.  Search  Inside  the  Book  lets  users  search  through  millions  of  pages 
from  hundreds  of  thousands  of  books  in  the  Amazon  catalog.  Unlike  most  book 
searches,  most  of  the  searchable  books  at  Amazon  are  still  under  copyright.  To 
avoid  copyright  infringement  problems,  users  can  only  access  content  of  books  for 
which  Amazon  has  the  publisher's  permission  to  display  copyrighted  material.  Also, 
while  anyone  can  search  inside  the  available  books,  only  registered  Amazon  users 
can  see  the  full  text. 

However,  if  you  are  able  to  register  to  use  Amazon's  service,  Amazon's  Search 
Inside  the  Book  results  are  often  better  than  web  searches  in  terms  of 
authoritativeness,  utility,  and  thoroughness.  Furthermore,  Amazon's  Search  Inside 
the  Book  often  lets  users  view  the  full  content  of  books  for  which  Google's 
and  Live's  book  searches  only  provide  limited  views. 

Search  Inside  the  Book  is  an  option  to  search  full  text  and  full  image  content,  but 
only  as  permitted  by  the  publisher.  This  means  that  given  two  different  editions  of 
the  same  book — in  this  example,  Pride  and  Prejudice — one  is  fully  searchable  while 
the  other  is  not.  How  do  you  determine  which  books  allow  you  to  search  their 
contents?  Look  for  the  "Search  Inside"  logo  with  any  book  at  Amazon,  if  it  is 
there,  you  can  search  the  contents  of  the  book  (including  front  and  back  covers, 
table  of  contents,  index,  and  text).  Only  keyword  searching  works  (no  phrases,  for 
example)  and  ALL  terms  are  searched.  Here  is  an  example  of  a  search  for  [pride 
prejudice]  in  Austen's  classic: 

yb  Steven  Levy,  "Welcome  to  History  2.0,"  Newsweek,  10  November  2003, 
<>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 



(p.cftflMtn  cf^icja 

3an«  Austen.,  Vivmn  3nn«j  ~ 

Tanv  Tanner  2<50rn  ln 

Zoom  Out 

126  uted  and  hew  from  ^.3^  j 

J  Left  Panels 

•*pa*i  h  |  Inside  **iis  feook 3 
f pride  p>mudiee     "  jjg 

V'  i  i.  Single  P-age 
I  ■';  Continuous 

Help  ▼ 


_o;  vr«ght 


a^k  tpvtf  r 
>';rprsc  Met 

If  Elizabeth,  when  Mr.  Darcv  gave  her  the  letter,  did  not  expect 
ir  to  contain  a  renewal  of  his  offers*  she  had  formed  no  expec- 
tation at  ail  of  its  contents.  But  such  as  thev  were,  it  may  be  well 
stioposed  how  eaaeHv  she  wem  through  them,  and  what  a 
contrariety  of  emotion  thev  excited.  Her  fee  Lines  as  she  read 
were  scarcely  to  be  defined.  With  amazement  did  she  first  under- 
stand thai  he  believed  any  anoloev  to  be  in  his  power;  and 
stedfastlv  was  she  persuaded  that  he  could  have  no  explanation 
to  snve.  which  a  just  sense  of  shame  would  not  conceal.  With  a 
strong  prejudice  against  every  thine  he  micht  say,  she  began  his 


J  21 

Notice  you  can  view  the  pages  continuously,  view  just  the  image  of  the  page,  and 
zoom  in  or  out.  What  you  cannot  do,  unless  you  buy  an  upgrade,  is  print  the  book  (or 
any  part  of  it),  add  bookmarks,  highlight  passages,  or  copy  portions.  The  conditions 
for  upgrading  your  search  inside  the  book  options  require  that  you  purchase  or  have 
purchased  from  in  the  past  the  specific  book  you  wish  to  search.  At 
present,  upgrades  are  only  available  to  US  customers. 

Here  are  a  couple  of  important  things  to  remember  about  Amazon's  Search  Inside 
the  Book:  you  can  actually  search  the  entire  Amazon  book  database  or  even  the 
entire  Amazon  product  line  from  any  search  inside  the  book  query  screen.  The 
dropdown  search  menu  includes  options  to  search  all  Amazon  books  or  products. 

Search  [  Inside  this  Book 

Inside  this  Book  Books 

All  Products 

The  Web  ( 

Furthermore,  the  A9  search  engine  will  also  search  inside  all  books  in  the  Amazon 
database  and  does  so  more  efficiently.  From  my  experience,  I  can  tell  you  that 
Amazon  may  claim  it  cannot  find  any  results  that  match  your  search;  however, 
selecting  "Click  here  to  see  additional  results  that  may  be  relevant  to  your  search" 
brings  up  the  same  results  you  would  get  from  an  A9  search  for  the  same  term,  so 



DOCID:  4046925 


always  check  those  additional  results  just  in  case  (or  use  A9  in  the  first  place).  As  of 
now  A9  remains  the  most  efficient  way  to  search  inside  the  books  at  Amazon  if  you 
want  to  search  across  the  Amazon  database  and  not  within  a  specific  book.  Look  for 
the  "See  more  references  to  [keyword]  in  this  book"  in  the  A9  book  search. 

The  easiest  way  to  understand  the  A9  search  is  to  try  it.  Here  are  the  results  for  the 
query  [elliptic  curve  cryptography]  limited  to  books  by  Amazon. 


fi^lp    ;  pl«t«l«l)C<! 

search  groups: 

.quick  start 

@  boohs  by  amnion 
,J  i  ef ei  tuce  by 


i  news 
!  wiktpedio 
1  AU  Amnion. com 
!  Web  Boostei 
■  Bloy  Search 
tnwi  <f  !}Owtcw„ 

i  efer  mtc>% 



oitif  icmove  setUch 


elbptic  curve  Glyptography 

search  ?  j 

1 ,474  results 

1  Advance?  in  Elliptic  Curve  Cryptography  {London  Mathematical  Society  Lecture  Note 

by  Ian  F  Bioko.  Gsdiel  Seroussi.  and  Nigoi  P.  Smart  (31  May.  !005)  -  CambrWgo  Unlversrty  Press 

2  Guide  to  Elliptic  Curve  Cryptography  (Springer  Professional  Computing) 

by  Darrel  Hankerson,  Alfred  J.  Meneies.  and  Scott  Venstone  0  -  Springer 

'      3  Implementing  Elliptic  Curve  Cryptography 

by  Michael  Rosing  (01  January,  1998)  -  Manning  Publications 

4  Elliptic  and  Hyperetliptic  Curve  Cryptography.  Theory  and  Practice 

by  Henri  Cohen.  Gerhard  Frev ,  Roberto  Avaozi.  Christophe  Doche,  Tsnja  Lartge,  Kim  Nguyen,  and  Frederfc  Vercauteren  (19  July, 
2005)  ■  Chapman  &  HalfCRC 

mH  ^iirll'P*.'.?  ^•ur.Y.?.s-.fP>,f^crete _jy1o^jgiv»_oti_c s  and  fes  Applications}! 
F"^  by  Lawrence  C.Washington  (28  May.  2003)  -  Chapman  R  H*IJCRC 

$  Elliptic  Curve  Public  Key  Cryptosystems  [The  International  Series  in  Engineering  and 

Computer  Science} 

by  Alfred  J.  Menezes  0  -  Springer 

I>.>ne1  .  "  ..  and  then  proceed  to  ntroduce  elliptic  cmve  cryptosystems.  1 .1  Private  Key  Ciyptoyrapliy  The  fundamental 
goal  of  ciyptoguphy  has  historically  been  to  achieve  ... " 

See  mote  lefcieticcc  to  ellipitic  cmve  ciyptogi  jplty  in  this  book. 

On  the  right  are  results  from  a  search  across  the  vast  Amazon  database.  If  you  click 
on  a  link  to  one  of  the  books,  that  book's  entry  at  Amazon  appears,  along  with  a  new 
Search  Inside  the  Book  option.  From  here,  you  have  to  enter  the  search  terms  again 
(an  extra  step  A9/Amazon  would  do  well  to  eliminate).  Here  are  the  results  for  the 
query  [fermat's  last  theorem]  in  this  specific  book: 



DOCID:  4046925 


AmazonOntineRearier    vieWT  pao*P      of  448 

Help  - 

Return  to  Amazon. com 

mm  n  ath^matt g 15  d 

jggl;  Applications) 

1-10  of  73  pages  with  references  to  fermat's  last  theorem: 

Return  to  book 
1>  un_Pa_ua..7.: 

"...  This  equation  represents  the  easiest  case  of  Fermat's  Lost  Theorem,  which  asserts 
that  the  sum  of  two  nonzero  nth  powers  of  integers  cannot  he  a  nonzero  pith  power 

when  n  ..." 

2.  o.Li.Pa.ue.„3.&: 

"...  Arabs  in  the  900s  and  represents  a  special  case  of  Fermat's  Last  Theorem,  which 
asserts  that  the  sure  of  two  nonzero  nth  powers  of  integers  cannot  be  a  nonzero  nth 
power  when  n  ..." 

"...  deduce  from  this  that  the  only  integer  solutions  to  a4  +  b4  -  c'2  satisfy  ab  -  □.  This 
yields  Fermaf  s  Last  Theorem  for  exponent  4.  We  will  discuss  this  in  more  detail  in 
Chapter  8.  ..." 

4.  oil  Page  Vij: 

"...  Therefore  #E(Fq,,)  -  qn  +  1  -  s.  -  1  -  a"  (mod  p).  By  Fermat's  little  theorem,  ap-r  ■  1 
(mod  p).  Therefore,  E(Fgv-l)  has  order  divisible  by  p,  hence  contains  a  point  of  order  p.  ..." 

5.  on  Page  371: 

■'...  Chapter  13  Fermat's  Last  Theorem  13,1  Overview  Around  1637,  Fermat  wrote  in  the 
margin  of  his  copy  of  Diophantus's  work  that,  when  n  >  3,  ..." 

6.  on  P3Q6  372: 

"...  372  CHAPTER  13  FERMAT'S  LAST  THEOREM  exponents.  Refinements  of  Kummer's 
ideas  by  Vandiver  and  others,  plus  the  advent  of  computers,  yielded  extensions  of 
Kummer's  results  to  ..." 

7.  on  Paaajga: 

"...  374  CHAPTER  13  FERMAT'S  LAST  THEOREM  numbers  ar,  under  control.  Frey  predicted 
the  following,  which  Ribet  proved  in  1986;  THEOREM  13.  ..." 

8.  on  Page  376: 

As  you  can  see,  each  of  the  23  pages  with  references  to  Fermat's  Last  Theorem  in 
this  book  appear  in  order.  From  here,  you  can  select  a  specific  page  and  view  it,  but 
only  if  you  are  a  registered  Amazon  user. 

UNci_ASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


Amazon  OnlineReader    v,ew  *  pag^F 

Return  10  Amaicn, 

Flllotk  Curvea  (Discrete 
Mathematics  and  Its 

"  Waihjno 
Price;  $94.99 

9  ring. 

45  us  fed  and  ntYi  from  *7Z.74 

Search  |  Inside  this  Book  ""*] 

|fermats  last  the  ore 
Back  to  search  remits 

=     Table  of  Contents 
t  Copyright 
rf  Excsrpt 

Back  Cover- 
Surprise  Me! 

IN    'tj(  t  nil!-  ,til--;it  Mil  I'i  il  -p.  <i\v   1  *<r«IHi'!! 
(  ">-i":(i'  '  1  ]:•'  i  III'"    I  ■  lid  .1  rijii. 

!!>  i.-i  r  «1n»  <vj-        t-  ••■>  t    f»i}'.i-»wl  m'Jmi'om.*  ;vt«U  /»/•     •*       <<  - 
t(;,  iji  !ltt  '.Miii-  .mil  (i-;.-cvir  ■     >:j>vj,si  <\.m-  w»     un.v I  .ci 

|  ;ti  r.|.  rii  i-l-irii  .v.-  —  -rl-  ljl.1  )!(■  -1)1!  <>l '  M)n/-i'fii  nlll  [>.)',Vi'[v  ill  int.  Ut  t> 
i  )'i"t<'!  ln-  H  ?}"!>ir'  i  !i  t>..'.v<  ;  w.i(c[t  ■  i.  I  in  fii-!  mnit)  lit  [  li>  i  ,im>  f:  !i 
vv,i  ps<.'..(|,I\  i|n--  (c  t  -  \\t  tl  ii;-<  ii--.  -iiiiji  ,,f  i  lr  nli-iv>  lie  pMu.f  iti 
;{;•  •>.  m<  >•  «!  ■        ■?,  I  inpi<  i  1.1 

Vfj-.]  <i-.  ■  ir[,n  ;l  .        :  U  „n<f  (<;    /  ('   Sin.  >-  ,  '      v*      !'   '  '-i    < '' 

y  ■>        ■:  '  ■    v.,    (,ll!-f  ■    ■    <i   t  *i.    \t  .,(,- 

I'.-.i    -  ■:!  ■■    „     ,  .       J      .;.-._»■■•  u,',--      \  ■■  U  b;  r,  ■  ..-in 

Jr-   lit*.  ■  Im;  [.    !  In-      -..ii  c-U-|l..l  M-.iHTH!  i';  it   if  l(i  ■  '-ii'v  t  itimul  .jil.dinr,. 

'.i  sV*  .  .(Hi-  •.,)<        ;;  -(i       nj.  ■:[■;•.  \    i  hi  ::i.-<-  i,<;  M\  m-  -tK 

■      .j.      ■/     0   Sm^.iI.kK.  'j;        ,U,  vi.  hi-  '      u.  Ch-  (..ii^it  uscK 

:  ■«  .  .iir.i.;i.nt-l-  I".  w  hi.  li  -i:.  .u;-  lit.'i  -  =J  I  h>  . 
t*si  ti  .iT<  (ii>  ->!'rr^'t  ■      :    ■.  -t    '•  ■       i»  win  t.  /ij  fl 

Registered  Amazon  users  can  view  the  full  text,  although  Amazon  prohibits 
downloading  or  printing96  of  these  pages  for  copyright  reasons. 

Until  recently,  no  one  really  came  close  to  Amazon's  book  search  option,  but  Google 
and  Live  Search  are  making  great  strides  with  their  respective  book  searches. 

Google  Book  Search 

The  shift  during  2005  from  the  old  Google  Print,  which  was  designed  to  "provide 
links  to  some  popular  book  sellers  that  may  offer  the  full  versions  of  these 
publications  for  sale,"  to  Google  Book  Search  transformed  this  service  into  a 
genuine  competitor  of  Amazon's  Search  Inside  the  Book. 

As  a  further  sign  of  Google's  commitment  to  digitizing  print  materials  and  making 
them  searchable,  Google  added  a  distinct  Google  Book  Search  homepage  during 
2005.  Unlike  Google's  web  search,  Google  Book  Search  only  searches  an  index  of 

There  is  an  inelegant  work-around  to  enable  printing  of  pages  inside  books  at  Amazon;  put  your 
browser  into  full  screen  and  select  "Print  Screen";  then  paste  the  image  into  either  Word  or 
PowerPoint  and  print  from  there. 



DOCID:  4046925 


books  either  from  its  publishers'  collection  or  its  library  collection.  It's  important  to 
understand  the  enormous  significance  of  this  search:  Google  Book  Search  searches 
the  content  of  thousands  of  books.  Here's  what  Google  says  about  its  service: 

"When  we  find  a  book  whose  content  contains  a  match  for  your  search  terms, 
we'll  link  to  it  in  your  search  results.  Click  a  book  title  and  you'll  see  the 
Snippet  View  which,  like  a  card  catalog,  shows  information  about  the  book 
plus  a  few  snippets  -  a  few  sentences  of  your  search  term  in  context.  You 
may  also  see  the  Sample  Pages  View  if  the  publisher  or  author  has  given  us 
permission  or  the  Full  Book  View  if  the  book  is  out  of  copyright.  In  all  cases, 
you'll  also  see  'Buy  this  Book'  links  that  lead  directly  to  online  bookstores 
where  you  can  buy  the  book."97 

Each  book  indexed  by  Google  includes  an  "About  this  book"  page  with  basic 
bibliographic  data  like  title,  author,  publication  date,  length  and  subject.  There  are 
three  types  of  "views"  for  scanned  books: 

5.  Full  view:  only  for  books  that  Google  has  publisher  permission  for  or  are  in  the 
public  domain  (out  of  copyright).  If  the  book  is  in  the  public  domain,  users  can 
download,  save,  and  print  a  PDF  version  of  the  book. 

6.  Limited  preview:  books  from  Google's  Partner  Program  permit  users  to  view  a 
few  full  pages.  Even  in  limited  preview  users  can  run  multiple  searches  within  the 
book  or  browse  the  available  pages. 

Web    Images    Video    Mews    Maps    Desktop    more  » 
GOOgle  N^kaa,  exchange"  i  Search  Books  SiS^t^t. 

BooK  Search  O  a  u    Search:  ^  All  books  C  Full  view  books 

BOOk  Search  Books 

Funding  Evil:  How  Terrorism  is  Financed  -  And  How  to  Stop  It  -  Page  48 
by  Rachel  Ehrenteld  -  2005  -  296  pages 

...  continued  to  maintain  their  association  with  his  family  and  with  him.79  Al-Barakaat 
Exchange  The  al-Barakaat  Bank,  headquartered  in  Dubai  (which  was  one  ... 
Limited  preview  -  Tabip  of  CcMnsn'5  -  About JhteM^Ji 

7.  Snippet  view:  users  can  view  the  "About  this  book"  page  and  search  within  the 
book.  Search  results  will  show  a  maximum  of  three  snippets  of  text  from  the  book 
with  the  query  term  highlighted. 

8.  No  preview  available:  users  will  only  see  an  "About  this  book"  page  with 
bibliographic  information  about  the  book  and  links  to  bookstores  or  libraries 
where  the  book  may  be  available. 

About  Google  Book  Search,  <>  (14  November  2006). 

UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  UGH  ONLY 


DOCID:  4046925 


Even  a  limited  preview  can  provide  very  useful  information.  As  you  can  see,  the 
query  terms  are  highlighted  in  the  text  and  there  is  a  search  box  that  permits 
additional  searches  inside  the  specific  book.  Furthermore,  you  can  view  the  book's 
table  of  contents  and  index,  read  a  summary,  and  find  out  more  about  the  book. 

Search  Books 

Couple  Book  Search  |oJ  borakaot  exchange 

Funding  Evil:  How  Terrorism  Is  Financed  -  And  How  to  Stop  It  oy  n*h*  EfceMew 


Sign  in 

Full  screen 

I  he  bliiniisi  l'Uif$iic:  AJ-Qaeda 

i he  liiUlmn,  along  whh  &iudi  Arabia  and  Pakistani,  wa*>  actively  in- 
volved in  ihfi  funding  of  ii;m>ri<m.  It  was  fnundird  in  I<IH»J  hy  a  So- 
m;ili  finrtiKif  r  and  close  friend  of  Osama  bin  laden.  Ahmed  .N'ur 
Iirnjil*.-.»,r*  Jimiile  lia<)  hecomv  familiar  wiih  die  American  hanking  sys- 
inn  while  w<  irking  hoi  wren  15171)  und  11)86  nl  die  Suiuli  American 
Bank,  founded  in  leddah  by  Citibank. 

Al- byrakaat  Nonh  America  was  headquartered  in  t  kuchesier.  Mass- 
achnseii.v  with  lirandies  in  Minnesota,  Ohio,  and  Washington  Srate. 
Al-Hamkanis  tics  in  die  extended  lo  the  HoyaJ  Bunk  of  Scotland; 
PLC*.  Citizens  Hank  Unii:  II1  Morgan  Chase  and  Company"';  Oiase 
Manhattan;  key  Corps  Key  Hank  Unii:  t  irsi  Data  Girp's  Western  Union: 
and  Ciiij-mup'i  Citibank  and  SunTrust  hank.  In  addiiion.  al-Ilankaat 
wnrknl  widi  die  Ainrrie  jih  hninch  i>f  al-Barakn  Exchange,  which  Ji- 
nanced  yer  another  nl-Oacda-afhliarrtl  huMnpss.  nl-Haramain  Trading, 
in  E-jQ-pi  and  Chechnya.  Al-Barakaui.  tciycihct  with  sull  another  hank. 
uMaqwn.  raised,  managed,  invested.  ;ind  distributed  funds  for  al- 
Qaeda:  provided  ierrnn\t.s  with  Internet  sorviecv  secured  leleplione 
comniiiniciuoiLY  and  arranged  fur  shipments  of  wrapnnv*1 

■Vi-lkirakaat  jImj  used  die  htuvaUt  st-ivices  of  another  I  Jukti  hank, 
ihcal-ltaraka  I' srhanpe.  tn  transfer  dose  io  SI  million  to the  Sepicm- 
bcr  )i  hijackers"-  through  Western  Union  financial  Services.  OVe<a- 
cm  Union  was  fined  SB  million  hy  New  York  hank  regulators  in  2002 
On  vidian^;  tepurtiin:  requirements,  enabling  money  laundering, 
and  lermriM  iiiiaiu  inji.)'1-1 

By  terrorism  expert  Rachel 
Ehrenfeld,  uncovers  the 
clandestine  and  sinister  ways  thai 
Islamic  terrorist  groups  finance 
their  global  network.  Terrorist  have 
grown  increasingly  savvy  rn  ways 
to  bolster  their  financial  power.... 
More  about  this  book 

Q  Content* 

Table  of  Contents 
Title  Page 


6  Buy  this  book 

Bonus  Books.  Inc.  ■  Publish?: 


Find  this  book  in  a  library 

9  Search  in  rhis  book 
Go  I 

Google  Book  Search  offers  a  number  of  advanced  search  options  either  using  the 
advanced  search  page  or  special  syntax: 

>  inpublisher:  Publishers  such  as  W.  W.  Norton  need  only  be  searched  as 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  inpublisher:  command:  [inpublishero-reilly] 

>  inauthor:  Unless  the  author  is  Shakespeare  or  Chaucer,  a  full  name  search 
is  advisable. 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  inauthor:  command:  [inauthor:patrick-o-brian] 

>  intitle:  Multiple  word  titles  are  best  searched  for  as  phrases,  i.e.,  in  double 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  intitle:  command: 
[intitle:"nutmeg  of  consolation"] 

>  isbn:  Very  useful  for  finding  a  specific  edition  of  a  book  because  the 
International  Standard  Book  Number  uniquely  identifies  each  edition, 


DOCID:  4046925 


variation,  or  format. 

Example  of  how  to  use  the  isbn:  command:  [isbn:0393030326] 

All  of  these  special  search  operators — with  the  exception  of  ISBN,  which  identifies  a 
unique  entry — can  be  used  in  combination  or  alone.  For  example,  the  query 
[inpublishennorton]  returns  almost  61,000  pages  from  books  published  by  W.  W. 
Norton.  I  can  add  to  this  query  a  keyword  for  a  title,  e.g.,  [inpublisher:o-reilly 
intitle:programming]  to  see  how  many  books  O'Reilly  publishes  with  programming  in 
the  title.  Or  I  can  look  for  keywords  occurring  anywhere  in  a  specific  publisher's 
books:  [inpublisher:o-reilly  "network  security"]. 

To  find  public  domain  books  that  can  be  viewed  using  Google  Books'  Viewer  and 
downloaded  as  PDFs,  first  restrict  the  search  to  "full  view  books"  because  all  public 
domain  books  can  be  downloaded.  However,  the  converse  is  not  true:  all  full  view 
books  are  not  downloadable.  How  can  you  tell  if  a  book  can  be  downloaded?  As  of 
now,  the  only  way  to  do  so  is  to  select  the  book  and  see  if  the  Download  PDF 
option  appears,  as  it  does  here: 

^ic  Book  Snatch  lauihorvififteheaditKiilQ  mathematics  Search  Books 

introduction  to  Mathematics  _  .  ~.  ,>.-i  m 

|^^|  D  CD 





The  study  of  mathematics  is  apt  to  com- 
mence in  disappointment.  The  important 
applications  of  the  science,  the  theoretical 
interest  of  its  idena,  and  the  logical  rigour  of 
its  methods,  nil  generate  the  expectation  of 
m  spced.v  introduction  to  processes  of  interest. 
We  are*  told  that  by  its  aid  the  stars  are 
weighed  and  the  billions  of  molecules  in  a 
drop  of  water  are  counted.  Yet,  like  the 
fchost  of  Hamlet's  father,  this  great  science 
eludes  the  efforts  of  our  mental  weapons 
lo  grasp  it — ""fis  here,  'tis  there,  'tis 
i7f>no" — (*nH  whrit  wp  Hn  sen  does  not  stiff  ires  t 

a.  Fun  sc 

*i  S  Summary 


Ab(HJi  i his  book 

H  Contents 

l^bla  of  Cuntenjs 
CHAP  PAGE  j  THE... 




P  Buy  this  book 



fit.d  this  bCicV  in  a  fibr^iy 

Search  in  this  booK 



DOCID:  4046925 


Please  note  that  you  can  also  search  inside  the  book  from  this  page.  Google  Book 
Viewer  includes  a  zoom  option  and  the  option  to  view  one  or  two  pages  at  a  time, 
making  the  page-to-page  scroll  much  smoother.  I  cannot  recommend  Google's 
"About  This  Book"  option  highly  enough:  it  provides  the  book's  publication 
information,  a  summary,  links  to  find  the  book  in  a  library  or  to  buy  it,  the  table  of 
contents,  selected  pages,  related  books  or  references  from  the  book,  and  key  terms. 

L,o  ^lo  P'.r<kV.iTh  fiie-i  Saeich Books  | 

Iran:  time  for  a  new  approach;  Report  of  an  independent  task  force 


]  By  Zbignrew  K 
f/ichfrtl  Olios.  Swafir* 

C  ounoil  on  Foreign 

PoFitics  /  Cuiren  Event  i 

84  pages 

Rs*»thfs  IkkiK 


■  OftiAn,  ir^an,  ru'-o* 
T.i?h  fo*te  Repcrt 

AldiiinnfJ  una  Q>S'V ;  Vjevf5 
flonptolifefwl'tr-.  fuel,  pcf  s'n^n 

ad Vi', 1 1.  tjoldliald,  iiVj 
T  i -i  -ft mi  Oo^p'vo-^ 
jauneel ,  utws*.  fcippei 

tfft-ggrft  fs?;[*>  li  smut  flhS  *r  I  Prjijj£.  d  A-'.lor* 
■/stiic.  hojjatefesfam,  ay&tr 

Related  books 

in  I hio  l  moly  topcn,  a  b  |;->nac»n  you?  of  experts  amdudi&s  ttol  too  k-Jnmu; 
Republic  f3  solidly  entrenched  ar?.1  thai  ite  uipfirrry  of  the-iiwcems  around  Irak's 
policies  mandates  that  vVashington  d?al  wjh  the  current  jegifne  rather  iMn  wa.1  it 
oul.  Thy  Task  force  <•  to  c;u  ?9d  by  former  National  Se-cumy  Atfvi^er  Zln gmgw 
Brzer.in3l.i  antf  'j'fiiei  Oiicrm-  of  Central  "mf'Hjt  v.s  Robert  M  Garten 
tecorp mends  se;e«r*e  erqagemem  with  Tehran  to  yjtorr.Gje  tMjicflal  stakilvty. 
dissuade  'ran  from  pj^uing  ntxleai  weapons,  pre-serv*  reliable  energy  supplies 
roduc  f  lha  Hn"«si  of  f#TOit  and  8ddi*»  tho  "do/nf  £>acy  deficit'  thai  parades  l he 
Middle  Fafl  S3  a  vrfiole  T*>s  -/olunre  in^des  a  crronqlogy  of  irt!|igftarit  (totes  in 
U  S  -Ifanian  history,  ecoramic  and  rjemogiapryc  E3£!S  aboui  Iran,  pta*  reference 
rnaltra' :  on  lram»r>  sjatt?  irrettutidns  sr.d  governance.  The  report  s 
locoii'fncndoiiofts       3?  irked  ces.iro  m  Wat and  ganoid  asterisk-* 
coverage  hy  -U  S  and  inrpiriar&Tiai  media 

Selected  page? 


Buy  rhis  book 

Bawtte&M  jo'^  com 

Bfifiowllife  hftok 

Key  terms 

Iran,  ta^k  imcfe.  paw  an.  .-«'»n  i  republic,  .git,',  an  .rani^n  frfkijlj,  u»o.  hard  lirteis, 
nucloai.  ■,.tii  ijn.  ..'a;mc.  pit- ;  W.  khil >tV'.  aful^r.^ttin.  irpni^n  .•:  jciui, 
hrvlwilah.  pjmpftap  ■ifr^.  pprs  an  grtlf,  sflffc'ar')  frir,<>frtn.  sqndi  a; at 

~h»cturq  Iran's  Nuc'.33r  Arr&itcns 

rvodutlton  I  Ver^  Sofcolski  1  Checking  lisr's  Mutleai  Amtoioivy 

^tpoit  Recomrrtiidalion?  NPsrC  Project     Ifan  j  Ir^^E  "Legal' 

You  will  discover  when  you  start  looking  at  a  PDF  version  of  a  book  that  these 
volumes  were  scanned  by  hand.  You  may  even  see  images  of  people's  hands  as 
they  place  the  books  on  the  scanner,  so  don't  be  surprised  if  you  see  strange 
images.  At  this  time,  there  are  some  problems  with  the  downloaded  files:  "The  PDF 
download  seems  to  be  have  problems,  as  all  the  downloads  stop  at  1.3  MB,  even 
though  the  files  are  much  larger,  but  the  bugs  should  be  fixed."98 

lonut  Alex.  Chitu,  "Download  Public  Domain  Books  from  Google,"  Google  Operating  System  BJog, 
30  August  2006,  <" 
from.htmi>  (12  September  2006). 


UNCLASsiFiED//ron  orriciAL  UGH  ONLY 

DOCID:  4046925 


While  there  is  no  option  to  limit  your  search  by  language,  you  can  also  search 
Google  Books  in  languages  other  than  English  simply  by  entering  a  query  in  another 
language,  e.g.,  ["quedo  el  moro"]  returns  only  books  written  in  Spanish.  However, 
many  public  domain  books  in  other  languages  have  not  been  scanned  because  the 
Google  Book  project  thus  far  has  focused  mainly  on  US  libraries.  There  are  many 
Spanish,  French,  German  books  scanned  into  Google  Books,  for  example,  but  very 
few  in  Arabic. 

At  the  same  time  many  US  publishers  were  fighting  Google  Book  Search,  several 
European  nations  complained  that  Google  was  not  offering  to  add  non-English 
language  materials  to  the  database.  In  September  2005,  Google  opened  Google 
Book  Search  to  European  publishers  and  added  a  number  of  new  discrete 
webpages  for  Google  Book  Search  in  several  non-English  speaking  countries.  They 

•  Austria 

•  Belgium 

•  France 

•  Germany 

•  The  Netherlands/Holland 

•  Italy 

•  Switzerland 

•  Spain 

•  Brazil 

A  number  of  European  publishers  expressed  interest  in  participating  in  the 
digitization  project,  but  of  course  similar  copyright  concerns  raised  by  US  publishers 
will  have  to  be  addressed  for  European  and,  eventually,  other  non-US  publishers. 99 

Even  though  users  may  use  a  specific  country  interface,  they  will  probably  see 
results  from  other  countries'  indices.  Thus  far,  the  European  publishers  that  have 
signed  pacts  with  Google  are  Grupo  Planeta  and  Grupo  Anaya  of  Spain,  De  Boeck 
and  Editions  De  L'Eclat  of  France  and  Springer  Science  &  Business  Media  of 
Holland.  Interestingly,  all  this  comes  at  a  time  when  Google  is  embroiled  in  a  lawsuit 
brought  by  the  US  book  industry  over  alleged  copyright  violations.  Google  is  trying  to 
avoid  a  similar  fight  in  Europe  by  limiting  its  book  scanning  to  books  that  are  either 
pre-1900  or  in  the  public  domain  or  from  publishers  with  whom  Google  has  signed 

Michael  Liedtke,  "Google  Opens  Digital  Library  to  European  Book  Publishers,"  The  Detroit  News,  2 
September  2005,  <http://www.detnews.corn/2005/technoloav/0509/05/0tech-300866.htrn>  (14 
November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


During  2006  Google  also  added  a  Library  Catalog  Search  feature  to  Google  Book 
Search.  This  feature  will  help  searchers  find  books  in  libraries  around  the  world. 
According  to  the  Google  Blog,  "Queries  on  Google  Book  Search  will  automatically 
include  results  from  library  catalogs  when  appropriate.  Each  result  includes  a  'Find 
Libraries'  link  to  help  readers  find  libraries  that  hold  the  book — ideally  a  library 
nearby,  or  if  need  be,  a  library  far  away... we  have  worked  with  more  than  15  library 
union  catalogs  that  have  information  about  libraries  from  more  than  30  countries,  as 
well  as  with  our  colleagues  working  on  Google  Scholar  (which  includes  a  similar 
feature  just  for  scholarly  books)."100 

Google  Books  advanced  search  has  an  option  to  limit  a  search  to  library  catalogs,  so 
if  you  know  the  book  and  want  to  see  where  it  is  available,  this  search  makes  it  easy 
to  find  a  library.  Keep  in  mind  that  at  present  Google  Books  and  WorldCat  are 
searching  a  limited  number  of  libraries  and  catalogs. 


Find  usitltt 


Advanced  Book  Search 

wiih  .ill  of  1ta  wcrds 
with  IhE  exact  pittas* 
*nh  at  l«asr  i>n*  of  ih$  wads 
wltlioul  lt>e  w&rds 

|  lQ0!ewr!&  J   Google  Search 

r  All  b<i>5    r  Full  view  ij-jgVs       Librae/  Mtalogr 

Use  Google  Books  Advanced  Search  to  limit  query  to  library  catalogs 

Web    |fTi.dy£i  Video 

tJooK  S^artftO  cM,^k    C  Ait  ! 

Search  Books 

Search   r  All  book?  ^  Libfaiy  catalogs 

Library  Catalog  Search 

Advances  m  databases  and  information  systems 

Database  management,  information  lechnologf,  Dslabsses  (Databases), 
lriformai?on  sysiern;  {informal.  14  n  sy^ietns).  ADBIS  (ADBIS) 

Advances  m  databases,  and  mlormation  systems.  81  h  East  European  conference,  *DSIS  2004.  Sudwsl, 
Uj  algonimusok 

fto>   I  uirn  .  »•  .  .'"        i.LU..'' -        ;  .  i  v  ■    ■■•  lm  • 
Atgornmuso*.  Algonlhms.,  Akjorilmui.  Algonimus — oszk^f. 
Algor»i  i»us«  Smeioi— oszUr 

Catching  up  wtfi  European  Higher  Education  Fund  {CE£) 

F  el  c,  6  ok  t  «yi  as— E  u*  op  * ,  F  ?ls  d  oWl  a l  a  s — Mag  y  at  or  s :  fcg; 
Eflucsijon,  Higher— truiope  ,  Education.  High »t — Hungarv 

Bgo&s  1  -  18  of  18  on  Efenczuf.  (0.00  s« 

Whaierv&i  you're  looking  tor 
you  can  get  rt  on  oSay. 

'AW  cbiY  LJC 

Rreael  Ships. free  10%  Ofj 
Official  Relator  Of  Rie del 
In-Siock,  Ff?e  Same  Day  Shippt 

Bruno  Fonseca,  "Finding  the  wealth  in  your  library  (and  everyone  else's),"  Google  Blog,  24  August 

24  2006,  <>  (12 
September  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  other  way  to  use  the  library  search  options  is  to  click  on  the  link  for  a  book  title 
and  look  for  the  "Find  this  book  in  a  library"  link.  At  this  point,  you  enter  a  geographic 
location  and  the  WorldCat  search  will  try  to  locate  the  book  as  close  to  you  as 
possible.  In  some  cases,  you  may  even  be  able  to  click  through  and  reserve  a  book 
at  a  local  library. 

Find  in  a  Library 

Romancero  del  Cid  :  anadida  y  reformada  sobre  la$  antiguas  que  contiene 
doscientos  y  cinco  romances 

bV  Carolina  Michaeti*  d«  Vaseoncellos 


t.iln  wte  a 



Eittei  Lvk .nioti  [[(foint.itioii: 

t/-.-  iCC..'  .erf.  ;r; 

GO  | 

il<>r.tjgnf»%  y<iuc» 

)f  i  it,  Awirco  cm* 

fir-ri  b  ti  L&iirry  anytime 

!    Cambridge  University    -amtititigp,  Cfl  i  aDP  jrai»fl  HngMm 

!'   Gtasgow  Univer  sity  Library   OU^ow.  0?  2  80=  JiHted  ^ir«gju«r, 
^  R.'.ok 

London  Library   u^pcrn.twi  i'JU<  Lr,rt*dMrujdom 

vMirtt  c r.j  j  trr-!  v  ti;.-.  i-  v  o 

■I   University  of  Oxford        -J  0* I  3LL'  Urji'.v :  ^ - ■  ■■  > ? : <n 

This  is  an  excellent  service  that  builds  upon  library  catalog  search  and  makes  it 
more  user  friendly  and  accessible  through  a  single  interface. 

Google  is  clearly  trying  to  do  for  book  content  search  what  it  did  for  web  search,  that 
is,  make  as  much  content  freely  available  on  line  as  possible.  This  may  ultimately 
involve  some  sort  of  payment  by  users  who  wish  to  search,  print,  and  download  full 
text  content  for  in  copyright  books,  but  for  now  Google  is  relying  upon  advertising  to 
pay  for  Google  Book  Search.  Google  Book  Search's  future  in  large  measure 
depends  upon  the  outcome  of  the  current  battles  between  Google,  Inc.,  and 
copyright  holders  and  publishers,  either  through  some  mutual  agreement  or  through 



DOCID:  4046925 


Live  Book  Search  (Beta) 

In  December  2006  Microsoft  introduced  full  text  searches  of  public  domain  (out  of 
copyright)  books  only.  Libraries  participating  in  the  digitization  project  include  the 
University  of  California  system,  Trinity  College,  and  the  University  of  Toronto  (and 
Microsoft  is  actively  trying  to  enlist  other  libraries).  Lest  you  think  that  there  is  no 
need  for  yet  another  book  search  tool,  let  me  assure  you  there  is.  As  with  search 
engines,  there  is  a  startling  lack  of  overlap  in  book  searches.  It  did  not  take  me  two 
minutes  to  find  an  example:  Google  did  not  return  a  single  copy  of  John  McTaggart 
Ellis  McTaggart's  The  Nature  of  Existence,  while  Live  Book  Search  found  the  book  in 
the  University  of  Toronto  collection.  As  you  can  see,  the  public  domain  books  may 
be  viewed  and  searched  in  their  entirety  online  or  downloaded  as  a  PDF. 

Images  News 




Books  &  ■«» 


iiBCV.  ro  book  search  results 

The  Nature  of  Existence 

by  John  McTaggart  Ellis  McTaggart 

340  pages 

Download  the  entire  boo:- 



Search  inside  the  book 

["organic  unhy" 

21  pages,  sorted  by  relevance 

|  Search  | 

Page  166  "does  not  necessarily  possess  value 
because  it  forms  an  organic  unity,  yet  the 
conception  of  organic  unity  may  have  an  important 
bearing  on  the  judgments  which  we  form  as  to  the 
value  of  the  universe," 

Page  162  "of  the  whole  is  obvious  although  the  whole  j 
possesses  neither  life  nor  beauty.  But  there  are  no  i 
large  and  well-defined  classes  of  wholes  in  which 
organic  unity  ts  obvious,  except  the  classes  of  ...  " 

Page  161  "i  sties  of  organic  unity  far  more  obviously 
than  others  do,  Most  of  the  unities  in  which  these 
characteristics  are  specially  obvious  fall  into  two 
classes  biological  organisms,  and  objects  which  are  ... 

Page  160  "I  have  entitled  this  chapter  Organic 
Unity,  because  it  seems  to  me  that  our  present 
position  is  very  like  that  which  has  generally  been 
given  by  philosophers  the  name  of  organic  unity,  or 
of  Inner  ..,  " 




n,iu>w  ajto  LD-rrnK»  of  TBiirm  c'i.:.s'tr.  in  camdiiithje, 
i  in.u>w  oy  tun  mirrisH  j>c\vkht 


A    A 

The  most  serious  limitation  of  Live  Book  Search  is  the  lack  of  advanced  search 
features.  At  present  the  only  one  that  seems  to  work  is  intitle:.  Live  Book  Search 
needs  a  way  to  limit  searches  by  author,  at  the  very  least,  and  would  do  well  to 
emulate  Google  Book's  advanced  search  page.  Still,  it  is  a  thrill  to  be  able  to  search 
the  full  text  of  so  many  of  the  myriad  books  the  world  has  to  offer. 

