Skip to main content

Full text of ""Air Forces News Letter," Jan. 1942 - Dec. 1942"

See other formats





WASHINGTON Hovember 16, 1941. 

SUBJECT: Life Insarance. 

TO: All officer c and enlisted men of the U. S. Amgr Air Toreee. 

1. As the Kllitar 7 Personnel Division is charged with the 
maintenance of an adrlsor 7 serrice on insurance, many questions are 
presented from day to day. She need of coaqpetent adrlce on life in- 
surance problems has been increased due to the heavy and rapid in- 
crease in the personnel strength of the Army Air 7orcee. 

2. To meet this need Major Waddell 7. Smith was some time 
ago designated as the Insurance Officer, his duties being to diseeis* 
inate all Information available in reference to aviation insurance pro- 
tection and to conduct a oontlnTxous insurance educational caBq>aign in 
the service. 

3. In an attempt to answer the most general of questions 
and to publish insurance information of wide Interest, a series of tea 
articles were published in the Air 7orces Hews Letter, formerly the Air 
Corps News Letter. Most of this Information is of such permanent value 
that the ten articles are reprinted herewith, ver batlm. 

4. All personnel are urged to study the contents of these 
articles. Due to the lapse of time, some of the information contained 
is inoperative. It should all be read, however, as a background, keep- 
ing in mind the dates on which the eurticles were released. 

7or the Chief of the Air Corps: 

loas 7. Beau, ’ 
Lt. Colonel, Al 
Chief, Military 






Eeprlnt from Air Forces Hews Letter, 
December 15* 1940. 

This Is the beginning of a series of 
articles on life Insurance, and Its In- 
tent is to disseminate Information to 
Air Corps officers concerning U. S. Gk>T- 
ernment Life Insurance, National Service 
Life Insurance, relative merits of the 
'louB forms of policies and time 
lit 8 within which It may be obtained. 
Is suggested that Post Adjutants keep 
file of this and successive Insurance 
ides for the future reference of 
)e Interested. 

■ October 8, 1940, an Act was signed 
le President, and that part relat- 
;o Insuraince Is known as "National 
service Life Insurance Act of 1940." 

By the provisions of tills Act, Govern- 
ment Insurance is no longer obtainable 
by those In the service or who subse- 
quently enter the service. Substitut- 
ing therefor is what 1s to be known as 
"National Service" Life Insurance. The 
maximum is $10,000, and it must be ap- 
plied for on the 5-Year Level Premium 
Term Plan. This plan is low in cost 
^ and has no cash or loan value, but by 
, . law may, after one year or any time 
' - within the five years, be converted to 
Ordinary Life, Twenty Pay Life or 
Thirty Pay Life. The rates on the con- 
! verted forms sire not published yet and 
^ there will not be avsdlable suiy of the 
endowment forms that were offered in 
^ United States Government Insursmce. 
.Neither will the special disability 
clause be obtainable, as it was in the 

NO. 1. 


By Waddell F. Smith, 
Major, Air Corps. 

U.S. Government Insurance for aa extra 
premium. The rates for the 5-Year 
Level Premium Term policies obtainable 
now as National Service Life Insurance 
are listed below as the monthly premium 
per $1,000 insurance: 
























































































The law prescribes that those now in 
the service (as of October 8, 1940) may 
apply for this insurance at any time 
within 120 days of October 8, 1940, pro- 
vided they submit to satisfactory physi- 
cal examination. 

Those entering the service after Octo- 
ber 8, 1940, may obtain this insurance 
at any time within 120 days of admis- 
sion into the service without physical 

The policies as issued will, of 
course, cover death from any cause, in- 

eluding full aviation coverage, war 
coverage, etc,, and if the policy hold- 
er leaves the service he is entitled to 
keep the insurance and enjoy all its 
Denefits exactly us if he had remained 
j,u service. 