Live  Book  Search  is  accessible  either  under  the  "More"  tab  on  the  Live  homepage  or 
directly  at  <>. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Metasearch  Tool  for  Book  Search 

Alan  Taylor,  a  professional  Web  Developer,  created  an  ingenious  tool  that  searches 
A9/Amazon  Search  Inside  the  Book,  Google  Books,  and  Live  Books  at  once.  Taylor 
recognized  that,  as  wonderful  as  these  book  search  engines  are,  "they  require  the 
searcher  to  either  guess  which  website  is  most  likely  to  house  the  results  they  want, 
or  to  try  them  one  after  the  other."  <http://kokoqiak.CQm/> 

This  is  an  invaluable  tool  because  there  seems  to  be  even  less  overlap  among  book 
searches  than  web  searches.  As  you  can  see  from  this  search,  the  three  search 
engines  returned  a  number  of  different  books  for  one  author. 


jfjntiiil  next  pane  >» 


(Search  Inside  books  nom,  and  MSN  Live  Search  -  at  1he 


Studies  In  The  Hegelian  Dialectic 
bv  John  McTaggart  (2008)  -  Kessinger 
Publishing.  LLC 

The  naime  of  existence 

try  John  McTaggart  Ellis  McTaggart 

(1927)-  University  Press 

Some  Dogmas  of  Religion 
by  John  McTaggart  Ellis  McTaggarl 
(1906)-  Edward  Arnold 

Some  dogmas  of  leliuion 
by  John  McTaggart  Ellis  McTaggarl 
(1930)  -  E.  Arnold  slmlies. 

by  John  McTaggart  Ellis  McTaggart 

(196B)  -  Books  For  Libraries  Press 

Studies  in  Hegelian  cosmology 
by  John  McTaggarl  Ellis  McTaggarl 
(1918)  -  University  Press 

John  McTaggart  Kills  McTaqqail. 

1  * 


byC.  D  Broad  (1928)  •  H.Mil/ord 

Some  Dogmas  of  Religion  ■  Pai|&  xvi  I 
by  John  McTaggart  Eltis  McTaggjil  -  s 
1906  -  299  pages 
DOGMA  1.  BY  metaphysics  I 
mean  the  systematic  study  of  the 
ultimate  nature  of  reality,  and  by  dogma  I 

Full  view  -  Table  o:'  Contents  - 
About  this  book 

"O.ii e  to  l>e  Wise".:  An  Address 
Delivered  Before  the  "Heretics" 
Sociaty  in  C^rtitiririge,  an  the  8th. „  - 
Page  1 

by  John  McT.igg.nt  Ellis  McTaggart  ■ 
I9t0-  16  pages 

Delivered  before  the  "Heretics  "  Society 

Cambridge,  on  Ihe  8th  December.  JOHN 
mctnggiiil  ELLIS  mctaggarl  DOCTOR 
Snippei  view  -  About  this  book 

A  Commentniy  on  Hegel's  Logic 
by  John  McTagyatt  Ellis  McTaggart 
book  I  propose  to  give  a  cn'tical  account 
of  the 

various  transitions  by  which.  Hegel 
passes  from  the  category  of  Being  to  ... 
Limited  preview  -  Table  of  Contents  - 
About  this  bcok 


Lecture!*  and  Essays  On  Theology 
and  Elhics 

The  Philosophical  Radicals  and  Other 

Histoiy  uf  the  Foily -sixth  Regiment 
Indiana  Volunteer  Inlamty 

They  learned  then,  and  they  know  now,  that  a 
grateful  country  will  never  forget  what  they  did  for 
it.  ??Jonn??  ^7/wcTaggart??,  of  Company  D. 
was  shot  In  me  left  leg,  at  Sabine  Cross  Roads. 

The  Nainre  oi  Existence 
Tney  learned  then,  and  Ihey  know  now.  that  a 
graterui  country  will  never  forget  what  they  did  for 
It.  ??John??  ??McTaggart??.  of  Company  D. 
was  shot  in  the  left  leg,  at  Sabine  Cross  Roads. 

The  Nainre  of  Existence 
They  learned  then,  and  they  know  now,  that  a 
grateful  country  will  never  forget  whal  they  did  for 
it,  ??J0hn??  ??McTaggart??,  of  Company  D, 
was  shot  in  ihe  left  leg,  at  Sabine  Cross  Roads. 

Some  Dogmas  of  Religion 

They  learned  then,  and  they  know  now,  that  a 

grateful  country  will  never  forget  what  they  did  for 

Metasearch  for  Books 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  UGC  ONLY 


DOCID:  4046925 


I  am  usually  skeptical  about  "ask  a  question"  tools,  but  this  one  is  definitely  a  cut 
above  most.  The  reason  it  is  better  is  simple:  is  the  "new"  interface  for 
GuruNet,  which  was  subscription  based  and  required  users  to  download  and  install 
its  software.  In  fact,  before  the  site  came  online,  GuruNet  was  already 
an  integral  part  of  Amazon's  A9  search  service,  powering  A9's  "Reference"  results.  If 
you  aren't  familiar  with  GuruNet,  it  provides  information  on  over  750,000  topics. 
GuruNet  has  an  extensive  reference  database,  including  dozens  of  encyclopedias, 
glossaries,  and  dictionaries.  GuruNet  will  provide  reference  information  from 
dictionaries  (including  definitions,  pronunciation  keys,  and  language  translations), 
encyclopedias,  thesauruses,  a  geography  dictionary,  key  American  historical 
documents,  US  Presidents,  US  Congress,  US  Supreme  Court  cases,  conversions, 
abbreviations,  Bible  dictionary,  Old  &  New  Testament,  English  idioms,  wine  glossary, 
music  glossary,  planetary  &  astronomy  glossary,  Marine  lingo,  and  many  more. 
Answers  also  draws  upon  Wikipedia  for  some  of  its  responses,  a  trend  I  believe  is 

Now  users  have  many  options  for  accessing  the  resources: 

1 .  website,  where  users  can  enter  questions  or  queries  that  will 
draw  from  GuruNet's  huge  resource  repository. 

2.  A9,  which  will  simultaneously  query,  Google,  Amazon, 
and  other  sources. 

3.  Google,  which  switched  from  to  for  definitions 
and  other  reference  information.  also  earns  its  place  as  the  premier  "answer  machine"  on  the  Internet 
by  adding  a  very  handy  "cite"  option.  At  the  bottom  of  the  results  page  where  all  the 
copyrights  for  each  source  are  listed  is  a  new  "Cite"  button. 



DOCID:  4046925 



^  Mil  I  I  IN 

Col  urn  bin 
Uni  vi-rsil  v 

Dictionary  definition  of  Francis  Mitterrand 

The  Americag>Hegita?e^Pict^narv  of  the  En^fen  Language.  Fourth  Edition  C^pvnent  @ 

2C-CM,  2000  by  Houghton  Mifflm  Company.  Pir^-1 — " — " — ^  '  ' ,v   ~  mv.  rights 

i(fW$i$.  More  from  Dictionary 

Click  on  "Cite 


Encyclopedia  information  about  Francois  Mitterrand 

The  Columbia  Elect  ionic  FnsyA^gciia,  Sixth  Edition  Copyright  O  2Q0C?  Columbia  Unices  s% 
Press,  L^enred  from  Coluftitna  linger rity  Pre:;,  Aii  n&nt;-  re?ervecl. 
miAitM /cud/ More  from Encyclopedia  "^e<M 
Wikipedia  information  about  Francois  Mitterrand 

This  sift  Me  Hoeived  under  th-s  GNU  Free  Documentation  license.  It  use?  matenal  from  the 
Wik ipedja  article  "P r-ar^ois  Mit  te x rand" ,  More  from  WjKipedia  u  M 

When  you  click  on  "Cite"  you  will  then  see  a  page  that  offers  proper  citations  in  MLA, 
Chicago,  or  APA  formats.  To  use  one  of  these  formats  for  the  citation,  simply  copy 
and  paste  the  text  from  this  page  into  your  bibliography.  This  is  a  very  handy  tool  for 
researchers  who  need  to  cite  their  sources  correctly. 

Cite  this  source  from  this  AnswerPage 

The  URL  of  this  AnswerPage  is:   

|http://www  answers. co rn/lopic/fran-ot$-rrnttetianci 

Select  URL  1 

< lMtion  style 

f  CM: i££ 

List  reference  source 

Add  this  to  your  Bibhogiaphy 

Select  the  text  below  and  then  'copy  8t  paste'  it  to  your  document; 

"Francois  Mitterrand."  The  American  Heritage®  Dictionary  of  the  English  language,  Fourth 
Edition,  Houghton  Mifflin  Company,  2004.  GuruNet  Corp.  06  Jul.  2005. 
h  Hp :  / /www,  a rnywerq .  corn/  fro p fc/  fra n -  o  i s - nri  i t te rr«n d 

During  2006  continued  to  update  its  service.  One  of  the  most 
noticeable  changes  was  the  "find  as  you  type"  option,  which  uses  AJAX  technology 



DOCID:  4046925 


to  anticipate  your  query.  As  you  type,  possible  matching  topics  appear  in  a  drop- 
down box  as  shown  below; 

Answers,  corals, 

AO^wfrt  ■      Web  S!;rn> 

*  W--'  (lechnoiuow 

*  i-'iu .  (saf)  of  TQi^moc  of  Salamis) 

*  '^'v'  (acronym) 

*       (1906  automobile) 

*  £fo-.09l3aulor)nobife) 

*  -'-i^'  •  092T  automobile) 

«  ,&Ui  0936  automobile) 

•  Tfci  .*i  on?  >ii      (Aian  me  Oi&a& 

.„ot  finish  typing  and  pi  ess  Enter. 

Download  M  IkU  AmweK  -  tin  I,  on  Aiiy  womI  <hi  yout  ureeit  (oi  mvl^nt,  ittiinMe  f<wH. 

Surfwax  is  aggressively  marketing  this  technology  through  its  company  LookAhead 
<>.  is  only  one  site  among  a  growing 
number  using  AJAX  technology;  for  example,  Yahoo's  Instant  Search,  A9  and  A9 
Maps,  Ask,  and  many  others  all  use  AJAX.  At  the  site,  if  you  do  not 
like  the  Find  as  You  Type  feature,  you  can  disable  it  on  the  preferences  page. 

The  preferences  also  include  a  long  list  of  languages  to  which  will 
translate  from  English,  but  not  the  other  way  around.  I  found  this  feature  very 
confusing,  so  here  is  how  to  use  it.  If  you  have  a  term  you  want  to  translate  from 
English,  on  the  home  page  enter  the  term  and  then  scroll  down  the 
page  until  you  see  "Translations,"  and  you  will  see  the  terms  translated  into  all  the 
available  languages  or  only  those  languages  you  have  selected  on  your  preferences 
page.  The  translation  also  includes  common  idioms,  which  is  very  useful.  You  can 
also  go  to  the  translations'  page  <>  and 
select  the  term  from  an  alphabetic  list:. 

Here  is  a  partial  list  of  translations  of  the  English  word  "abode";  this  could  be  a  very 
useful  tool  for  copy/pasting  search  terms  without  needing  non-Latin 
keyboards  to  input  the  terms. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Deutirh  (Geiman) 

n,  -  Wohnort,  Wohnsitz 


♦  no  fixed  abode    ohne  festen  Wohnsitz 

EAXr|VIK^  (Oieek| 

n.  ■  KOTQiKia,  ev6iaiir|pQ|  fiiagovr1) 


*  no  lixed  abode    xujplc;  ptivipn  kqtqikiq 

Meiliftno  (Italian) 

residertra,  domicilio 


•  no  fixed  abode    senza  fissa  dimora 

♦  light  o(  abode    diriUo  di  soggiorno 

Poiluftiies  (Poitu^uese) 

n.  -  lar  [rm),  permanent  (f)  curta,  residencia  (f) 

•  no  fixed  abode    sem  residencia  fixa 

•  lighl  of  abode    direito  (m)  de  residencia 

PyccKMti  (Russion) 


.Wnska  (Swedish) 
n,  -  boning,  bostad 

fSXfSH*)  {Chinese  (Simplified)) 

fiat,  \m 


•  no  lixed  Abode  ^SjEfiii 

'PXi&V)  (Chinese  (Traditional)) 

n.  -  fijg,  fiffi 

•  no  fixed  ctbode    Sea  cioct osHHoro  MeciaxwenbCTBa 

•  light  of  abode    npaeo  Ha  xnnoe 


♦  no  lixed  abode 

B^Oi  (KoieAii) 

n.  -  X^, 

B^S  (Japanese) 
n.  -  fiffi,  Jg(I 


♦  no  lixed  -»bode  (iffi^j 

♦  tight  of  abode  gfiffi 

n'-iiw  (He  blew) 

n.  -  \\yn  ,ti'i  ,D'-iun  ,m'i  continues  to  expand  and  improve.  It  is  often  my  first  stop  for  search 
and  research. 

As  with  any  search,  the  best  tool  to  use  depends  on  what  you  need  to  find. 

>  If  you  want  links  to  relevant  websites  about  a  topic,  Google  is  probably  the 
way  to  go. 

>  If  you  only  need  a  fast  answer  in  the  form  of  a  dictionary  definition  or 
encyclopedia  entry,  is  the  best  choice. 

>  But  if  you  want  thoroughness,  A9  wins  this  one  hands  down  because  it 
quickly  offers  a  choice  among  web,  image,  book,  and  a  huge  number  and 
variety  of  reference  results  that  are  only  a  mouse  click  away. 

Any  way  you  look  at  it,  is  a  great  addition  to  any  researcher's  resource 



DOCID:  4046925 



Add  to  your  deep  web  bookmarks  OAlster  (pronounced  "oyster")  to  help  you  "find 
the  pearls."  This  information  retrieval  resource  now  contains  a  very  impressive 
9,950,256  records  from  729  institutions  (as  of  10  January  2007).  OAlster  states, 
"The  service  encompasses  as  broad  a  collection  of  resources  as  possible  (i.e.,  with 
no  subject  parameters).  It  is  accessible  to  the  entire  Internet  community,  without 
bounds."  However,  as  you  might  have  guessed,  OAlster  is  not  for  run-of-the-mill 

So  just  what  sort  of  information  does  OAlster  index?  The  project  seeks  to  provide 
easy  access  to  actual  digital  records,  not  just  lists,  links,  or  bibliographies.  What  are 
these  digital  resources?  They  "can  range  from  a  1959  photograph  of  an  A&P  bakery 
(from  the  Library  of  Congress  American  Memory  project)  to  poems  by  Emily 
Dickinson  (from  the  University  of  Michigan  Digital  Library  Production  Services 
American  Verse  project).  Digital  resources  include  items  such  as: 

>  electronic  books 

>  online  journals 

>  audio  files  (e.g.,  wav,  mp3) 

>  images  (e.g.,  tiff,  gif) 

>  movies  (e.g.,  mpeg,  QuickTime) 

>  reference  texts  (e.g.,  dictionaries,  directories)"101 

Let's  take  a  sample  query  and  see  what  we  come  up  with  in  OAlster.  Here's  a 
simple  phrase  query — ["turing  machine"] — asking  for  results  to  be  listed  in 
descending  order  by  date  (most  recent  first).  Since  many  of  the  resources  in  OAlster 
have  reliable  dates  (e.g.,  journal  articles),  using  the  date  sort  option  should  work 
fairly  well. 

lul"What  Are  Digital  Resources?"  Wheeler  Library,  Otero  Junior  College,  Colorado, 
<>  (18  January  2007). 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

f-orf  the  p^r.^- 


Browse  Institutions 

Use  this  form  to  find  digital 
resources  (what  is  a 
digital  resource?)  from 
many  institutions  (which 
institutions  are  available?). 

Why  do  I  sometimes  get 
duplicate  records? 
Why  do  I  sometimes 
have  trouble  accessing 
digital  objects? 
Check  out  this 

See  help  for  search  tips. 

Search  within  fields  (h«iP) 

Use  a  word  or  phrase,  e.g.,  diploma*,  fancy  dress 

|  Keyword 

louring  machine" 

|  Keyword         j[]  |~ 
|  Keyword        ]£|  |~ 

Limit  by  resource  type 

Choose  one  or  more 

|  And  zi 
[And  jj 


dataset  ^] 

Choose  sorting  of  results  (hetP) 

e.g.,  results  in  date  descending  order,  from  2002  to  1999 
fj^.^I?.  .^Bscending 



date  ascending 
hit  frequency 
weighted  hit  frequency 


You  can  see  from  the  "results  by  institution"  on  the  left  below  that  these  916  results 
are  not  your  typical  Google  hits. 

Search        Browse  Institutions 

Your  search  was  in  the  entire  record  fiold  for  "turing  machine". 

You  found  916  records. 

*  Revise  jouf  scotch  to  retrieve  (ewer  records. 

*  View  your  results,  starting  with  records  1  to  10  of  916. 

Results  by  Institution  Eprint  Archive 
91  record* 

Bibhoteca  Digital  Brasileira  de 
Computaeao  (BDBComp)  Archive 
1  record 

Biblicteca  Digital  de  Teses  e 
Dissertecoe*  <BDTD),  Institute  Brasileiro 
de  lnfomnacao  «m  Ciencio  c  Tecnologio 
I  record 

Caltoch  Computer  Science  Technical 
Reports  (CSTR) 
I  rftrnrd 

Caltech  Electronic  Theses  and 


I  record 

V1  records 

CiteSeer  Scientific  Literature  Digital 


570  records 

CITIDEL  (Computing  and  Information 
Technology  Interactive  Digital 
Educational  Library) 
4Q  records 


date  descending 


Ne-t  10  Pecords 

Jump  to  Records:  I  J  11  I  21  ...  91  ...  1S1  ...  271  ...       ...  iSl  ...  541  ...Ml  ...  731 

...  821  ...  -?11 

Record  1  of  916 

add  to  beckbag 

CogPrints  Archives 
0  records 

Tide  Are  There  Absolutely  Unsolvable  Problems?  Gcdel's  Dichotomy  {dagger} 
Author/Creator  Feferman,  Solomon 

Publisher  Onfard  University  Press 
Year  2006-01-09  0S:38:S7.O 
R 9 source  Type  TEXT 
Resource  Format  text/html 
Language  English 

Note  This  is  a  critical  analysis  of  the  first  part  of  Godel's  1951  Gibbs  lecture  on  certain  philosophical 

consequences  of  the  incompleteness  theorems,  Godel's  discussion  is  framed  in  terms  of  a  distinction 
between  objective  mathematics  and  subjective  mathematics;  according  to  which  the  former  consists  of 
the  truths  of  mathematics  in  an  absolute  sense,  and  the  latter  consists  of  all  humanly  demonstrable 
truths.  The  question  is  whether  these  coincide;  if  they  do,  no  formal  axiomatic  system  (or  Turing 
machine)  can  comprehend  the  mathematizing  potentialities  of  human  thought,  and,  if  not,  there  are 
absolutely  unsolvable  mathematical  problems  of  diophantine  form.  <I>£rthcr  ...  the  human  mind  ... 
infinitely  surpasses  the  powers  of  any  finite  machine,  or  else  there  exut  absolutely  unsolvable 
diophantine  problems</I>, 

Subject  G&oumljdel  on  Mathematics  and  Logic  Special  Issue  Article 
URL  hftp://ffhJmaLoxford)ournjls.orq/cgi/conwnL/4horVrikji003vi 
URL  hnp://d* .dpi  .wg/lQ.lCS ?/philnr>at,/ni'jOO'J 
Rights  Copyright  (C>  2006,  Oxford  University  Press 
Institution  Highwire  Press,  Stanford  university 


DOCID:  4046925 


OAlster  works  best  in  finding  scholarly  work  from  such  sources  as  CiteSeer,  arcXiv 
Eprint  Archive,  a  number  of  research  institutes,  and  numerous  digital  libraries.  And 
some  of  the  data  is  truly  impressive.  For  example,  I  searched  in  all  fields  for 
[neutrino*]  (note  the  ability  to  use  a  wildcard)  looking  for  the  resource  type  image. 
Here  is  one  of  the  32  images  I  found: 

Bentley  Image  <B  art  k 

view:   fidl  image  d-escuption 

E-mail  Help 

Return  to  search  results  I  «iprevious  item  |  next  rtem» 


option  by 
dieting  on  th*. 
+  or  -  icon  : 

tm&t  evert,  BL0O5781  iJBUKRmr> 





You  are  not  going  to  find  images  like  this  with  a  Google,  Live,  and  Yahoo  image 

It  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  that  OAlster  is  not  a  search  engine  but  a 
repository  of  information  that  is  structured  in  a  very  specific  manner,  and 

retrieving  the  data  you  want  has  to  be  done  in  conformity  to  the  way  the  data  was 
entered  into  the  record. 

More  Scholarly  Search  Sites 

Other  academic  search  engines  that  may  yield  better  results  than  Google  Scholar 
and  Windows  Live  Academic  search  at  this  point. 

Citeseer  $T 
Cornell  University's 
Research  Now 



DOCID:  4046925 



Foreign  Doctoral  Dissertations  =5&I2=23&I3=44&I4=25 

ISI  Highly  Cited 
Scholar  Universe 
Ingenta  Connect 
Infomine's  Electronic  Journals  Search 
Science  Direct  (select  Abstract  Databases  tab) 
Wiley  InterScience  Journal  Search 

The  Internet  Archive  &  the  Wayback 

You  have  to  give  Brewster  Kahle  credit  for  thinking  big.  The  founder  of  the  Internet 
Archive  has  a  clear,  if  not  easy,  mission:  to  make  all  human  knowledge  universally 
accessible.  And,  who  knows,  he  might  just  succeed.  What  has  made  Kahle's  dream 
seem  possible  is  extremely  inexpensive  storage  technology.  As  of  now,  the  Internet 
Archive  houses  "approximately  1  petabyte  of  data  and  is  currently  growing  at  a  rate 
of  20  terabytes  per  month.  This  eclipses  the  amount  of  text  contained  in  the  world's 
largest  libraries,  including  the  Library  of  Congress.  If  you  tried  to  place  the  entire 
contents  of  the  archive  onto  floppy  disks  (we  don't  recommend  this!)  and  laid  them 
end  to  end,  it  would  stretch  from  New  York,  past  Los  Angeles,  and  halfway  to 
Hawaii."102  In  December  2006  the  Archive  announced  it  had  indexed  over  85  billion 
"web  objects"  and  that  its  database  contained  over  1.5  petabytes  of  information.103 

But  that's  not  all  that  Kahle  and  company  have  archived.  The  Archive  also  now 
contains  about  2  million  audio  works;  over  10,000  music  concerts;  thousands  of 
"moving  images,"  including  300  feature  films;  its  own  and  links  to  others'  digitized 
texts,  including  printable  and  downloadable  books;  and  3  million  hours  of  television 
shows  (enough  to  satisfy  even  the  most  sedulous  couch  potato!).  Kahle's  long  term 
dream  includes  scanning  and  digitizing  the  entire  Library  of  Congress  collection  of 
about  28  million  books  (something  that  is  technically  within  reach),  but  there  are 

Internet  Archive  FAQs,  <http://www.archive.Org/about/faqs.php#The  Internet  Archive>  (14 
November  2006). 

103  Brewster  Kahle,  "Wayback  Machine  has  85  Billion  Archived  Webpages,"  Internet  Archive  Forum,  5 
December  2006,  <http://www.archive.orq/iathreads/post-view.php?id=84843>  (16  January  2007). 



DOCID:  4046925 


some  nasty  impediments  such  as  copyrights  and,  of  course,  money.  None  of  this 
deters  Kahle,  whose  commitment  to  the  preservation  of  the  digital  artifacts  of  our 
time  drives  the  Internet  Archive.  As  Kahle  puts  it,  "If  you  don't  have  access  to  the 
past,  you  live  in  a  very  Orwellian  world."  Ironically,  between  the  Internet  Archive's 
voracious  appetite  for  websites,  which  many  view  as  an  invasion  of  privacy,  and  the 
Alexa  technology,  which  "monitors"  web  browsing  through  the  "related  links"  feature 
in  browsers,  many  people  think  of  Kahle  as  the  Internet's  "Big  Brother." 

In  addition  to  trying  to  capture  every  publicly  available  webpage  and  making  them 
searchable  via  the  Wayback  Machine,  Kahle  is  pressuring  Google  to  give  him  a  copy 
of  its  database  with  something  like  a  six-month  delay  to  avoid  competition  with  "live" 
Google.  So  far,  the  search  engine  innovator  has  not  yet  come  around  to  Kahle's  way 
of  thinking,  but  Kahle  has  a  way  of  persuading  people  and  institutions  to  make  a 
"positive  contribution  to  mankind"  by  contributing  to  the  Archive. 

Announced  just  24  hours  after  Google  went  public  with  its  own  effort  to  digitize 
several  major  library  collections,  the  Internet  Archive's  plan  to  digitize  the  collections 
of  ten  major  libraries  cannot  be  a  coincidence.  Among  the  libraries  agreeing  to 
participate  in  the  Internet  Archive's  project  are: 

>  Carnegie  Mellon  University  and  the  Library  of  Congress  Million  Book  Project 

>  University  of  Toronto,  Canada 

>  Library  of  Congress  American  Memory  Project 

>  McMaster  University,  Canada 

>  University  of  Ottawa,  Canada 

>  Bibliotheca  Alexandrina,  Egypt 

>  Indian  Institute  of  Science,  India 

>  International  Institute  of  Information  Technology,  India 

>  Zhejiang  University,  China 

>  European  Archive,  Netherlands 

The  goal?  In  Brewster  Kahle's  own  words,  "anyone  with  an  Internet  connection  will 
have  access  to  these  collections  and  the  growing  set  of  tools  to  make  use  of  them. 
In  this  way  we  are  getting  closer  to  the  goal  of  Universal  Access  to  All 
Knowledge."104  Once  again  Internet  Archive  founder  Kahle  reinforces  his  reputation 

Brewster  Kahle,  "Announcement:  Open-Access  Text  Archives,"  15  December  2004 
<http://www.archive.orq/iathreads/post-view.php?id=25361>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  uoc  only 

as  a  true  visionary:  "Imagine  being  able  to  analyze  the  changes  to  the  English 
language  over  time.  Imagine  being  able  to  use  the  hand  translated  versions  of  past 
books  as  a  way  to  train  automatic  translation  technologies  so  we  can  more 
effectively  translate  any  book  into  any  language.  Imagine  being  able  to  analyze  the 
interrelation  of  papers  through  their  footnotes  and  links  to  find  new  patterns  of 
thought.  Each  of  these  projects  is  already  proceeding  using  the  digital  holdings  of 
the  Internet  Archive  by  researchers."105  You  have  to  love  this  guy. 

Microsoft  and  Yahoo  both  threw  in  with  Kahle  and  the  Open  Content  Alliance  (OCA) 
during  2005,  Microsoft  in  advance  of  its  new  Live  Book  Search.  This  occurred  as 
Google  was  embroiled  in  not  one  but  two  lawsuits  to  stop  its  book  digitization 
project.  The  OCA  has  thus  far  avoided  any  such  suits  because  it  is  only  indexing 
books  and  other  content  in  the  public  domain.  But  Microsoft  has  made  it  known  it  will 
not  be  content  to  stick  with  public  domain  content,  which  will  put  Microsoft  on  the 
horns  of  the  same  dilemma  as  Google.  It  will  be  interesting  to  see  how  OCA  and  its 
members  handle  copyright  and  other  infringement  issues. 

Open  Content  Alliance 

While  some  of  its  members  may  view  the  OCA  project  as  a  way  to  take  on  Google, 
Kahle  is  not  at  all  unhappy  about  competition  from  other  digitization  projects.  Quite 
the  contrary,  he  sees  his  efforts  as  augmenting  more  commercial  ventures  while  he 
openly  seeks  to  emulate  in  the  public  domain  Amazon's  approach  to  full-text  search. 
Any  way  you  look  at  it,  this  is  great  news.  Sometimes  with  all  the  petty  annoyances 
in  our  everyday  lives,  it  is  hard  to  remember  we  really  are  witnessing  and  even 
participating  in  a  revolution  in  human  knowledge. 

And  just  how  does  Kahle  envision  storing  all  these  treasures?  He  worked  with 
Capricorn  Technologies  to  design  what  is  called  the  PetaBox,  basically  a  very  large, 
affordable  data  repository  that  can  store  a  million  gigabytes  of  data.  Capricorn 
shipped  the  first  of  its  PetaBox  products  to  the  Internet  Archive  in  June  2005. 

All  that  data  is  accessible  to  users  in  a  variety  of  ways,  none  more  interesting  or 
useful  than  the  Wayback  Machine.  Using  the  Wayback  Machine,  you  may  very  well 
be  able  to  retrieve  a  page  or  an  entire  site  even  if  it  disappeared  from  the  web  years 
ago.  Also  keep  in  mind  that  Yahoo  also  offers  an  excellent  way  to  search  the 
Internet  Archive  to  its  fullest. 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  uoe  only 


DOCID:  4046925 


i\iibvi  t  *  ■  r  ii  i  v  i 

Web  I  Moving  Images  i  Texts  !  Audio  I  Software  I  Patron  Info  ;  About  IA 


Search:  |~ 

Way  back  Machine 

The  Vtfaybsci  Machine 


Anonymous  Uses  cmq  c j^jn 

Browse  through  40  billion 
jweb  pages  archived  from 
]  1996  to  a  few  months 
!  ago,  To  start  surfing  the 
]  Wayback,  type  in  the 
j  web  address  of  a  site  or 
page  where  you  would 
like  to  start,  and  press 
enter.  Then  select  from 
the  archived  dates 
available.  The  resulting 
pages  point  to  other 
archived  pages  al  as 
close  a  date  as  possible. 
Keyword  searching  is 
not  currently  suppoited. 

the  Internet  archive  at 
the  New  Library  of 
Alexandria,  Egypt, 
mirrors  the  Wavback 

Take  Me  Back 

Advanced  Search 

"Take  The  Wayback  Machine  With  You 

Put  the  Wayback  Machine  right  in  your  browser! 

The  Wayback  Machine  Bookmarklet 

Drag  this  link  lo  your  browser's  toolbar:  Wayback 

When  you  visit  a  page  that  you  want  to  find  an  old  version  of,  just  click  the 
toolbar  link. 

You  will  be  transported  to  any  historic  versions  at  the  Wayback  Machine. 
Thanks  to 

Web  Collections 

The  Wayback  Machine 

To  use  the  Wayback  Machine  to  bring  back  the  past,  simply  search  on  a  url  or  use 
the  new  bookmarklet  that  can  be  dragged  and  dropped  onto  your  browser's  toolbar. 
Whenever  you  are  visiting  a  webpage,  clicking  on  that  bookmarklet  searches  the 
Internet  Archive  for  earlier  versions  of  that  web  address.  What  you  will  see  first  is  a 
list  of  all  previous  versions  of  a  website  stored  in  the  Archive. 



DOCID:  4046925 


I  H  T  r.  t  St  C  T  tICHIVI 

Searched  for  90  Results 

Note  some  duplicates  are  not  shown.  See  all 
*  denotes  when  site  was  updated. 

Search  Results  for  Jan  01, 1996  -  Sep  07,  2005 

1996     1997     1998     1999     2000        2001  2002  2003  2004  2005 

0  pages  0  pages  0  pages  0  pages  0  pages      4  pages  IS  pages         26  pages         42  pages     0  pages 

Apr  10,  2001  *  Jan  23,  2002  *    Jan  24,2003  Jar.  02,  2004 

May  17,2001     May  24,  2002  *  Jan  30,  2003  Feb  02,  2004  * 

Jul  21 .2001       May  29, 2002  *   Feb  07,  2003  *  Fab  10,2004  * 

Sep 24,  2001     Jun04,2002  *    Feb  13,2003  *  Feb  11,2004 

Jul  25,2002  *     Feb  17,2003  *  Apr 05,2004  * 

Aug  02,2002  *    Mar  29,  2003  Apr  07 ,2004  * 

Aug  1 1 ,  2002  *   Apr  01,  2003  *  Apr  13,  2004 

Sep  22,2002  *    Apr  23,  2003  *  May  10,2004 

Sep  24,2002      Apr  25,2003  *  May  21 ,  2004 

Sep  27,  2002  *    May  23,  2003  *  May  24, 2004  * 

Sep  29,  2002  *   Jun  06.  2003  *  Jun  02,  2004  * 

Oct  02,  2002      Jun  18.  20Q3  *  Jun  03,  2004 

Nov 24.  2002  *    Jul  20.2003  *  Jun  08,  2004 

Nov  26,  2002  *    Jul  28,2003  *  Jun  10,2004 

No--; 28,  2002  *    Aug  04,2003  *  Jun  12,2004 

Aug  05,2003  Jun  15,  2004 

Sep  22.  2003  Jun  15,  2004 

Sep  29.2003  *  Jun  18  ,  2004 

Oct  01 .  2003  *  Jun  19,  2004  * 

Selecting  any  date  will  show  you  an  archived  copy  of  the  site  as  it  appeared  on  that 
date.  Here  is  the  (now  defunct)  Jihadist  website  as  it  appeared  on  23 
January  2002: 



DOCID:  4046925 


uf'lj  j  j'tS^l'  j^iLa_a  ^4  AiiU  j|  Li 

ul uHu>^l  h>*^1 


The  Internet  Archive  doesn't  just  archive  the  homepage  of  each  website.  In  most 
cases,  you  can  dig  down  deeply  into  a  site  to  find  many  additional  pages  from  a 
website  that  might  have  disappeared  or  dramatically  changed  over  time.  A  special 
feature  in  the  Wayback  Machine's  advanced  search  lets  users  compare  two  versions 
of  a  webpage  using  technology  from  Docucomp.  This  option  will  identify  any 
changes — inserted,  deleted,  replaced  and  moved  text  and  code — in  webpages  and 

The  Wayback  Machine  is,  very  simply,  one  of  the  greatest  deep  web  tools  ever 

In  case  you  are  curious  about  what  happened  to  the  Internet  Archive's  foray  into  search,  aka 
Recall,  the  programmer  who  wrote  Recall  was  hired  by  Google  in  2004  and  that  appears  to  be  the 
end  of  Recall. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Other  Invisible  Web  Resources 

A  great  deal  of  what  is  on  the  Internet  is  going  to  remain  inaccessible  to  search 
engines,  either  because  the  information  is  password-protected,  is  behind  a  firewall, 
requires  registration  and/or  payment  to  view,  etc.  In  short,  this  information  either  is 
not  intended  for  public  viewing  or  there  is  a  price  to  do  so.  There  is,  however,  a 
substantial  amount  of  data  that  is  meant  for  public  consumption  but  is  not  indexed  by 
search  engine  spiders:  public  databases.  These  run  the  gamut  from  very  technical 
medical  or  scientific  databases  (e.g.,  MEDLINE,  NASA  EOSDIS)  to  frivolous  (e.g.,  How  do  you  find  these  online  databases  and  other  "hidden"  websites? 


There  are  a  number  of  very  good  websites  devoted  entirely  or  mostly  to  tracking 
down  web  databases  and  other  "hidden"  resources.  One  of  the  most  impressive 
catalogs  of  hard  to  find  sites  is  BUBL.  First  established  in  1990,  the  name  stood  for 
Bulletin  Board  for  Libraries.  Today,  BUBL  offers  a  huge  index  of  resources  primarily 
for  academic  researchers.  BUBL's  index  can  be  sorted  by  topic,  alphabetically,  by 
country,  or  by  Dewey  Decimal  System.  Deep  Web  Research 

BUBL  LINK  Catalogue  of  Internet  Resources 

Dwey  |  Search  |  Subject  Menus  |  Countries  |  Types 
Selected  Internet  resources  covering  all  academic  subject  areas 

AJ  ^|  C_|  PJ  E_|  f_|  GJ  HJ  LI  JJ  KJ  L  |  MJ  HI  QJ  P_\  QJ  RJ  SJ  TJ  U_|  VJ  WJ  X  |  Y_|  Z 

Q00  Genet. ilitios 

fnciudes:  computing,  Internet,  libraries,  information 

fnciudes:  ethics,  paranormal  phenomena 

200  Religion 
includes:  bibles,  religions  of  the  world 

300  S<>c<vil_5cjeitce^ 

Includes:  sociology,  politics,  economics,  law, 

Includes:  linguistics,  language  learning,  specific 

500  Sciatica  vtmj  mMhftmmios 

fnciudes:  physics,  chemistry,  earth  sciences,  biology, 

GOO  TecfmoliXfy 

fncfudes:  medicine,  engineering,  agriculture, 

700  The  z\\ts 
fncfudes:  art,  planning,  architecture,  music,  sport 

fncfudes:  literature  of  specific  languages 

000  Gan <|i  vipity  ami  histmy 
fnciudes:  travel,  genealogy,  archaeology 



DOCID:  4046925 



Another  scholarly  resource  is  Infomine,  from  the  University  of  California.  Infomine  is 
an  excellent  way  of  tracking  down  not  only  online  databases,  particularly  in  all  the 
sciences,  but  also  finding  technical  websites.  For  example,  Infomine  has  a  superb 
Maps  and  GIS  webpage,  with  a  large  number  of  links  to  databases  devoted  to 
mapping  and/or  GIS. 

Aardvark:  Asian  Resources  for  Librarians 

Aardvark:  Asian  Resources  for  Librarians,  owned  and  managed  by  iGroup,  a 
database  and  eJournal  distributor,  keeps  a  low  profile,  which  is  too  bad  because  it  is 
a  very  good  resource.  Aardvark  has  two  sections:  Literature  and  Recommended 
resources  and  sites.  I  especially  like  the  Asian  Databases  section,  which  currently 
lists  over  650  databases.  Thompson  Gale  published  an  excellent  overview  of 
Aardvark  by  Professor  Peter  Jacso.107 


Asian  Resources  f 

or  librarians 

|  |  Aardvark  Home  [  LftRrAturu  I  Recommended  f 

Library  —p-Joumals 

Asian  Databases. 

^  Conference*  6, 
V-J  Exhioiffon; 

Currifil  luu 

To  browse  backfiles 
click  hcrg 

Business  Needs 

■■-*»  *j  -tr  Fftlt.  thp  Educational      sources  Information  Center,  is  the  world's  largest  source  of 

f*.  JC.J.  C-*  education  information.  It  has  more  thin  1  million  abstracts  of  documents  and  journal  articles 

Search  Nlir  on  °ducstion  rsscarch  and  practice.  Aardvark's  version  of  the  database,  provides  access  to 

''provided  b~r  ERIC  document  citations  from  1966  to  data  and  to  the  full  text  of  several  thousand  articles. 

e  Bridge* 

Aaidvmfc  Search 

Archiving  &  Document  Preservation 

Digital  (  nUqrtion  l)fvf  lonment 
OigitM  Dbierf  Identifier  fpnn 

Info  mi  MiufLLiSsrusx 

Oocn  Archives  Lnititative 

Asian  I,  ifrrn ry_ Consortia 

A^-jap,  N^ljonal  librorjes 
Fret-  iinruririt  and  full  tei 


Juunul  Crisis 



A. *U?.G-ti^r.4. OLJU!JLtt..rJL*  ti u  n  s 
Asian  library  Schools 
Asian  University  Libraries 
Proffttionjl  Omanisaliuns 

Search  1 

^3  Ask  our  lihrnrian 

BloC^wytf  :1  Publishing 

scores  a  certur-f  of 

bmelincss  standar  d 


'g^ldftr,  tuiqks1  W  cufb 

University 'sians  for 
|    willgnnium  a? stem 

QtjrMiriXwtf:  brings 
academic  hbranes 

Co|lane  of  Medir-al 
Scenccs  ir.  Mila-sia 


Peter  Jacso,  "Aardvark,"  Peter's  Digital  Reference  Shelf,  Thompson  Gale,  October  2006, 
<http://www.qaleqroup.corn/reference/peter/aardvark.htm>  (26  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Deep  Web  Research 

Deep  Web  Research  is  an  information  weblog  created  by  the  Virtual  Private  Library. 
As  a  blog,  the  site  is  designed  to  stay  current  with  many  links  to  a  wide  variety  and 
number  of  sources  related  to  deep  web  search  and  research.  Topics  covered 
include  current  and  historical  articles,  papers,  and  videos;  cross  database  articles, 
search  services,  and  tools;  presentations;  and  resources.  Deep  Web  Research 
presents  an  impressive  set  of  links  that  includes  everything  from  articles  on  what 
constitutes  the  deep  web  and  how  to  search  it  to  online  search  sites  such  as 
SearchLight,  the  University  of  California's  interface  to  publicly  available  databases  in 
either  the  sciences  and  engineering  or  social  sciences  and  humanities.  The  biggest 
drawback  of  Deep  Web  Research  is  the  lack  of  annotation  of  the  links.  Most  are 
simply  listed  by  title  and  there  is  no  way  to  know  what  services  they  offer  without 
looking  at  each  site  individually.  Still,  Deep  Web  Research  is  an  impressive 
collection  of  deep  web  resources. 