I'he insurance is to he administered 
hy the Veterans Administration just as 
is U.S. Government Insurance, and the 
govornment will bear all the expense of 
overhead, etc., and premiums may he 
paid monthly hy entry on pay vouchers 
(pay rolls for enlisted men.) 

411 policies will contain a free dis- 
ability clause which provides that if 
tha insxired is disabled totally for a 
period of six months, that from that 
day on and as long as the insured re- 
mains disabled the premiums on the poll 
cy v/ill be waived. 

A total of no more than $10,000 may 
be held of U.S. Government Insurance 
auh national Service. Therefore, any 
persons not holdir.g $10,000 of Govern- 
ment Insijrance ma^’- apply for $10,000 
of National Service Insurance or such 
amount as will make the total of both 
$10,000. It must be remembered that 
tho'?e who were in the service on Octo- 
ber 8, 1940, and who did not have Gov- 
3rnx.'.,nt Life Insurance, must apply for 
the National Service Ineurance within 
120 days of October 8, 1940. 

A great many officers failed to ob- 
tain their U.S. Government Insurance by 
not applying for it within 120 days of 
admission into the service. This new 
act therefore enables those individuals 
to obtain insurance at low rates and, of 
courte, the premiums charged need not 
be increased to cover aviation hazard, 
a3 la nB;;eseary in commercial insurance, 

Apolicitiou form, Veterans Administra- 
tion - #h"59A, may be used pending pub- 
lication of new applications. Form 

should be changed as follows; At 
the top, delete the words "United 
States Government" and write above it 
"ih'.*:’ onal Service." In paragraph 12 
dflete everything and insert "5-year 
Level Premium Term. " Paragraph #14 
e) d be deleted by drawing lines 
tVc’Oug^x it. Paragraph 16 should be de- 
1 by iiiking out. In paragraph 18, 
sol Tiference to premi-ums for disabil- 

ity and allotment for disability should 
be deleted. 

The War Department has issued under 
date ra October 31, 1140, a Circvilrn 
No. i2t>i which thoroughly covers xhd s 
National Service Insurance, and if otv 
taiaable it is suggested that it be 
read carefully. This should be found 
on file in all post headqxiarters. 

Although this National Service In- 
surance is excellent and the best ob ” 
tainable, it is inconceivable that an,'/- 
one would be justitied in dropping the 
U.S, Government Insurance in order to 
b-uy the National Service Insurance; 
though it is permissible if done prior 
to 120 days from October 8, 1940. The 
Veterans Administration advises tiiat 
such action could only result in loss 
to the U.S, Government Insurance policy 

No criticism of this Insuranc! is 
justified, as it is lowest In coot. The 
entire administrative overhead rj-A afl 
death claims due to the extra haiords 
of the service are paid by the Gevern- 
ment itself, and the premiums paid by 
policy holders represent only actual 
normal mortality costs, Purthon ' re. 
it cannot fail, as it is guarantc.'.d i:r< 
its entirety by tlve Government. 

The rates and cash, loan, paid tip 
Bind extended insurance values of the 
converted forms of policies will he 
printed as soon as they are published 
by the Veterans Administration, and 
will be quoted in a subsequent ai ti>vle 
on Insurance in the Air Corps Kew« 

Those who are on foreign gervic: urc 
advised that their applicatiom:* 
not be in the hands of the Vetai u. 
Administration within 120 da;/’s u;' C-.,'; .' 
ber 8, 1940; rather, they will he 
cepted if the application is mailed 
and postmarked on oi- before 120 
after October 8, 1940, 


Following the publication of t' ■ 
rates for the new National Service lai's 
Insurance, several, individuals evnesiv- 
ed the idea of cashing out tbs u 0- 

- 3 - 

Gorerament policies In order to be able 
to bTi 7 $10,000 of the new Insurance 
within the 120->da7 limit. Upon super- 
ficial consideration xt might appear 
advantageous xmder some circumstances 
to do this, but under no conditions Is 
It advisable If the premiums are being 
paid regularly. 