BUBL  Catalog 

The  Complete  Planet 

Deep  Web  Research 


Intute  (formerly  Resource  Discovery  Network) 

Pinakes  Subject  Launchpad  http.7/ 

Research  Beyond  Google:  1 1 9  Authoritative,  Invisible,  and  Comprehensive 
Resources  http://oedb.orq/librarv/colleqe-basics/research-beyond-gooqle 

Ultimate  Guide  to  the  Invisible  Web 

There  is  a  lot  more  to  the  "hidden  web"  than  just  that  information  stored  in 
databases,  however.  Many  of  the  most  interesting  sites  are  simply  not  indexed  by 
anyone,  in  part  because  search  services  have  made  a  conscious  decision  not  to  try 
to  index  the  entire  web.  How  do  you  find  them?  Unfortunately,  there  is  no  magic,  but 
here  are  a  few  tips  that  might  help  (and  often  really  do  work): 



DOCID:  4046925 


Tips  for  Navigating  the  "Hidden  Web" 

1.  Always  examine  and  follow  the  links  from  "links  pages"  at  an 
interesting  site  (it's  quite  possible  that  those  links  lead  to  webpages 
that  are  not  indexed). 

2.  Try  url  guessing,  i.e.,  just  try  what  you  think  might  be  the  address  of 
a  site  you're  looking  for  and  you  might  get  lucky.  Do  pay  attention  to 
any  domain  naming  conventions  widely  used  in  a  particular  country. 
The  Russians  often  use  cities  as  part  of  the  name,  e.g.,,  many  other  countries  use  the  conventions 
of  .co  for  companies,  .ac  for  educational  institutions,  e.g., 
http://www. aid. co. at  or  http://www. ua. ac. be,  etc.). 

3.  Spend  time  browsing  a  country's  domain  name  registry]  many  of 
these  registries  list  "all"  the  websites  in  their  top-level  domain  (more 
on  how  to  find  a  country  registry  later). 

4.  Visit  a  country-specific  website  devoted  to  listing  "all"  the  sites  for 
that  country  and  browse  or  search  their  list  (you  will  undoubtedly  find 
a  number  of  websites  not  indexed  by  US-based  and  focused  search 



DOCID:  4046925 


Casting  a  Wider  Net — International 
Search,  Language  Tools 

International  Search 

I  have  tried  to  think  of  a  better  way  to  describe  this  topic,  which  I  used  to  call  "foreign 
search"  until  I  realized  that  what  is  "foreign"  to  some  readers  is  "home"  to  others. 
The  concept  I  am  trying  to  get  across  is  simple:  do  not  rely  on  your  favorite  search 
engine  for  research.  Simple  idea,  difficult  implementation,  because  users  naturally 
and  quite  understandably  have  a  very  strong  tendency  to  depend  almost  exclusively 
on  certain  search  tools  that  focus  on  their  location,  whether  a  specific  country, 
region,  or  city.  That  makes  perfect  sense  until  you  try  to  find  information  about 
and/or  from  other  locales.  "Vanilla"  Google,  Yahoo,  and  Live  Search  are  targeted  at 
US  users  and  locations,  just  as  Baidu  targets  the  Chinese  audience.  Researchers 
must  first  get  out  of  the  habit  of  using  US-centric  search  engines,  then  look  for  and 
bookmark  country  and  local  search  services  to  have  them  ready  to  hand. 

US  search  engines  have  largely  set  the  pace  and  the  standards  for  search  tools 
around  the  world  and,  in  many  cases,  are  the  engines  underlying  international 
search  sites.  However,  the  target  market  for  US  search  engines  is  the  US  user,  not 
the  rest  of  the  world.  This  means  that  when  you  are  "traveling"  on  the  web,  you  must 
find  and  use  search  services  that  are  appropriate  to  that  region,  country,  or  city. 
What  are  some  of  the  advantages  of  using  regional  search  engines? 

>  Focused  search:  regional  or  country-specific  search  engines  often  permit  you 
to  search  in  one  region  ("all  European  countries,"  for  example)  or  one  country. 

>  Focused  data:  most  non-US  search  tools  collect  and  store  data  primarily  or 
exclusively  from  their  region  or  country. 

>  Language  selectivity:  international  search  engines  must  offer  the  ability  to 
search  in  the  native  language(s). 

>  Non-Latin  code  sets:  the  non-US  search  engines  in  countries  that  use  non- 
Latin  character  sets  often  allow  you  to  input  your  query  in  one  or  more 
character  sets.  Of  course,  your  computer  must  already  be  configured  to  type 
in  the  non-Latin  characters  (unless  you  want  to  resort  to  the  cut  and  paste 

>  Translation  function:  you  may  come  across  an  unusual  translation  option  in 
an  international  search  engine. 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  major  US-based  search  engines  continue  to  expand  into  international  markets, 
offering  a  myriad  specialized  interfaces  by  country  and/or  language.  Search  results 
may  be  much  more  precise  using  the  international  version  of  Google,  for  example, 
than  the  generic  site.  In  fact,  there  is  even  a  site  that  lets  you  compare  the 
differences  between  Google  searches  using  two  different  Google  datacenters. 

Look  at  the  difference  between  the  same  search  for  the  acronym  ETA  using  compared  to  Google  Spain: 


Google  ft 

Weh    Images    Video    News    Majj?    [tesMop  moie 

Search  | 


Employment  &  Training  Administration  [ETA)  -  U.S.  Department  of  Labor 

Information  on  programs,  assistance,  and  training  opportunities  for  employers  and  employees. 
*w  doleta  gov'  -  92k  -  Oct  31 .  2006  ■  ( g?h»(j  -  Swiat  psa?'*- 

ETA  Programs  &  Initiatives.  Employment  &  Training  Administration  ^ 

ETA  Programs  &  Initiatives.  The  Employment  and  Training  Administration  funds  and/or  runs  a 
number  of  piogtams  to  help  ensure  the  smooth  functioning  of ... 

■avw  f/ole-to  gn*/r?r]0ft«/prcgrj?m'-  •J?)'  ■  f  ^_hcoj  ■  >'i:-riViia.°  a-ic^- 
I         :f;V.i::f  V'ifi         '.ip'eiJ  ;nv  ] 

ETA/Cui senai rg-  Choose  from  over  7QQ0  manipulative-based  ... 

Math  manipulates,  VersaTiles,  Cuisenaire  Rods,  Algeblocks,  Reading  Rods,  Miriam 

Treheame.  lab  coats,  anemometer,  can  be  found  here. 

■v-,VjV  ei.muisertaire  com'  -  1 3k  ■  {  -I'.ji^  -  c  .niH-ji  tJ-'ii,?^ 

Unisys  Weather  NAM  Model  Forecasts 

MAM  Model  Forecasts  Latest  image  Cunent  NAM  SL  Pressure/Precipitation  Forecast.  This  is 
a  set  of  contour  plots  using  data  from  the  NAM  model.  ... 

Results  1  -  100  of  about  50,000,000  for  em  -wikrpedfj.onj.  (0.19  seconds) 

Sponsored  Links 
ETA  Australia 

12  month  ETA  Visas.  20%  discount 
Australian  visitor  &  business  visas 
ww  lit.i.Ausiinlirt  com  au/_E l'A_Via^ 

E-T-A  Circuit  from  Beyond 

Components,  9  warehouses! 
Specialize  in  Terminal  Blocks,  etc. 

*w;  BfjyoiUiCortipononiF  com 

Dubai  Properties 

ETA  Star  Freehold  Properties 
"Own  a  Home,  Built  On  Trust" 

Lowest  Marzocchi  Prices 

Learn  everything  about  Marz  forks. 
Learn  &  buy  from  the  "small"  guy 

Here  is  the  identical  search  using  Google  Spain  and  restricting  the  search  to 
Spanish  sites.  Clearly,  Google  Spain  "understands"  that  to  most  Spanish  users  ETA 
means  the  Basque  separatist  group  Euskadi  Ta  Askatasuna: 


La  Web    Imaqenes    Giupos  Nolicias 


Desktop    in  3s 
BOsqueda  | 

Biisqueda'  <~  la  Web  *™  paginas  en  espanol  **"  paginas  de  Espana 

La  Web 

Resultados  1  -  10  de  aproximadamente  4.990.000  de  eta.  (0,28  segundos) 

ftesuftatios  de  noDcias  due  contienen  eta  -  Vo«  i.v,  Jijreos  mkkl  tk  hoy 

g  El  PP  creg  que  ETA  ha  jecupeiado  su  capaeidad  ope-atrva  ■  El  Omw  Maolaries  ■  hace  1 1  horas 
"^k/  Descubren  iuto  utili:ado  oor  ETA  en  lobe  de  arrnas  en  Francta  ■  El  Univ*s;s-il  (MiVnco)  -  hace  17  horas 
Garzon  incrimina  a  alms  lie?  dinqantes  de  Batasuna  oor ...  -  Meal  rjirjital  -  hace  10  horas 

elmundo  es  I  Es nectal  ETA  la  dictadura  del  terror 

informacion  sobre  la  banda  terrorista  ETA,  su  historia,  sus  atentados,  las  viclimas  que  han 
provocado,  las  negociaciones  con  el  gobierno. 

vr-wi.v  ^ifi-n.ifiiJo  rtj./<st«i/  -  iU.  -  t"r.  ■'  ■y-.'^  -  V'-'Ii'.^:'^  ."'.! ' ' ' ~ '' 

ETA  anuiKia  un  'alto  el  fu9qo  peimansnte'  I 

ETA  anuncia  un  alto  el  fuego  permanente  La  organization  terrorista  ETA  ha  anunciado  un  alto 
el  fuego  permanente  en  un  comunicado  remitido  a  la  television  ... 

www  olmundc-  e  *  A3  Irn  u  n  d  o-l'CO  Jilj3  j/e  s  p  a  r  1  a  '1 1 4  302G-*  A  A  himl  ■  24k  - 

EL  BOLETO  -  La  verdad  sobre  ETA  [La  web  d&  Anq&lberto) 

Web  con  mucha  infoimacion  sobre  la  banda  terrorista  ETA 

rlw-ntes  V'lanPtwmk^  a-^'pRr.-.onsl/snriBlhGrtct/  -  ".'V  -  E^^h^  -  E'^'mi.-.:-,  .-i;-: ■i\-tf°>- 

Google  provides  the  list  of  its  "local"  (meaning  country)  sites,  identified  by  thumbnail 
flags,  on  its  language  tools  page.  There  is  also  a  very  good  list  of  the  languages  and 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  international  interfaces  that  support  them  available  at  the  French  website 

Visit  Google's  Site  in  Your  Local  Domain 

™  ii 

www,  co 
Colombia  Espana 



www,  google,  at 

www. google 
Brasil  New  Zealand 



^  = 

■  ■ 

■  I 

■  Hi 

■  M 






:     4  l 

www.  ( 

www,  pa 


■  H 



www.qooqle  fi 


Google  International  Sites  tools 



DOCID:  4046925 


Visit  Google's  Site  in  Your  Local  Domain 

www,  google,  com,  ar 

Bosna  i  Hercegovina 
Burundi,  b; 
Cote  D'lvoire 

www,  google 

www,  google,  as 
American  Samoa 

www,  google,  com,  ag 
Antigua  and  Barbuda 

II  be 
Belgie     www,  google,  corn,  bi 



www,  google,  off,  ai 

www,  google, 


www,  google,  c  a 

www  google,  cd 
Rep.  Dem.  du  Congo 

www  google 
Cook  Islands  Chile 
The  Bahamas 

D  VA 

Rep.  du  Congo 

www,  google,  a; 

Colombia        www  goggle, cz 
Costa  Rica  Cuba  Ceska  republika 

Rep.  Dominicana  Ecuador 

www,  google,  dj 


Intelligence  Center:  Google  Worldwide 

While  acronyms  are  a  type  of  search  that  often  renders  ambiguous  or  misleading 
results,  searching  for  the  English-language  name  of  a  non-English-language  entity 
can  cause  similar  confusion.  Here  are  three  different  searches  for  the  Mexican  group 
Fuerzas  Armadas  Revolucionarias  del  Pueblo,  known  in  English  as  the 
Revolutionary  Armed  Forces  of  the  People.  The  first  search  ["Revolutionary  Armed 
Forces  of  the  People"],  using  generic  Google,  generates  the  following  results,  which 
clearly  illustrate  the  problem  of  searching  for  the  translated  name.  This  search 
comes  up  with  groups  of  this  same  name  in  Guinea-Bissau,  Colombia,  and  Mexico: 







Wel>  Images  Video  News  Maps  Desktop  inona  >. 
("Revolutionary  Armed  Forces  of  the  People"    Search  |  f 

W£b  Results  1  -  58  of  about  325  for  "Revolution;) ry  Ajinjsd  forces  of  the  Peojpje".  (0.24  seconds) 

MPT  Terrorism  Knowledge  Base 

The  Revolmionary  Aimed  Foices  of  the  People,  known  by  its  Spanish  acronym  FARP,  is 
one  of  these  splinter  groups.  FARP  has  demonstrated  its  continuing  ...;  l^b.orijX-iDurj.j£p';!^'cijplO-3Sii1  -  23k  ■  i  ached  -  Similar  ijajs^ 

MIPT  Terrorism  Knowledge  Base 

Revolmionary  Amieri  Forces  of  the  People  (FARP)  attacked  Police  target  (July  23.  2000. 
Mexico)  Incident  Date:  July  23.  2000  ... 

WW  ikb  oi^-lncidera  ji»p?iiidr>'M13&  -  21  k  -  Cached  -  S«fjiUK£^i<p.i 

Revolutionary  Armed  Forces  of  the  People  -  Wikipedia.  the  free ... 

Revo lutio uaiy  Aimed  Foices  of  (lie  People  (in  Portuguese:  Farias  Armadas 
Revrjlucionaiias  do  Poyo),  the  armed  wing  of  PAIGC  during  the  struggle  against  ... 
en  vvikiQ'Jdia  o  f  c^Si  I :  i  ■  R  c--/o  I  u  1 1  ci  ri  &  r ; /  _  Af  rr  i  e  u  _  F  c>  ?  c  e  5  o  f  _  1 1 1  e  __P  o  p  I  &  -  1  lk  - 

African  Party  for  the  Independence  of  Guinea  and  Cape  Verde ... 

...  in  which  both  the  political  and  military  arms  of  the  PAIGC  were  assessed  and  reorganised 
with  a  regular  army  (Revolmionary  Armed  Foices  of  the  People,  ... 

en  vYKiiipfJi*  orfyv/iki/Pan,ido_Afric&rio_daJridep&nd^nc^_d&_Guirife._?_.Cabo_Vetdo  -  31k- 

.'...'Lv:.;"'^  ■  5;.P..V.!.iLMii±» 

i  I 

Revolutionary  Armed  Forces  of  the  People:  Information  from 
Revolution  jiy  Aimed  Forces  of  the  People  Revolutionary  Aimed  Foices  of  the  People 

(in  Portuguese   Farias  Armadas  Revolutionaries  do  Povo  ).  the  armed. 

answers  rci^'iopir/ievoUitiiMi.ny  <*iined  (*>ices-of  tlie  people  ■  ?9k  ■ 

Next,  we  search  for  the  group  by  its  Spanish  name  [Tuerzas  Armadas 
Revolucionarias  del  Pueblo"]  using  generic  Google.  The  results  are  very  different 
and  most  refer  to  the  Mexican  group: 


Wch  »rtt£p,c°  Video''  Na>,$  l*,&p$  Desktop  moie  » 
iTuetnas  Armadas  Revoluaonanos  del  Puet    Seorch  I 

Web  Results  1  *  100  of  sbgtf  37,300  for  Tueuas  Ain>*da$  RevolucloiMilas  del  Pueblo"  fft.W  second? 

i  f  Sf-arf  h  te'  English  ^sjJts  only  Voy  tan  specif'  yo*ir  %?arzh  language  in  Fipfpiences  rsl  ,  ,ifl(< » 

APIA  -  Com, unic ado  cte  las  Fuarzas  Armadas  Revolucionarias  del ...  - 1       ^u^.^^  j  ^^Soh^iNissaQ 

Fuerz as  Aimadiu  Revolutionaries  del  Pueblo  FARP  Err,iado  el  Frrisy,  01  September  a  V?ew  ou?  huge  Inventory  ol  N*//  and 

1st  por  apia  Login  Nickname  Passwcrs  ...  0?*d  Nissan  Cars,  Trucks,  and  SUV's. 

w-,  ^['m  iftfssl  crm.'mod  i     f  hf"natne=N-1'''^ri!'3~'irtirs^%.-:'i  i='ilU  -       -  "      >,  itX^j-  \Wav  =i,ion  cunvK  s-,ciii 

APIA  ■  Commtcado  dg  las  Fuerzas  Armadas  Revolucionarias  del ...  j  1;...;...>-Xi!:::^  I 

Fiieiz.19  Armadas  Revoluciorwuias  del  Pueblo,  FAFP  Republics  fclextcana.  a  7  de  agostn 

ds  2CCf>  Enviado  el  ~Iu»Erfay,  08  August  a  fas  CS-33-3S  por  apia  ... 

r-'ft>       ntua!  r-i;ii'nvs  f:  =  ;  r  !'pr'n.«i:iF.=li-i'.t.  ".iilf^-ii-i-   '4!'  ■  ■ 

Cronoiooia  de  £^rc  no  Po&utar  Revolucionano  ?EPR)  y  de  las ...  *  { "  .    \  ,\     .  \ 

Sujetos  desrsfx-tidas,  quienes.  eslanan  vmculados  can  «!  orupo  subvErsr.'C  Fuerras 
Aimadas  Revohrcfonaiins  del  Pueblo  (FARP).  que  opeiaiia  en  el  sv.aia  (*e  ... 

■  w>  (jwi';:;         '^n'a-p"'..  ifn^'/.tiLV        ;-ti  ■  V$<  .  •    - 1  -:1  •    -    •;  •  •~ir- 

CRONO-CC-.A  DEL  EPR.  el  ERPivjaj  PAPP  :?QC 0-2001!  ■  [  :L,  ] 

U  Coordinid^.-A  Guemllera  1,'acional  ""Jose        to<jf«|ps".  iMecrrsrja  por  las  Fiiei7«M 
Aimadiin  Revolucloniiii«$  del  PueMo  (F.ARPJ,  el  Ejcrtito  VVhsta  ... 

(  :  I 

QEjr^d£-i^&^JjjJ^rJS2  dg  Docuni^itgcibr  de  Jos  Mc^/imien:os  Armado?  - 1  :  -  :  ii  ^  v ; !,; .  ■  ■  | 
Oocuinootaciof  rtjc^,  P^fs,  Grupo.  C^logoria,  Triulo  2006  rjg  2&,  Mqsisco,  P^rtid? 
OerrrucJit'Ctf  Popular  Rewo^c/oftsno-ejefcrto  Popular  R?voiucc>nario  .., 



DOCID:  4046925 


Notice  how  different  the  results  are  if  we  switch  to  Google  Mexico 
<>  and  limit  the  search  to  Mexican  pages;  virtually  every 
result  refers  to  the  Mexican  group  FARP,  the  one  we  were  seeking: 


La  Web    Imageries    Grupos    Noting    Desktop    mas » 

C^OOSlC    l"Fuerz9S  Anriados  Revolutionaries  del  Puel    Busqueda  |  ^g^VJP 
Vr'  Busqueda   r  la  Web  r  paginas  en  espanol  ^  paginas  de  Mexico 

La  Web  Rasultados  1  -  10  de  aproximadaimente  188  de  "Fueizas  Atmadas  Revolucionaiias  del  Pueblo"  (0.36  sagundos) 



•••■.-.v-/r  por  fjnh  Mi«/fjr.i^f.ial/hivn:>'-f:iv>1?sffini  hi  ml  -  1 4k  •  k^S       -  £••"<:••■?••  ':'-ii'jf-'. 

El  Sur  de  Acapuico  26  de  del  2006 

...  a  pesar  de  todas  las  descalificaciones  y  que  han  usado  a  las  FARP  (Fueizas  Aimadas 
Revolucionaiias  del  Puelilo),  para  golpear  al  movimienlo  armado, ... 

-v-wr  suiacapiilca  com  m^/noto.php',id_not3!ae2K3  -  lfcik  ■  Cr.  ■:  y.<*  -  ■±qw\y-.:.;v.rM3<i>-, 

El  pais,  intestado  de  grupos  quemlleros 

-Fuerzas  Armailas  Revolucionaiias  del  Pueblo.  Grupos  con  presencia  regional:,  Sonora. 
-Comite  de  Defensa  del  Pueblo  Baja  California  Sur ... 

vw»\v  laerisi*-  com  rnx/cyi-hin/cris-Ciji-'DisCoiriu-T!  capL.ohjn'i22%7C20Q«50^GB0312ia  -  t3k  - 

En  ■  •_»■. h<-  •  p-^u-.j-.  if<i:l;.!iv> 

Reoreso  de  las  bombas  catalizadoras 

...  y  acreditados  a  un  grupo  autodenominado  Fueizas  Aimadas  Revolucionaiias  del 
Pueblo  Nunca  se  supo  m3s  de  esa  organrzacion  supuestamente  guerrillera.  ... 

way;  Ihcnivi.tfjic.  riix/c(ji-bm/cn£-cciL:[:i?C-?m'Jni  ctj!?Lu!um04%7C^J]4G5??DC524 1  -  ?k  - 

Abrio  PGR  15  averiguaaonQs  en  Oaxaca  Cabeza  de  Vaca 

...  y  de  las  Fueizas  Aiinadas  Revolucionaiias  del  Pueblo  (FARP),  escision  del 

PDPR-EPR,  con  una  actividad  de  propaganda  polilico-mililar  en  Nazareno  Ella.  ... 

nom.tOiTi  m^'olioldpgrapulco/ncias/nij^l.hlm  -  20k  ■  Em  ".'i-.h?  ■  Pjii^v.  '.isTi!I.J*r^ J- 

La  Jornada 

...  Nola&co  buscaban  infofmacion  sobre  actrvidades  de  las  Fuerzas  Armadas 
Revolucionaiias  del  Pueblo  (FARP).  que  hizo  su  aparicion  en  Xochimilco  en  1999.  ... 

tf.Afrv.'.jornsdii.uniim  rn;;.CD04-1 1^7/033ri1c3p  php  ■  ^-n^a:-  ■h  ;ni:a?ei 

Cuestiona  la  APPO  a  Rueda  por  el  posible  regreso  a  clases 

Mas  aim.  las  Fueizas  Armadas  Revolucionaiias  del  Pueblo  (FARP)  convocaron  a  todos 

loc  aftnroc  nnlitirne  t\a\  mnwimiontn  nnnular  w  manictorial  a  llamar  'a  la 

Google's  local  search  usually  offers  the  options  to  search  all  of  Google,  pages  only 
from  that  country,  or  pages  only  in  the  language  of  the  country  (sometimes,  as  in  the 
case  of  India,  the  Google  local  search  has  versions  in  multiple  languages).  As  we 
have  seen,  you  will  get  very  different  search  results  if  you  limit  your  search  to  a 
specific  country  and  search  in  the  language  of  that  country;  the  results  are  especially 
dramatic  when  the  native  language  uses  non-Latin  encoding.  Here  is  a  comparison 
of  a  search  for  [Jii>^  o—^  ]  (Nasrallah),  first  in  generic  Google: 






Google  ns= 

Web    hrtaq&s    Video    Nev^s    Maps    Desklop  more 



XunisiaGate  Community  ~      J^p^i ...  -  [  T^UjMhs.i^t  I 

Full  Version-  j*— .  jb— U  iU  v>J  fUi  <^Vi  ^.j  ...  iP  ^  ^~  *Ji  *J£J  Ji<i  Jill  ... 

vww.,tuni?ic«q&ie  na;/Forunvlorw(»isiori/inder  php?i795  hlntl  -  27k  -  Cjacjwd  -  5Ji.?.?!£..fc.'l:i?l 

Jli  juai        Aimll  j-a&i        i^iill     -  (  Trjn'Mr::^  Uvo  P^Or1  ] 

^  ^  5i  U>J  ^  r2006  /  08  /  09  .  y>  *-U  ^  t^Sli  ^  ... 

cw-vv.tunisiaqat(?.ner/romm/ir:deK-php^3cr-£T&r>^&t-7%   10Bk-  Supnlcmeni^l  Result 

I  ^VL^_iA..^AA:iJ'^'L=.:_'\'-':. !    ^  ^li^'^  i:^^  I 

BBC  Arabic  corn  I  ^U»j  Jiy  I  JLmAi       ^  - 1  Irj.^^j^.n^M  \,i:k/lN/arabic/r:-ii^  ■  56k  - 

i  vtoi  -  'L  iv-ibi  XiW> 

Palestine  Inr'oirnation  Center  - 1  Jn^v^-V^imit  1 

...  <J>-  ^J*1  o?*  j"^1  ^  jj  ijf  °&>  r**  j**4-  t#jij^  dj^  ^  <-r\>  ^  ... 

»w#  fi^l^^tnip-infD-urdu  coni/ijiiiuAprfrfi^/^maa  =1 3t%-iT:&nt&/20n«/M3(l  1 .29  3004  shunl  -  34k  - 

Palestine  Information  Center  - 1  Tr^nsiaie  ihi?  p^-?  ] 

...  ^  Luu  ,J>lLc  jljyl  'o^i  yA.  jtAjj  tfjijS^l  tbia.         H  4J>  '(Jfili  tfljJt  luJ  fLe  ... 

vw-Vw.pal-joiiric-  ir.fc-uidu  c o ro/u fti ij/n ehws/2004/ a p i e|/1  l/ndc-:;  stilnil  -  221  !<  ■ 

[  K"-  :  ':  :.l>1-s  ;  n  v-v  paiestini!H.i;c'-'.iriiij.i:o-Ti  1 

Iranian  Bar  Associations 

-VY.W  'is»nb*i  ouj/riA?  1  ;ili|i  ■  38K  ■  Oj^hpjl  -  SijJ.'ikLlidi-ti*' 

Here  is  the  same  search  at  the  Google  Saudi  Arabia  site  limited  to  Saudi  sites: 

Desklop  '^t>-"ji  ^y-~* 

■  Google 

Af  Wal3n  A  Ssutfi  newspaper  concerning  ise  qtebaf.  region*!!,  and  local  rmtleis  -r>  of 
T.'t^i^*^  corrvcj'xrrci     rfeiig^js.  conrimeicial.  p>&Mic^t.  social. ... 

R«id  the  L&1«s!  Kov/s  on  U.S  ■  '■-  -  -  -   ■  ■  ■   ?w  •.fV«.^of-       j  i.'U.i»'y.C!GJ5  J3  ?.5/p'.'iitii;-;?poli;ii:  kJl  him  ■  2«» 

FoiDign  PoliLy,  Viss  EducaJion 

; ,      . '  .".ij  iyj-  '»•  ...  _mjijj      U  Ail ---i.f.  -j',^-' 

. ..        ^  "jfv^-  0ji>  ^  A  -  ^  ^*  A       Ail  ^-i'.  Jli 

 L  ■ 



DOCID:  4046925 


You  can,  of  course,  search  in  Arabic  at  the  generic  Google  website,  or  you  can  go  to 
various  specific  Google  locations  to  search.  Your  results  will  be  different  depending 
on  where  you  search,  how  you  limit  your  search  (by  domain,  country),  and  in  what 
language  you  search.  While  basic  Google  may  be  fine  for  a  "quick  and  dirty"  search, 
detailed  research  requires  us  to  explore  and  exercise  many  search  options. 

I  suspect  we  are  all  guilty  of  relying  too  heavily  upon  Google  and  thinking  that  if  it  is 
not  in  Google,  it  doesn't  exist  (well,  at  least  not  on  the  web).  That,  of  course,  is 
wrong.  Here  is  an  example.  First  are  the  results — rather,  the  absence  of  results — of 
a  Google  query  for  a  Russian  website  []: 


Weh    jUisaiS    Vic!.?.?''"*     Ni-v.-s  UHHSji 
|lorummureto.hi5fu  Search  j  gggff^ 


Your  sessch-  -  did  not  match  any  documents. 

♦  Make  sure  all  words-  are  spelled  correctly. 

♦  Try  different  keywords 

♦  Try  wo«-e  general  keywords 

Even  Google  Russia  does  not  find  this  particular  url.  However,  look  at  the  results  for 
the  identical  query  from  the  Russian  search  engine  Rambler,  which  returns  5054 
documents  from  15  sites: 


MMMj,  P'ac  umpgftWt  mm*. 

tKMrn:  fotummurdtaJil  S*u,  tv&npitQwiioa'  IS,  AwyteHMt:  5054 


1  f~nftSH;ia 

..  [not:*  I  no>fc»Mre»o  ir^vn^n  \  Ehoa  CrwetK  ct*apy*«i  forummurata  ^eriyLiee  epnwCpAei  Cfl.  SDO&t.Ol. 
Iftiijmiiiimi^.lilri.Hi  (Fcerf:  &-'~:') 

2  forummurata  P^-x y^}^ ^l^A2 :, A^1MH 

Cr*i:<K  4>cpyroo  loriJmmur/il*.hl  Lru  >  Afiwi'tt 

*  forummurata  h1&.ru  :  i  -p-x^crp  't'QSVMj  ■  OfriTon 

Cr«:o'  4>cpynoE  forummurata  >  ^ffcrtr. 

.        m  ',-   f  *\t  .-i  1  ia   t^wnWLj'  .■n.^f-.-:-.,.,JUii;i  i.t.  =  . 

4  forummurata   np  .>.vo:g  j^t  i  -  Tbl  Tfl ^CE^^j^^ijE^'j^iiAl'J 

Cm:cK  iticpvwt  S^ti  s  iHt«ecn>e  tturwi 

-I    •  -'■  "-,'f.r  iv~  «|  - ;  .     'rh*.»h  f.'.i'r  {**•       »•••*  ~v  -«xn  f>  ■  "v/i; 

-  forummurata  h15,ru 1  -  Pr?o>:  mote  r^.-ibi  Chstp  neg^T^y  •  ecrb  mea  I 

Cfi»;o  $op*woe-  lorufnmurata.hlS^u  ;■ 



M  0T«P0HT6 




DOCID:  4046925 


Please  believe  me  when  I  tell  you  that  there  is  a  remarkable  lack  of  search  engine 
overlap  in  general,  and  those  differences  become  even  more  dramatic  when  we  are 
focusing  on  international  sites,  terms,  and  non-English/non-Latin  encoding. 

Interestingly,  in  the  example  above,  Yahoo  performs  well,  returning  37  hits  for  the 
same  query.  The  results  for  Yahoo  and  Yahoo  Russia  are  virtually  identical,  which 
means  they  are  searching  essentially  the  same  database,  while  in  general  Google's 
local  searches  produce  very  different  results.  Yahoo  offers  its  own  version  of  an 
international  page. 

Yahoo!  International 

yahoo!    My  Yahoo!   Mill     Mak*  Yi  youi  home  pjg* 

Wool  New  User?  Sign  Up 
International  Yahoo! 

Americas  Asia  Pnciflc 

Argentina  Mexico  Asia 

Brazil  U.S.  Australia 

Canada  U.S.  in  Chinese  Cnina 

Canada  en  fran^ats  V!  Telemundo  Hong  Kong 


























UK  &  Ireland 

U.S.  m  Chin***  . 
V!  Teltrntmdo . 

United  SUtef  • 

NO.W*V«  .Sw«A»fi 

Ft  MIC*  « 
Sp-in.  «It*lv 

•  Greece 

rt    ,     ,  •*rn 

>  Atgcntina 

>  Australia  feNZ 

While  non-US  search  sites  are  often  the  best  places  to  perform  country-specific 
searches,  finding  these  resources  can  be  a  research  project  in  itself.  Your  best  bet 
for  locating  these  search  tools  is  to  start  with  a  directory  of  search  engines  that 
offers  a  section  devoted  to  international  search  tools,  such  as  the  sites  listed  here. 
Also,  remember  to  look  at  the  megasearch  sites  for  sections  on  international, 
regional,  or  country  search  engines. 

All  Search 
European  Search  Engines  search  engines/ 



DOCID:  4046925 


FetchFido  European  Search  Engines 

http://homepaqe.ntlworld.conn/fetchfido2/interface/search  engines  european.htm 

FetchFido  World  Search  Engines  engines  worldwide.htm 


Infisource  Foreign  Language  Search  Engines 


International  Search  Engines 

ISEDB  Local  and  Regional  Search  Engines  Search  Engines/Local  and  Regional  Search  Engines/ 

ISEDB  Local  and  Regional  Directories  Directories/Local  and  Regional  Directories/ 

Phil  Bradley's  Country  Based  Search  Engines 

Regional  and  Special  Search  Engines 

Search  Engine  Colossus  A 

Search  Engine  Guide 
Search  Engine  Index  Search/ 

Search  Engines  2  h ttp ://www. sea rch-enq ines-2 . com/ 

Search  Engines  Worldwide  (2003) 
Ultimate  Search  Engines  Links  Page 

In  summary,  the  basic  rules  for  international  search  are: 

>  Search  first  using  generic  search  engines  such  as  Google,  Yahoo,  Live 
Search,  Gigablast,  Exalead  for  a  quick  overview  and  to  size  the  query. 

>  Locate  and  bookmark  multiple  international  search  engines  and  directories, 
including  country-specific  search  sites  of  major  search  engines  such  as 
Google  and  Yahoo. 

>  Search  on  the  English-language  term  [Kurdistan  Workers  Party],  the 
transliterated  term  [Partiya  Karkeran  Kurdistan],  the  native  language  term  in 
its  proper  encoding,  e.g.,  [Partiya  Karkeren  Kurdistan]  in  Kurdish,  and  the 
term  in  any  related  language,  e.g.,  [Kurdistan  \§g\  Partisi]  in  Turkish. 

>  Search  for  variations  on  a  name,  e.g.,  PKK  is  also  known  as  KADEK,  Kongra- 
Gel,  the  Freedom  and  Democracy  Congress  of  Kurdistan,  Halu  Mesru 


uNCLASsiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


Savunma  Kuvveti  (HSK),  or  the  Kurdistan  People's  Congress  (KHK)  get 
the  idea.  Some  queries  demand  a  lot  of  attention  and  effort. 

>  Search  for  acronyms  in  their  native  language  version  [PHE],  a  transliterated 
version  [RNE],  or  an  English-language  version  [RNU],  all  of  which  stand  for 
the  group  Russian  National  Unity,  aka  Russkoe  Natsionalnoe  Edinstvo  (RNE) 

>  Use  sites  such  as  Wikipedia  to  find  native  language  spellings  and  encodings; 
these  can  be  copied  and  pasted  into  search  engines  that  can  properly  handle 
non-Latin  encoding  and/or  diacritics. 

>  Limit  queries  to  country-level  domains  (e.g.,  site:  plus  country  digraph)  or  to  a 
specific  language  (e.g.,  language:  plus  country  digraph)  or  use  the  search 
engine's  advanced  search  feature. 


|  Look  for  specialized  and/or  unique 
1  functions  in  foreign  search  engines. 

Rule  Six 



DOCID:  4046925 


Online  Dictionaries  and  Translators 

Finding  online  translation  tools  is  becoming  easier  as  the  quality  of  these  machine 
translators  steadily  improves  as  well.  There  are  three  basic  types  of  translation  tools 
available  via  the  Internet.  At  the  simplest  level  are  online  dictionaries,  which 
translate  one  word  at  a  time,  usually  from  one  language  to  another.  One  step  up 
from  online  dictionaries  are  text  translators,  which  translate  words,  phrases  or 
maybe  a  paragraph  entered  either  by  typing  or  by  copy-and-paste.  Text  translators 
are  most  useful  for  translating  an  odd  or  unusual  word  or  phrase  to  English.  The 
crown  jewels  of  Internet  translation  are  the  web  page  translators,  which  automati- 
cally translate  a  web  page  or  even  an  entire  website.  The  quality  of  the  machine 
translation  varies  enormously  from  product  to  product  (some  are  surprisingly  good; 
others  are  dreadful).  However,  most  are  usually  good  enough  to  let  you  know  if  the 
page  you're  viewing  is  about  soccer  or  cellular  technology.  And  certainly  if  you  are 
dealing  with  languages  that  do  not  use  the  Latin  alphabet  (Russian,  Chinese, 
Hebrew,  for  example),  almost  any  machine  translation  is  a  blessing. 


There  are  innumerable  language  dictionaries  now  on  line,  most  of  which  offer  some 
sort  of  automated  look-up  feature.  I  believe  the  best  of  the  online  dictionary 
metadirectories  is  the  one  created  at  Bucknell  University  that  has  become  This  site  has  the  most  comprehensive,  impressive  set  of  links  to 
dictionaries  I  have  seen. 

your^gj^ict  ion  aryx  om" 

►  Home 

A  Web  of  OnVM 
Dictionaries  is  nci« 
•  part 

your  Dictionary. Co 
*  Find  out- mors; 

0  'nvms  &  more  I '  <  Grammars  |  =3  Language  Identifiers  |  Q  Research  |  ©  Library  |  dj  Fun  &  Games  |  ;£  More 

Professional  Transla tion  Service 

NO'.v  yout  DKliono;  y,com  f  rfjrr.latr.1'.'.  ^on'.wol  <>f  Uchnt^l  tJocumenhi, 
tu.'in^,ib,  brochures,  wtibojCfQ.  jQityjjfO  -  virtually  any  i^xi1. 


Top  Ten  Language 

■3  English 
'J  Spanish 
0;  French 

0  German 
O Japanese 
'i  Chinese 
Q>  Hindi 

1  *  Arabic 
'j  Russian 

O230  moie'. 


\  Quick  Look-up  (English)  If 








O-  Help  with  the  Dictionary  ft  Thesaurus 

Meni  am- Webster's  CoH*atjU&  Oictioraw  £«  Thesaum* 



W  Madness 



[Inaugural  Address 



DOCID:  4046925 



Foreignword  is  an  excellent  language  and  translation  resource  that  automatically 
links  users  with  more  than  265  online  dictionaries  for  73  languages  and  single  point 
access  to  28  text  and  url  translators  for  over  38  different  languages.  Be  sure  to 
check  the  Tools  page  for  Translate  Now!.  This  page  provides  access  to  machine 
translation  tools,  including  Systran,  Arcnet,  Worldlingo,  InterTran,  and  Cybertrans, 
among  others. 

Download  Now* 

Translate;  I  ^J 


►  word 

Access  265+ 
online  dictionaries 
for  73  languages 
English,  German, 
Spanish,  Italian, 
Dutch,  Chinese, 

*■  Text 

Use  this  tool  to 
translate  small 
texts.  Some  60 
English,  German, 
Spanish,  Italian, 
Dutch,  Chinese, 

►  Language 

what  language  is 

►  Find  a  pro 

Wirh  fhp 

from:  [luSt 
The  first  free  Cebuano 
all-in-one  translat  Chechen 
wizard  for  PCs.  Chinese 
Download  no*  Chinese  (pinyin 
Chinese  (yale) 
'X  aini  ad  Croatian 


Foreign  word .  com 

The  Linguae  Silt- 
into:  |*Mono-lingual  Qo 

More  software  fro 


Software  tools  fo 


-  Text  translation  FrencW 

-Translation  Frisian 

memories  Galicran 

-Other  tools  Georgian 

The  origins  of 
machine  translation 
by  John  Hutchins  -> 

se  of 





e  gets 


Do  translators  fit  into 
translation?  -> 

Eureka,  the  new 
search  engine  for 
language  and 

Tongue  tied  no  more 
Black  English  Equals 
Any  Other  Language 
Translation  mistakes 
can  be  dangerous  for 
medical  patients 

■■■  ■■■  'y-  moce/suggest 

Numbers  in  Over  4500 



Language  Search  Enghe 

It's  new  at 

All  our  free 
language  tools  are 
now  also  available 



— >Gernian 



— >Kdlidii 





— >Mace(lonian 

Don't  miss  the  new 


PROMT  maintains  the  best  overall  web  page  translation  service.  PROMT  offers  both 
text  and  url  translations  to  and  from  English,  Russian,  French,  German,  and 
Spanish.  Keep  in  mind  there  are  many  more  single  language  machine  translation 
services  available.  Use  Word2Word  and  Foreignword  to  locate  these  sites. 