k great many war veterans have 20-Tear 
Sndoiment policies which are soon to 
mature for their face value, leaving 
them with no more Insurance. Several 
of these Individuals have desired to 
cash out their endowments In the United 
States Goverxunent Insurance, Just In 
time to be within the 120-day limit and 
then obtain new National Service Insur- 
ance. If It were not for the Circum- 
stances to be outlined later, It would 
be advisable to cash the endo%nnent. In 
the past and until the last month, the 
Veterans Administration has consistent- 
ly ruled that when an endowment policy 
(U.S. Government Insurance) matured and 
the Insured received his face amount, 
that he had thereupon surrendered his 
rights, having had his full $10,000 of 
insurance. However, a test ease was 
made in spite of previous adverse de- 
cisions, and the last inillng of the 
Veterans Administration was that policy 
holders (World War veterans only) whose 
endowment policies matured and were 
paid at maturity could Immediately or 
any time thereafter apply for and re- 
ceive a new $10,000 of Insurance on any 
of the U.S. Government Insurance plans 
at his attained age and could also ob- 
tain the disability clause In addition. 
This ruling applies also to those whose 
endowment policies have already matured 
and been paid. There Is no 120-day 
limit Imposed on such cases, but satis- 
factory evidence of Insurability must 
be furnished. 

It is highly advisable for a war vet- 
eran to continue his endowment to ma^ 
turlty and then buy more U.S. Govern- 
ment Insurance than to cash out his 
endowment within 120 days and buy Na- 
tional Service Insuranca. Sven If a 
policy Is heavily encumbered with a 
loan, It Is still advisable. The 
United States Government Ins\rrance Is 
more desirable than National Service 
Instirance, as there are several more 
forms of converted policies from which 
to choose. Also, the special disability 
clause may be obtained In conjtinction 
with Government Insurance. Further, the 
amounts of income to beneficiaries in 
event of death are higher In the Gov- 
ernment Insurance policies than in 
National Service, as the rate of Inter- 
est on which they are computed Is 
higher. Nothing In this, however, 
shovild be construed to detract from the 
value of National Service Insurance. 

If an Insured's endowment matures, he 
may elect to take the face value in the 
form of a monthly income for a limited 
nxmber of months or to take It as a 
life income. Those options should be 
considered carefully, as they are comf 
puted on a basis of 3^ interest, and 
that Is better than can be obtained by 
Investing. For example, $10,000 may bo 
received at the rate of $57,50 monthly 
for 20 years or a total of $13,800. 

The additional $3,800 is 3^ interest. 
Should an insured accept settlement of 
hie matured endowment In the form of an 
Income, that still does not bar him 
from obtaining an additional $10,000 of 
new U.S. Government Insurance. 

In each future Issue of the News Let- 
ter, pertinent points concerning U. S. 
Government Insursuice and National Ser- 
vice Insurance will be discussed. 

NOmiBER 15, 1941 KJST SCfilFT ; The rates for the con- 
verted forms of policies. Ordinary Life, 20 Payment Life 
and 30 Payment Life have now been published and will be 
found in Article 8, pages 22 and 23. 

Application forms now in 
use are Veterans Administration Insurance Form Number 350 
(without physical) and 350 A (with physical) . All refer- 
ence to Form Number 739 A should be ignored. 


KO. 2. 


u.s. QOYimssm iksusavoi 


Beprlnt from Air Force ■ Hews Letter, 
Jaaiiazy 1, 1941. 

Bjr Waddell 7. Smith, 
Major, Air Corps. 

The Decemher 15, 1940, iasiie of the 
Neva Letter puhlished rates and facts 
about the new National Service Life 
lasurance which is now obtainable by 
those in the service or who subsequent- 
ly enter the service. This is a re- 
minder that a time limit of 120 days 
has been Imposed, after which aq>plica- 
tion for the insurance will not be 
considered. As the Act was signed by 
the President on October 8, 1940, then 
the time limit for those who were in 
the service on October 8, 1940, will 
l:q>lre on February 5, 1941. Those who 
entered the service since October 8, 
1940, or who may enter subsequently, 
will have 120 days from date of entry 
within which to apply. This insurance 
is written at absolute cost by the 
Government as the entire overhead is 
assumed by the Veterans Administration. 
Also, the Act which authorized the in- 
surance provided for the creation of a 
separate fund out of which all claims 
will be paid when such claims can be 
traced to the extra hazards of the ser- 

Ho extra premiums are charged to 
cover the extra hazard of aviation. The 
Office of the Chief of the Air Corps is 
very desirous that everyone in the Air 
Corps, Reserves on active duty and avi- 
ation trainees shall have this insur- 
ance. This information should be tho- 
roughly disseminated to all Individuals 

now on foreign service, and any appli- 
cations which are postmarked within the 
120 days will be acted on. Any Indi- 
viduals who may buy this insurance may 
be assured that when they return to 
civil life they may continue their in- 
surance, and the premiums they pay will 
not be used to pay any claims arising 
from the extra hazards of the service. 

The Tumsual value of this insurance 
should be instantly appreciated, as the 
policies cover death from any cause, 
peace time or war time, in or out of 
service. Many individuals have for 
many years regretted not having had the 
old U.S. CoTornment Insurance. They 
now can buy this new Rational Service 
Insurance. The time limit of 120 days 
is positive, and no exceptions can be 
made, and so it is urged that all post 
commanders and organization commanders 
continue to stress the value of this 
insurance to the officers and men of 
their oomand. 

Many of the war-time officers have 
20-year endowment policies written soon 
after the war, and which will soon be 
maturing for their face value. When 
this money is received from the Veter- 
ans Administration it must be reported 
as income for tax purposes, but the 
amount so received is exeipt from tax. 
A test case was ruled on, and it estab- 
lished its nontaxablllty. For refer- 
ence, this case may be found in the In- 

ternal Reroaoe Bulletin* and is known 
as I.'T. - 3924, Bolletln 1939-2, page 
151. This la an interpretation of a 
ease under Section 3, Act of 1935. Jaj 
Internal Herenoe agent will "be alile to 
find this ruling, and it should he cited 
in Baking out Federal income tax re- 

This paragraph is to call to the at- 
tention of holders of TJ.S. OorernBent 
insurance policies (not the new Nation- 
al Service Insurance) that thej have 
the right to add a special dlsahllitj 
clause to their policies hy making ap- 
plication, passing satisfactory physical 
examination and paying the extra premi- 
ums required, j^plication may he Bade 
at any time to the Veterans Admlnistrar> 
tlon, hut it should not he delayed. The 
value of this additional protection is 
considerably in excess of the premiums 

Any disahility arising from aircraft 
accident or from war service is fully 
covered, in addition to dlsahilitles 
froB health causes or accidents. In 
general, its provisions are waiver of 
all future premiums on the policy and 

payment of $5.75 per month per $1,000 
of insurance without dissipating any 
cf the principal of the policy, this 
upon proof of disahility from any cstuse 
which is total and exists for 120 days 
or more. 

One need not he retired from servioe 
to collect this disahility, as oases 
are on record where disahility payments 
have been made during disability with- 
out the individual having been retired. 
However. Just the fact that an officer 
is retired froB service does not mean 
that he will automatically qualify for 
this disahility benefit. It is pos- 
sible for individuals to he retired with 
disabilities which are insufficient to 
qualify, even though they may he of such 
a nature that they Bay last more than 
120 days. The disability clause is of 
great value and should he had by all 
holders of IT. 3. Oovernment Insurance 
policies. Tull information, rates and 
application forms Bay he had by address- 
ing an inquiry to the Veterans Adminis- 
tration, Vashlngten, B.C. , or any of 
its branches. Most supply rooms at aray 
posts have these forms in stock. 