The  most  widely  used,  though  not  the  best,  translation  system  on  the  Internet 
remains  the  Systran  machine  translation  software.  Systran's  translation  is  available 
through  AltaVista's  Babelfish,  Google,  AOL,  and  the  French  search  engine  Voila. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Translate  WWW 

Translate  E-rnaii 

Translate  WftP 


'  11.Ai.iA.fje' 

Ifoi'PftKnt  Pru-le*sidii<4  7.0:  f  eatures  diui  Benefits 

1  ►  Pluglns  for  MS  Office  XP/2003 
[  *  Customization  Options  

Check  the  Benefits  ^     QK  j 

ebsste  Translation  by  PROMT 

HWfl  offers  free  Website  Tianslailon  seivice  for  English,  German.  French,  Spanish,  Portuguese 
(Brazilian),  Italian  and  Russian  languages.  The  service  is  powered  by  new  dm^'ft  7.0  h;m>t.tii<>ti  s&ftw^fr. 

All  ths  text  conlenl  of  Web  site  will  be  translated  including  hyperlinks  and  picture  titles.  Also,  the  original  Web 
site  layoul  is  preserved  in  translated  pages  and  linked  pages  will  be  translated  automatically  when  you 
navigate  to  them. 

Do  wnU.nt 

II  0  IIS-I  OTO  I  >> 



tie-/  PROMT  paitnei 
in  Porijtirfl 


TROMT  Translation 
Sewer  or  AOL. 


>»  Make  your  website  multilingual  for  FREE!  «< 




I  EnJlisJ?^u,slLan  1r^D5laiZi  Subject:  j  Common  lexis  3] 
I  *  Russian-Enoliah  translation         |t«uio>  __j 

Encoding.       , ,  Russjan_Erpfl|jSn  translation 

Autotranslate  links  Oerman-Russlan  translation 
Russian-German  translation 
Transliterate  unkn  French-Russian  translation 
Russian-French  translation 
Spanish-Russian  translation 
Russian-Spanish  translation 
.  Italian-Russian  translation 
English-German  translation 

1  Type  or  pas  German-English  translation 

2  Choose  tht  English-Spanish  translation 

3  You  can  ch  Spanish-English  translation 
field  "Encoc  English-French  translation 

4  To  IranslaK  French-English  translation 
first  page  c  Engltsh-Portuaueso  transiatir^  I 

5  Press  "Trar  portu9uese-English  translate 

French-German  translation 
German-French  translation 
French-Spanish  translation  z. 

How  to  tl\trVjla" 


ite  you  would  like  to  translate. 
>m  the  list  (e.g..  "internet"), 
and  translated  pages  in  the 

surfing  through  links  from  the 

Uul  17  -  Jan  18 

.->■  . 


Choose  Translator: 

Logos  Multilingual  Portal 

Another  site  that  has  been  around  for  years  but  was  vastly  improved  is  the  Logos 
Multilingual  Portal.  Logos  includes  a  dictionary,  a  universal  conjugator,  glossaries, 
a  translation  course,  and  links  to  other  language  and  translation  sites.  The  Logos 
dictionary  contains  over  7  million  entries  in  150  languages.  In  addition  to  translating 
terms,  the  Logos  dictionary  gives  complete  definitions,  grammar,  context, 
pronunciation,  and,  in  some  cases,  associated  pictures.  Logos  also  offers  access  to 
over  1000  glossaries  in  different  languages. 

One  of  Logos'  best  features  its  ability  to  search  in  all  languages  at  once,  which  is 
very  helpful  in  language  identification,  i.e.,  identifying  non-English  terms  without 
needing  to  know  the  language  of  origin.  The  easiest  way  to  find  terms  in  multiple 
languages  is  to  go  to  the  Logos  Dictionary  main  page,  select  Advanced  Search,  then 
type  in  the  term.  Logos  will  present  the  term  in  all  the  languages  in  which  it  occurs: 



DOCID:  4046925 


about  us 


children's  dictionary 

universal  conjugator 

children's  library 

|  logos 



add  search  box 

/ton  solo  purofc 

Abtiiamo  bisogno  di  vinceie  !a  fame, 
la  miseria  e  resclusione  socials. 
AssacliaJone  Itaitacta  Sostenllori  Fame  lsw 

Query  word  :^  pa  role 


query  again 












Latvian;  Lettish 


If  I  then  select  parole  in  Italian,  I  am  presented  with  its  definition  (in  Italian)  and  the 
option  to  translate  parole,  with  the  following  results: 

mn  uito  piiroJe  ^^^^^^^ 

,  NOMI  E  NUMERI  1 
t_H    MA  FIE  ■ 

| about  us 

II     Translation  for  parola 


..  -^^e st  User 


children's  dictionary 

Advjric*d  SeJictt 

Query  again:  | 

Search  | 

|  universal  conjugator 


children's  library 

logos  toolbars 


add  search  box 



translation  course 

verba  volanl 

home  page 

Quotation  of  the  day 


L  word 

1 1 


L  parola 


L  palabra 

1 1 






■:':'<■ ' 


L-  ^ 


l  a 



Ar  agones 







L  Mfa 


Bengali;  Bard  a 












DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASsiFiEP//ron  ornciAL  uoc  only 

Logos  also  offers  a  feature  called  Logos  Library  (formerly  Wordtheque),  which  is  an 
interface  to  a  vast  database  containing  nearly  700  million  words  in  almost  32,000 
texts  of  novels,  technical  literature,  and  other  texts  in  many  languages.  Logos  is 
certainly  one  of  the  most  valuable  linguistic  resources  on  the  Internet.  For  example, 
here  is  a  search  on  the  keyword  [web]  and  [Shakespeare]: 

CONTRO     I_E    MA  FIE 


JH          author               title  subject 



»K>ro:  r  author*,,. 

title:  t  


Wordtheque  |  news  |  jobs|  ToolBar  |  stats | 

You  can  toil  a  wort)  by  the  company  it  keeps 

New  publications 
this  month 

about  us 

c*co  logos 

cWtiren's  dictionary 

universal  conjugate* 

etiidren's  library 

logos  toolbars 


add  search  box 



translation  course 


context  information  for:  web 
Match  N.  1 

Author:  Shakespeera-  William 
Title:  KING  HENRY  V 

Source:  http://the-tech, 
Subject:  DRAMA  (812)  O 

...  FLUELLEN  "Tis  no  matter  for  his  swellings  nor  his  turkey-cocks.  God 
pless  you,  Aunchient  Pistol!  you  scurvy,  lousy  knave,  God  pless  youl 
PISTOL  Ha!  art  thou  bedlam?  dost  thou  thirst,  base  Trojan,  To  have  me 
fold  up  Parca's  fatal  web?  Hencei  I  am  qualmish  at  the  smell  of  leek. 
FlUELLEN  I  peseech  you  heartily,  scurvy,  lousy  knave,  at  my  desires,  and 
rny  requests,  and  my  petitions,  to  eat.  look  you,  this  leek:  because,  look 
you,  you  do  not  love  it. 

Match  N.  2 

Author;  Shakespeare  William 

Source:  fiUp://the-tech,<jre/PjetryA/enusAi 
Subject:  POETRY  (811)  O 


., .  believe,  and  yet  too  credulousl  Thy  weal  and  woe  are  both  of  them 
extremes;  Despair  and  hope  makes  thee  ridiculous;  The  one  doth  flatter 
thee  in  thoughts  unlikely,  In  likely  thoughts  the  other  kills  thee  quickly. 
Now  she  unweaves  the  web  that  she  hath  wrought;  Adonis  lives,  and  Death 
is  not  to  blamej  It  was  not  she  that  call'd  him,  all-tc  naught:  Now  she  adds 
honours  to  his  hateful  name;  She  clepes  him  king  of  graves  and  grave  for 


Match  N.  3 

Author;  Shakespeare  William 


all  the  Wordtheque 

>**•>•  ■ 


translators  exchange 

Logos  en. html 

Logos  Dictionary  dictionary-index  p 

Fagan  Finder  Translation  Wizard 

The  main  page  of  Michael  Fagan's  excellent  search  site,  Fagan  Finder  is  designed 
to  "help  people  find  what  they  are  looking  for"  by  providing  a  variety  of  web, 
reference,  media,  news,  and  other  search  options.  The  home  page  also  includes  a 
number  of  links  to  "informational  pages"  (e.g.,  on  RSS,  popularity  rankings)  and 
useful  tools.  Probably  the  best  of  Fagan's  useful  tools  is  the  translation  wizard.  The 
translation  wizard  brings  together  over  two-dozen  online  translators  from  other 



DOCID:  4046925 


websites.  Many  of  the  translators  Fagan  Finder  accesses  will  already  be  familiar  to 
users— Systran,  PROMT,  InterTran.  But  there  are  many  others  that  users  may  not 
know  about  and  Fagan  Finder  can  help  you  locate  and  use  them  from  one  interface. 

Keep  several  things  in  mind:  first,  Fagan  Finder  is  simply  an  interface  to 
translation  tools  located  at  other  websites.  Second,  some  of  the  tools  it  accesses 
are  only  word-for-word  ("dictionary")  translations  while  other  will  translate  blocks  of 
text  and  still  others  are  true  url  or  webpage  translators,  translating  entire  webpages 
or  even  sites.  Finally,  some  of  the  sites  Fagan  Finder  accesses  require  registration 
to  use  (e.g.,  Ajeeb's  Arabic  to  English  webpage  translation  tool).  All  this  being  said, 
the  Fagan  Finder  translation  wizard  is  a  wonderful  resource  not  only  because  of  all 
the  translation  tools  it  brings  together  in  one  place,  but  perhaps  even  more  for  the 
virtual  international  keyboards  it  offers.  At  present,  Fagan  Finder  provides  the 
following  virtual  keyboards: 

•  Arabic 

•  Cyrillic 

•  Greek 

•  Hebrew 

•  Thai 

Virtual  keyboards  make  it  much  easier  to  translate  text  from  one  of  these  languages 
to  English  because  they  mean  users  do  not  need  international  input  locales  (i.e., 
software  for  non-Latin  keyboards)  loaded  on  their  computers.  Fagan  Finder's  virtual 
keyboard  option  even  supports  right-to-left  languages.  Second,  the  international 
keyboards  can  be  used  not  only  to  translate  terms  but  also  to  search  on  non-English 
terms.  How?  It's  simple.  Select  the  international  keyboard  of  your  choice  at  Fagan 
Finder,  type  a  word  or  phrase  in,  say,  Hebrew. 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Translation  Vyi^d  (beta^ 

Entei  text  or  a  URL:  [change  text  direction] 

m  <; switch 

[liicie  international  ke\ •board] 

Hebrew  Keyboard  n  v  n  p  n  ^  v  o  p  d*j  ?  id 

Cltoose  another  [front:  language  to  use  its  script 

[help  &  iiifol 

.      v     •  •    .-j-        -fi -  ^■.■■■■;>j;>--,;ss«: 

identify,  language 

save  options 

Fagan  Finder  Translation  Wizard 

Then  copy  and  paste  the  Hebrew  term  or  phrase  into  a  search  engine  such  as 
Google  and  Yahoo  (and  many  international  search  engines)  that  handle  multiple 
character  encodings  and  you  can  search  on  the  term  without  having  to  load  a 
Hebrew  keyboard. 

Here  are  some  other  interesting  and  important  facts  and  features  about  the  Fagan 
Finder  translation  wizard.  The  wizard  gives  users  the  option  to  list  all  translation 
matches,  to  choose  multiple  translators  (when  available),  to  select  dialects,  to  list 
matches  if  there  are  several  translation  tools  so  users  can  pick  one  or  more.  Also,  in 
addition  to  HTML,  PDF  and  SWF  (Flash)  file  formats  are  supported  for  webpage 

Another  useful  tool  that  is  part  of  the  Fagan  Finder  translation  wizard  is  the 
language  identification  interface.  Here  users  can  enter  either  text  or  a  url,  and 
Fagan  Finder  will  query  a  set  of  language  identification  tools  to  try  to  determine  the 
language  and  encoding  of  the  text.  However,  keep  in  mind  that  it  often  easy  to 
determine  the  language/encoding  of  a  webpage  either  by  looking  at  the  Page  Info 
(in  Mozilla  only;  look  at  charset)  or  Page  Source  in  both  Mozilla  and  Internet 
Explorer.  Look  for  charset,  which  will  indicate  a  specific  character  set,  which  you  can 
then  use  to  identify  the  language.  For  example,  Windows-1256,  ISO  8859-6,  ISO 
8859-1  all  are  Arabic  language  encodings. 

However,  you  cannot  always  find  this  information  using  Page  Source/Info  and,  for 
individual  words  or  phrases,  Fagan  Finder's  language  identification  interface  is 
especially  valuable.  My  tests  of  the  language  identification  tool  indicate  it  usually 
does  a  good  job  of  identifying  either  the  language  alone  or  the  language  and  the 
encoding.  Fagan  Finder's  language  identification  is  not  a  single  tool  but  a  single 
interface  to  many  language  identification  tools.  Users  have  the  option  to  choose 
among  10  language  identification  tools.  Given  the  complexity  and  difficulty  of 
language  identification,  it's  probably  a  good  idea  to  compare  the  results  of  several 
different  tools  and  not  rely  on  one. 



DOCID:  4046925 


For  each  supported  language,  Fagan  Finder  also  provides  a  separate  page  with 
useful  information  about  the  language,  translations,  and  links  to  other  related  sites. 
Fagan  Finder  does  offer  a  complete  list  of  supported  languages,  though  there  is  no 
link  to  it  from  either  the  Fagan  Finder  home  page  or  translation  wizard  page  (the  link 
is  below).  There  is  also  a  separate  page  listing  all  the  translators  invoked  by  Fagan 
Finder  and  a  page  devoted  to  the  translation  wizard's  language  identification  tool. 

Fagan  Finder  Translation  Wizard 

Fagan  Finder  Translation  Wizard  Languages  Page 

Fagan  Finder  Translation  Wizard  List  of  Translators 

Fagan  Finder  Translation  Wizard  Language  Identification 

Google's  Arabic  ^  English  Webpage  and  Text  tools 

Until  recently,  the  only  free  online  Arabic/English  webpage  translation  tool  was  the 
Tarjim  Site  for  Online  Translation  using  the  Sakhr  translation  software,  where 
registration  was  required.  Late  last  week  Google  introduced  Arabic  English  text 
and — more  importantly — webpage  or  url  translations  to  its  language  tools  page. 
Here's  what  Google  had  to  say  about  its  new  tool: 

"Because  we  want  to  provide  everyone  with  access  to  all  the  world's  information, 
including  information  written  in  every  language,  one  of  the  exciting  projects  at 
Google  Research  is  machine  translation.  Most  state-of-the-art  commercial 
machine  translation  systems  in  use  today  have  been  developed  using  a  rules- 
based  approach  and  require  a  lot  of  work  by  linguists  to  define  vocabularies  and 

Several  research  systems,  including  ours,  take  a  different  approach:  we  feed  the 
computer  with  billions  of  words  of  text,  both  monolingual  text  in  the  target 
language,  and  aligned  text  consisting  of  examples  of  human  translations  between 
the  languages.  We  then  apply  statistical  learning  techniques  to  build  a  translation 
model.   We  have  achieved  very  good   results  in   research  evaluations. 

Now  you  can  see  the  results  for  yourself.  We  recently  launched  an  online  version 
of  our  system  for  Arabic-English  and  English-Arabic.  Try  it  out!  Arabic  is  a  very 
challenging  language  to  translate  to  and  from:  it  requires  long-distance 
reordering  of  words  and  has  a  very  rich  morphology.  Our  system  works  better  for 
some  types  of  text  (e.g.  news)  than  for  others  (e.g.  novels)  —  and  you  probably 



DOCID:  4046925 


should  not  try  to  translate  poetry  ...  but  do  stay  tuned  for  more  exciting 

The  big  question  in  everyone's  mind  is:  how  good  is  this  new  tool?  Take  a  look  at 
this  translation  of  the  main  Arabic  Wikipedia  page,  first  in  Arabic... 

3i  ■ 

j^t  ^jej  ~0CG  j>V_^j?  ^  .  jslw  ^  *-*L-«ll  <j***il  ^A.i.,t)         i^l^j,  r 

12.702  30 

^  -1427 



3  |_7*Ji  4£ 

then  in  the  English  translation  provided  by  Google: 

08  Franz  Och,  Research  Scientist,  Google  Research  Blog,  April  28,  2006, 

<http://gooqleresearch.bloqspotxom/2006/04/statistical-machine-translation-live.htiTil>  (November 
28,  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


iii^^Ji  ^Xs-AI  &a\I  ■  j'jft- 

Main  Page 

"  The  Ekobcdia 'multilingual  project  in  mote  then  cne  hunched  language  -  G; tmne^ t  Accurst© , 
integrated,  tftvetsirjed,  open,  impart isi  and  free  of  ai,  all  can  contribute  to  ttie  editof .  Launched  ihe  Arebcc 
version  in  Jdy  2003  Tnere  ere  now  1 2.698  Essay . 

It  this  firsl  site  vist,  sniiated  by  reading  pages  Hewcom^i  s  welcome  new  ,  and  found  on  page 
Pep«Ate<l  questions  C^rtnnd  what  thevwant  pages  took  A3 4* tte  Pfease  gotoH«kl 
E* clwMia  General  debate. 


April  30 

The  first 

E 1427 

-  a 

5  j_>J)  4£. 

Ar«SAfsr«r  I  Date :  |T£cm:(Oloov  |  Culu-re  i  Gea&KAPHiCALir  |  Daily  ufe  |  MAtHa**!FiCA|  SCH-kCG  |  SdtiEVf 
£tt»  W  irtm)^  trcvai:  ftotree  tfttwgh  tto.gatos  •  Review  -pfdveiicei  j:k&>  -  ds/.  ftte  Ekctteds  JPte* 


Culture  The  Arts 

Literature  ■  Civilisations  •  Chart  • 
CmeTui  ■  ^Tiar.-.  ■  Languages  -  Semite 

Life  And  the  community 

FOutl  ditd  tf!;nk5  *  Economy  -  Garner 
Cecurfcy  ■  Animals  ■  Sport  ■  Tourism  ■ 
Poitcv  ■  Press  •  Heattn  ■  -aw  ■  Plant"- 

Natural  sciences  The  Mathematics 

Alive  Neurological  sciences  ■  Orbit  * 
Physics  ■  Chem>s£ry  -  Engines-ring 

facial  And  humane 

Date  -  W3rs  •  Archaeology  ■  Sociology 
■  A-irhrot-uicgv  ■  Psvdioboy  •  Political 
Science1  ■  Philosophy  ■  Linguist  ■ 


Google's  Arabic  language  tool  is  based  on  the  company's  own  research  and 
development  and  is  not  a  product  of  Systran.  Is  it  perfect?  Hardly,  and  no  one  would 
expect  it  to  be.  But  is  it  a  whole  lot  better  than  nothing?  Absolutely.  I  have  always 
found  machine  translation  tools  to  be  most  useful  in  translating  between  two  very 
different  languages,  for  example  between  English  and  languages,  such  as  Arabic, 
that  do  not  use  the  Latin  alphabet.  Interestingly,  this  tool  will  probably  not  be  met 
with  enthusiasm  in  some  Arabic  speaking  countries.  For  example,  the  UAE  bans 
online  translation  tools,  which  creates  an  enormous  barrier  for  non-English  speaking 
Arabs  because  so  little  of  the  web  is  in  Arabic.109  However,  all  in  all,  this  is  extremely 
welcome  news. 

Babelplex  Bilingual  Search 

Babelplex  is  a  "bilingual  search  service  that  searches  the  web  in  one  language  and 
in  another  language  via  a  cross-language  information  retrieval  system."110  Babelplex 
is  the  brainchild  of  HK  Tang.  As  with  many  creations,  Babelplex  is  the  product  both 
of  Tang's  frustration  and  his  need  for  something  that  didn't  exist.  The  frustration  is 

United  Press  International,  "The  Web:  Arabic  Language  Internet,"  29  March  2006, 
<>  (14  November  2006). 

110  About  Babelplex,  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


one  many  of  us  have  experienced:  searching  in  non-Latin  character  sets  when  the 
keyboard  is  not  configured  for  those  languages.  The  need  was  driven  by  the  fact  that 
Tang  and  his  family  are  bilingual,  meaning  they  often  want  to  search  in  more  than 
just  English.  Tang  also  observed  that  "if  you  simply  search  down  to  the  simplest 
equation,  there  are  two  sides.  Output,  which  Google  has  solidly  nailed  down,  and 
input,  which  is  very  relevant  when  searching  in  foreign  text.  The  input  side  is 
harder  because  computers  are  initially  designed  for  the  user  to  input  text  in  one 
language,  and  anything  else  requires  the  user  to  make  changes. 

Babelplex  does  the  work  for  you  by  using  AltaVista's  Babelfish  Translation,  Google 
Translate,  or  Yahoo  Language  Search  tools  and  the  AltaVista,  Google,  or  Yahoo 
search  tools  to  run  parallel  queries  in  two  languages.  Take  a  look  at  the  Babelplex 
homepage  and  you'll  get  the  idea: 


.Search  |  and  search  your  [l^ij^^u^inS^Iii^d  Chinese^"^ 

Choose  a  search  engine  to  EUbe1|ile*: 
AjtaVtsIa  -  Google  -  Gpo_qte  -  Google    % jffi  15j  -  Goofile.  3jft|2  -  Google  "ft  £{•'•  ffagtite  Degisch  -  Go.agle  sspart-pt 

£00  ale  f  rancais.-  GoQqte-EAAiWKd  -  Google  Italian  p'-  Geotile  frledei  lands  ■  Google  Portugues  -  Gooote  Ha  pyccKPU  -  Yahtioi 

What  you  don't  see  above  is  the  list  of  to  and  from  language  pairs: 

111  John  Battelle,  "Babelplex:  Search  in  Two  Languages,"  John  Battelle's  Searchblog,  26  November 
2004,  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASSiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  use  only 


1  ISejrchVl  and  search  the  [Arabic  translation  of  your  English  keywords 

[Chinese  trensjetion ^  of  your  English  keywrds  

1  English  translation  of  your  Arabic  keywords 

wxampla  *t>ardv  "Beijing  2008"  iww.r*  ??suiU  litsji  r<ivuij  English  translation  of  your  Chinese  keywords 

!  English  translation  of  your  French  keywords 

[English  translation  of  your  German  keywords 

^.  ,-11  ,  i  English  translation  of  your  Italian  keywords 

Choose  a  Google  Uoin.iin  to  use  fo:  „    ,.  .  ,      ,         <        ,  .  . 

Argentina  -  Australia  -  BeJajA  ■  Brasil  -  Canada  ■  Chile  -  Colombia  -  Cuba  ■  Es^  ^  s   rQns  6  on  °  Vou'  ke^ords 
Ne^Zell^CsIeTfeh  ^  .  Tulitol^SchwIrl-  Sinuwore  ■  SoIHhA1  Eng  sh  rons  a  on  o  your  Korean  keywords 

 s    s_      — a_K —   .  English  translation  olyour  Portuguese  keywoids 

!  English  tronsjalion  of .ypui  Spanish  keywords 
<^1.  French  translation  of  your  English  keywords 

ill j^t\  ■  ^/ac-  -  t-^-^j  ■  I  ;■»!  -  ^JJ^I  -  J  --"  ■ 

<M000  Bjbalplsx- 

-pogk  VAX  Bilingual  Saarch 

Fren  ch  tran  s  I  ation  of  your  Germ  an  keywo  rd  s  

German  translation  of  you;  English  keywords 
German  translation  of  youi  French  keywords 
itaiian  translation  of  your  English  keywords 
Japanese  translation  of  your  English  keywords 
Korean  translation  of  your  English  keywords 
Portuguese  translation  of  your  English  keywords 
Spanish  translation  of  your  English  keywords 

How  do  you  use  Babelplex?  Enter  a  query  in  the  SEARCH  box  in  the  language  of 
your  choice  from  the  language  pairs  supported,  then  select  a  language  to  translate 
to/from.  Babelplex  now  uses  only  Google  to  search.  Here  is  a  simple  example  of  a 
search  from  English  to  Arabic: 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  I 

Sign  in  -J 

Web    Images    Video    News    Maps    more  » 
policy  today  Search 

Web       Results  1  - 10  of  about  53 1 .000.000  for  policy  io<lay.  (0.28  seconds) 

Policy  Today  -  Home 

Policy  Today  -  A  twice-monthly  digital  magazine  spanning  topics  in  politics, 
economics,  law  and  society. .  Policy  Today's  editorial  brief, 
www  |ioli£yift<|.iy.c.o;!'i/  -  23k  ■  Cached    ■inr-ilv  oaa?.* 

Policy  Today  -  Common  Cause 

We  are  pleased  that  our  redisricting  reform  efforts  in  California  are  featured  in  a 
new  digital  publication  called  Policy  Today  that  debuted  this  week  with  ... 

wwf.ct-mmoneauac-  org/iedisliicling/polkyiftilfiy  -  17k-  l^'^M  -  Sjioj^^v? 

Fiscal  Policy  Today 

Overview  Fiscal  Policy  Today  ...  and  by  Ihe  1960s  the  viaw  that  the  government 
could  use  fiscal  policy  to  "fine  tune"  the  economy  was  widespread.  ... 

v-VvVv  inrj.-imayne  conVecon/FiscalDeaaVOvpiviewl  >ln^wa  htjril  ■  7k  - 
i^.jr.b.yd  -^.V.  Japanese  Foreign  Policy  Today  Books:  Takashi 
Inoqiichi ...  Japanese  Foreign  Policy  Today:  Books:  Takashi 
Inoguthi.Purnendra  Jain  by  Takashi  Inoguchi.Purnendra  Jain. 

^rna;ori  ijrri'J&p&Me5H-For«inr:-PftlicyJ^^rtihi-liic^ichi/o'fj^jir???0~G  - 
1 1  Dk  -    uh  r  ■  '       .    >  ,;(». 

AEI  -  Events 

We  got  a  6.1  percent  average  GDP  growth  per  year,  but  I  think  that  when  we  look 
at  a  more  assertive  Russian  Foreign  Policy  today  we  should  nol  confuse  ... 
wwv,-  aei  niy/svnnic/Hiier  sli.eventlD.  I'lOS/lransciipt  asp  -  I G^k  ■ 

■■'•>(  <i  ■      :  !'.<:.:h.. 

AEI  -  Events 



Sign  in  \L 

Web    Images    Video    Ngws    Maos    inoia  n 

5  Seardn 


Results  1  -  10  of  about  1.370.000  for  0.16) 


<*Jjjl1  i.jUijj  ijUa. ..  i ni. --  iL  « ... .  [  7i3:>~la!s  ti'i£  pajic  ] 

jijty  fj iLvi <iijLi  fjMiit  12      .i5j^      w-^u^ijijiljili  'ai^iix^ff ... 

yjsbrc  penpltdfiily  com.civ2DD312fl2/aiii2003"2l^7  340G.hlmf  -  l?K  - 
CH.hPii  ■  t:;f^;iai-__^fi?;? 

^-LkLOul  tW,  (jL^Mal^jajJ  .  U^JJ^^  ...  ■  [  TltlQOljltP  iW'-t  gnus  \ 

lil       r , ,p  ^-L—  tJ^jW  -tJjJ-  «jjJI  ^  ,jJ^  t-iu-^  l'»  J*  ... 

www  asharqaliwt&i  coni/!ead*r  ^sjj"sdcuori»3&attide-391££fl&isiye~l02;  1  - 
24k-  -.a^lisu  ■  3iir;iV  i  iiJr  S 

^..i.w„^l  ..:.)L^.-jio^t  ^L-JI  ^il  ...  -  [  Tr'j;''?!^!?  jjig  Vi'il-  \ 

^  u^ui  ojjii  57  ^      aij&t\  f»  ...  2005  <M>>  t^M-^ii  ci-'j-  >J  ... 

www  cy/Ar/E y y ptOnli ne/Pa lil ic stiCO^5.-020 1 0OCOOOOOOOCajaO^ 2^13  him  ■ 
71.  ■  C  'ichgd  -  ;-imi:-w  EL'>Hv. 

^^Jl  ^UXA^^l  j^UM  ^1 ...  -  [  Ti^AUJl.*  ] 

jlljill  ^^.^bJLc^gcJUijij  ...JLj^^iij^'-al  jLjflM  ... 
■d*  ?i3  gov  e cp' A r / 1 g y p  1 1 J ■  1 1 1 n e 
Politic  s.n^MK/O/O  iOOaotJCXMXitjijXU^  14  htm  -  /  W  ■ 
v  .ii-f     -  ;«i  i'  jvi>JiLi 

[  iri^j    VVU  t  V  ft./  Fi  VV.VV-  .-.ix.  r{QV  v.:;  ] 

•ww.ftrnitj! Mion. gov. e^'A!iNev/?/Dr*pldvNc-ws.o&p«?C&lld~94NewTld=0  -  41k  - 
Nov  26,  2006  -  cj»ch*j  -  S.=  Hilar  j^t^? 

-Av-Af  isiamonlina  net/A/abic/ohariah_c.Giner/Faiwa/:r;prr  2 1 ;'2niTii.lT6 :'CC  ■jhiml  ■  54 i; 

«r : :  1  -  .  :  i  ± 

Babalplex    | policy  today 

qooqle  |  and  qooqle  the  |  Arabic  translation  of  your  English  keywords        *]     l?l.Uim  ?.iiLb.L,[;rJ.!ll?  Split  Frames 

And  here  is  the  same  query  translated  from  Arabic  to  English: 

Google  e? 

^■iqn  in  J 

Web    Images    Video    News    M^p**  moie 



Results  1  - 10  of  about  1.630.000  for  0.03) 


tfi  Lil  J*,  ^-U.-  0_^Lu  ^j^.       *jk>i  m>1I  ^  !»■  t>"  ... 

w.v.':-. a shfirq«lavysai. com/! fender  asp?s.6r:tiOii=3ftlir!ii:i?;=i^l^6i2j?9ue=HL)1 '.  ■ 
?Ak  -  Qjcrfed  ■  :5:ni;'.'f  J-.j,-AV> 

o I ^UX^Oj  U-Jl  <L^I ...  ■  |  -Trans-fJitf!  ihi,i  ii.v,^  | 

_£l  jail  jiLiJi      eic J j  .  oUUii^i  ijAi'lfl  Ji=»>ll  *>i"  ... 

*\w  s?i  ij'j-.'  e^;E^-^tOui(rle/Po!itic«/00Q0O5.€20l00QX  him  ■ 

^ll^JI  (JiuijK  (JJ>  ^i-li  jujSjH  ^>I'  ^lA  (Ji*ii4  .  _  tyil  ... 

«  sis. oov. e^Ar/Edyf^lOnirni?/ 

Pomic  ■^6o003/G2Of00(Xrtj::6j00a000O22D0.h:ni  ■  iU  ■ 

C  -Kl^d  -  !l:r:-ijaj_of.o£5 

l  Moj » ,i 6 cujl c  2-ic rr.  -/rAv  513_5.Ov.eq  ] 

vrtw  eniiuiatiL't:  y»v  ey/AIIHtsWii/DisplayNew  asp^'CiilM^S-^Nt'vViltt-Cl  -  JR,  - 
Nov  A  2tO:-  -  '^rtf^^j  •  -•imi;^  p^iiea 

Linm  ^  jUi  c  .jE.  .vij  .ljj  ^jj  ^)  ^lLa[  ■  |  7i3r?'.ali»  rhi?  Mjj£  ) 

^i3monhne  riei/AiabiL/si^ans^coirjer/F aiw^/iop-ic  _21/2QGSvDBA)2  shlml  -  SJk 

^  -^i  uljti  ^li»—  Uiu  CjU3  ...  jJL^*  <>.  (jii  ^jU 

*.\  I 


Wol>    Imagqs    Video    News    Maps  moie 

|The  policy  today 


Web  Results  1  ■  10  of  aboul  897,000,000  for  Tlie  policy  today.  (0.18  seconds) 
News  results  for  The  policy  today  -  '^vioii^'s  inn  st.?ii?s 

Don't  ask"  policy  on  illegals  under  fire  ■  Toronto  3;ai  -  G  hours  ago 

Policy  Today  -  Home 

Policy  Today  -  A  twice-monthly  digital  magazine  spanning  topics  in  politics, 
economics,  law  and  society, ,  Policy  Today's  editorial  brief. 
-w/tv  [>olicyiod;iy  com/  •  23k  ■  Cached  ■  Sira:lsi  p.-nu*:> 

Fiscal  Policy  Today 

Overview:  Fiscal  Policy  Today  ...  and  by  the  1960s  the  view  that  the  government 
could  use  fiscal  policy  to  "fine  tune"  Ihe  economy  was  widespread.  ... 

u*w>,i;irjiiin^M<?  co;:)/ftcrj!)'rFi^cslDea'j/0^i\."t;7r'1  ■1n?wq.h!rrii  -  7k  . 

C;j '.;!.;>.",•  -  >-'i^,^.^:^  Japanese  Foreign  Policy  Today:  Books  Takashi 
Inoguchi ...  Japanese  Foreign  Policy  Today:  Books.  Takashi 
Inoguchi.Purnendra  Jain  by  Takashi  Inoguchi.Purnendra  Jain. 

amaion  torri/Ja!)anese-Foreion-Po!u\v-Taka?^  ■ 
1 10k  •  Cochcd  -  Gimiiai  page? 

AEI  •  Events 

We  got  a  6.1  percent  average  GDP  growth  per  year,  but  I  think  thai  when  we  look 
at  a  more  assertive  Russian  Foreign  Policy  lodny  we  should  not  confuse  ... 
www  aei  orfjArveni?/trlter  all .everrfD.  1 40e/transcripj  a«p  -  lO  - 

AEI  -  Events 

Russian  Foreign  Policy  Today.  Ideology,  Objectives,  Tactics  ...What  are  Ti 

-j, jl::..  :.:::::i:ini:::::::  r::zirj >r 



DOCID:  4046925 


Not  bad.  However,  the  quality  of  results  varies  greatly,  in  part  depending  upon  the 
complexity  of  queries  and  in  part  on  how  good  the  translation  software  works. 
Anyone  who  has  used  machine  translation  tools  knows  they  are  limited.  Here  are 
some  tips  that  might  help  make  your  Babelplex  queries  more  successful. 

>  Keep  it  simple:  the  query  [syllogism]  worked  very  well  going  from  English  to 
most  languages,  but  [windows  operating  system]  stumped  most  of  the 
translation  services  in  pretty  much  every  language. 

>  Avoid  proper  names:  proper  names  probably  will  not  translate;  a  search  for 
[quicken]  finds  acelere  in  Spanish;  a  search  for  [bill  gates]  from  English  to 
simplified  Chinese  and  back  to  English  produced  interesting  but  unhelpful 

>  Syntax  matters:  you  will  get  different  results  for  the  translation  to  Spanish  of 
the  English  query  [spanish  military]  versus  [military  Spanish]. 

>  Use  synonyms  judiciously:  while  it  might  seem  intuitively  obvious  that  using 
synonyms  or  related  terms  might  produce  better  results,  it  may  in  fact  confuse 
matters.  If  you  are  searching  for  information  about  cows,  [cow]  produces 
better  results  than  [cow  cattle  bovine  steer].  Also,  remember  that  the  default 
operator  for  all  these  search  engines  is  AND,  so  they  will  only  return 
webpages  containing  all  the  search  terms. 

Babelplex  has  nice  user  features  for  viewing  results.  The  split  screen  shows  both  the 
original  query  and  the  query  translated  into  a  second  language.  The  left  frame 
displays  the  results  of  the  original  query  and  the  right  frame  shows  the  results  in  the 
language  chosen  for  translation.  If  no  translation  of  a  query  is  possible,  you  will  see 
the  translation  tool's  webpage  and  will  have  the  option  to  try  the  translation  and 
subsequent  search  from  that  page. 

Babelplex  enters  the  pantheon  of  search  engine  augmentation  sites — including 
FindForward,  Soople,  FaqanFinder's  Ultimate  Google  Interface — as  a  welcome  and 
useful  addition. 

Finding  Online  Dictionaries 

Language  Automation's  Glossaries 

Martindale's  Language  and  Translation  Center 

Paderborn  University  List  of  Dictionaries 



DOCID:  4046925 



Online  Multilingual  Dictionaries 

Digital  Dictionaries  of  South  Asia 



Language  to  Language 

Logos  * 

OneLook  Dictionaries 

http://www.foreiqnword.eom/T  ools/dictsrch.htm  en. html 

Online  Dictionary 
English<->French,  German,  Spanish,  Italian,  Japanese,  Chinese,  Russian 

Papillon  Project  http://www.papillon-dictionarv.orq/Home.po 
English<->Estonian,  German,  French,  Japanese,  Vietnamese,  Korean,  Malay,  Chinese 

FreeDict  h  ttp  .//www  .freed  ict .  co  m/ 

Travlang's  Translating  Dictionaries 

English<->German,  French,  Spanish,  Italian,  Portuguese,  Esperanto,  Latin 

Word  Reference  http ://www . wordref erence . co m/ 

Online  Text  Translators 


Babelfish  from  Yahoo 




Mezzofanti  Translations  http://www. 
PhraseBase php?action=lanquaqe 

PopJisyo  (Asian  languages) 


Reverso**  translation. asp 



DOCID:  4046925 


VoyCabulary  http://www.voycabularv.cQm/ 
WorldLingo**  services/worldlinqo  translator.html 
yourDictionary  http://www.vourdictionarv.eom/diction1.html#translate 

Online  Web  Page  Translators 

Ajeeb!  Arabic     English+ 

Babelfish  from  Yahoo 



Reverso**  translation.asp 



WorldLingo**  translator.html 

Other  Language  Sites  &  Tools 

Computing  with  Accents,  Symbols,  &  Foreign  Scripts 

Detailed  instructions  from  Penn  State  University  for  working  on  computers  and  the 
Internet  in  non-English  characters  and  encodings. 

+  Requires  free  registration 

**  Site  offers  virtual  keyboard  or  special  characters  for  non-English  translations 

UNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  UGC  ONLY 


DOCID:  4046925 


You  Gotta  Know  When  to  Fold  'Em 

A  last  thought  before  bringing  this  section  to  a  close.  With  the  plethora  of  information 
available  today  via  the  Internet  and  the  fact  that  more  data  is  added  every  day,  it  is 
easy  to  fall  prey  to  the  erroneous  belief  that  if  we  just  know  where  to  look  on  the 
web,  the  information  we  seek — all  the  information  we  seek — is  "out  there" 
somewhere.  The  danger  is  that  this  misguided  idea  will  give  rise  to  the  never- 
ending  search,  that  is,  the  conviction  that  "if  I  just  go  to  one  more  website,  run  one 
more  query,  or  search  one  more  database  I'll  find  what  I'm  looking  for." 

Sometimes  the  information  you  need  simply  is  not  to  be  found  on  the  Internet  and  no 
amount  of  searching,  no  amount  of  creativity  or  ingenuity  can  make  it  appear.  I  have 
the  sneaking  suspicion  that  most  Internet  researchers  have  fallen  victim  to  the 
never-ending  search  on  occasion  because  it  is  so  tempting  to  believe  that  the 
answer  is  there,  somewhere,  only  a  few  more  clicks  away.  If  the  data  is  not 
available,  you  are  not  going  to  find  it,  no  matter  how  clever  or  persistent  you  are,  so 
try  to  keep  this  last  in  mind  when  you  feel  yourself  becoming  obsessed  with  a 
particular  research  topic: 

The  problem  with  the  Internet  is  that  it  is  open-ended.  Think  of  it  in  these  terms.  Let's 
say  your  job  is  to  go  into  a  large  room  piled  high  with  papers  and  determine  if  a 
particular  document  is  in  that  room.  If  you  are  careful  and  methodical,  you  will 
eventually  find  the  document  or  be  able  to  say  with  confidence  that  the  document  is 
not  in  the  room.  Not  so  with  the  Internet.  You  can  never  be  sure  something  is  not 
"out  there"  because  there  are  always  more  possible  places  the  information  could 
be  located  than  you  can  search  and  examine.  While  the  number  of  documents  on 
the  Internet  may  not  in  fact  be  infinite,  in  practical  terms  the  Internet  is  limitless.  So 
give  yourself  a  break  if  you  can't  find  everything  you're  looking  for! 

Know  when  to  stop  searching. 

Rule  Seven 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  Rules  of  the  Road: 

1 .  Use  the  right  tool  for  the  job. 

2.  Let  other  people  do  as  much  work 
for  you  as  possible. 

3.  Develop,  maintain,  and  backup 

4.  Use  more  than  one  search  engine. 

5.  Read  the  instructions. 

6.  Use  the  specialized  and/or  unique 
functions  of  foreign  search  engines 

7.  Know  when  to  stop  searching. 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASS1FlED//ron  ornciAL  UOC  ONLY 

Beyond  Search  Engines — Specialized 
Research  Tools 

Search  engines  are  a  good  and  natural  starting  place  for  performing  research  on  the 
Internet,  but  they  represent  only  a  small  portion  of  the  data  available  on  the  web  and 
only  one  way  of  tapping  into  that  data.  It  is  also  important  to  understand  that  search 
engine  spiders  do  not  access  (and  therefore  search  engines  do  not  index)  most 
data  contained  in  many  databases  or  websites  that  require  registration  or 
payment  to  enter.  For  example,  search  engines  do  not  normally  index  the  data  in  (a  database)  or  any  information  beyond  the  first  page  or  so  of  the 
Chicago  Tribune  (which  requires  registration).  These  types  of  sites  require  users  to 
access  them  directly.  The  information  at  these  sites  is  part  of  the  invisible,  hidden,  or 
deep  web. 

The  types  of  sites  and  information  that  are  not  generally  accessible  to  search 
engines  include: 

>  information  in  databases:  phone  and  email  directories,  Whois  registration  & 
DNS  data,  dictionaries,  encyclopedia  articles,  statistics,  legal  and  medical 
data,  financial  information. 

>  rapidly  changing  information:  news,  airline  flight  information,  stock,  bond, 
currency  market  data,  auctions. 

>  for-fee  and  subscription  services. 

>  information  behind  a  firewall  (corporate,  government,  educational). 

To  give  you  a  better  idea  just  how  vast  the  deep  web  is,  consider  these  points  from 
The  Deep  Web:  Surfacing  Hidden  Value"112  by  Michael  K.  Bergman. 

112  Michael  K.  Bergman,  'The  Deep  Web:  Surfacing  Hidden  Value,"  BrightPlanet,  August  2001, 
<>  (14  November  2006). 

DOCID:  4046925 


>  Public  information  on  the  deep  web  is  at  least  400  to  550  times  larger  than 
the  commonly  defined  World  Wide  Web. 

>  The  deep  web  contains  7,500  terabytes  of  information  compared  to  nineteen 
terabytes  of  information  in  the  surface  web. 

>  The  deep  web  contains  nearly  550  billion  individual  documents  compared  to 
the  one  billion  of  the  surface  web. 

>  More  than  200,000  deep  websites  presently  exist. 

>  Sixty  of  the  largest  deep-websites  collectively  contain  about  750  terabytes  of 
information — sufficient  by  themselves  to  exceed  the  size  of  the  surface  web 
forty  times. 

Therefore,  it  is  vital  to  maintain  a  good  set  of  bookmarks  for  a  wide  variety  of 
research  tools  beyond  search  engines.  Specialized  search  tools — database  finders, 
email  lookup  tools,  and  online  telephone  and  fax  directories — are  good  first  additions 
to  a  robust  set  of  research  tools. 

If  you  don't  want  to  "be  found/' 
never  post  to  Usenet  news- 
groups. Once  you  do,  expect 
to  be  spammed  and  to  appear 
in  directories,  such  as  email 
lookup  databases.  Your  only 
real  solution  at  this  point  is  to 
get  a  new  Internet  account. 


DOCID:  4046925 


Email  Lookups 

Email  lookup  tools  vary  widely  in  quality  and  the  features  they  offer.  Most,  quite 
frankly,  are  not  very  good  because  their  sources  of  data  are  poor.  Most  email  lookup 
tools  gather  their  information  from  two  sources: 

1.  trolling  Usenet  news  postings  and 

2.  users  who  add  themselves  to  the  listing. 

Also,  don't  expect  to  get  a  lot  of  information  about  someone  even  if  you  do  manage 
to  match  a  name  and  an  email  address.  The  most  you  usually  get  is  a  full  name,  a 
complete  email  address,  and  maybe  an  affiliation.  This  does  not  mean  all  email 
lookup  tools  are  useless.113  Sometimes  it  is  a  coup  just  to  match  an  email  address 
with  a  name. 

Email  lookup  tools  sometimes  offer  some  type  of  domain  or  reverse  lookup. 

Infospace  permits  reverse  email  lookups  in  the  format  [@eunet.yu].  This  option  is 

not  under  email  search  but  under  reverse  lookups  at: 


Furthermore,  Infospace  lets  users  enter  partial  addresses  and  will  return  all 

listings  starting  with  those  characters,  e.g.,  [@eunet]. 

If !(.'». 


The  easy  vciy  to  rind 
businesses  and  peoyte 

search  by  phone  ► 

VwOlld  tlir<saoi  kr$ 


Phone  Number  Loukup 
Address  Lookup 
Arxta  tode  Lookup 
ZIP  Code  Lookup 

InUkanationa)  t)iahnq  Coder.  Lookup 
Email  Lookup 

Match  an  email  address  to  a  name, 



Looking  for  the  InfoSpace 
Corporate  Web  site? 

^  InfoSpace  Corporate 

^j^IrrfoSpsca  Mobile 

^  Search  &  Directory 

Free  Toolbar 


Pubhc  Records. 
My  lookup  Histo*v 

Access  your  © 

Past  Searches 

t-156  Lookup  History  to 
find  your  most  recent 

113  In  fact,  Wired  raised  quite  a  few  eyebrows  with  its  article  on  Iraqi  leader  Saddam  Hussein's  public 
email  account  that  was  provided  at  the  Iraqi  President's  website.  Brian  McWilliams,  "Dear  Saddam. 
How  Can  I  Help?"  Wired,  28  October  2002,  <,55967,Q0.html> 
(14  November  2006). 


UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 

DOCID:  4046925 


Infospace  Email  Lookup 

Infospace  Reverse  Email  Lookup 

Look4U  claims  to  maintain  a  database  of  over  2  million  Chinese  names  and  email 
addresses  not  only  from  Taiwan  and  Hong  Kong  but  also  from  China,  Malaysia, 
Singapore,  the  US,  and  many  more  countries.  The  real  advantage  of  Look4U  is  that 
it  is  designed  to  be  searched  in  either  GB  or  Big5  Chinese  encoding  but  also  permits 
the  use  of  pinyin  pronunciation  of  the  name. 

look  -  for- >fru 


Tr>e  Gbt«l 
Chinese  People 

Add  Me 
Link  to  us 
About  us 


L00K4U  is  the  largest  Chinese  people  finder  in  the  world! 
Search  over  2  million  Chinese  names  and  e-mail  addresses! 


English  Name  or  Nickname: 

e.g.  Joseph  Ng,  Lin  M&i-yu.  Michael  Chang,  efc... 

|shun4  Zi3  W  Search  using  pinyin  fHelpI 















Pleasft  iftad  out  co&vticht  iMotmation  and  usage  agreement 




DOCID:  4046925 

Finding  Email  Directories 
Nedsite  http://www.nedsite.nI/search/people.htm#email 

International  Email  Lookup  Tools 
Infospace  Email  Lookup 

Infospace  Reverse  Email  Lookup 

MESA  MetaEmailSearchAgent 

Peoplesearch  Reverse  Email  Search  reverse  email  address. htmt 

World  Email  Directory 

If  these  email  look-up  sites  aren't  sufficient  (or  you  would  just  like  to  see  what  other 
email  search  tools  are  available),  the  following  websites  either  link  to  many  email 
lookup  web  pages  (megadirectories)  or  actually  run  parallel  email  searches  from 
their  site  (metadirectories).  These  are  also  the  fastest  and  easiest  way  to  see  if  a 
region  or  country  has  an  email  search  tool  specific  to  it.  Some  do,  but  I  have  not  had 
a  great  deal  of  luck  finding  useful  information  using  these  email  lookups.  However, 
as  the  Internet  expands,  expect  these  services  to  improve. 

Email  Megadirectories 

Freeality  Email  Lookup  http://www .f reeality . com/findet .  htm 

Infospace  International  Directories 

MESA  MetaEmailSearchAgent 

Nedsite  http://www.nedsite.nI/search/people.htm#email 
Peoplesearch  reverse  email  address.html 

Infobel's  Email  Addresses 



DOCID:  4046925 


Telephone  and  FAX  Directories 

Most  of  the  email  lookup  tools  above  also  have  a  telephone  lookup  service  as  well, 
so  I  am  not  going  to  discuss  these  sites  again.  Be  aware,  however,  that  no  single 
source  has  every  directory  listed  and  that  new  directories  come  on  line  all  the  time. 
Also,  many  telephone  directories  are  limited  to  or  strongly  emphasize  North 
American  telephone  and  fax  numbers.  Your  best  bet  by  far  for  international  phone 
and  fax  numbers  are  country-specific  directories.  Unlike  the  very  limited 
international  email  directories,  some  international  telephone  and  fax  directories  are 

There  are  two  basic  types  of  telephone  directory  sites:  the  first  are  specific 
telephone  lookup  sites  where  you  can  go  and  look  up  a  number  or  name.  The 
second  are  metasites,  sites  with  many  links  to  telephone  directories  on  the  web. 
These  will  help  you  find  an  online  directory  in  a  specific  region,  country,  or  city. 

Infobel,  the  website  of  the  Kapitol  directory  publishing  company,  is  the  best  single 
source  for  online  directories  at  present.  It  provides  many  types  of  directories  for  a 
number  of  countries,  including  Belgium,  France,  Luxembourg,  Spain,  Italy,  Denmark, 
the  Netherlands,  UK,  and  more.  In  some  cases,  for  example  Belgium,  there  is  even 
a  GSM  directory.  Infobel  allows  users  to  pick  any  country,  see  which  directories  are 
available  (white  pages,  yellow  pages,  GSM,  fax),  and  go  directly  to  that  directory. 

As  of  January  2003,  Infobel  and  Telephone  Directories  on  the  Web  (Teldir) 

merged,  providing  one  huge  interface  to  hundreds  of  links  to  white  pages,  yellow 
pages,  fax  listings,  email  addresses,  and  business  directories  by  world  regions. 
Teldir  does  not  provide  a  search  interface  but  is  instead  a  directory  of  links  to  online 
directories  for  most  of  the  countries  that  have  them. 



DOCID:  4046925 




|  Country 

(S3  English 

| Language 

Find  Anyone 

in  The 
United  States 

|  Messaye  Alert 

/l\              1  have  a  job  for  you  1 

P  About  us  P Contact  us  D  Home  Page    ljY  L*J 

Find  anyone  anywhere  in  the  world. 
|  Select  a  country  *  | 

International  dialing  Codes 
Information  and  services  for  more  than  184  countries. 

North  America  fe  Caribbean 


United  States 


United  Kingdom 
more  ... 

South  &  Central  America 

Asia  &  Middle  East 


Argentina  India 

Brazil  China 

Colombia  Israel 

more...  more  , 



Australia  8c  Pacific 

South  Africa 
Ivory  Coast 

New  Zealand 
more  ... 

Advanced  People 

:  v:  Background 

Infobel's  Telephone  Directories  on  the  Web 

Phonebook  of  the  World  has  emerged  as  one  of  the  most  comprehensive 
telephone  directory  sites.  Click  on  the  world  map  for  your  country  of  interest  and 
Phonebook  will  tell  you  if  there  are  white  and/or  yellow  pages  for  that  country  online, 
then  link  you  directly  to  the  pages.  Many  online  directories  are,  naturally,  only  in  the 
native  language.  For  example,  each  Brazilian  state  has  an  online  directory  and  all 
are  in  Portuguese. 

Phonebook  of  the  World 

Infospace  International  Directories  is  another  good  metaguide  to  international 
online  phone  directories.  Selecting  a  specific  country  will  show  the  types  of  online 
resources  available — white  pages,  yellow  pages,  email  directories — and,  in  a  few 
cases,  permit  searches  from  the  Infospace  website.  However,  most  of  the  phone 
directories  are  accessible  only  as  links  directly  to  their  own  webpages. 

Infospace  International  Directories 

International  White  and  Yellow  Pages,  run  by  a  Norwegian  company,  is  another 
good  starting  place  for  finding  online  yellow  pages,  white  pages,  and  fax  directories. 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  site  lists  countries  alphabetically  by  continent,  indicating  the  types  of  online 
directories — white,  yellow,  fax — available  for  each. 

International  White  &  Yellow  Pages 

Remember  that  city  directories  often  produce  better  results  than  country  directories, 
even  though  most  phone  directory  lists  lean  towards  country  directories.  Also  keep 
in  mind  that  it  is  important  to  search  in  the  target  language.  Here  is  the  Moscow  City 
Telephone  Directory,  which  has  a  very  good  search  tool: 


s  CnpaBOMHw 
online.  TIohck 
oprawoauHM  e 

°  CronMOCTb 

o  PeKnaMaB 


npoujribix  neT 


W  j^^tOp^^  S  fir'-; 

OpraHii3auim:  ^iejaew>Ki.iMOCTb 


i  anecpaH 






<  rioiioBpaTb  >  [[ 

<  noiioepttTt.  >  [I 
<f1ojio6paTb  >  |= 

Users  can  search  by  type  of  business,  street  name  and/or  number,  telephone 
number,  email  address,  or  even  web  address.  But  searching  in  Russian  is  a 
precondition  of  using  the  search  tool  to  the  fullest. 



DOCID:  4046925 


a  ffle  KyniiTb 

S3  CnpaBO'jHHK 

opraHn3auHH  e 


o  PeioiaMa  b 


npoujjibix  JieT 

CI  CucTewa  panneTa 

n«it,zop3Hne  rsne 4""-' ho m 

H3  Akuhji 

.  ..o  L"u.:,.-..-.j 

1  3. 

rioKOO.iHb)  ne|)Bbie  50  Koun<iHHii.  y-rosHiiTe  ycnoana  noucxn. 


119334, Aohckoh      np.,  216,  kdmh.  19 
Te.n.;  9555524 

.  ABC-HEflBMiKMMOCTb  000 

127055,  Cyu\eBCKaa  ysi.,  8-12,  dpoeH.  1 ,  ocfmc  426 

Te.n.:  5140461 


Cain;  www.abcrealty.pj 

I!  #in:ifiio<:u.  ■  a  j;  >;!?;>.«,  [vyrut'i.<:  w.i  -:f  ti  r=     ifioil  nni'M^fAJI 


115446.  AKafleMMKa  MmuinoHLntiKOBa  yji  ,  35,  k.  4 
Te,n.:  1125516.  1150512 

y'<HSf  IMUH(.f-M!tfO  t>?UifiU  !.)UHU 


1 15533,  HaraTMHCKaa  yji. ,  33 
Te/i  ■  7557775 

H-^tniiTino^U'  ■  tij'^H/i-i,  Kvn'i.'*.  tip-uurk*;  ti^wmou  nmmvj/Mi 

.  ArEHTCTBO  HEHATbl  -  HEftBH/KHMOCTb  000 

109316,  Bcnrorpaacioiii  npocn, ,  2 
Tea:  7557775;23t7723 

H<?jy:ti:io(ri-<7t>  ■  MjioHA-).  s./nmi,  ^.h-jh,  r?p<>:a.t.Ku  *uw.>ii  msHU.y^rs 


123308,  Mapwa/ia  Wyxoea  npocn  ,  1 
Teji..  7647757 
Caiir:  w^w.akrus.iu 

th-,'u<i'  i  Hi f  .  .^jH'H.'i.i.  Kvnfri.  :£(vi-A<f  :<■•>  M*i'^.nn<i(i  nn<>ui<i,»n 

Anbil'A-HEflBlDKMMOCTb  000 

10342B,  PjwaHCKufi  npocn.,  3a 
Tea:  2320840;  2324110 

Moscow  City  Telephone  Network 

AnyWho  International 

AOL  International  Directories 

Tools  for  International  Telephone  Lookups 

EscapeArtist  Telephone  Search  Engine 

Infobel's  Telephone  Directories  on  the  Web 

Infospace  International  Directories 

International  White  &  Yellow  Pages 

Nedsite  http://www.nedsite.nI/search/people.htm#telephone 

Phonebook  of  the  World 

SBN  International  Yellow  Pages 



DOCID:  4046925 


Many  specialty  directories  also  exist.  The  World  Telephone  Numbering  Guide 

"provides  information  on  the  world's  telephone  numbering  formats.  This  includes 
various  website  links  regarding  telephone  numbering.  Area  code  lists,  text  articles, 
news  of  phone  number  changes,  number-finding  forms  are  included  as  much  as 
feasible."114  Unlike  many  sources,  the  WTNG  includes  information  about  mobile 
telephone  systems.  This  is  an  exceptionally  good  and  current  resource  not  only  for 
finding  telephone  numbers  but  also  for  garnering  details  about  telephone  systems, 
numbering  schemes,  and  regulations  around  the  world. 


Nmnber  Format 

Area  Code: 
Subscriber  Number: 
Trunk  Prefix: 
International  Prefix: 

3  digits  (was  2-4  digits) 
7  digica    (uas  5-7  digits) 



_4rt a  code  information 

♦  fcUt 

♦  Iran  Telecom  mobile  number  chants 

♦  DCCL 

Df  t ember  2003  -  March  2004  -  mobile  changes 

Iran  mobile  numbers  were  changed  in  a  multi-stage  process  from  December  2003  through  March  2004, 
1  "-20  January  2004  -  mobile  changes 

Changed  mobile  numbering  was  introduced  in  certain  areas  on  17-20  January  2004,  Permissive/parallel  operation  of  former  and  new  numbering  was  in  effect  until  20 
March  2004, 












Bandar - 


Old  numbers 

+98  911  121xxxx 
+98  911  122xxxx 
+98  911  12Sxxxx 
+98  913  12 lxxxx 
+98  913  122xxxx 
+98  911  lllxxxx 
+98  911  112xxxx 
+98  911  1 13 xxxx 
+98  913  llxxxxx 
+98  911  S44xxxx 
+98  913  344xxxx 
+98  911  lSxxxxx 
+98  913   18 lxxxx 

Neu  numbers 

+98  911  12 lxxxx 
+98  911  122 xxxx 
+98  911  125xxxx 
+98  911  32 lxxxx 
+98  911  3 2 2 xxxx 
+96  911  lllxxxx 
+96  911  1 12 xxxx 
+96  911  1 13 xxxx 
+98  911  31xxxxx 
+98  913  lllxxxx 
+98  913  344xxxx 
+9B  911  lBxxxxx 
+96  911  3 Blxxxx 


No  change 
No  change 
No  change 

No  change 
No  change 
No  change 


No  change 
No  change; 


World  Telephone  Numbering  Guide 

ACR's  International  Calling  Codes  website  provides  country  and  city  codes  and 
adds  the  ability  to  list  codes  numerically.  International  City  Codes  also  offers  an 
excellent  database  of  city  calling  codes.  My  favorite  Internet  telephone  database  is 
Americom's  International  Decoder,  which  permits  you  to  look  up  either  calling 
codes  from  city  names  or  find  out  which  city  anywhere  in  the  world  matches  a 
specific  dialing  code.  Not  only  does  Americom  tell  you  the  country  and  city  codes, 

114  WTNG  Help  and  Information  Page,  <  -  HowTo>. 



DOCID:  4046925 


but  often  provides  other  useful  information,  even  a  telecommunications  assessment, 
in  some  cases. 

Americom's  International  Decoder 

Specialty  Telephone  Lookups 

ACR's  International  Calling  Codes  by  country 

ACR's  International  Calling  Codes  listed  numerically 

Americom's  International  Decoder 

International  Dialing  Codes 

International  City  Codes 

World  Telephone  Numbering  Guide  http://www.wtnq. info/index. html 

f  Web  Tip 

Email  lookup  tools  are  not  the  only  way  to 
search  for  email  addresses,  phone/fax  numbers, 
and  street  addresses.  Search  engines  may 
actually  be  better  at  finding  what  you're  looking 
for  because  most  of  them  index  entire 
webpages,  and  whatever  data  is  on  that  page, 
including  email  addresses  and  phone  numbers, 
is  indexed. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Online  Videos  and  Video  Search 

Online  video  of  all  types  accelerated  greatly  over  the  past  year.  During  the  first  half 
of  2006  it  became  apparent  that  online  video/video  search  was  going  to  be  one  of 
the  year's  biggest  topics  and  developments,  with  new  video  sharing  and  video 
search  sites  gearing  up  and  established  companies  such  as  Google,  MICROSOFT, 
and  Yahoo  jumping  on  this  particular  bandwagon.  'The  market  share  of  Internet 
visits  to  the  10  leading  online  video  sites  has  increased  by  164  percent  in  the  past 
three  months  (week  ending  May  20,  2006  versus  week  ending  February  25,  2006)," 
according  to  Hitwise,  a  competitive  intelligence  company.115 

Furthermore,  some  in  the  "old  media,"  e.g.,  ABC,  CBS,  BBC,  AP,  and  Fox,  saw  this 
as  a  wave  of  the  future  they  wanted  to  ride  and  began  or  expanded  their  video 
offerings  via  the  Internet.  To  put  the  video  revolution  in  perspective,  "Apple 
Computer  Inc.  sold  12  million  video  clips  at  $1.99  each  from  its  popular  iTunes 
Music  Store  in  just  a  few  months"116  and  more  than  40  million  videos  were  viewed 
per  day  at  the  YouTube  website. 

Because  we  usually  need  to  be  able  to  find  and  get  our  hands  on  video  quickly, 
there  is  a  lot  of  interest  in  online  video  and  video  search.  As  with  any  new  venture  or 
technology,  there  are  problems.  In  the  case  of  Internet  video,  the  main  problems  at 
the  moment  are: 

>  Quality — lots  and  lots  of  really  awful,  silly  stuff. 

>  Quantity — still  only  a  small  number  of  videos  are  available  compared  to 
webpages,  images,  music. 

>  Format — there  is  no  standard  format  in  which  videos  are  offered;  some  sites 
require  you  to  download  and  install  their  proprietary  software  while  some  use 
MacroMedia  Flash,  QuickTime,  RealPlayer,  Windows  Media  Player,  or 
something  else. 

115  "Hitwise  Data  Shows  Overall  Visits  to  Video  Search  Sites  Up  164%,"  Hitwise  News  Release,  May 
24,  2006,  <>  (November  28, 

116  Walter  Mossberg  and  Katherine  Boehret,  "Searching  the  Web  for  Video  Clips,"  The  Mossberg 
Solution,  The  Wall  Street  Journal,  <>  (November 
28,  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


What  blogs  are  to  traditional  news,  online  videos  are  to  television  and,  to  a  lesser 
extent,  movies.  The  spread  of  broadband  connections,  cheap  data  storage,  free  or 
inexpensive  video  technology  have  all  contributed  to  this  boom.  In  a  perverse  way, 
al  Qaeda  in  Iraq  was  an  early  adapter  of  Internet  video,  making  effective  if 
horrendous  use  of  videos  to  spread  its  terror  message,  recruit  new  members, 
communicate  across  its  terror  network,  and  even  offer  training  and  support. 

And,  of  course,  online  video  has  given  rise  to  its  own  neologisms;  vlogs  (weblogs 
containing  video),  vloggers,  vlogcasts,  vlogcasting,  and  vlogcasters,  as  well  as 
vodcasts/vidcasts.  I  suppose  there  are  even  vlogmasters,  though  that  word  conjures 
up  images  of  a  character  in  a  Wagnerian  opera. 

Given  the  relative  ease  with  which  Internet  videos  can  be  produced  and  spread  by 
anyone  anywhere,  we  must  take  this  technology  very  seriously  and  learn  how  to  find 
videos  of  interest  quickly  and  efficiently.  Here  are  the  some  of  the  major  players  in 
online  video  and  video  search,  excluding  companies  that  are  offering  solely 
entertainment-related  video  uploads  and  downloads.  Also,  most  news  sites  do  not 
make  video  clips  available  for  very  long,  usually  no  more  than  a  week,  before  they 
are  archived.  Once  archived,  the  clips  may  require  registration  and/or  payment  to 
view  them. 

The  two  basic  types  of  video  on  line  today  are  downloadable  and  streaming  video. 
Some  of  the  video  sites  I  discuss  below  offer  downloadable  video,  which  may  be 
saved  and  played  later;  this  type  of  video  may  have  a  format  that  requires  a  specific 
type  of  video  player.  Virtually  all  the  video  sites  below  offer  some  form  of  streaming 
video,  that  is,  one-way  video  transmissions  over  the  Internet  to  a  compatible  media 
player.  These  do  not  require  the  user  to  download  the  video,  nor  can  the  video  be 
saved  for  later  viewing.  You've  seen  this  "buffering"  message  before,  I'm  sure,  when 
requesting  video  be  streamed  to  your  computer: 

117  "Streaming  video,",  Computer  Desktop  Encyclopedia,  Computer  Language 
Company  Inc.,  2005.  <>  (15  November  2006). 

I  he  Stioamin^tom^pt 

Extra  packets  are  buffered  in  memory  in  order  to  compensate  for  the 
unpredictable  delivery  over  the  Internet. 

From  Computer  Gttsktop  Encyx top«di:» 
GD  2003  Th*  C £vfT.pajr er  Langu»$*  Co.  lr>c 

"Buffering  70%  complete"  means  70%  of  a  reserved  area  in 
memory  is  filled-  When  it  gets  to  -\QO%,  the  software 
(Windows  Media  Player  in  this  example)  will  start  "playing" 
the  video. 




DOCID:  4046925 


What  you  are  witnessing  is  streaming  media.  While  not  the  smoothest,  cleanest 
technology,  it  is  cheap  (the  most  popular  software  used  for  streaming  media  is  free), 
and  with  broadband  connections,  it  is  relatively  fast  if  sometimes  choppy.  The  major 
free  media  players  (all  handle  audio  and  video)  are  the  following: 

>  Windows  Media  Player — Microsoft's  proprietary  software  that  plays  many 
audio,  video,  and  streaming  formats,  including  MP3,  WMA,  CD  audio,  and 

>  MacroMedia  Flash  Player— a  browser  plug-in  that,  according  to  the  company 
"is  installed  on  98%  of  Internet-enabled  desktops  worldwide  and  on  a  wide 
range  of  popular  devices."118  The  Flash  Player  displays  content  created  with 
MacroMedia  Flash  and  plays  files  with  the  .SWF  extension. 

>  MacroMedia  Shockwave  Player — The  Shockwave  Player  displays  content 
created  with  MacroMedia  Director  and  plays  files  with  the  .DCR  extension. 

Because  there  is  so  much  confusion  about  these  two  products,  MacroMedia  created 
a  webpage  that  compares  these  two  products: 

>  QuickTime — the  only  one  of  these  free  media  players  not  originally  developed 
for  the  Windows  environment,  QuickTime  is  an  Apple  Computers'  product 
capable  of  handling  various  formats  of  digital  video,  audio,  text,  animation, 
music,  and  more.  The  QuickTime  media  player  is  bundled  with  Apple 
computers  but  free  downloads  are  available  for  Windows  as  well. 

>  RealPlayer— RealNetworks'  media  player  that  plays  its  own  proprietary 
RealAudio  and  RealVideo  as  well  as  other  formats  including  MP3,  MPEG-4, 
and  QuickTime.  It  was  one  of  the  first  media  players  capable  of  handling 
streaming  media  over  the  Internet. 

The  Major  Online  Video  and  Video  Search  Sites 

I  decided  to  list  these  alphabetically  because  there  is  no  good  way  to  rank  them: 
each  has  some  advantages  and  usually  quite  a  few  drawbacks.  Some  things  to  keep 
in  mind  about  the  current  state  of  video  search: 

>  Most  video  search  sites  only  search  the  metadata  and/or  text  associated  with 
a  video.  TVEyes  is  an  exception;  it  uses  voice  recognition  technology  to  index 
every  word  spoken  in  a  video,  but  the  technology  is  imperfect.  Most  video 

118  Macromedia  Flash  Player  FAQ,  < 
item-1-1>  (November  28,  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


search  engines  will  index  the  text  of  television  programs  with  closed 

>   Many  video  search  sites  only  search  their  own  video  collection  and  do  not 
search  for  videos  across  the  web.  I  will  note  which  sites  do  this  below. 

AOL  Video  Search 

AOL  Video  Search  employs  the  video  search  engines  of  not  one  but  two  of  the 
companies  it  owns — Singingfish  and  Truveo — for  its  own  search  site.  AOL  "Video 
Search  results  include  multimedia  streams  and  files  (Real  Media,  Windows  Media, 
QuickTime,  MP3  and  Flash)  from  AOL  and  the  Web  sorted  by  relevance."  Note  that 
you  cannot  sort  the  results  by  date.  AOL  Video  search  lets  users  limit  the  search  to 
subfields  including  news,  television,  music,  movies.  Phrase  searching  works  well. 
There  is  no  way  to  limit  your  search  by  source,  but  if  you  include  a  source  such  as 
Reuters,  AOL  Video  Search  picks  up  on  that  keyword: 

AOL  i 

jw  ahmadinejad  reisers 

search  in 

nu  it- 
nrt  >\(  - 

pa- 7*. 


recent  searches 

,,  !,(.3f.t£-f 

i  exults  for  ahmadinejad  reutens  p -Js_-  *  i* 

te^rn  tni°  ahcd  vifif*r,  r  *.ittr 


i    .he  vt.l  .1...... 

hi  k.M  <:;:■_  1  -'L.i/,  ll  ■  I  H  (.  ,U 
trulnrnfri,-^  f>F--'ifi ^r*  ffr fif* BariKiamj  v'ui!|rr)%rii.'3*na  it- 
hit  crfer  io  nediee    :he  nuc^a-  cisss  bet,. 
Updated:  05^10*06 

Dm  Jtion:  1  01  To|>fc:  News 

Source:  Reuters  www 

Ahmadinejad  V.sts  Incrones  a 

Updated;  05*1  CMOS 

Dui  atioiv.  1  ;20  Topk:  htews 

Source:  Reuters 

Pi  evicted  by.  mi  tews 


Dm  attain  1.15  1  opic.  Nev*$ 

Source:  Reuters 

PiovKled  by:  aax^, 



DOCID:  4046925 



>  Sources  of  video  data:  multiple  news  and  entertainment  sources  from  AOL 
and  across  the  web. 

>  Media  types  searched:  Real  Media,  Windows  Media,  QuickTime,  MP3  and 

>  Videos  viewed:  videos  at  AOL  use  AOL  Video  Player;  videos  from  external 
sites  use  site's  default  media  player. 

>  Search  options:  phrase  searching;  advanced  search;  no  search  by  source 

>  Sort  options:  by  relevance  only. 

>  Upload  video?  Not  directly;  only  via  AOL's  companies  Singingfish  or  Truveo. 

BBC  Video 

BBC  does  not  make  it  easy  to  find  its  news  videos.  For  example,  there  is  no 
separate  BBC  News  video  page.  Instead,  to  view  a  BBC  video,  users  must  go  to  any 
News  Online  page  and  click  the  "Watch  BBC  news  in  video"  or  "Latest  news  in  video 
and  audio"  button  at  the  top  of  the  page.  This  opens  a  new  window  where  users  can 
select  from  a  list  of  current  videos  by  news  topic:  headline,  UK,  business,  politics, 
health,  etc.  The  videos  play  in  the  same  window  using  either  RealPlayer  (preferred) 
or  Windows  Media  Player.  Another  option  is  BBC  News  24,  constantly  updated 
national  and  international  headlines.  The  best  way  to  find  BBC  videos  is  using  a 
third-party  site  such  as  Yahoo  Video  Search,  which  offers  a  search  by  source  option. 

In  May  the  BBC  announced  it  was  opening  its  news  archives,  but  only  for  users  in 
the  UK.  If  you  are  in  the  UK,  "You  can  download  nearly  80  news  reports  covering 
iconic  events  of  the  past  50  years  including  the  fall  of  the  Berlin  Wall,  crowds 
ejecting  soldiers  from  Beijing's  Tiananmen  Square  and  behind-the-scenes  footage  of 
the  England  team  prior  to  their  victory  over  West  Germany  in  1966." 



DOCID:  4046925 

uNCLASsiFiED//ron  ornciAL  use  only 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  BBC  news  video  only. 

>  Videos  viewed:  Real  Media  (preferred)  or  Windows  Media  at  BBC  site. 

>  Search  options:  no  separate  video  search. 

>  Sort  options:  by  category  (e.g.,  headlines  or  business  news). 

>  Upload  video?  No. 


Blinkx  certainly  has  one  of  the  snazziest  sites,  which  is  not  necessarily  a  good  thing 
because  it  can  be  distracting.  However,  it  is  a  very  good  video  search  tool.  Blinkx 
uses  voice  recognition  software  to  transcribe  the  content  of  audio  and  video 
material,  whether  it  is  commercial  television  or  personal  vlogs.  Users  simply  enter 
search  terms  in  the  box  on  the  left  of  the  screen  and,  once  the  results  are  returned, 
a  slider  appears  that  lets  the  user  determine  whether  to  rank  the  results  by  date  or 
relevance  or  somewhere  in  between.  Here  is  a  snapshot  on  the  Blinkx  page  showing 
results  for  [ahmadinejad]  sorted  by  relevance. 





1  J  M 


r        -'  ' 

j  ^  , 


.  a     tOCp  | 


UN  lutcleai 
chief  in  Ir.n. 
to  Iks 

a  tr«jmphanl 
Preside  rti 

drew  stinging 
rebukes  from 
world  powers, 
irc&icfrig  Russia 
and  China,  whte 
IheUSsaid  the 
UN  Security 
Coined,  which 
coUd  *npose 

Olrtct  Flaw 

Thiasdsy  Apfil 
13  2006 

If  tin  joins 
the  nucleoli 
The  US  has 
condemned  kwz 
thai  they  h&ve 

chbnneis  b      upload  video  help 

y-     X.y,  : 

"t  "  , 

it  ■ 


te--  ,n         5  ...j      -  % 

nr  o7rAf!i.(4wri(i*    n< 

"I    1J  ft 

Fiar/ing  Cifp  Information'. 


UN  nuclear  chief  in  (ran  talks 




DOCID:  4046925 


One  of  the  best  features  in  Blinkx  is  that  it  shows  animated  thumbnail  images  of 
each  video.  In  some  cases,  Blinkx  plays  the  full  clip  in  the  Blinkx  window  without 
users  having  to  go  to  another  website.  Here  is  the  key  for  determining  the  type  of 
video  and  where  it  will  play: 

The  blinkx  b  and  camera  icon  located  at  the  end  of  the  result  heading  indicates  thai  this  result's 
video  is  hosted  by  and  can  be  viewed  en  the  Direct  Play  Screen  located  lo 
the  nght  of  the  result. 

<j<v  The  eye  and  camera  icon  located  at  the  end  of  the  result  heading  indicates  that  this  result's 
video  can  be  viewed  only  from  the  original  site. 

The  blinkx  podcast  icon  located  dt  the  end  of  the  result  heading  indicates  that  this  result  is  a 

Blinkx  is  much  better  than  other  video  search  sites  at  weeding  out  videos  that  have 
been  archived  and  are  thus  no  longer  available  at  the  originating  site,  although 
sometimes  you  want  to  know  that  a  video  was  once  available  even  if  you  cannot 
access  it  now. 

One  other  thing  you  need  to  know  about  Blinkx  is  how  to  use  the  "channel"  buttons 
on  the  left  side  of  the  homepage.  Here  is  the  "news"  channel;  users  can  select  all, 
some,  or  none  of  these  channels  to  search  by  clicking  on  the  buttons.  In  this  case, 
the  news  channels  with  the  green  dots  have  been  selected  to  be  searched: 

Blinkx  employs  keyword  and  Boolean  search  options.  Blinkx  also  has  a  special  "Self 
Casting"  channel  for  videos  uploaded  by  users.  Most  of  these  are  probably  of 
dubious  value,  but  it's  worth  keeping  an  eye  on  them. 



DOCID:  4046925 



>  Sources  of  video  data:  multiple  news,  entertainment,  radio,  podcasts  from 
across  the  web. 

>  Video  viewed:  videos  hosted  on  Blinkx  servers  use  "Direct  Player";  videos 
from  external  sites  use  site's  default  media  player. 

>  Search  options:  keyword,  Boolean,  &  phrase  searching;  "conceptual  search"; 
option  to  limit  search  by  source. 

>  Sort  options:  using  slider,  sort  by  date,  relevance,  or  somewhere  in  between. 

>  Upload  video?  Yes. 

CBS  News  Video  Search 

http://www.cbsnews.eom/sections/i  video/main500251  .shtml 

CBS  News  has  both  an  excellent  video  search,  which  appears  to  pull  from  the  entire 
archive  of  CBS  News  videos.  For  example,  I  searched  for  ["hurricane  isabel"]  and 
found  the  very  first  CBS  News  video  titled  "Isabel  Starting  to  Scare,"  September  12, 
2003.  Unfortunately,  there  is  no  way  to  force  the  search  to  look  for  a  specific  date, 
although  there  is  the  option  to  limit  the  search  to  specific  topics  (e.g.,  US  news),  to  a 
specific  CBS  News  show  (e.g.,  "60  Minutes"),  or  to  search  in  the  Video  Library  by 
topic.  However,  there  are  almost  no  special  search  options,  which  makes  it  hard  to 
find  the  nuggets  in  this  treasure  trove  of  videos.  Despite  this  drawback,  I  believe  the 
CBS  News  video  search  and  archive  is  one  of  the  great  secret  resources  on  the 
web.  It  is  free  to  view  the  full  videos,  which  open  in  the  CBS  window 
using  either  RealPlayer  or  Windows  Media  Player  (both  free).  All  videos  before 
November  20,  2003,  play  only  in  Real. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  CBS  News  video  only. 

>  Video  viewed:  RealPlayer  or  Windows  Media  Player. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  searching;  search  by  ANY,  ALL,  EXACT  PHRASE; 
no  date  limit. 

>  Sort  options:  sort  by  relevance  or  date. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 



DOCID:  4046925 


CNN  Video  Homepage  http://www.cnn.conn/video/ 

CNN  Video  Almanac 

CNN  offers  only  seven  days  of  free  access  to  its  vast  video  archive  of  news  and 
features.  After  a  week,  users  must  sign  up  for  CNN  Pipeline,  which  requires  both 
payment  and  downloading  and  installing  a  CNN  video  player. 

Before  CNN  archives  its  video,  you  can  search,  browse,  and  view  the  free  videos  at 
the  CNN  website  using  Windows  Media  Player.  All  free  videos  are  preceded  by 
commercial  advertisements.  I  find  the  CNN  video  set  up  very  frustrating  to  use.  If 
you  go  to  the  main  CNN  Video  page  <>,  there  is  no  way 
to  limit  your  search  to  videos.  However,  if  you  go  to  the  CNN  homepage 
<>,  scroll  down  to  the  middle  of  the  page  to  hi.  WATCH  VIDEO  , 
and  click  on  any  video,  the  popup  window  includes  a  video  only  search  box.  Enter 
your  search  terms  and  CNN  Video  will  return  a  list  of  video  matches  by  date  and 
time.  You  can  then  resort  the  results  by  Section  or  Most  Popular.  Note  in  this 
example  that  only  the  first  two  videos  are  still  free.  The  rest  have  been  archived  to 
CNN  Pipeline. 


12  3  4 

li*£MM     1-t5of  206m«cbw 


Ffefet  by  Section  p*^ 



Rke  deftvet  a  p<  to  (7  51) 

11  48am.M*y  31 


■  *> 

Busd-BUn  f  entity  dvech  (2 1  St 

05:34  am,  May  26 


"  I  Uan  wants  to  ta*  (2:01) 

07:59  pm.  May  24 



i  )  OiiKh.  Olmcil  «v*ti>  li  M\  0.34) 

00- 1 7  pm,  M*v  23 

.  >> 

<»»[  (• 

<*]  Otmeii:Uan  on  bomb  UneahoM  C56; 

03  00  pm,  May  21 


»- 1  Otnwrt;  Abbas  lieferieao*  (1:S0) 

02:59  pm,  May  21 



i'l  li  an  nol  bencfing  on  mikes  (l  50) 

06.1 5  pm,  Mary  16 


o*f  . 

r- 1  li  an  througit  carlo  one  (2.32) 

06:27  pm.May  11 


>  i  i  Ahmodin«iod  wvifling  to  iwgotiatc  {2:37) 

03:06  pm,  Mary  11 

tm  \  ^ 

<  1  li  4ii  teA«1ei  open  to  tbpJofnacy  ?  (1  52) 

!  1  29  pm.Mav  10 


<**(  i- 

•  1  CMII  Student  f  le*«  (1 0  04) 

10:42  prTt,  May  03 



•  •  I  li  aiiMn  AmcMcAns  r«?*ct  to  tetter  (1:^0) 

09:07  pm,  May  09 



.  t  In4l«fo  b:m's  letiei  (i  41) 

05  56  pro,  Mny  09 



i-l  A  im«  Ameilcan  In  Iran  f2:1ty 

11:1?  am,  May  04 


.  I  A  heado-up  foi  wom«n'o  rights  (156) 

12:53  am.  May  03 


MOW  IN  1  HE  HEWS  |  Updated  11JD  AM  ET 
Yen*  cfuich  or»d  complete  :S*RfPflf!!lV! 
hourly  now?,  upakitc.  BMMAMMfcaafl 

CNN  has  one  other  video  feature  you  need  to  know  about:  its  Video  Almanac,  a 
collection  of  the  best  video  since  the  birth  of  CNN  in  1980  through  1997.  Users  can 
select  a  year  or  topic,  e.g.,  the  video  of  the  failed  attempt  to  rescue  the  hostages  in 
Iran  in  April  1980.  The  Video  Almanac  provides  a  very  limited  number  of  videos, 
most  of  which  are  very  high  profile  events,  though  there  are  notable  exceptions 
("George  Burns  dies").  The  videos  play  using  QuickTime. 



DOCID:  4046925 



>  Sources  of  video  data:  CNN  video  only. 

>  Video  viewed:  Windows  Media  Player  version  9  and  above. 

>  Search  options:  search  for  one  or  more  keywords  or  exact  phrase  in  double 
quotes;  filter  by  section;  no  date  limit. 

>  Sort  options:  sort  by  date/time,  section,  or  popularity. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 


C-SPAN  Store 

C-SPAN  is  the  only  one  of  the  online  video  and  video  search  sites  that  is  a  non-profit 
entity.  In  case  anyone  is  unclear  who  and  what  C-SPAN  is,  here's  what  the  network 
says  about  itself:  "C-SPAN  is  a  private,  non-profit  company,  created  in  1979  by  the 
cable  television  industry  as  a  public  service.  Our  mission  is  to  provide  public  access 
to  the  political  process.  C-SPAN  receives  no  government  funding;  operations  are 
funded  by  fees  paid  by  cable  and  satellite  affiliates  who  carry  C-SPAN 
programming."  <> 

Until  a  video  is  archived,  it  is  available  for  free  at  the  C-SPAN  site.  C-SPAN  offers 
both  stored  and  streaming  (live)  media  (video  and  audio,  because  there  is  also  a  C- 
SPAN  radio).  It  is  very  important  to  remember  that  free  C-SPAN  video  searches  only 
index  program  titles,  event  descriptions,  and  air  dates.  "Searches  are  not  based  on 
text  within  the  video  files  or  closed-caption  transcripts  and  do  not  include  video 
available  at  the  C-SPAN  Archive  <>,  where  you 
can  buy  almost  any  C-SPAN  program."  Because  the  C-SPAN  search  is  not  based 
upon  text  or  closed-captioning,  you  may  have  to  work  harder  to  find  a  specific  video. 

Although  the  C-SPAN  site  says  that  "most  events  will  remain  in  the  archive  for  15 
days  or  less,"  I  found  many  videos  going  back  years  that  are  still  available,  so  it 
appears  to  be  hit  or  miss  as  to  what  is  or  is  not  available  for  free.  Keep  in  mind  you 
can  find  and  view  many  but  not  all  Congressional  hearings  at  C-SPAN.  The  site  has 
an  advanced  search  option  that  lets  users  limit  a  search  by  date  ranges  as  well  as 
by  C-SPAN  series  and  programs.  The  advanced  search  also  offers  the  option  to 
search  by  phrase  and  even  a  fuzzy  word  search  ("spelled  like"  or  "sounds  like"). 

The  C-SPAN  video  collection  includes  videos  from  these  and  other  sources: 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Congressional  hearings. 

>  US  Government  Executive  branch  (e.g.,  DoD,  State  Department)  press 

>  Special  commissions. 

>  Some  State  and  Local  videos. 

>  C-SPAN  TV  series,  such  as  "Washington  Journal,"  "Booknotes,"  etc. 

>  Sources  of  video  data:  C-SPAN  video  (and  audio)  only. 

>  Video  viewed:  Stored  clips  require  RealPlayer;  streaming  media  offers  a 
choice  between  RealPlayer  and  Windows  Media  Player. 

>■  Search  options:  search  for  one  or  more  keywords;  advanced  search  offers 
date,  program  filters  and  fuzzy  keyword  search. 

>  Sort  options:  sort  by  relevance  or  date/time. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 

Google  Video 

Google  Video  underwent  a  huge  metamorphosis  during  December  2005.  Google 
Video  moved  from  being  primarily  a  video  search  engine  to  being  a  store  front  to 
preview  and  buy  video.  This  time  Google's  target  isn't  Microsoft  but  (primarily) 
Apple's  iTunes  and  to  a  lesser  degree  cable  television  companies.  Google  Video  is 
more  focused  now  on  selling  videos,  including  television  shows,  than  on  searching 
current  videos.  However,  there  are  many  free  videos  still  available  on  pretty  much 
any  subject  you  can  imagine.  Very  importantly,  Google  Video  only  searches  for 
videos  hosted  at  its  own  website.  Google  Video  has  a  link  to  AOL  Video  on  its 
homepage,  but  the  link  takes  you  to  the  AOL  Video  website  and  Google  Video  does 
not  search  on  AOL's  videos  from  its  site. 

In  May  2006  Google  Video  (finally)  wised  up  and  let  users  upload  their  videos 
directly  online  without  having  to  install  any  software  and  without  the  previous 
submission  time  lag  of  up  to  24  hours.  ("Google  Inc.  Tweaks  Its  Video  Service,"  AP 
report  in, 
YouTube  had  always  permitted  direct  video  uploads  and  was  basically  cleaning 
Google  Video's  clock. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  indexes  the  closed  captioning  and  text  descriptions  of  all  the  videos  in  its 
archive  to  facilitate  search.  Google  Video  search  supports  keyword  and  phrase 
searches.  While  Google. Video  does  not  support  search  by  source,  it  does  offer  the 
option  of  searching  by  title.  The  correct  syntax  is  [title: keyword].  Note  that  phrase 
searching  does  not  work  with  the  title:  syntax. 

Google  Video  has  several  options  for  viewing  or  limiting  results.  Users  can  choose  to 
view  the  results  as  a  list  or  as  a  grid  (the  list  provides  more  information  while  the  grid 
shows  a  larger  image  of  the  video  clip).  There  is  also  an  option  to  limit  the  results  by 
the  length  of  the  video — long  (20+  minutes),  medium  (4-20  minutes),  or  short  (up  to 
4  minutes).  Results  can  be  sorted  relevance,  date,  or  title. 

Google  explains  how  it  ranks  videos  in  terms  of  popularity:  "We  use  algorithms  to 
identify  videos  that  are  suddenly  becoming  popular,  and  then  rank  them  based  on 
how  popular  they  are— and  how  suddenly  they  became  popular.  We've  been  using 
this  list  internally,  and  now  it's  ready  to  share  with  you,  so  check  it  out.  Right  now 
this  feature  highlights  videos  from  close  to  40  countries,  including  Argentina, 
Australia,  Belgium,  Brazil,  Canada,  Estonia,  Finland,  Greece,  Hong  Kong,  India, 
Israel,  Japan,  South  Korea,  Mexico,  and  New  Zealand,  to  name  a  few."  (Jon 
Steinback,  "Movers,  Shakers,  and  Hoops  on  Video,"  Google  Blog,  June  9,  2006,'and-hoops-on-video.html) 

The  software  required  to  view  streaming  video  at  Google  Video  is  Macromedia  Flash 
Player  7.0+.  To  view  purchased  and  downloaded  videos,  users  still  must  install 
Google's  own  Google  Video  Player,  which  has  frustrated  many  users  and  infuriated 
others.  It  will  be  interesting  to  watch  Google  Video's  evolution  as  the  site  tries  to 
move  higher  in  online  video  popularity,  closed  captioning  and  text  descriptions  of  all 
the  videos  in  our  archive  for  relevant  results. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  only  news,  entertainment,  radio,  podcasts  hosted  on 
Google  servers. 

>  Video  viewed:  free  streaming  media  uses  Flash  Player;  purchased  videos 
require  Google  Video  Player. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  &  phrase  searching;  title:  search;  no  search  by 
source  option. 

>  Sort  options:  sort  by  relevance,  date,  or  title;  view  as  List  or  Grid;  limit  results 
by  length  of  video. 

>  Upload  video?  Yes. 



DOCID:  4046925 



FILM  "is  a  leading  online  video  network,  serving  user-uploaded  and  professional 
content  to  over  ten  million  viewers  monthly.  IFILM's  extensive  library  includes  movie 
clips,  music  videos,  short  films,  TV  clips,  video  game  trailers,  action  sports  and  its 
popular  Viral  videos'  collection.  IFILM  is  one  of  the  leading  streaming  media 
networks  on  the  internet."  <>  Viacom  purchased  IFILM 
and  made  it  a  part  of  its  MTV  Network,  so  most  of  the  commercial  videos  are  from 
some  segment  of  that  network.  However,  what  distinguishes  IFILM  is  its  vast  supply 
of  user  created  and  uploaded  videos. 

IFILM  specializes  in  viral  videos,  that  is,  videos  that  gain  widespread  popularity 
across  the  Internet  through  blogs,  email,  IM,  websites,  and  old-fashioned  word  of 
mouth.  Not  all  viral  videos  are  humorous.  One  example  of  a  viral  video  from  IFILM 
was  "Mercenary  Sniper  in  Iraq,"  described  in  Defense  as  an  "interesting 
'Viral  Video'  clip  that  puts  the  viewer  inside  a  helicopter  in  Iraq  (urban  environment), 
and  then  puts  you  right  there  with  a  sniper  team  engaging  hostile  enemy  targets  (i.e. 
insurgents/terrorists)  from  a  rooftop  (again,  inside  Iraq)." 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  multiple  news,  entertainment,  and  user-created 

>  Video  viewed:  QuickTime,  Windows  Media  Player,  Macromedia  Flash. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  &  phrase  searching;  limit  search  to  specific 
collections,  such  as  "User  Video." 

>  Sort  options:  no. 

>  Upload  video?  Yes. 

MSN  Video119 

Don't  bother  trying  to  access  this  site  from  any  browser  other  than  Internet  Explorer 
6.  Once  you  get  past  that  extremely  annoying  requirement,  MSN  Video  is  not  a  bad 
site.  Users  have  access  to  all  NBC  news,  sports,  and  entertainment,  as  well  as  other 
sources  such  as  the  National  Geographic  Channel  and  the  Discovery  Networks. 
MSN  Video  also  partners  with  IFILM,  so  you  can  access  IFILM  videos  from  this  site. 

119  As  of  this  writing,  MSN  Video  has  not  been  renamed  Live  Video  even  though  there  is  a  video 
search  incorporated  into  Live  Search. 



DOCID:  4046925 


I  cannot  determine  exactly  how  long  videos  are  kept;  some  videos  date  back  years, 
but  most  of  the  news  videos  appear  to  be  from  within  the  past  30  days.  What  I  like 
best  about  the  site  are  the  many  options  for  handling  results.  Users  can  choose 
between  thumbnails  or  details;  view  all  results;  and  sort  by  title,  source,  or  date. 
Here  is  a  screenshot  of  the  results  for  the  query  ["hurricane  katrina"]  in  detail  view 
sorted  by  date: 

-hurricane  katrina"  Nt-aw:  cn"*ii  m^n*^       ■■■!<< Km.-.  L-^Ay^ 

:£AP.CH    ►   ftESUL  rs  FCR  r ATRIWA  View  ThJHt  n*J  (  De:ai! 





*■  How  vViJma  Was  Born 

Nc&ctfal  Geographic 

Jjn,  :\  2806 

►  Musu:  a  1  healing 

)bZZ  Pcii 

Api  2?,20Cfa 

AdJ  to  [i1^  of. 


In  u  Hayes 

Api  1j.  2006 

Af+J  to  p:^:^i 


►  Av*,>y  from  thi*  tr.Kik 

."psed  Channel 

Mat .  ]  3, 

«W  1     r 1  iy'  ;t 


MSNBC  .cones 

Feb-  2(\  2('% 

hi  p.'^t 


*  Nostalgic  for  home 

F^b.  26.  2006 


►  Strength  from  family 

MSNBC.  corr> 

Fsb.  24.  2006 

Add  to  C'3V;5». 


►  Katrines  Health  Aftermath 


Fsb-  1=1,  2006 

AC  J  to  p^v  is! 


»  Piuneertn'  Venice 

FOX  5oo;t5Uf-.ivo.,. 

Feb.  ^  2006 

AaJu  p'a\^5L 


►  Katrinti  Ixttenvi:  Mi^siSMfipi  Do&Uucefoft  NdiK^Geoc^sNc  ,iin.  H.  ZUC6     Ad  J  to  p'Av^t 

»■  Benson  committed  to  Louisiana 

FOX  spcrfcs  Tco  M. : 

Dec  .n.ZX'QS 


»  Horn  sounds  off 

FOX  Spe-tsTcpM... 

Dec  .50.  2005 

Add  to  p'jy'.st 


*  After  the  storm 

MSN  I'Kteo 

Oct.  2~s,  2005 

AcJ  to  F'3\'5t 


f  Hayes"  harsh  reality 

3c .red  Cha^nd 

a«p.  :oos 

Ad  J  to  p.ay'at 


•  in  St  w  Ur/e<m&,  ju&tn.e  (Jeljyed 

f  Ja;,  :-a, 


■  Juslit*'  ilcJuyrd  oftei  KotfUM 

Nwht.y-  t;ev.-» 

Mj>  :or-; 


*  Hard  rorfd  to  (Jiplom.i 

May  vOCt 

Ad'1  Li  r^v"'1 


►  Bin  Ff»sy*s  favorite  nonrjuin  home?  aoatn 

Mi^ht./  h"?WS 

nay  ?T,  20CS 

Ad^t'>  |-'^v-<t 


►  Senate  probes  qas  oouqlnq 

May?.;,  ZOCo 

>s.r^rl  to  f-iiy^r 


•*  Louisiana  scientist  on  lessons  taught  b... 

Tcdav  Show 

Kas  21,  20Co 

Add  topVrst 


►  New  Urieans  voters  head  to  polls 


na\  ^  2t)f>:- 

Aci j  to  p'ay-st 


►  New  Orleans  elections 

l-Jaj  J  9,  20<?6 

Ad j  Lo  |.'^  .st 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  selected  news,  entertainment,  etc.,  from  NBC  and 
MSN's  partners  as  well  as  user-created  videos  from  I  FILM. 

>  Video  viewed:  Windows  Media  Player  7+,  Macromedia  Flash  7+  (site  only 
works  in  Internet  Explorer  6). 

>  Search  options:  keyword  &  phrase  searching;  limit  search  to  specific 
collections,  such  as  News. 

>  Sort  options:  by  title,  source,  or  date. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 


DOCID:  4046925 



Pixsy  is  a  metasearch  engine  for  both  still  images  and  video  that  searches  a  large 
numbers  of  video  content  providers.  "As  a  meta-aggregator  of  image  and  video 
thumbnails  images  from  RSS  providers,  Pixsy  provides  a  visual  search  alternative 
for  consumers  and  a  source  of  free,  high  quality  traffic  for  RSS  syndicating  image  & 
video  content  providers.  New  RSS  providers  include  YouTube,  Revver,  SmugMug, 
RollingStone,  StumbleUpon,  Defamer,  People  Magazine,  Pictopia,  Metacafe, 
TheOnion,  Rotten  Tomatoes,  Buzznet,  CNN,  NPR,  PBS,  and  many  more."  (Loren 
Baker,  "Pixsy  Adds  New  Video  Search  Content  from  YouTube,  CNN,  Defamer  & 

The  thumbnails  are  small  enough  to  review  quickly  but  still  of  good  quality,  and  a 
mouseover  of  each  thumbnail  image  reveals  the  title  of  the  video,  a  summary  of  its 
contents,  the  date  of  the  video,  its  source,  and  the  date  and  location  where  it  was 
indexed.  The  only  sort  options  at  Pixsy  are  by  category.  The  Pixsy  homepage  also 
links  to  the  latest  and  to  featured  videos. 

Images  |S8) 

Videos  (16) 

Sort  by  Category 

Afl  f  16) 

News  ■  World  (13) 

New*  -  US  (I) 

Photo  ft  WrHro  Sharing  (?) 

Pnovtdss  Z?ra- Downtime 
Mettfoik  Secure, 
inanaoed,  customized 

li an  Stands  Finn  In  Nuclear 
Row  -  vkleo 

voyic  lun  '.will  pgr;g«  'tr  nucJ«*' 
ambitions  in  d«fijnte  of..  <V20O6 


2  OO  02  AM  OM1  twm  Rod 


online  job 
is  you 


oweasy  it 




DOCID:  4046925 



>  Sources  of  video  data:  multiple  news,  entertainment,  radio,  podcasts  from 
across  the  web. 

>  Video  viewed:  videos  play  using  external  site's  default  media  player  inside  a 
Frame  at  Pixsy  with  option  to  remove  Frame. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  and  phrase  searching;  no  search  by  source  option; 
no  advanced  search. 

>   Sort  options:  searches  for  both  images  and  videos;  tab  to  video;  only  sort 
option  is  by  category. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 

Reuters  Video 

I  have  to  mention  Reuters  because  of  its  importance  and  reach,  but  the  site  is 
frustrating  to  use  because  there  is  no  separate  video  search  at  the  site.  All  you  get  is 
a  list  of  available  videos  sorted  by  topic  (news,  entertainment,  business,  etc.).  If  you 
need  Reuters'  videos,  I  recommend  using  one  of  the  video  search  sites — 
Rocketlnfo,  SingingFish,  RooTV,  Blinkx,  Yahoo  Video  Search,  or  Pixsy. 

Rocketlnfo  [select  the  VIDEO  tab] 

Rocketlnfo  offers  some  of  the  most  extensive  sources  for  news  and  video  on  the 
web,  drawing  from  over  16,000  news  sources  on  a  continuous  basis.  The  downside 
is  that  Rocketlnfo  only  searches  for  the  past  four  days  at  most,  and  users  can  limit  a 
search  to  today's  videos.  The  search  has  no  advanced  features,  not  even  phrase 
searching.  It  looks  for  all  the  keywords,  so  be  careful  not  to  search  on  too  many 

Rocketlnfo  is  a  metasearch  engine  that  searches  many  video  sources,  including 
BBC,  RedOrbit  videos,  Reuters,  CBS,  CNN,  MSNBC,  local  news,  etc.  For  current 
news  searches,  Rocketlnfo  has  to  be  ranked  as  one  of  the  best  and  most 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  news  from  over  16,000  sources  across  the  web  (not  all 
or  even  most  of  these  sources  offer  video) 

>  Video  viewed:  all  videos  play  at  originating  site  using  that  site's  default  video 

>  Search  options:  keyword  search  only  (searches  for  ALL  terms) 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Sort  options:  by  date  or  relevance 

>  Upload  video?  No 


RooTV  or  Roo  is  a  powerful  video  search  tool,  but  I  find  it  annoying  because  it 
automatically  plays  a  video  when  you  visit  the  homepage  (and  it  really  doesn't  want 
to  stop!).  There  is  a  simple  keyword  search  but  no  way  to  limit  the  search  to  just 
news,  for  example.  The  videos  play  at  the  RooTV  site,  using  Windows  Media  Player 
or  RealPlayer.  RooTV  requires  ActiveX;  if  you  are  going  to  use  RooTV,  I  recommend 
opening  the  site  in  Internet  Explorer  (you  will  have  to  add  it  to  your  Trusted  Zone)  so 
you  do  not  need  to  install  an  ActiveX  plug-in  in  Firefox  or  Netscape,  something  I 
would  discourage.  Sources  include  Reuters  and  AP.  Supported  by  advertising. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  news  from  sources  across  the  web,  including  Reuters 
and  AP. 

>  Video  viewed:  all  videos  play  at  the  RooTV  site  using  either  Windows  Media 
Player  or  RealPlayer;  requires  ActiveX. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  search  only  (searches  for  ALL  terms). 

>  Sort  options:  none. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 

Searchforvideo  IM  Service 
Searchforvideo  Reel  Time  Lens 

Searchforvideo  is  one  of  the  best  video  search  engines  available.  Searchforvideo 
searches  a  vast  number  of  sources,  including  BBC,  ABC,  CBS,  CNN,  AP  via 
iVillage,  Reuters  via  RooTV,  RedOrbit,  the  Discovery  Networks,  and  many  others. 
The  site  also  has  separate  pages  by  topic — news,  sports,  entertainment,  business, 
technology,  health,  and  viral— where  users  can  browse  the  top  videos  of  the  day. 

Interestingly,  even  though  there  is  no  search  by  source,  I  found  that  if  you  use  the 
name  of  a  source  and  a  keyword,  that  seems  to  work  very  well  because  you  are 
searching  on  all  metadata  associated  with  a  video  clip.  For  example,  [reuters  iran] 
returns  only  videos  from  Reuters  sources  containing  the  keyword  "iran": 



DOCID:  4046925 


jt  "J.  searchforvideo 

Home     Ne^s     Sport?     Entertainment    Business     Technology     Health  Viral 

searcn  1 

Results  1  -  10  of  339  for  reuwrs  Iran 

Arts  to  ftnPnror.nH 

Huge  seleciion  of  I  he 
latest  Videos  you  can 
v;6w  on:  mo —Free  from 

Business  Eg  Bit?  insss 
Video  E-Wiil  Business  tg 
Consumer  Virion  E-Mail 

OH  Price  Gains  On  Worries  Over  Iran  -  video 

Oil  pfites  cJirnti  over  5? 3  a  Uar,-ef  after  Man  ssld  ti  fTMOht  us$  rt*  o\\  production  as  a ..  W2006  ffeulers 

Iran  Leader's  Energy  Warning  >  video 

rwj-tv  V/cirid  »i«od2in<vJ  ■  >U"  6-1*  rfMb 

Iran's  supreme  leader  hint*  of  disruption  to  oil  supplies  if  pushed  on  nuclear  wis  is  Bj^dQG  fJeuiei-s 

Brcws-e,  compara, 
purchase  Product  ?>parth 
-  Video  clips. 

Viil-'j  dip* 

Bfcwse  a  huge  selection 
now.  Fine!  exactly  'whai 
you  want  loday. 

Iran's  team  arrives  in  Germany 

rt*»nl.irv  -  Tijfj  Noiws     hitt  Ct  4,  /Oflfi 

(03  54)  Rou^tl  Cut 

Iran  leader  s  energy  warning 

lopNrws    h>n  (N,  /.fink 

(01  07)  Report 

Iran  'f^r^K  mflmsnt  nf  truth' 

Searchforvideo  also  offers  IM  search  that  works  with  AOL,  Yahoo,  and  MSN.  There 
is  also  a  very  interesting  option  to  view  videos  that  are  being  added  or  watched  in 
real  time  at  the  Searchforvideo  Real  Time  Lens  page. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  searches  wide  variety  of  video  sources  across  the 

>  Video  viewed:  at  originating  site  using  that  site's  default  video  player, 

>  Offers  video  podcasts  that  can  be  downloaded  to  video  podcast  software  at 
Searchforvideo  Publishers  <>. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  searching;  add  source  keyword,  e.g.,  [bbc],  to  limit 
by  source. 

>  Sort  options:  sort  by  relevance  or  date. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Sky  News  Video 

The  UK's  Sky  News,  billed  as  Europe's  first  24-hour  news  channel,  offers  a  "video 
channel"  and  advanced  search  to  limit  queries  to  videos  only.  Keep  in  mind  that  the 
simple  search  on  the  main  video  page  does  not  restrict  your  search  to  videos:  you 
must  use  the  advanced  search  page.  Here  users  have  the  option  to  limit  the  search 
by  "item  type,"  and  Video  is  one  of  the  types.  Notice  you  can  also  limit  your  search 
by  section  and  date  range. 




Top  atone*.  Hsafth  Chiefs  Hunt  For  E.C 

Sky  Wcvi  Home 


UK  tJevi: 


Or.  SVv  TV 


I.  vir.g 


Ofti:  a  at 

Wodd  C'jo 


Si*',  Sports 


you  add.  the  better  thg  results  will  be 

Search  For; 
So  arch  Srt»: 


Enter  yo^f  search  mrtnj 

Choost  tth.ic^  Sky  site  t©  seaK*"' 

Search  Date: 

Ait  r*onth 

rs(  or  30  dsy; 

Day     {  UZTAh  I  Ya^r 

dd    f  [imT  /  [yyyy 

[dd    ;  [mm  |ym 

\  Se*rct> 

►  dearth  Tips 

^  *To  S*^;h  Sky  Movie*,  did  Here 

In  the  advanced  search,  the  only  characters  recognized  are  letters,  numbers,  and 
hyphens.  You  can  use  a  hyphen  to  create  a  phrase:  [tony-blair].  Results  are  listed  in 
date  order  with  the  most  recent  items  listed  first.  Each  result  shows  the  relevance  to 
your  search.  The  videos  play  using  Windows  Media  Player. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  Sky  News  video  only. 

>  Video  viewed:  at  Sky  News  site  using  Windows  Media  Player. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  searching;  query  terms  limited  to  alphanumerics  and 
hyphens;  search  by  section  (e.g.,  news),  type  (e.g.,  video),  date  range. 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Sort  options:  None;  listed  by  relevance. 

>  Upload  video?  No. 


If  you  want  to  search  the  content  of  TV  and  radio  news  broadcasts,  I  recommend  the 
TVEyes  search  engine.  TVEyes  captures,  indexes,  analyzes,  archives,  and 
distributes  in  real-time  content  captured  from  television  and  radio  broadcasts. 
"Currently  live  content  alerts  and  searchable  archives  are  available  from: 

>  US 

>  UK 

>  Canada 

>  Australia 

and  the  Al  Jazeera  network.  Coverage  is  being  extended  to  include  France,  Mexico, 
Guatemala,  South  Africa  with  these  countries  on  stream  by  Q4." 

TVEyes  uses  voice  recognition  technology  to  create  something  the  company  calls  its 
Spoken  Word  Index(TM),  so  that  users  can  search  every  word  in  a  broadcast.  The 
search  only  seems  to  work  if  you  use  one  keyword  or  a  phrase  because  it  interprets 
more  than  one  word  as  a  phrase.  It  works  very  well  finding  the  right  broadcast; 
unfortunately,  once  you  go  to  the  originating  site  of  the  news  clip,  you  may  well 
discover  it  is  no  longer  available.  However,  TVEyes  can  help  you  locate  a  specific 
clip,  especially  if  you  did  not  know  the  source.  You  may  have  to  pay  for  that  video, 
but  at  least  you  know  where  to  go  to  get  it.  TVEyes  offers  thumbnail  versions  of  the 
clips,  including  some  video  no  longer  available  at  the  originating  site,  which  play 
from  the  TVEyes  site.  Full  clips  must  be  viewed  at  the  originating  site. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  television  and  radio  broadcasts  in  US,  UK,  Canada, 
Australia,  Al  Jazeera  network  (to  be  extended  in  4th  Q  2006  to  many  other 
international  sources). 

>  Video  viewed:  thumbnail  versions  of  the  clips,  which  play  from  the  TVEyes 
site.  Full  clips  must  be  viewed  at  the  originating  site  and  may  no  longer  be 

>  Search  options:  keyword;  more  than  one  word  is  interpreted  as  a  phrase. 

>  Sort  options:  sort  by  date  or  relevance. 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Upload  video?  No,  but  TVEyes  "can  respond  immediately  to  any  request  to 
add  TV  channel  or  Radio  station  coverage." 

Yahoo  video  search  is  one  of  the  most  popular  on  the  web  and  for  good  reason.  It 
draws  from  many  sources  across  the  web  and  around  the  world,  and  it  has  a 
powerful  advanced  search.  Yahoo  video  search  is  one  of  the  few  that  has  an  explicit 
site  delimiter.  If,  for  example,  I  only  want  to  search  for  videos  from  the  BBC,  on  the 
advanced  search  page,  I  would  select  "only  search  in  this  domain/site:"  and  enter 
[].  The  syntax  for  this  search  (with  or  without  keywords)  is 
[]  if  you  prefer  to  use  the  simple  search  interface.  The  other 
advanced  search  options  are  to  limit  your  search  by  format,  size,  or  duration.  Yahoo 
video  advanced  and  simple  search  recognize  +  (must  include),  -  (must  exclude),  and 
double  quotes  for  a  phrase. 

Yahoo  video  search  has  another  excellent  option  in  the  form  of  channels.  Channels 
are  collections  of  videos  created  by  a  common  source;  clicking  on  a  "channel" 
displays  all  video  results  from  that  source.  Unfortunately,  there  does  not  appear  to 
be  any  central  list  of  all  channels.  The  best  way  to  find  the  channels  is  to  do  the 
following:  on  the  Yahoo  video  homepage,  click  the  "Categories"  tab,  then  select 
"News."  Now  you  will  see  the  channels  listed,  e.g.,  ABC  News,  CBS  News,, 
AP,  Reuters  News,  etc.  Selecting  a  specific  channel  will  show  you  all  the  available 
videos  from  that  channel.  To  save  channels  to  your  list  of  favorites,  you  must  be  a 
registered  member  of  Yahoo 

In  late  2006,  Yahoo  and  CBS  "announced  an  exclusive  video  syndication  agreement 
in  which  local  news  video  from  16  of  CBS's  owned  stations  will  be  made  available  on 
Yahoo!  to  the  Internet's  largest  news  audience.  The  relationship. ..marks  the  first 
video  agreement  between  a  network-owned  television  station  group  and  an  Internet 
news  provider."120  Yahoo's  video  focus  has  always  been  on  commercial  and  not 
homemade  video,  the  opposite  of  the  YouTube/Google  approach,  even  though 
Yahoo  does  have  a  video  site  that  tries  to  compete  with  YouTube.  Yahoo  already 
had  deals  with  CBS's  "60  Minutes,"  as  well  as  with  ABC,  Disney,  and  CNN.  This  deal 
is  with  local  news  CBS  affiliates.  While  some  are  criticizing  Yahoo's  approach  to 
offering  video  from  commercial/professional  sources,  it  is  an  approach  that 
continues  to  work  for  them.  When  users  want  to  find  and  view  news  videos,  they  do 
not  think  YouTube,  they  think  Yahoo  News  Video.  I  use  it  heavily  not  only  because 
of  the  number  and  quality  of  videos  available  but  also  because  it  is  very  easy  to  use, 

Michael  Liedtkey,  "Yahoo  adds  CBS  news  to  video  lineup,"  AP/San  Francisco  in,  16  October  2006, 

<>  (24  October  2006). 

Yahoo  Video  Search 

Yahoo  News  Video 



DOCID:  4046925 


the  videos  open  at  the  Yahoo  site,  and  you  do  not  need  to  register  to  find  and  view 
the  videos. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  searches  wide  variety  of  video  sources  across  the 
web,  including  user-submitted  videos. 

>  Video  viewed:  at  originating  site  using  that  site's  default  video  player. 

>  Search  options:  keyword  searching;  +  (must  include),  -  (must  exclude),  and 
double  quotes  for  a  phrase;  limit  search  to  specific  site  [fromsite:domain]; 
search  by  format,  size,  or  length  of  video. 

>  Sort  options:  None;  listed  by  relevance. 

>  Upload  video?  Yes. 


If  you  have  heard  of  only  one  online  video  and  video  search  site,  it's  probably 
YouTube,  the  most  popular  such  site  by  far,  garnering  almost  43  percent  of  all  visits 
to  video  websites  in  mid-2006.121  YouTube  is  currently  serving  100  million  videos  per 
day,  with  more  than  65,000  videos  being  uploaded  daily.122  YouTube  started  as  a 
personal  video  sharing  site  and  opened  to  the  public  in  February  2005.  While  other 
video  sites  try  to  mix  commercial  and  homemade  videos,  individual  users  create 
almost  everything  at  YouTube.  However,  because  of  YouTube's  phenomenal 
success,  some  commercial  enterprises  have  latched  onto  the  site's  popularity  to 
promote  their  own  products  via  videos.  Most  notably,  YouTube  now  offers  official 
movie  trailers  and  promotion  videos  from  established  media  companies. 

It  came  as  a  surprise  to  no  one  when  Google  bought  YouTube  in  late  2006  (when 
Video  replaced  Froogle  on  the  Google  homepage,  that  was  a  pretty  clear  indication 
of  Google's  direction).  But  this  is  a  gamble,  possibly  a  big  gamble.  Not  everyone  has 
forgotten  what  happened  to  Napster;  Mark  Cuban,  chairman  of  HDNet  (among  other 
things)  says  in  his  blog,  "It  will  be  interesting  to  see  what  happens  next  and  what 
happens  in  the  copyright  world.  I  still  think  Google  Lawyers  will  be  a  busy,  busy 
bunch.  I  dont  think  you  can  sue  Google  into  oblivion,  but  as  others  have  mentioned, 
if  Google  gets  nailed  one  single  time  for  copyright  violation,  there  are  going  to  be 

"Hitwise  Data  Shows  Overall  Visits  to  Video  Search  Sites  Up  164%,"  Hitwise  Competitive 
Intelligence,  24  May  2006,  <> 
(24  October  2006). 

122  YouTube  Fact  Sheet,,  <  sheet>  (24  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


more  shareholder  lawsuits  than  doans  has  pills  to  go  with  the  pile  on  copyright  suits 
that  follow."123 

However,  YouTube  was  in  the  process  of  cleaning  up  its  copyright  act  before  the 
acquisition,  and  Google  is  certain  to  ensure  that  happens.  Both  Google  and 
YouTube  have  recently  made  deals  with  major  video  partners,  so  Google  may 
dodge  most  of  the  lawsuits,  especially  if  video  producers  realize  there  is  serious 
money  to  be  made  with  this  partnership.  Nonetheless,  big,  rich  Google  makes  a 
much  more  tempting  target  for  potential  litigants  than  YouTube  ever  did.  For  now 
Google  says  that  YouTube  will  continue  "to  operate  independently  to  preserve  its 
successful  brand  and  passionate  community."124 

Nonetheless,  as  of  the  first  of  this  year,  Google  Video  began  to  include  results  from 
YouTube.  For  now,  when  users  click  on  the  YouTube  results,  they  are  taken  to  the 
YouTube  website.  As  of  this  writing,  YouTube  videos  do  not  appear  on  the  Google 
video  homepage,  only  in  search  results  where  they  are  recognizable  from  their 

With  YouTube,  people  can: 

>  Upload,  tag  and  share  videos  worldwide. 

>  Browse  millions  of  original  videos  uploaded  by  community  members. 

>  Find,  join  and  create  video  groups  to  connect  with  people  who  have  similar 

>  Customize  the  experience  by  subscribing  to  member  videos,  saving  favorites, 
and  creating  playlists. 

>  Integrate  YouTube  videos  on  websites  using  video  embeds  or  APIs. 

>  Make  videos  public  or  private — users  can  elect  to  broadcast  their  videos 
publicly  or  share  them  privately  with  friends  and  family  upon  upload. 

YouTube  is  building  a  community  that  is  highly  motivated  to  watch  and  share  videos. 
The  service  is  free  for  everyone."  <> 

In  May  2006  YouTube  launched  a  new  service  that  allows  users  to  upload  videos 
directly  from  their  mobile  phones  and  PDAs  to  the  YouTube  website.  Clearly,  two  big 
concerns  for  a  site  such  as  YouTube  are  copyright  infringement  and  pornography, 

Mark  Cuban,  "I  Still  Think  Google  is  Crazy," :  Blog  Maverick:  The  Mark  Cuban  Weblog,  9  October 
2006,  <>  (24  October  2006). 

124  "Google  To  Acquire  YouTube  for  $1 .65  Billion  in  Stock,"  Google  Press  Center,  9  October  2006, 
<  voutube.html>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


both  of  which  they  constantly  try  to  avoid,  in  part  by  employing  a  "community 
policing"  policy  where  users  "turn  in"  offenders.  When  found,  copyrighted  material 
and  pornography  are  removed. 

Lest  you  think  every  video  at  YouTube  is  of  the  "Snakes  on  a  Plane"  variety,  there  is 
so  much  user-created  video  available  that  there  is  at  least  a  little  bit  of  everything  as 
well  as  a  lot  of  some  things.  Take  a  look  at  this  snapshot  of  the  News  &  Blogs 
category,  which  shows  the  most  popular  tags  in  this  category  and  thumbnail  images 
of  the  most  popular  videos.  Video  tags  created  and  added  to  uploaded  videos  is 
crucial  to  the  success  of  any  video  being  found  using  search,  which  motivates  video 
creators  to  properly  and  adequately  tag  their  videos.  However,  the  tags  are  solely 
the  discretion  of  the  video's  creator  (i.e.,  there  is  no  standard  taxonomy). 

News  &  Blogs 

.  News,  Blogs,  Local  issues .. 

Popular  Tags  In  N*w$  &  Blogt 

11  V'W™  tiuth  £i!  (Ji  mnsrai  flsozai  inhro  whaifaid  an  rave  ^  uitrabeat  dance  m\th  fcnw 
a'nenca  i>c>tv,^zenegs9i  wejicgn  j?igoi  \w±  tiu.QKe  iyn  tmm  apbt  September  tQLm  melody  Pom 

terror  Videos  in  News  &  Blogs  1  -15  of  55$ 


■„  ].  !  1$  hours  «go 

/!•  v-.  '  95 


I  fating 

Kiinl$  .levins! Tmktsli 
*■  *-  i — - «  1  <Jay  ago 


3  fsrtnas 

The  TnrtU 

/■  J ■■"  ■■:  1  day  ago 

ilia ie:ti  leno»i$t$ 


i  i  day  ago 

'it  .-V  (92 


i  rating 


V  i*  t  1  day  ego 

/,  22 

We  cannot  afford  to  ignore  sites  such  as  YouTube  because  this  is  where  users  go 
every  day  to  share  and  view  their  own  homespun  videos.  It  is  an  important  new  form 
of  communication  via  the  Internet. 


>  Sources  of  video  data:  only  searches  for  user-submitted  videos  hosted  at  its 
own  website. 

>  Video  viewed:  at  YouTube  using  MacroMedia  Flash. 



DOCID:  4046925 


>  Search  options:  keyword  searching  for  tags  from  uploaded  videos;  double 
quotes  for  a  phrase  will  search  for  a  video  title. 

>  Sort  options:  Relevance,  date  added,  title,  view  count,  users'  rating  (using 
star  system). 

>  Upload  video?  Yes. 

Sites  requiring  registration,  payment,  and/or  software  downloads 
AP  Archive 

The  Associated  Press  video  archive  is  different  from  the  other  video  search  services 
in  several  important  ways.  First,  it  only  searches  the  AP  archive,  but  that  is  hardly  a 
small  thing.  With  over  half  a  million  stories  in  the  archive,  the  AP  probably  has  what 
you  want.  There  is  a  catch:  this  is  not  a  free  service.  The  process  for  ordering  video 
clips  is  complicated,  but  if  you  really  need  a  specific  video,  you  should  read  the  AP 
Archive's  "How  We  Work"  page  to  learn  the  particulars. 
<  we  work.html> 

However,  you  do  get  some  very  useful  data  from  the  site  for  free.  Look  at  the 
information  provided  about  a  May  2006  video  entitled  "Iran  Nuclear": 



DOCID:  4046925 


Title:  Iran  Nuclear 

T.ipe  Number:  EFQ8/G422 

Duration:  00  01  53 

lifthite:  lu;5l;09 

Date.*  2006-05-1 7 



1 .  Zoom-out  from  banners  to  wide.of  ra% 

2.  Close-up  of  people  holding  picture  of  Ahrnadlnejad 

3.  SOUNDBITE.  .(Farsi)  Mahmoud  Ahrnadlnejad,  Iranian  President 

"They  say  they  wan!  to  give  us  incentives!  Do  you  think  you  are  dealing  with  a  four-year  oldchitd  to  whom  you  can  give  some  walnuts 
and  chocolates  and  get  gold  from  him?" 

4.  Cutaway  crowd  waving  and  chanting 

5.  SOUNDBITE:  (Farsi)  Mahmoud  Ahrnadlnejad,  Iranian  President 

"I  tell  you  that  we  do  not  want  anything  beyond  our  legitimate, rights.  We  want  our  lights  within  the  NPT  (Non  Proliferation  Treaty)  and  we 
will  not  accept  one  iota  less  or  more  than  our  rights." 
6..  Pan  of  crowd 

7.  SOUNDBITE:  (Farsi)  Mahmoud Ahrnadlnejad,  banian  President 

"Don!  force  governments  and  nations  to  renounce  their  membership  of  the  Nuclear  N  on  pio  life  rati  on  Treaty." 

8.  Crowd  chanting  and  waving  flags 

9.  SOUNDBITE;  (Farsi)  Mahmoud  Ahrnadlnejad,  Iranian  President 

"The  Iranian  nalionwonl  accept  any  suspension  or  end  to  its  nuclear  activities." 

10.  More  of  crowd  at  rally 


Iran's  President  Mahmoud  Ahmadinejad  on  Wednesday  rejected  a  European  plan  to  offer  his  country  incentives,  including  a  llght-watet 
nuclear  reactor,  in  return  for  giving  up  uranium  enrichment, 

"Do  you  think  you  are  deaifng  with  a  four-year  old  child  to  whom  you  can  give  some  walnuts  and  chocolates  and  get  gold  from  him?" 
Ahmadinejad  toid  thousands  of  people  in  ceniral  Iran,  in  a  speech  broadcast  live  on  state  television. 

European  nations  have  weighed  up  adding  a  light- waier  reactor  to  a  package  of  incentives  meanl  to  persuade  Tehran  to  permanently 
give  up  uranium  enrichment  •  or  face  the  ihreal  of  UN  Security  Council  sanctions. 

On  Tuesday  senior  diplomats  andEU  government  officials  said  tentative  plans  were  being  dtscussed  by  France,  Britain  and  Germany 
as  part  of  a  possible  package  to  fee  presented  to  senior  representatives  of  the  five  permanent  UN  Security  Council  memoers; 

Ahmadinejad  also  repeated  his  threat  to  pull  out  of  nuclear  Non  Proliferation  Treaty  (MPT)  if  international  pressure  to  give  up  uranium 
enrichment  continued. 

"Dontfofce  governments  and  nations  to  renounce  their  membership  of  the  Nutfear  Nonproliferation  Treaty,*  he  said,  asserting  that 
Iran  had  the  right  to  a  civilian  nuclear  power  programme. 

"The  Iranian  nation  won!  accept  any  suspension  or  end  to  its  uranium  enrichment  activities;  Ahmadinejad  said. 

He  also  said  Iran  trusted  the  European  Union  in  2003  and  suspended  its  nuclear  activities  as  a  gestuie  to  boost  negotiations  over  its 
nuclear  programme  ■  only  to  have  the  Europeans  eventually  demand  Iran  permanently  halt  the  programme. 

The  2003  deal  called  fot  guarantees  that  Iran's  nuctea?  programme  wouldn't  diverge  from  civilian  ends  toward  producing  weapons 

Iran  agreed  to  the  request  but  negotiations  collapsed  in  August  2005  when  the  Europeans  said  the  best  guarantee  was  for  Iran  to 
permanently  give  up  its  uranium  enrichment  programme. 

Iran  responded  by  resuming  uranium  reprocessing  activilies  at  its  uranium  conversion  facility  in  Isfahan,  central  Iran, 

Eariier  this  year  it  resumed  research  and  uranium  enrichment  after  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency,  the  UN  nuclearwatchdog, 
referred  Tehran  to  the  UN  Security  Council. 



DOCID:  4046925 


As  you  can  see,  the  "storyline"  provides  extensive  information  about  this  clip  and  is 
free  at  the  AP  Archive  website.  Users  would  be  hard-pressed  to  find  more  or  better 
news  video  and  text  than  in  the  AP  Video  Archive. 

AP  Video  Archive 
CNN  Pipeline 

CNN  offers  only  seven  days  of  free  access  to  its  vast  video  archive  of  news  and 
features.  After  a  week,  users  must  sign  up  for  CNN  Pipeline,  which  requires  both 
payment  and  downloading  and  installing  a  CNN  video  player.  Here  is  what  CNN 
Pipeline  offers: 

"CNN  Pipeline  empowers  you  to  watch  up  to  four  live  news  feeds  at  once,  changing 
feeds  at  any  time  with  a  single  click.  Our  free  video  player  only  allows  you  to  view 
one  video  at  a  time.  Additionally,  while  our  free  video  contains  commercial 
advertisements,  Pipeline  offers  commercial  free  access  to  video  content  on-demand, 
including  free  video,  with  multiple  features  for  ease  in  searching  and  browsing.  Our 
extensive  archive,  not  available  through  the  Free  Video  Player,  gives  you  unlimited 
access  to  search  and  browse's  online  video  library." 

CNN  Pipeline 
Vanderbilt  Television  News  Archive 

If  you  must  have  a  video  of  a  news  broadcast  and  you  are  willing  to  register  and  pay 
for  it,  the  Vanderbilt  Television  News  Archive  is  the  place  to  go.  "The  Television 
News  Archive  collection  at  Vanderbilt  University  is  the  world's  most  extensive  and 
complete  archive  of  television  news.  The  collection  holds  more  than  30,000 
individual  network  evening  news  broadcasts  from  the  major  U.S.  national  broadcast 
networks:  ABC,  CBS,  NBC,  and  CNN,  and  more  than  9,000  hours  of  special  news- 
related  programming  including  ABC's  Nightline  since  1989. ..The  archive  makes  two 
kinds  of  video  tape  loans  to  clients:  duplications  and  compilations.  We  charge  fees 
for  loans  to  offset  the  costs  in  providing  this  service."  <> 

Vanderbilt  Television  News  Archive 

There  seems  to  be  no  end  to  the  number  of  sites  that  provide  some  sort  of  online 
video  access,  whether  it  is  news  or  homemade  videos,  for-fee  sites  or  free  ones, 
archives  or  live  feeds.  Every  time  I  look,  I  find  more  sites,  but  I  had  to  decide  where 
to  draw  the  line  and  when  to  stop  compiling  sites.  If  you  believe  I  missed  a  critically 
important  source,  please  let  me  know  (and  tell  me  what  features  make  it  special). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Online  Audio,  Podcasts,  and  Audio  Search 

Last  year  I  predicted  that  podcasting  would  be  the  "next  big  thing"  for  the  Internet.  At 
first,  I  thought  I  was  wrong.  While  podcasting  initially  garnered  a  lot  of  attention,  it  did 
not  take  off  until  the  second  half  of  2006.  Fueled  in  large  part  by  the  immense 
popularity  of  digital  audio  devices  such  as  iPod  and  the  spread  of  broadband 
connections,  podcasts  and  online  audio  have  revolutionized  the  way  people  share 
and  get  news,  entertainment,  and  information.  While  music  downloads  continue  to 
dominate  online  audio,  podcasting  is  coming  on  strong.  And  podcasting  is  not  just 
for  audio:  video  podcasting — know  as  vodcasting  or  vidcasting — is  increasing  in 
popularity,  too.  Podcasting  is  recording  and  broadcasting  any  non-musical 
information — be  it  news,  radio  shows,  sporting  events,  audio  tours,  or  personal 
opinions — for  playback  on  a  computer  or  a  mobile  device.  "Though  podcasters'  web 
sites  may  also  offer  direct  download  or  streaming  of  their  content,  a  podcast  is 
distinguished  from  other  digital  audio  formats  by  its  ability  to  be  downloaded 
automatically  using  software  capable  of  reading  feed  formats  such  as  RSS  or 

Think  of  a  podcast  as  analogous  to  a  radio  or  television  broadcast.  The  podcaster 
first  makes  a  file  available  on  the  Internet,  either  an  audio  file  (usually  in  MP3  format) 
or  video  file126  (these  can  be  in  a  number  of  formats).  Then  the  podcaster 
announces  the  availability  of  the  file  using  a  feed  (RSS  or  Atom)  that  lists  the 
available  podcasts  (very  much  like  individual  radio  or  TV  shows)  with  the  title,  date, 
and  a  short  text  description  of  each  episode.  Finally,  the  user  either  plays  the  file  on 
a  computer  or  downloads  the  file  to  play  it  on  a  portable  device  such  as  an  iPod 
capable  of  playing  MP3  and/or  video  files. 

Podcasting  has  caught  on  because  it  is  easy,  inexpensive,  mobile,  flexible,  and 
powerful.  Many  websites  now  serve  as  directories  to  help  users  find  podcasts  of 
every  variety  anywhere  in  the  world.  Podcast  search  engines  generally  index 
podcast  metadata  such  as  title,  description,  and  length,  which  usually  makes 
searching  for  podcasts  fairly  accurate.  To  date,  audio  podcasts  remain  more 
common  and  popular  than  video  podcasts,  but  that  is  changing. 

"Podcast,"  Wikipedia,  <>  (19  October  2006). 

126  While  the  terminology  is  changing,  I  would  say  the  term  "video  podcast"  subsumes  vloqs,  which 
are  a  special  type  of  video  podcast,  i.e.,  a  weblog  containing  video. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Yahoo  Podcast  Search 

Yahoo  got  out  in  front  of  the  podcasting  trend  with  its  new  Podcasts  Search  (Beta) 
site  after  a  study  the  search  giant  published  with  Ipsos  Insight,  which  disclosed  that 
most  of  the  people  who  are  using  do  so  without  even  knowing  it.127  Yahoo's  audio 
search  option  also  finds  podcasts,  but  if  you  are  looking  specifically  for  podcasts,  the 
Podcast  Search  site  is  better.  Yahoo  Podcast  Search  indexes  metadata  such  as 
keywords,  categories,  or  user-generated  topic  tags  to  match  queries  to  podcasts. 
Users  do  not  need  to  register  at  Yahoo  to  listen  to  podcasts,  but  registration  is 
required  to  subscribe  to  podcasts.  Yahoo  Podcast  Search  includes  its  own  player 
that  launches  at  the  site  so  users  can  listen  to  podcasts. 


what  the  heck  is  a 

:0  " 

podcast  ifraicli: 



f  own 

new  3tvi  noteworthy 

dot  oofn 


[_,  Listen^  v Subscribe  ] 

Listen  \  -C-  Subserte  | 


r  ■  *vrsSB 

[>  .  Wetch  |_- r>  Subscribe 1 

|t-  Walch  |0  Subscribe | 


main  categoric' 

Your  tf-si  podcast  of  the  week  is  the  last  word 
in  tech... 

■ -i  Listen  i  "  <■>  Subscribe  f  Fre* 

!U-:r,',<  ,i 

staff  ]"Jc!^ 

An  eclectic  nix  of  iresh  music  by  emerging 
arltets  and  ... 
• Li5<en  '.  ^  v  Subscribe  j  Fv<s* 

;  -       Sdence  Friday,  as  heard  on  KPR.  is  a  weeicV 

i*55»^|  J  dlscussfon...  

!"  -:  • Listen  i  'vSuHscribe  |  Fr*« 

Learn  Mandarin  Chinese  wih  tree  daily 
1 "  "  ~  podcasts  and  a  p... 

1  ^,  Listen  i  ;     Subscribe  |  Frua 

Investing  guru  Jir>  Crarfier s 
nationatty-syncScotetl  radio ... 
,  J-isten  1  ;  v  Subscribe  {  Free 


Rollover  to  learn  more 

[  J7UHITE0 

TcJJ  the  Department 
ofTranspoiraoon  you 
want  :\  non-srop  Might 
lo  Beijing. 

Yahoo  Podcast  Search  (Beta) 

popular  tags  ; 

Podzinger  takes  a  completely  different  approach  to  indexing  podcasts.  "Podzinger  is 
a  podcast  search  engine  that  lets  you  search  the  full  audio  of  podcasts  just  like  you 
search  for  any  other  information  on  the  web. ..Podzinger  takes  search  a  step  further 

Joshua  Grossnickle,  et  al.,  Yahoo!  and  Ipsos  Insight,  "RSS:  Crossing  into  the  Mainstream,"  [PDF] 
October  2005  ,  <  whitePaperl 004.pdf>  (24  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


by  searching  the  spoken  words  inside  the  podcast  in  order  to  find  more  specific  and 
relevant  results.  The  text-based  search  results  include  snippets  from  the  audio  to 
help  you  figure  out  if  the  result  is  relevant.  You  can  even  click  on  the  words  to  listen 
to  the  audio  from  that  point."128  While  this  speech  recognition  technology  works  well, 
it  only  indexes  English  and  Spanish  podcasts  at  this  time  and  the  Podzinger  index  is 
much  smaller  than  others.  Podzinger  searches  audio,  video,  or  both  types  of 

Podzinger  also  introduced  a  special  tab  on  its  homepage  that  allows  user  to  "search 
inside"  YouTube  videos,  that  is,  to  search  the  spoken  text  of  YouTube  videos.  A 
search  of  YouTube  using  Podzinger  will  return  the  results  with  the  keywords 
highlighted  within  the  transcribed  text  at  the  exact  time  at  which  they  occurred: 

series:  &  YouTube. com:  andrewgrumman1958 

Episode:      Amy  Goodman  w/  DISSIDENT  IRANIAN  JOURNALIST  "AKBAR 
GANJI"  - 

AKBAR  G.-N.U    one  ofW*  Most  Prominent  Dissident  Journalists 
inti  -it  Hg  Spent  Over  6  years  in  Prison  in  fi  -m  for  Publishing  a 
Series  oflrwe^tigative  Ark  l*s"  Regarding  the  (additional 
episode  mfoi motion) 
Tag:  amy  goodman  akbar  ganjl  investigative  journalist 

dissident  «  m  poiilical  assassination  pacifica  iranian 

O  0:00:12  ...  arrested  after  it  took  part  in  the  conference  some  political 
reform  in  u  va  he  was  released  six  years  later  in  march  ofthisyear.  Since 
his  arrival  in  1he  United  States  -  has  been  speaking  out  against  human 
rights  abuses  in  !>     he  took  part  in  three  -  hunger  strike  outside  the  ON. 
Aimed  at  forcing  the  Iranian  government  to  release  political  prisoners  last 
week.  He  declined  to  personal  invitation  lo  the  White  House  to  meet  with 
top  US  officials  overseeing  U  <u  policy.  He  rejected  the  offer  he  says 
because  he  believed  that  current  US  policies  could  not  help  promote 
democracy  in  Iraq  --  and  she  joins  us  now  in  the  studio.  The  same  can! 
come  come  Molly  also  joins  us  to  help  with  translation  we  welcome  you 

both  lo  democracy  now  it's  good  to  have  you  with  us.  welcome  can 

you  begin  by  talking  about.  Your  investigations  as  a  journalist  in  h  ,.n  in  the 
late  1980s 

0:08:37  ...  Intention  is  to  bring  together  the  antiwar  forces  within  Enron 

from  If  <m  and  from  the  rest  of  the  world  together  In  the  US  has 

threatened  to  attack  an  h<iu  that  is.  The  president  President  Bush  has 
revolved  around  him  part  of  the  axis  as  evil  and  Patricia.  What  does  this 
kind  ... 

■*>  0:09:20  ...  somebody  you  donl  have  compounds  Younis  first  it  is 
impossible.  And  maybe  Ij  . it  in  the  same  manner  that  Iraq  and  that  kind  of 
stunned  hurt  and  made  it.  Have  to  accept  quoteti  him  on  the  ... 

O  0:11:31  ...into  on  how  Canada  pro  democracy  group  finishers  in 

\u\u  and  being  empowered  food  should  reluctant.  Shouldnl  be  - 
advancing  democracy  education  I  don't  believe  we  have  a  widespread 
democratic  movement  within  ... 

Requirements  for  Podzinger  are,  for  Windows  Systems 

Podzinger  FAQ,, <h»p://>  (19  October 


DOCID:  4046925 


>  Internet  Explorer  6.0  or  higher  and  RealPlayer  9.0  or  higher 

>  Internet  Explorer  6.0  or  higher  and  Windows  Media  Player  9.0  or  higher 

>  Firefox  1 .0  or  higher  and  Quicktime  6.0  or  higher 
For  Macintosh  Systems 

>  Safari  1 .0  or  higher  and  Quicktime  6.0  or  higher 

If  your  system  does  not  meet  these  requirements,  you  can  find  podcasts  and  read 
the  text  transcript  but  you  cannot  play  them.  Video  podcasts  can  be  downloaded  and 
played  later  or  opened  and  played  using  a  multimedia  player  such  as  Windows 
Media  Player  or  Apple  Quicktime.  Podzinger  supports  the  following  video  formats: 
mp4,  mov,  m4v,  flv,  mpg,  or  mpeg. 

Podzinger  Spanish  Search 


Odeo  has  been  around  since  2004  and  now  boasts  over  a  million  audio  files,  mostly 
podcasts  from  all  over  the  world.  It  offers  both  a  search  and  browse  option.  Users 
can  either  download  the  file  or  listen  to  it  in  a  neat  little  player  at  the  Odeo  site. 
There  is  an  option  to  create  an  account  so  that  you  can  subscribe  to  feeds  and  save 
them  at  Odeo,  but  an  account  is  not  necessary.  The  search  and  categorization 
scheme  is  based  upon  tags,  simple  keywords  or  categories. 

Odeo  has  more  search  options  than  most  podcast  search  engines.  Users  can 
search  by  title  &  description,  keyword,  location,  host,  or  episodes.  I  think  the  location 
search  is  the  most  useful  because  you  can  locate  podcasts  around  the  world. 


Like  Podzinger,  Podscope  transcribes  audio  from  podcasts  into  searchable  text.  This 
means  you  can  search  on  words  and  phrases  that  occur  in  the  podcast;  however,  I 
found  that  Podscope's  search  is  not  entirely  reliable  (the  search  misses  some  words 
that  have  been  transcribed).  Nonetheless,  it  is  a  valuable  podcast  search  site. 

Podcasts  play  at  the  site  using  Flash  8+:  simply  click  on  the  green  play  button  SSi. 



DOCID:  4046925 



'senior  fellow  in  public  polic/j     |  Search) 

Podscope  Search  Results  for  "senior  fellow  in  public  policy" 
Sort  Order:  score,  date 

Roundtable:  Rice  Disputes  Clinton  on  Bin  Laden  (September  27) 
Source:  NPR.  Roundtable  with  Ed  Gordon 

On  today's  roundtable.  Secretary  of  State  Condoieezza  Rice  says  Bill  Clinton  has  it  all  wrong  on 
Osama  bin  Laden.  Host  Farai  Chideye  is  joined  by  John  McWhorter,  Manhattan  Institute  senior 
fellow  in  public  policy,  Jeff  Obafemi  Carr,  host  of  the  radio  show  Freestyle,  and  Hofslra 
Unwersity  journalism  professor  E.  R,  Shipp. 

U!  Dei.icio.u3 

Roundtable'  Bush's  U  N.  Address.  Hollywood  Voices  on  Darfur  (September  21 ) 
1  Source:  NPR;  Roundtable  with  Ed  Gordon 

On  Wednesday's  roundtable:  The  president's  address  to  the  Untied  Nations  and  what  it  may 
mean  to  the  war  on  terrorism  and  the  image  of  the  U  S,  in  the  Middle  East.  Plus:  Celebrity  voices 
pin  the  pvsh  to  end  the  genocide  in  Darfur.  Tony  Cox  >s  pined  by  John  McWhorter,  Manhattan 
Institute  Senior  Fellow  in  Public  Policy,  Michael  Meyers,  executive  director  of  the  New  York  Civil 
Rights  Coalition;  and... 

Roundtable;  School  Race  Divides,  No  Gore  2008  (June  7) 
Source:  NPR,  Roundtable  with  Ed  Gordon 

Topics-  The  U.S.  Supreme  Court  will  rule  on  a  key  dispute  over  school  desegregation  and  races 
divided  by  neighborhoods;  former  Vice  President  Al  Gore  says  he  wont  run  for  the  White  House 
in  2008:  and  the  Pentagon  edits  a  new  version  of  the  U.S  Army  handbook  to  remove  a  ban  on 
'humiliation  and  degradation"  of  prisoners.  Guests  John  McWhorter,  Manhattan  Institute  Senior 
Fellow  in  Public  PpHcy;.;  ■  ■     

bloql  fag  I  search  box  I  suggest 

Ads  bv  QooqIs 

pgloitte  RSS 

Aurriiriaticsily  receive 
nw  nessearcri  and 
thought  !ead?iship 

BeniingPoim  PotlCaste 

Listen  !0  Pod'Vasts  from 
BegringPtfinf?  Analysts 

ii -J  a  *  J  r  I  n  j  P  t;  i  r.  I- P  o  d  C  i  S£S .  >.' o  <  i' 

Wofld  Vision  RSS 

N*3*s,  Rad.o  Showf.  snri 
Media  Up*i'<ilp<}  f.11 
diverse  through  out  K^S 

»u«-i  ■nr0:|(JV(£igri  trrp 

Qonvertift  Podcnstimi 

Audio  Vifiso  PfifiC39t 
Production  RSS  Feeds. 
Poilcast  Ki'p,  V&iceovsrs 




Other  Podcast  Search  Sites  &  Directories 

A  number  of  sites  offer  podcast  search  or  function  as  directories  that  index  podcasts 
usually  by  topic. 

Podcast  Directories 

Podcast  Directory 

Podcasting  Station 
Podcast  Shuffle 

Other  Podcast  Search  Sites 

Podcast  Alley 




DOCID:  4046925 


Special  Topics — News,  Blogs,  & 
Technology  Search 

Newsgroups,  Forums,  &  Mailing  Lists 

News  is  one  of  the  types  of  information  most  amenable  to  the  Internet:  both  are  fast 
moving,  worldwide,  and  in  high  demand.  Along  with  the  proliferation  of  news  sources 
on  the  Internet  have  come  an  even  greater  number  of  ways  to  share  opinions  on 
every  subject,  limited  only  by  the  scope  of  the  human  imagination.  In  this  article,  I 
am  going  to  discuss  several  different  ways  of  accessing  both  news  and  opinions  on 
the  Internet:  newsgroups,  message  boards  or  forums,  and  mailing  lists.  I  discuss 
weblogs  in  the  next  section  because  they  require  special  software  and  thus  demand 
a  separate  discussion. 

Newsgroups  in  general  and  Usenet 
in  particular  have  lost  a  great  deal  of 
their  prominence  in  recent  years  as 
more  outlets  for  sharing  information 
and  communicating  on  the  Internet 
have  appeared.  Usenet  is  a  system 
that  allows  individuals  to  post 
messages  and  have  them  read 
around  the  world  within  about  three 
hours.  One  of  the  drawbacks  of 
Usenet  is  that  it  requires  special 
software  (a  newsreader)  configured 
to  send  and  receive  data  via  a  user's 
Internet  Service  Provider's  news 
server.  Microsoft  embeds  its 
newsreader  into  software  such  as 
Outlook  and  Outlook  Express. 

Usenet  newsgroups  are  noted  for  being  chaotic,  notoriously  unreliable  (lots  of 
gossip),  and  confusing.  So  why  would  anyone  look  at  them?  Because  occasionally 
there  is  valuable  and  unique  information  posted  to  newsgroups. 

By  August  2000,  there  was  only  one  Usenet  search  engine  remaining:  Deja 
(formerly  Dejanews).  Fortunately,  Google  acquired  Deja  in  2001  and  made  available 
the  entire  Deja  archive  consisting  of  over  700  million  posts  from  1981  to  today. 

Usenet  Warning 

This  is  a  place  on  the 
Internet  I  recommend 
exercising  great  caution 
and  skepticism  because 

anyone  with  Internet 
access  can  literally  post 
anything  to  a  newsgroup, 
and  often  do. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  Groups  indexes  more  than  1  billion  Usenet  postings,  and  new  postings 
normally  appear  in  Google  Groups  within  10  minutes. 

Google  Groups  put  forward  a  new  look  in  2004  (out  of  Beta  in  early  2007)  while 
retaining  all  the  old  postings  in  its  index. 

Help  |  sign  in 


Groups  . 

Web    Images    Video    News    Mags  more 

What  can  you  do  with  groups? 

Take  ihe  tour  s 

Discuss  online  or  over     Create  rich,  cuslom     Customize  your  look  and 
email  pages  graphics 

Search,  Groups  \^»>™*«>* 

Create  a  group  in  3  steps 

1  Create  an  accounl 

2  Setup  your  group 

3  Invite  people 
Create  a  group, ,.  | 

Explore  groups 

Find  out  what  people  are  doing  with  Google  Groups 



Aiax.NET  Professi ., 
comp.sys.mac  apps 

e People 

photos  Anonym 

alt,  support. divorce 
Browse  all  pioup  catetioiies... 

Search  for  a  group 

QV$Jy  Beneleau  Ownftni 
The  Original  Gatw .. 


electronics,  basic? 

Popular  groups 

Bloqq&r  Halp  Group 
Random  Conversation 
rec  sport  football  college 
alt, gossip. celebrities 
Email  Help  Discussion 
iec.5r1s.sf.  written 
■sci. electionics. design 
Atheism  v&  Chhsli^nity 
more  y 

While  Google  Groups  has  many  options  and  features  that  require  an  account,  many 
of  the  most  valuable  features  do  not: 


♦  Reading  posts  in  public  groups 

♦  Searching  for  groups,  posts,  or  authors 

♦  Posting  to  groups  via  email  if  they  are  unrestricted  or  you're  already  a  member 

♦  Joining  a  public  Google  Group  via  email 


♦  Creating  and  managing  your  own  Google  Group 

♦  Posting  to  groups  via  our  web  interface 

♦  Creating  pages  and  uploading  files 

♦  Subscribing  to  a  Usenet  newsgroup  and  receiving  posts  via  email 

♦  Joining  a  Google  Group  via  our  web  interface 

♦  Changing  your  subscription  type  (No  Email,  Abridged  Email...) 

♦  Reading  a  restricted  group's  posts  online 

Google  Groups  has  an  advanced  search  that  lets  you  limit  your  search  by 
language,  subject,  forum,  author,  message  ID,  and/or  date.  It  also  has  a  feature 
known  as  "author  profile."  When  you  are  viewing  a  posting,  click  on  "More  options" 
(next  to  the  date);  then  select  "View  profile"  next  the  author's  From  address.  By 
clicking  on  a  "Show  options"  next  to  an  author's  name,  Google  will  present  the  option 



DOCID:  4046925 


to  "Find  messages  by  this  author"  and  automatically  search  for  every  posting  from  a 
particular  address.  Google  Groups  no  longer  shows  the  author's  entire  email 
address  for  privacy  reasons,  but  many  addresses  are  guessable. 

Google  Grouf>s 


Deadline  2,30 

i  menzsj?.  -  Collapse _ajj 

Hide  options  Mar  3,  3:29  am 

lonut  Alex.  Chitu 

From  "lonut  Alex.  Chitu"  <ionutJlexch;i.(d;>  -/view  profile' 
Date.  Thu,  02  Mar  2006  23:29:23  -0800 
Local:  Fri,  Mar  3  2006  3:29  am 
Subject:  DeadLine  2.30 

Rsiily  to  author  |  Forward  |  Print  |  Individual  message  |  Show  original  |  Report  ibis  message  |  Find  messages 
by  this  author 

Check  the  latest  version  of  DeadLine  at  http://cieadHne  3x  ro  . 
DeadLine  2.30  Includes  support  for  Czech  language,  previews  graphs  In 
DeadLine  Wizard,  has  a  bigger  project  window  and  more  consistent  error 

Reply  to  author  Forward 

End  of  messages  -  pack  to  Discussions 

Help  |  Sign  in 




Join  this  group 

Repair  Windows  -  Download 
Increase  PC  Performance  and  fix 
Windows  registry  -  5  Star  Rated. 


Automated  Spec  Writing 
Our  spec  wizards  make  spec 
writing  easy  and  it's  Tree. 

Google  Groups'  Option  to  "Find  messages  by  this  author' 

Google  Groups  is  also  one  of  the  most  valuable  sources  of  information  on  technical 
and  computer-related  problems.  Someone  has  probably  encountered  that  same 
complex  and  mysterious  error  message  that  has  you  flummoxed.  Simply  by  copying 
and  pasting  the  error  message  into  Google  Groups,  you  have  a  very  good  change  of 
finding  out  what  it  means  and,  even  better,  how  to  fix  the  problem.  Despite  what  the 
site  says,  Google  Groups  no  longer  limits  the  query  to  10  words,  but  to  32  as 
Google  Search  does.  Also,  the  Google  wildcard  (*)  does  not  work  in  Google  Groups. 

Google  Groups 

Yahoo  Groups  is  also  a  huge  source  of  newsgroups  on  virtually  every  topic.  Yahoo 
Groups  is  very  easy  to  use  because  it  is  arranged  like  the  Yahoo  general  subject 
guide,  i.e.,  it  is  browsable  by  topic  and  keyword  searchable.  Some  groups  require 
membership  (registration),  but  many  are  publicly  accessible. 

Yahoo  Groups  does  not  offer  a  search  by  "author's  profile,"  but  it  does  link  directly  to 
its  Member  Directory.  You  may  be  able  to  view  the  member  profile,  which  may 
provide  the  user's  real  name,  location,  age,  occupation,  and  email  address. 

Yahoo  Member  Directory 

However,  the  popularity  of  newsgroups  has  declined  with  the  rise  of  forums,  also 
known  as  message  boards.  One  of  the  main  advantages  of  forums  as  a  means  of 
communicating  via  the  Internet  is  that  they  do  not  require  software  other  than  a  web 
browser  for  users  to  read  and  post  to  them.  Forums  usually  are  focused  on  a 
specific  topic,  anything  from  computer  games  to  politics.  "In  terms  of  countable 



DOCID:  4046925 


posts,  Japan  is  far  in  the  lead  with  over  two  million  posts  per  day  on  their  largest 
forum,  2ch.  The  United  States  does  not  have  any  one  large  forum,  but  instead 
several  hundred  thousand  smaller  forums... China,  the  Netherlands,  and  France  are 
also  home  to  hundreds  of  independent  forums."129 

There  are  several  major  search  engines  specifically  designed  to  index  and  search 
forums,  message  boards,  and  discussion  groups.  BoardTracker,  Lycos  Discussions 
and  BoardReader  make  it  possible  for  users  to  search  many  more  online  discussion 
communities  than  ever  before. 

BoardReader,  which  was  offline  for  most  of  2005,  is  back  and  improved.  The  site 
has  several  software  partners,  including  Vivisimo,  the  clustering  metasearch  engine 
behind  Gusty,  and  Thunderstone  to  search  and  group  information  from  Internet 
forums  and  message  boards.  There  is  an  option  to  limit  searches  by  date,  site,  and 
language.  The  sources  indexed  by  BoardReader  still  tend  to  be  very  different  from 
those  accessed  by  Lycos  Discussion,  Google  Groups,  or  Yahoo  Groups,  making  it  a 
valuable  addition  to  "hidden  web"  search.  BoardReader  does  recognize  non-Latin 
character  sets.  The  biggest  change  to  BoardReader  is  the  addition  of  a  Domain 
Profile  option,  which  uses  data  BoardReader  gathers  by  indexing  forums  to  create  a 
detailed  picture  of  a  domain,  including  number  and  sources  of  inbound  links,  the 
pages  in  a  domain  with  the  most  active  inbound  links. 


BoardTracker  searches  only  for  the  content  of  message  boards/forums  and  can  be 
used  as  a  traditional  keyword  search  engine  or  a  browsable  directory  of  message 
boards  by  topic.  BoardTracker  has  an  "instant  alerts  system"  whereby  it  "will  notify 
you  in  a  number  of  ways  (email,  Jabber,  ICQ)  as  soon  as  a  thread  matching  your 
search  term  is  posted  on  any  of  the  thousands  of  forums  we  track."  While 
BroadTracker  does  not  require  registration  to  use,  its  alert  service  obviously  must 
require  registration,  which  in  turn  requires  a  valid  email  address.  Nonetheless, 
BoardTracker's  registration  does  not  ask  for  your  name  or  address,  so  users  can 
employ  a  free  email  service  such  as  Hotmail  or  Yahoo  Mail  for  BoardTracker  alerts. 

Notice  the  search  options  BoardTracker  offers,  including  the  search  for  Threads  or 
by  Author,  to  sort  by  Relevancy  or  by  Date,  and  to  search  in  All  Categories,  your 
own  selected  threads,  or  in  a  specific  category,  which  often  has  more  subcategories 
within  it,  e.g.,  World  &  Regional  includes  specific  continents,  General,  Middle  East, 
and  Warfare.  I  am  also  happy  to  report  that  BoardTracker  searches  equally  well 
in  non-Latin  character  sets  as  it  does  in  English.  I  am  also  intrigued  that  it  will 
search  for  results  from  the  "past  6142  years." 

"Internet  Forum,"  Wikipedia,  <  forum>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 



Miithnr  n<  nil  FlrittrrlH 

Search      My  Alerts      Browse     My  Threads  Setup 




Search:  | cryptography 
Search  for:  |  Threads  zi 

Order  hy:  |  Relevancy 

In:  |  All  Categories 

"My  Threads' 



Data  Transformation 

Rapid,  visual  data  transformation,  Replace  ETL  and  EAI  with 




'  Arts  &  Humanities 

'  Business  &  Economy 

Computers  &  Internet 

~  ^  .  ^  i  Culture  &  Society 
Data  Inte  _  .      .  J 

The  leadin1  Education 

solutions.  'Entertainment 
www-91-cori  Food  &  Cooking 

'  Government  &  People 
[Health  &  Medicine 
,  Home  &  Family 
1  An  News  &  Media 
:  Reference  &  Info 


VB  Forums 

Missing  namespace:  System.Securitv.CiviJtoiiran..       Fri  Science  &  Technology 

st  61 42  years  _jj 

fSjfe  Fillet  Is  ONI 
suits  1  -  25  Of  222 
id  reporting 

Ads  bv  Google 

Create!  at* 


SlgnedXml  class  is  supposed  to  reside  in  the  $ystem.securtty.cryptojjraphy.xml  namespace,  but  I  havenl  got  that 
namespace  available.  I  have  the  system  security.ciyptotjiaphy  namespace  ...more 

Cryptomapliy  Research  Ideas 

i  Jason  isom 

901  18:02  15-Feb-05 

Can  anyone  suggest  a  good  topic  to  research  on  Cryptography?  In  my  Information  Security  course,  we  have  to  get 
a  paper  published  by  a  popular  website  or  journal  such  as  http://www.ebcv  ...more 

i  Research  paper/Cryptography 


133!    06:05  5-Sep-05; 

^mmirtg—  thinking  about  researching  computer  security-specifically  ciyptoyiaphy  I  dont  really  know  much  about 
kiyptoyiapliy,  so  I'm  wondering  how  good  an  idea  this  would  be  tor  a  research  p  ...more 


OMGILI  is  a  new  vertical  search  engine  that  only  searches  the  content  of  web 
forums.  Why  would  anyone  want  to  limit  a  search  to  discussion  forums?  "The 
information  contained  in  online  forums  is  typically  presented  in  a  'question  and 
answer'  or  debate  style  format.  How  is  this  significant?  Many  times  you  will  have  a 
question  that  has  already  been  answered.  Using  Omgili,  you  can  avoid  posting 
already  asked  questions  and  quickly  find  your  answer... Unlike  ordinary  search 
engines  that  prioritize  articles  and  edited  web  pages,  Omgili  only  indexes  discussion 
forums.  Using  Omgili's  advanced  search  capabilities  you  can  choose  to 
independently  search  titles,  topics  or  just  the  replies  of  a  discussion. 


Think  how  many  times  you  have  needed  to  find  the  answer  to  a  question— for 
example,  about  trojan  horse  removal— and  had  to  struggle  through  typical  search 
engine  results  that  were  littered  with  useless  advertisements.  Now  look  at  the  results 
for  that  query  using  Omgili: 

130  "About  Omgili,",  <>  (31  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


Results  I  - 10  of  about  185  for  trojan  hoise  lemoval  (2.65700D  seconds) 

trojan  horse  removal  -  tomcovote  forums  <P 

help  tt>  remove  a  liojnn  hoise-virus?  i  have  jeeently  acquired  Ihe  ttojati  horse  virus 


eae  c:\program  files>JrD]anhunier  4.0\Jhguarci,exe  e:\pragrarn  feles\scan  button 

I if \ p;Mautmt5 .  i  on  i  c  ot  a .  org/indox. php ?sh  wS opi c~ 23493  -  Psc'e  with  srttf  fcss> 
1  ?  ??piie$. 

trojan  horse  removal  -  swi  forums  O 

effect  that  the  following  tiojan  has  been  detected:  "trojan  hoise  dropper. generic*h&.., 
/  panda  -software  antRiojan;  a  free  /  personal  /  trojan  hunter  pQ-day  trial)  /  onlin..* 

ht  ip:Mo  r  urns .  'i py  wa  isinfo . conVind ex .  pty>?  shovwpic-58? 45  -  Paga  w?//  kpk.  and  *i 
feast  ?,  i 

LS^ojiUgsssage  board? view  .topic  -.trojan  horse  ^removal?  O 
■me  that  i  had  "uojan  hoise  dialer  8g  ( maybe  g6)  and  that  it  was  in  my  temp  int  fit... 
couid  you  download  hijackthisk  extract  it  ftorh  the  zip  file  into  it's  own  directory  like  c.  . 

hf«p://boaK&  cex o^/viewtopfc. php?*=5D44  -  Psg^v^/j  topic  «k*  t*i       ?  risytfes. 

trojan  horse  downioader  apart  problem  -  pc  pttsrop  forums  C> 
shield  picked  up  a  tiojan,  according  to  avg  it's  a  trojan  lioise  downioader  agenl  q. 


tiojan. Win32. agent. cs  aka  adware-virtumundo  this  may  not  be  a  simple 
repair  syman... 

hnp^cpilsl op. tWsioiuont  £  srft/iodeK.php?shdwt{?»ic»l057J2  ■  P&ge  *ilh  ffyfc  met  at 

Sponsored  u-'iHs 
Bed  and 
The  ]>ojan  Horse  Inn  on  Bed  and  Find  information  on  ovet 
27  .OCX]  properties  on  Bed  and  Guest  reviews,  maps, 
photos,  gift- certificates  and  more. 

flQM..TrPjan  Horse ..virus,  with 

Computers  L  Software  - 
will  help  you  find  just  what  looking  for. 
Browse  ihfoagh  more  than  65,1130 
categories.  Find  all  the  vendors  and  goods 
you  need  to  grow  your  business, 

I '  Ml*.  « (T: 

Links  To  Antivirus  Software 

Detect  viruses,  Trojans,  worms,  scan  and 
clean  incoming  and  outgoing  email  Detect 
viruses  in  instant-message  attachments. 

Norton:  Trojan  Harse  Virus 

2005  vefsion  availabte  now.  Stay  protected 
with  the  trusted  antivirus  software  at  the 
official  U.S=  Web  sile  for  all  Norton  and 

The  Omgili  crawler  analyzes  a  forum  differently  from  a  webpage,  recognizing  and 
assigning  different  weights  to  the  topic,  title,  and  replies.  One  thing  to  keep  in  mind  is 
that  you  will  have  to  register  at  forums  where  registration  is  required,  i.e.,  Omgili 
does  not  offer  a  cached  option.  I  would  recommend  adding  Omgili  to  your  forum 
search  bookmarks.  Oh,  in  case  you're  interested,  Omgili  stands  for  "oh  my  God  I 
love  it!" 

Finding  News  Groups  and  Mailing  Lists 

In  contrast  to  searching  newsgroup  content,  will  help  you  find  newsgroups 
or  mailing  lists  of  interest.  offers  an  alphabetical  listing  of  all  Usenet 
newsgroups  by  description  or  newsgroup  hierarchy.  Don't  worry  if  you  don't 
understand  the  hierarchy  because  has  a  search  engine  that  will  find  the 
appropriate  newsgroups  to  match  your  keywords.  also  provides  a 
searchable  listing  of  mailing  lists  and  discussion  groups. 

CataList  is  the  official  source  to  "browse  any  of  the  58,638  public  LISTSERV  lists  on 
the  Internet,  search  for  mailing  lists  of  interest,  and  get  information  about  LISTSERV 
host  sites."  LISTSERV  is  one  of  the  most  useful  and  now  venerable  Internet 


DOCID:  4046925 


programs  (dating  from  1986),  scanning  email  messages  for  the  words  "subscribe" 
and  "unsubscribe"  to  automatically  update  mailing  list  subscriptions.  At  the  CataList 
site,  users  can  get  the  following  public  List  and  Site  information: 

List  information 

>  Search  for  a  mailing  list  of  interest 

>  View  lists  by  host  country 

>  View  lists  with  10,000  subscribers  or  more 

>  View  lists  with  1 ,000  subscribers  or  more 
Site  information 

>  Search  for  a  LISTSERV  site  of  interest 

>  View  sites  by  country 

Finally,  both  Google  and  Yahoo  Groups  allow  users  to  search  or  browse  groups  by 


Google  Groups 
Yahoo  Groups 




DOCID:  4046925 


Weblogs  &  RSS  Feeds 

Weblogs  (more  often  known  simply  as  blogs)  are  web  pages  that  are  usually 
defined  as  online  journals  or  diaries  but  can  be  many  things.  "Blog  posts  are  like 
instant  messages  to  the  web.  Many  blogs  are  personal,  'what's  on  my  mind'  type 
musings.  Others  are  collaborative  efforts  based  on  a  specific  topic  or  area  of  mutual 
interest.  Some  blogs  are  for  play.  Some  are  for  work.  Some  are  both."131  Blogs  can 
be  wonderful  sources  of  news  and  information,  or  they  can  be  absolute  schlock.  I 
find  blogs  most  useful  as  sources  of  rumors  and  opinions  on  particular  topics  or 
breaking  news  stories.  Making  blogs  useful  is  tricky,  but  some  of  the  best  ways  to 
access  them  are  via  specialty  blog  search  tools  because  many  search  engines  do 
not  offer  blog-specific  searches.  The  first  major  blog  search  tool  was  Daypop,  an 
excellent  news  search  engine  that  lets  users  limit  a  search  to  blogs  or  RSS  feeds. 
Google  has  a  separate  blog  search  engine,  Yahoo  subsumes  blog  searches  under 
its  news  search,  and  Live  has  a  "feed"  search. 

Many — in  fact  probably  most — blogs  make  their  content  available  in  RSS.  What  is 
RSS?  RSS  stands  either  for  Rich  Site  Summary  or  RDF  Site  Summary  (there  is 
some  dispute  about  this).  "RSS  is  an  XML  format  for  syndicating  web  content.  A 
website  that  wants  to  allow  other  sites  to  publish  some  of  its  content  creates  an  RSS 
document  and  registers  the  document  with  an  RSS  publisher.  A  user  that  can  read 
RSS-distributed  content  can  use  the  content  on  a  different  site.  Syndicated  content 
includes  such  data  as  news  feeds,  events  listings. ..excerpts  from  discussion  forums 
or  even  corporate  information."132  Look  for  the  RSS/Atom  feed  icon  S  at  websites  to 
subscribe  to  a  feed. 

To  add  to  the  confusion,  RSS  is  not  the  only  format  used  for  blogging  and 
newsfeeds.  The  other  major  format  is  Atom,  Here's  a  good  explanation  of  the 

RSS/XML/Atom  are  technologies,  but  syndication  is  a  process.  RSS  and 
Atom  are  two  flavors  of  what  is  more  or  less  the  same  thing:  a  'feed'  which  is 
a  wrapper  for  pieces  of  regularly  and  sequentially-updated  content,  be  they 
news  articles,  weblog  posts,  a  series  of  photographs,  and  more.  For  the 
purposes  of  this  article,  consider  the  terms  interchangeable.  XML  is  the 
base  technology  both  are  built  on,  but  that's  almost  totally  irrelevant;  the 

131  "About  Blogger,",  <>  (14  November  2006). 

132  »RSSi«  webopedia,  <http://www.webopedia.eom/TERM/R/RSS.html>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


orange  buttons  are  mislabeled,  and  should  read  'RSS'  or  'Atom'  instead. 
Strange,  but  true.133 

News  aggregators  (sometimes  referred  to  as  RSS  aggregators)  are  programs 
designed  to  read  XML  formatted  content,  which  is  very  popular  in  the  blogging 
community.  News  aggregators  retrieve  RSS/Atom  feeds  and  present  these  feeds  in 
an  easy  to  read  format.  Bloggers  and  many  news  websites  use  RSS/Atom  feeds  in 
XML  format  to  publish  information.  Most  news  aggregators  are  downloadable 
programs  that  need  to  be  installed  on  your  computer,  but  some  are  implemented  on 

There  are  now  a  number  of  RSS  and  blog  search  engines.  Unfortunately,  the 
relationship  between  RSS  feeds  and  blogs  is  not  as  clean  and  clear  as  one  might 
hope.  While  RSS  search  engines  get  their  content  from  RSS  feeds  and  not  from 
crawling  the  web,  any  type  of  website  can  distribute  content  using  RSS.  This  means 
RSS  search  engines  are  searching  more  than  just  blogs.  On  the  flip  side,  not  every 
blog  uses  RSS  to  distribute  its  content,  so  some  blogs  are  not  searched  by  RSS 
search  engines. 

So  what  exactly  do  blog  search  engines  provide  that  traditional  news  search  engines 
do  not?  What  users  often  get  from  blogs  are  biased  insights  and  opinions.  For  good 
or  for  ill,  blogs  are  somewhere  between  newsgroups/chat  rooms  and  true  journalistic 
sites.  Why  use  blog  search  engines?  First,  remember  that  traditional  search  engines 
are  the  least  useful  for  news  or  date-sensitive  information.  News  search  tools  are 
best  for  timely  objective  reporting.  What  blog  search  adds  is  diversified  opinion 
(sometimes  useful,  sometimes  not)  on  virtually  every  topic  imaginable.  Also,  even 
good  news  search  sites  may  index  a  limited  number  of  sources  whereas  a  good  blog 
site  may  get  news  out  faster  and  more  efficiently.  However,  for  a  number  of  reasons, 
blog  search  engines'  algorithms  are  not  as  good  as  general  search  engines' 
algorithms  at  weeding  out  spam,  so  you  will  probably  have  to  wade  through  a  lot 
of  inappropriate  and  useless  sites  when  using  a  blog  search  tool. 

The  list  of  blog  search  engines  seems  to  be  growing  weekly,  but  I  expect  some  will 
fall  by  the  wayside  as  others  become  more  popular.  I  recommend  trying  several  of 
these  tools  because  you  will  probably  get  very  different  results.  In  late  2006  Google 
Bloqsearch  overtook  Technorati  as  the  most  popular  blog  search  site.  Technorati 
offers  a  somewhat  different  approach.  The  concept  behind  Technorati  is  that  it 
"watches"  over  63  million  weblogs,  analyzing  who  is  linking  to  a  blog,  website,  or 
news  article.  By  entering  the  url  of  any  blog,  website,  or  news  article,  users  can  see 
how  many  blogs  link  to  it,  which  bloggers  are  linking  to  that  page,  and  what  they  are 
saying  about  it.  In  essence,  Technorati  is  a  very  simple  website  analysis  tool  that 

1Jd  "What  is  RSS/XML/Atom  Syndication?", 

<  is  rssx/>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


lets  users  see  what  others  are  saying  about  almost  any  site  of  interest.  Technorati 
also  offers  a  keyword  search  of  all  the  weblogs  it  tracks. 

Technorati  and  the  Associated  Press  "initiated  a  service  to  connect  bloggers  to  more 
than  440  AP  member  newspapers  nationwide.. .Increasingly,  what  the  blogosphere 
says  about  a  news  story  becomes  part  of  a  more  complete  story,  lending  diverse 
perspectives  and  often  expert  commentary.  The  new  service  will  bring  blogger 
commentary  about  AP  news  stories  to  communities  large  and  small  throughout  the 
USA,  giving  bloggers  a  voice  in  trusted  local  papers  throughout  the  nation... When 
readers  visit  an  AP  member  Web  site  that  uses  AP  Hosted  Custom  News,  they  will 
see  a  module  featuring  the  Top  Five  Most  Blogged  About'  AP  articles  right  next  to 
the  article  text,  dynamically  powered  by  Technorati.  Additionally,  when  readers  click 
on  an  AP  article,  Technorati  will  deliver  'Who's  Blogging  About'  that  article."134 

At  the  participating  sites  you  will  see  the  "Blog  Roundup"  from  Technorati: 







Raw  Hews 


|  |Search 


Archive  Search 


Multimedia  Gallery 
News  Summary 

AP  Video  Network 

Defense:  Duke  Accuser  Changes 
!  Story 

J  DURHAM,  IM.C.  (AP)  --  The  accuser  in 
j  the  Duke  lacrosse  sexual  assault  case 
<  told  prosecutors  in  December  that  one  of 
the  three  players  charged  did  not  commit 
any  sex  act  on  her  during  the  alleged 
attack,  according  to  papers  filed  Thursday 
by  the  defense.... 

Snow  Latest  Weather  Woes  for 

SEATTLE  (AP)  --  A  cold  snap  swept 
through  Seattle  and  surrounding  areas 
Thursday  on  the  heels  of  the  season's 
second  snowstorm,  closing  schools  for 
more  than  350,000  students,  snarling 
traffic  and  causing  at  least  one 
traffic- related  death.... 


in  History 
]  Photo  Gallery 
|  PhotoWeek 
|  SportsWeek 
|  U.S.  Census 
!  Database 

I  4  Hurt  in  Ind.  Workplace  Shooting 

j  INDIANAPOLIS  (AP)  --  A  man  shot  and 

~i  wounded  four  co-workers  Thursday 

H  morning  at  a  manufacturing  business  that 

|  employs  disabled  people  through  Easter 

|  Seals,  telling  police  he  shot  them  over 

H  rpsnp.rt  nnlinp.  said 

Blog  Roundup 

Associ-ared  Pr*s-  articles* 

Congress  Divided  Over 
Bush  War  Plan 
25  new  links 

U.S. -Led  Forces  Detain  6 
Iranian  Workers 
IS  new  links 

al-Qaida  Suspects  Still 
Alive  in  Somalia 
11  new  links 

Cisco  Sues  Apple  Over  Use 
of  iPhone  Name 
10  new  links 

Nicaraguan  Revolutionary 
Back  in  Power 
7  new  links 

powered  by  |*  Technorati 

Peter  Hirshberg,  "Technorati  Teams  With  The  Associated  Press  to  Connect  Bloggers  to  More 
Than  440  Newspapers  Nationwide/'  Technorati  Weblog,  23  May  2006, 
<>  (31  October  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCi_AssiFiED//ron  orriciAL  use  only 

Clicking  on  the  headline  links  you  to  the  article;  clicking  on  the  "Links  to  this  article" 
takes  you  to  Technorati  to  read  blog  entries  about  the  story.  I  think  this  development 
is  further  evidence  that  the  definition  of  "journalism"  is  fuzzier  than  ever. 

The  Diarist  Registry  indexes  more  than  7100  blog  sites,  is  fully  searchable,  and 
lists  blogs  by  country.  Bloogz  permits  searches  in  four  European  languages  plus 
English  and  Blogwise  offers  an  option  to  list  blogs  by  country.  IceRocket  has  a 
"trend  tool"  that  shows  keyword  trends  for  the  last  one  to  three  months  as  well  as 
other  information  to  allow  users  to  get  a  broad  sense  of  a  topic's  popularity. 

Search:  Biggs  Web  MySpace  News  Images 


Blon  Tools 

Link  Tracker 

>  Blogs  Trend  Tool 

>  Bbq  Topics 

"  Add  You  Bkjq 
■  PtnqUs! 

<  Ping  Configurations 


Top  You  Tube  Videos 
✓  Top  Movies 

>  Top  News 

Blogs  Showcase 

Who's  got  more  buzz? 
^  Celebrity  Blxfi 

Services  of  IceRocket 

"  Free  R5S  Builder 

-  Free  IceRocket  Toolbar 

>  Ice  Spy 


v  Basics 

About IceRocket 

/  Contact  Us 
s  Link  To  IceRocket 
What  You  think? 

Blogs  Trend  Tool:  irah 


Citation  Trend  by  ©  Z0D6 

LIT  1  1  1- 

Dec  12 

Dec  1?                      Dee  24 

Dec  31 

Jan  07 


B  iran 

Trend  Terms  / 1 

Jack  to  search  results 

!  Posts  per  day 

Average  %  |  Total  posts  : 


1  1,421.43 

0.5014              42,643  ) 

Specify  Trend  Terms 

|  Trend  Term(s): 

j         "distil  cwneri"  OR  digkim 

Display  Labef(s): 

t#.  DigiLil  Cim*rj\ 


Mast  2  months 
1 " i  last  3  months 
Date  Range:  |lesl  month  )E) 

Also,  don't  forget  Waypath,  which  lets  you  see  blogs  that  link  to  specific  websites 
almost  in  real  time.  Waypath  also  searches  the  full  text  of  blogs  as  well  as  by 

Of  course,  we  now  have  Google  Bloqsearch,  which  offers  many  search  features  and 
options  but  contains  only  fairly  recent  content.  Also,  keep  in  mind  that  Google  Blog 
Search  only  indexes  the  site  feed,  not  the  full  content  at  the  website  that 
originated  the  feed. 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNci_AssiFiED//rorc  ornciAL  uoc  only 

All  the  blog  search  engines  permit  sort  by  date  in  addition  to  sort  by  relevance. 
Date  sorting  works  perfectly  well  with  weblogs,  which  (unlike  webpages)  have 
date/time  tags. 


Blog  Search  Engine 



Clusty  Blog  Metasearch 



Google  Blogsearch 

Ice  Rocket  http://blogs. 


The  Diarist  Registry 


There  are  as  many  potential  blogs  as  there  are  people  willing  to  create  and  maintain 
them.  Quite  honestly,  most  are  as  dull  as  ditchwater.  However,  there  is  a  type  of 
blog— or  perhaps  it's  more  accurate  to  say,  a  type  of  blogger— that  is  inherently 
interesting:  the  insider.  For  example,  there  are  several  hundred  Microsoft  employees 
who  are  blogging,  and  a  lot  of  what  they  are  talking  about  is  directly  related  to 
Microsoft  products  that  are  still  in  the  planning  stages.  "Prolific  Microsoft  blogger 
Robert  Scoble  mentioned  Windows  XP  Tablet  PC  Edition  2005  (and  complained  that 
the  real  name  was  far  less  interesting  than  the  codename  Lone  Star)."135  A  few  days 
after  his  blog  entry  appeared,  Microsoft  officially  announced  that  the  service  pack 
Tablet  PC  is  tied  to  wouldn't  be  out  as  planned  by  June  (the  last  month  of  the 
Microsoft  fiscal  year)  but  was  being  delayed  until  at  the  earliest  July  2005,  when 
Microsoft's  2005  fiscal  year  begins.  Other  Microsoft  bloggers  have  discussed  such 
things  as  technical  details  of  work  with  the  latest  developer  tools,  Longhorn  (which 
became  Vista,  the  current  Windows  OS  for  desktop  PCs)  architecture,  and  how 
features  are  developed  for  Microsoft  products  like  Word. 

Microsoft  has  definitely  taken  a  "if  you  can't  beat  'em,  join  "em"  attitude  towards 
blogs  (so  far).  In  2004  the  company  went  so  far  as  to  launch  Channel  9,  a  website 
that  combines  blogs,  discussion  forums  and  other  technology  to  improve 
communications  with  developers.  Channel  9  refers  to  the  audio  channel  many 

1Jb  "Inside  Track,"  The  Guardian,  20  May  2004, 

<,3605,1 220085, OO.html>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 


airlines  use  to  let  passengers  listen  in  on  crew  conversations,  and,  according  to  the 
welcome  message  at  the  site,  "We  think  developers  need  their  own  channel  9,  a  way 
to  listen  in  to  the  cockpit  at  Microsoft,  an  opportunity  to  learn  how  we  fly,  a  chance  to 
get  to  know  our  pilots. ..Five  of  us  in  Redmond  are  crazy  enough  to  think  we  just 
might  learn  something  from  getting  to  know  each  other..  Join  in,  and  have  a  look 
inside  our  cockpit  and  help  us  fly  the  plane." 

Channel  9 

Companies  walk  a  fine  line  between  encouraging  people  to  share  information  and 
protecting  their  proprietary  "crown  jewels."  In  fact,  Microsoft  fired  a  long-time 
temporary  employee  for  posting  photographs  of  Apple  G5  Macs  being  delivered  to 
the  Microsoft  campus.  The  employee  originally  posted  the  photo  on  his  own  site  and 
intended  it  mainly  for  friends  and  family  (he  even  cropped  the  photo  so  that  the 
Microsoft  campus  wouldn't  be  visible).  Nonetheless,  the  photo  was  quickly 
discovered  and  widely  discussed  across  the  web,  leading  Microsoft  to  dismiss  him 
for  "violating  company  security  policy."  Given  the  wide-open  nature  of  the  Internet, 
the  ease  of  blogging,  and  the  fact  that  people  love  to  share  information  for  whatever 
reason,  blogging  will  undoubtedly  become  a  bigger  problem  for  companies  and 
organizations.  Employees  may  innocently  or  inadvertently  post  inside  information 
that  could  be  harmful  to  their  organization.  And  it's  not  hard  to  imagine  what  damage 
a  disgruntled  employee  could  do. 

General  News  Sources 

Finding  news  sources  around  the  globe  has  become  fairly  easy.  All  of  the  following 
are  very  good  sources  of  different  types  of  news  sources:  newspapers,  magazines, 
wire  services,  etc.  Many  have  links  to  online  publications  and  news  sources,  and 
many  of  these  publications  are  available  free  over  the  Internet. 

ABYZ  Newslinks 

Guardian's  World  News  Guide 



Metagrid  (newspapers  &  magazines) 
NewsCentral  (online  newspaper  links) 

Online  Newspapers 

RefDesk  (My  Virtual  Newspaper) 
h  Up  ://www .  metaq  rid .  co  m/ 



DOCID:  4046925 


News  Sites  &  Search  Engines 

In  addition  to  the  sites  above  that  help  you  locate  news  sources,  there  are  also  a 
growing  number  of  excellent  search  services  dedicated  to  delivering  and  searching 
the  news.  In  fact,  so  many  people  all  over  the  world  are  relying  on  the  Internet  for 
their  news  that  "old  media"  sources  continue  to  lose  revenue  as  they  compete  for 
readers  and  viewers.  It  turns  out  that  some  of  the  "new  media"  Internet  news 
services  such  as  Google  and  Yahoo  now  compensate  old  media  sources  such  as 
AP  on  a  pay-per-click  basis.  "Major  Internet  portals  such  as  Yahoo  and  America 
Online  have  been  paying  for  content  since  their  creation  in  the  mid-1990s...  Earlier 
this  year  [2006],  Google  signed  a  deal  with  the  Associated  Press,  one  of  more  than 
50  agreements  AP  Chief  Executive  Tom  Curley  has  obtained  from  Internet  players" 
since  2003.136 

Google  News  and  Yahoo  News  are  among  the  very  best  news  search  tools.  Both 
have  superb  advanced  search  options  that  include  the  ability  to  limit  searches  to 
specific  publications,  dates,  etc.  Both  let  you  sort  the  results  by  relevance  or  by  date 
and  time.  News  searching  is  one  area  in  which  it  makes  sense  to  sort  results 
by  date  because  news  stories,  unlike  webpages,  have  meaningful  date/time 
"stamps"  or  tags. 

Because  of  partnerships  between  many  news  websites  and  news  providers,  readers 
often  have  access  to  subscription  news  stories  without  having  to  register  (e.g.,  The 
New  York  Times)  or  give  personal  information  at  a  news  website.  Occasionally,  you 
may  even  discover  you  can  access  an  article  requiring  payment  because  of  a 
partnership  arrangement.  For  example,  this  article  is  only  available  by  paid 
subscription  at  its  website,  but  by  using  Google  News  to  find  it,  a  reader  can  access 
the  full  article  for  free  and  without  registering. 

The  Patent  Office:  Getting  Wiki  With  It  (-iubscniiiioa),  CA  -  Jan  12, 2007| 

In  August,  when  the  Patent  and  Trademark  Office  acknowledged  that  it  had  taken  Wikipedi.i  off  its  list  of 
acceptable  research  sources,  the  sutprise  was  not  ... 

Elise  Ackerman,  "New  media  making  deals  with  old'  news  providers,"  Mercury  News,  30  July 
2006,  <>  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 



j .■•-:>]  Sites  -jii  . 

ti-si  in  (JjjUl  Vow  *  $r.A  Inlor mail 

The  Patent  Office:  Getting  Wiki  With  It 

Alan  Cohen 

IP  Law  &  Business 

January  16,  2007 

5  Printeflrie  ndtf    J"1  Email  this  Artlcln   1;;'  RepHofcs  ft  Permissions 

In  August,  when  the  Patent  and  Trademark  Office 
acknowledged  that  it  had  taken  Wikipedia  off  its  list 
of  acceptable  research  sources,  the  surprise  was 
not  that  the  Web  site  had  been  banished,  but  that 
examiners  had  been  using  it  at  all.  To  its  fans, 
Wikioedia  is  a  remarkable  collaboration:  a  gigantic, 
up-to-the-minute  encyclopedia  to  which  any  user, 
anywhere,  can  contribute.  To  its  detractors,  it's  the 
online  version  of  the  old  "Saturday  Night  Live" 
game  show,  "Common  Knowledge,"  where  answers 
were  determined  by  a  nationwide  survey  of  high 
school  seniors.  The  joke  was  that  every  answer 
was  wrong. 

No  doubt,  Wikipedia's  anyone-can-be-an-expert  nature  means  that  it,  too, 
can  get  things  wrong.  The  site  also  gets  its  share  of  pranksters.  Recent 
entries  have  noted  that  a  popular  computer  game  was  written  by  Mr.  T,  of 
television's  "The  A-Team"  (not),  and  that  one  of  the  prime  suspects  in  the 
assassination  of  John  F,  Kennedy  was  John  Seigenlhaler,  Sr.,  the  founding 
editorial  director  of  USA  Today  (beyond  not), 

Top  Stories  From  Lnw.eam 

L^sflAl  Technology 
til-House  Counsel 
5n\M\  Fimi  Business 

Visit  the  Ne?v 


Website  for: 

Daily  News  Updates 
Featured  Diversity  Firms 
Magazine  Articles  -  Diversity 

Scorecard,  Associate  Survey 
Directory  of  Minority  Attorneys 
Editor's  Corner 

Registration,  is  Free 


However,  finding  and  understanding  how  to  use  these  services  can  be  confusing 
because  most  sites  that  permit  unimpeded  access  to  subscription  news  do  not  do  a 
good  job  of  advertising  how  to  do  it. 

Some  of  the  major  news  sources  that  require  registration  or  personal  information  to 
access  some  or  all  of  their  news,  but  which  are  accessible  via  news  search  sites 

The  New  York  Times 
The  Washington  Post 
The  LA  Times 

The  Guardian  (UK) 
The  Times  of  London 

I  have  included  some  ways  to  access  subscription  news  without  providing  personal 
information  in  the  discussion  of  news  search  engines  below. 



DOCID:  4046925 


Google  News 

Google  News  headlines  are  entirely  generated  using  a  computer  algorithm  that 
scours  over  10,000  worldwide  news  sources.137  Google  News  also  offers 
international  editions  for  France,  Germany,  India,  Italy,  Spain,  and  several  other 

Google  News  lets  users: 

>  Sort  results  by  date  or  relevance  . 

>  Search  on  a  title  or  headline  using  the  syntax  intitle:  [intitle:iraq]. 

>  Use  both  the  intitle:  and  inurl:  or  source:  commands  together  to  find  a 
specific  topic  in  a  specific  publication. 

>  Limit  a  search  to  a  specific  U.S.  state  or  a  country  [location:ny]  or 
[location  :germany]. 

>  Limit  a  search  to  a  specific  news  site  using  the  syntax  inurl:  or  source: 

Google  also  permits  users  to  limit  their  search  by  news  source  in  both  simple  and 
advanced  news  search.  The  source:  command  must  be  used  with  a  keyword.  The 
syntax  in  simple  news  search  is  source:  and  the  query  is: 

[source:news_source_name  keyword] 

For  example:  [source:new_york_times  iraq] 

The  source:  syntax  can  be  tricky  to  use.  Here's  a  partial  list  I've  come  up  with  which 
works  (as  of  now)  in  simple  search:  3 







source:abc  news 

Philipp  Lenssen's  research  during  2006  indicated  at  least  10.584  unique  sources  for  Google 
News.  "Which  sources  does  Google  News  index?"  Google  Blogoscoped,  <http://bloq.outer->  (14  November  2006). 



DOCID:  4046925 







Another  option  is  to  use  the  Advanced  Google  News  Search  that  includes  these 

>  Find  results— all  words,  exact  phrase,  at  least  one  word,  without  the  word(s). 

>  Sort  by  relevance  or  date. 

>  Location  by  country  or  state. 

>  Occurrences  of  terms — anywhere  or  in  headline,  body,  or  url  of  article. 

>  Date — anytime,  last  hour,  last  day,  past  week,  past  month,  or  range  of  dates 
within  past  month. 

>  Source  by  simple  name,  e.g.,  CNN,  New  York  Times. 

The  source  option  in  advanced  search  is  an  improvement  over  having  to  use  the 
source:  syntax  that  required  such  entries  as  [source:united_press_international]. 
However,  there  are  still  two  problems  with  the  source:  option.  Google  doesn't  list  its 
sources  anywhere  that  I  can  find  (it  merely  says  there  are  about  4500  of  them),  and 
you  still  have  to  write  out  the  full  name  of  the  source,  so  UPI  or  Fox  will  not  work  but 
United  Press  International  or  Fox  News  will.  Google  News  now  offers  a  Google 
Blogsearch  link  from  the  News  homepage. 

Google  News  Advanced  Search  news  search 

Google  News  also  offers  customization  features  that  let  you  add  or  remove  news 
categories,  decrease  or  increase  the  number  of  headlines  you  see,  select  from 
numerous  regional  editions  of  Google  News  from  around  the  world,  and  more.  For 
example,  you  could  customize  your  Google  News  page  to  show  only  the  World, 
Sci/Tech,  Business,  and  U.S.  pages,  then  add  standard  sections  for  German 
Business  and  another  for  France  in  general.  Google  News  also  permits  adding  a 
custom  section  in  which  you  enter  keywords  (all  must  be  in  the  story  for  it  to  appear 
in  your  section,  so  choose  carefully).  You  can  even  use  the  "Advanced"  option  under 
custom  section  to  limit  your  keyword  search  to  a  specific  topic,  e.g.,  "internet 
security"  only  in  the  Sci/Tech  section.  You  can  change  the  language  of  the  stories  in 
your  custom  section  by  clicking  on  "Advanced"  and  selecting  a  language  in  the 
pulldown  menu.  While  these  new  customization  options  may  sound  a  little 
complicated,  they  are  fairly  intuitive,  and  Google  News  is  very  forgiving.  If  you  make 
a  mess  of  your  customization,  there  is  an  option  to  "Reset  page  to  default"  link  to 
return  your  page  to  its  default  settings  (i.e.,  the  standard  version  without  any 



DOCID:  4046925 


customizations).  This  will,  however,  obliterate  any  customization  you  ever  made,  so 
you  might  want  to  delete  unwanted  sections  one  at  a  time  instead. 

Google  News  now  permits  users  to  get  any  Google  News  page,  section,  search,  or 
customized  page  via  RSS  or  Atom  feeds.  Google  News  provides  detailed 
information  on  how  to  set  up  and  access  these  feeds. 

Google  News  Feeds  us/news  feed  terms.html 

Google  News  keeps  news  stories  in  its  database  for  about  30  days.  This  might  be  a 
bit  misleading  since  much  of  the  freely  available  news  on  the  Internet  is  only 
available  for  less  than  30  days  (usually  somewhere  between  1  and  2  weeks).  Unlike 
the  Google  search  engine,  Google  News  does  not  offer  cached  (stored)  copies  of 
these  news  stories.  However,  some  news  articles  that  cannot  be  accessed  via  the 
original  site's  archives  because  they  require  registration  were  indeed  accessible 
using  Google.  So  if  you  cannot  get  to  a  news  article  that  is  less  than  30  days  old  via 
the  original  source,  try  searching  for  it  in  Google  News  and  linking  directly  to  the 

Google  News  Archive 

Google  News  unveiled  a  new  service  that,  from  the  looks  of  it,  will  be  very  popular 
and  useful— and  potentially  highly  addictive.  It's  Google  News  Archive  Search,  which 
links  from  the  Google  News  homepage.  Here  are  the  results  for  the  search  [ronald 
reagan].  On  the  right  are  the  results  listed  by  relevance,  though  they  are  a  bit  odd, 
considering  that  the  third  result  is  from  CNN  but  dated  1952  (the  article  actually 
dates  from  Reagan's  death  in  2004  and  is  about  his  life  in  the  1950's).  On  the  left 
you  can  limit  the  search  by  date  range  or  by  publication. 

C:h-id.5W  — ; — -  :$*^^\ 


Se.ifCh  -tiTicJ«  Sfc?w timeline 

»AH  Date? 

XQr  Nation  bids  final  farewell  to  Rcanan.  closing  \ir^i  American  story 

Tnlwfif!  •  Jun  II. 20O4 

"We  losr  Ron.iMRt .i«j.m  onty  toys  3ga     we  f»sv&  mi$$«<J  him  far  a  \mq  time."  Bush  ... 
j333-1937  'Ronald  R«^g,in  belongs  to  the  ages  now,  but  we  preferred  is  sthen  he  ... 

^ '  *~  ^  CahfQinia  buna!  marks  end  ol  Rfeaiian  i'^-nav  -  Hwsw*  Chronicle 

I2^k  Uyjqg  Sjfe  lin^etin^  goodbye  lo  Reagan  -  Himsw*  Chi Qnicle 

>AH  Publscsfoiw 

vSS^^i       Zoning  with  Realty  Tho  wri&n  f acoiti 

Si  bjutt  Post  ^  ^Cannon's  ifo-s^i  »»e  essSAiisI  raiding  or  RuiuM  R^.hjjii  -  hts  \9&2  ...  Ths  Ronald 

A&krsiJ  JCuif!3t/T)i       R*^yan  depicted  by  Cannon  is  «  lslenled,  but  unoiawniionai, ... 

~     fribulgy  jo  Raa.gjft  cro^s  political  tmes  ■  en1?;r>a!rjr;st  HeraltL.  -  HighStsm  Research  (Subsci/plion) 
Forme;  Piesfdenl  Ro»al'l  Re.igan  die^  at  93  -  U3A  loday 

.iMA'A" vC-  C i> ' arj c l ^  -       OteaC'-UrJori  Tribune  -  Aii  ^£5  ojh;»g  -  fjcLKil  w?t!  jT'SCS 

(fne  Rracidn^  loader,  on  frai  Souihyw  CaFyniiTaikji; 

■7 5>!'-;  Mai  J.  IP52 

tn         <vfcOft  Ron  j|i|  Re.13.111  look  officii  as  governor  «'  Calico n; is  afler  3  sutpn'sii^ly  ...  And 
in  Ronald  Ro-iqjii's  shining  ciTy,  K'lnCj  v/a$  ^hwoyj.  (here, ... 

A  iancfefida  nmkqs  il  President  Reagan 

'^M.woUrJii^.nl-Hw^  1S6Q 

Rortold  Rea9.n1  will  be  the  nett  Preside  of  the  '.'wled  Sole*.  ...  M  KoiiAld  Reagan  can 



DOCID:  4046925 


This  is  where  the  Google  News  Archive  search  is  irresistible  to  researchers  (not  to 
mention  to  history  and  news  buffs).  Take  a  look  at  the  results  from  the  1950s: 

Google  I 

(?u    iFii««^?  r«tfw»    rwityt  mvtv 

ron(\!d  reogcn 



ResU3l«-1  ■  lO.df.abduE  3J50,ldf;ion'iild  iedt|an..{0i)6  seconds} 

Se.ifch  articles  Sfawlimsline 

Ail  Dy,o«, 

1.35*- i  353 




>AA\  Public  wiorie 
Travis  City... 
Dai  on  Evening.. 

Tfe>  Reagans  tocgthsr  on  Ui^ir  Sotiihferrt  California  rancn 
C^t-i-MaiJl.  1S52 

In  1957.  vr&so'ftaiiiiM  R*;  took -office  as  governor  of  Cali&ms&  after  3  SEKjjnsmgty 
in  RwnaM  R$,nj.m'u  shining  c'tfy.  N^ncy  y/as  always  Ibertj,.  ,„ 


Ronald  Reagart  Bock,  Wooing  His  Firs]  Low 

Pay- P&r-Vraw  •  Wsshiiigtctf*  Pass;  ■  FrcOassj  Aichivrt  -  Nw2, 1957 

^  (INS)  RonaM  Reatpii,  ytha  bss  clavoted  mote  Isrcie  la  IV  in  Ibe  past  few  year*  lhan  he  hss 
lo  films,  turns  again  Id  hi?  lirsl  love  in  s  dssljust  signed  win  ... 

■  «■)  ■% 

?).>1H  *tap-;im»  ■  Tm*:to(.:  -  Feb  26.1S51 

Master  tff  Ceremonies  Ronald  Reagan,  wgsjetefit  m\tm  Screen  Actors  Gu3d, , 
thought  ib?l  Ronald  Reagan  -.was  *i*her  a  vet/  bwve  mon™>o/  a  ^ery 

itv.-el)  p.vjo?. 

Tm  Now  Pictures 

ItM£  M3g3»n*-*r«re  te.- Hf<*  i3.  I9S3 

Apse  sled  to  r,ei  son  (Ronald  Rsarjanj,  she  sets  out  to  make  amende  and. ,,.  Ronald 
Re.iy.ui  and  Rot^  Hussey  have  i&llte  It  to  sxcefl  a^cfiim  sbout.Jhs  way  ... 

The  Now  Pictures 

ThViB  ifouAt&wj  ■■  1Sm»  f^c.  ■  Jw<  -14.  1952 

The  Te^m  {Warmer]  is  a  bother  biography  nf  baseball's,  tale  fjtest  Gf§*er-  Clfiv^wo 

A'etsar.ctei  (Ronald  Reagan}  Like  The  Pride  of  Si.  Loui's-  (TIME.  ... 

Ignore  the  first  result,  which  we  know  isn't  really  from  1952.  Most  of  the  oldest  news 
appears  to  come  either  from  Time  (if  it's  free)  or  from  the  Newspaper  Archive.  The 
Newspaper  Archive  is  "the  single  largest  historical  newspaper  database  online, 
containing  more  newspaper  pages  from  1759  to  present  than  any  other  service."  It  is 
subscription  based,  but  free  to  public  libraries  and  K-12  schools,  so  if  you  need  a 
copy  of  the  full  sized  newspaper  image,  you  can  get  it  at  your  public  library. 

The  good  news  is  that  Google  News  Archive  searches  the  Newspaper  Archive  and 
returns  the  results  in  a  window.  For  example: 



DOCID:  4046925 



Home  f  Register  ,  Advanced  Beared  )  Browse  AwaiU&ie  Papers  l  Support 

Over 45  Million  Newspaper  Pages  Online!  Search:  SE3ES55 

hte-ed  H^i?  Remember  M*  r* 

\  Page 

Added  Every 

ISSCOnd      U|»lo*i|ing  Image 


Search  results  for  ronald  reagan  were  roufra  Irl 
316,358  newspaper  pages  including  The  D/xon 

Here  Is  your  result  preview  from  The 
Dixon  Telegraph  on  Tuesday. 
August  15. 1950(Dixon.lllinois) 

lie*  Work  tf  You  Can  Gs:  It!  9  Fur  a  fellow  who  iJidn'i 

"Thelext  above  wss  extracted  from  the  image  using 
Optical  Charac I er  RecocjnUiD.'i  sechna  c-gy  snd  mav  appear 
disorganize^.  Members  enjoy  accass  !o  fuM  siae 
newspaper  -jrsges  as  t*i=y  were  printed  and  ifceieior*  m 
most  cases  eapeiience  *D0%  reaeabihty 

The  Oixon  telegraph 
Tuesday,  August  15, 1950 

Try  Another  Search 

Although  you  cannot  get  the  full  size  image  using  Google  New  Archive  search,  the 
complete  article  is  here.  You  can  scroll  down,  read,  and  even  copy  the  entire 
newspaper  article  from  the  August  15,  1950,  Dixon  Telegraph  using  Google  News 
Archive  search,  whereas  even  viewing  results  at  the  Newspaper  Archive  is 
unavailable  to  users  unless  they  are  paid  members  of  the  Newspaper  Archive.  You 
can  limit  your  Google  News  Archive  searches  to  the  Newspaper  Archive  by  adding 
[source:"newspaperarchive"].  Many  of  the  results  in  the  Google  News  Archive 
search  come  from  subscription  services,  and  these  are  clearly  marked  as  such.  The 
advanced  search  contains  an  option  to  "Return  articles  with  the  following  price," 
including  articles  with  "no  price,"  meaning  "free,"  not  "priceless." 

You  can  also  limit  your  search  to  a  specific  news  source,  e.g.,  [source:"daily  herald"], 
and  Google  News  Archive  will  show  the  possible  publications  if  more  than  one  fits 
that  query: 



DOCID:  4046925 

UNCLASSiFiED//ron  ornciAL  UOC  ONLY 


)££§k    image?    V;de&    News    Maj)i    f  n  >?  i  e 

|yourc6."d8ity  herald*  Search  Archives 



>,*JJ  Dales 


Thg  kg/  NBA  Frnals  matchup  Jazz's  offensg  vs  Bulls' 

U!      -  Doily  M«rii>M  -  h-eixst  ar>,  -  Jur*  I  ,  139? 
11  will  pit  the  Bulls-'  impenetrable  defense  against  impeccable  offensive  e 
Jaz?  Mo  matter  Ah e's -matched  up  agarnst  whom,  ... 
WiiUfrs,  Bulls  mn  belhe  last?  -  Daily  Heiald  -  NswsBsnk  ($2  [35) 
^lIril^BJJ^^a5J5ILl  •  DailV  HewW  -  MewsBanfc  (S2  95) 
O.iiiy  HomM  *  P.riW  H<:t.jlil  -  A|i  537  tet-Xod  *  RoU'.dv.^b  <i^1Q-- 

"The  Peacemaker"  Daily  Herald 

-  tMily  Het«>M  -  L^-X:w  -  Sep  23, 1997 
Wmien  by  Michael  Schiffei..  Produced  by  Waiter  Parkes  and  Branko  L 
Ledei.  A  DreamWorks  Pictures  release.  Raled  R  fviolenceV  ... 

You  may  have  noticed  the  option  to  "view  timeline"  above.  When  you  select  this, 
Google  News  Archive  puts  all  the  search  results  into  a  date  ordered  timeline  that 
may  make  complex  historical  events  and  news  stories  easier  to  research: 



^iaJ?    'XS^ges    Video    New*    Maps  rnoi_t> 

fone'c  reagerv 

Archives  >  Timeline:  am  oh-m  ?  Befo-e  1991 

€B6-P7--)  T»MF  Maqarmo  A:r,i-ivo  Aiadg  -  •-  L*J  7. 1906 
ui ^s.) i'  =     -  Oct;. t%6 

Mancm  PjSiVs  impression  ot  Roiuifd  R«jg,»n  msy  sn;<e  sone  peop.'e  a  51  ytrtrthftl 
looking  —  I&&  Ural  fellow  tft!he  )94£b  movies  ... 

•;r-f^-?3i'  Poor  Ronald  Reagan 

P  . .       ^i^'  '   1  iiif.-jio;*  F  ■  *   h-  •  I'-.-  1      hi- . :  ■  May  ?0.  i97l 

Roit.-ild  P9ii<jmT$  potoonal  lin,irtsoi  srlualion  As  o^eiyrno  kncws  by  now,  Go*  Re^jan  had 

such  had  linarutsl  reverses  last  ysarrhat  hr1  ftidn*  ha^r*  to  pay  ... 

d-  Lli-lii-i  "  P-        :J  ><-h  IMtl>-'» 

Ttmelir*?  for  roiiald  leafjan  (0.09  wcchtds) 
Search  article*   Show  timeline 

Ronald  Reagan.  Levho  the  Ofoundwort<  for  '76 

r  t;.''. '-t-'.       .v-iwi'/tM       -r-"  •      .Vf  hu.'-T  •  ,M23.  W3 

Ron.ild  Reaijan  has  p^jafic ly  dowigfaded  :hs  Waisjgsie  scan!*!  snd  irvtKervedly  rief?r«i&c 

P«sfc!sr,l  !Mix.on.  hi?  lop  adwters  sra  pjnvalely  uigmq  cool  deiachmem  ... 

" ;  y  ■ ;  -  P  *        *rb  iniyy*. 

?97<?  75w  Reagan  la.Fcrdfl 

[-  -  >•     -  r-'.-v^r-KM-^.r-  Apt  20.  1975 

'Und^f  loday's  cond^er**,  Ronald  R«ngan  wo'j  c  5w«»*p  dfjl^git^  Ifom  the  13  60utl»errt  *rid 

border  tl-le'i  asjamti  Gersid  R  Foid.' ... 

Un:^vj}fl\mu'  Wiodorn  TIME  Magarinia  ■  Timo  inc 

1 976"  T'ME  Maaaz A:cl  ive  Arucle  --  Hawf  ord  Won  and  Reagan  Lost .... 

"ImF         ~  •    T  ■  Mar  5]  1P76 

A;  RouaM  Rein's  headqu^rterf.  in  Canccrds  clingy  Kir*i  H.impfi*i;fR  Highway  Hotel, 

confid5!i:  aides  hai  cti  lied  several  bon'es  of  AJmaden  hlair  de  frames  ... 

TIME  ^3^iJJEj^c_hrt,e_.'aJlic|?_=  M^er  Lindeieslima    -  TIME  Marline  -  Ttnte  Inc 



DOCID:  4046925 


The  oldest  newspaper  articles  I  saw  are  from  the  Public  Register  or  Freeman's 
Journal  (dating  back  to  1763),  Edinburgh  Advertiser  ( to  1772),  the  Times  of  London 
(to  1788),  and  the  Daily  Universal  Register  of  London  (to  1786).  You  can  read 
articles  in  British  newspapers  about  the  upstart  American  colonials  and  follow  the 
war  news  up  to  a  report  on  November  30,  1781,  in  the  Edinburgh  Advertiser  that 
news  "arrived  off  Cape  Charles  [Virginia]  on  the  24th  [of  October],  when  we  had  the 
mortification  to  hear  that  Lord  Cornwallis  had  proposed  terms  of  capitulation  to  the 
enemy  on  the  19th.  This  intelligence  was  brought  us  by  the  pilot  of  the  Charon,  and 
some  other  persons  Who  came