NOVEMBER 15 . 1941 POST SCRIPT . K new 120 day period, 
August 18, 1941 to Decenher 16, 1941, within which 
certain military classes may obtain National Service 
Life Insurance, is now running. See Article 10, page 

All aviation cadets 

and aviation students are now by law automatically 
Insured for $10,000 of National Service Life Insur- 
ance, the premiums thereon being paid by the 
government (Public Laws No. 97 and 99, June 3, 1941). 

HO. 3. 


anpxs or policies discussed 

Baprlnt from Air Porces Hewa Letiert 
March 1. 1941. 

The institution of Goyernment insur- 
ance during the World War vas in effect 
a goremment stas^ of approval on the 
principle of life insurance. Its ef- 
fect vas so wide spread that the en- 
tire population was brought to an ac- 
ceptance and adoption of the utility 
and safety of life insurance. It has 
become the most positive means of 
transmitting the accusmlatlons of one 
generation on to the next. Since the 
World War the total voltune of life in- 
surance in force in all life insurance 
companies has trebled. Life insurance 
has proven Itself to b« the most prac- 
tical medium for army personnel to 
create and pass on their estates to 
wives and children. How the Goverzment 
has again approved of life insurance 
by offering Hational Service Life In- 
surance to all who enter the active 
service, whether they be Selective 
Service enrollees, Hational Gxiardsmen 
or Reserves on active duty. This new 
grot$ is and will be of low average 
age and the great majority without de- 
pendents. Accordingly many will fall 
to purchase any Hational Service Insur- 
ance or as imich as they should. It 
must be applied for within 120 days of 
indxiction and that rule cazmot be void- 
ed. Even though one has no dependents 
a moderate amount is advisable Inas- 
much as life Insurance is sure to be 
needed eventually by the individual. 

All organization commanders should 
stress the importance of it repeatedly, 
Strange as it seems, even Hational 
Service Life Insurance must be "sold.” 
Hational Service Life Insurance is pro- 
vided by the U. S. Government and the 
preoiiums Assessed are only enough to 

• 6 — 

By Waddell P. Smith, 
Major, Air Corps. 

cover normal mortality. All cost of 
sCdmixiistratlon is assumed by the Gov- 
ernment as are all costs of extra haz- 
ards Incidental to the service, either 
in peace time or war time. After the 
Insured return to civil life he may 
retain his insurance on the same ad- 
vantageous basis. (See War Dept. Cir- 
cular 125, Oct. 31, 1940 and Circular 
149, Deo. 10, 1940.) The Government 
has provided the insurance and it is 
now tip to those eligible to recognize 
its merit and apply for it. 

Hational Service Life Instirance must 
be applied for as a five year level 
premium term policy. At any time after 
one year and before the end of five 
years it may be converted to Ordinary 
Life, 20-Payment Life or 30-Payment 
Life. The one year period of defer- 
ment before converting is sound. Plrst, 
if the term policy is dropped then the 
Insured has not lost as he has had 
value received in protection. Second, 
the insured who converts after one 
year will be certain of his desire to 
continue the Insurance for life and 
will have had a year to determine which 
policy he wishes to convert to. 

Much discussion arises as to what is 
the beet form of life Insxirance policy 
to carry. A brief discussion is here- 
with presented. Of the many various 
forme of life insurance policies, they 
may be divided into three classes, 
namely: term policies, life policies, 

and endowment policies. A term policy, 
as its name indicates, covers only a 
limited number of years and as it does 
not cover old age mortality and as it 
bears no cash or paid up value, the 
premiums are consequently low. Term 

Insurance policies may 'be conrerted to 
permanent forms of Insurance, but If 
one Intends to convert them It should 
be done as soon as possible to obtain 
the rates applicable to the younger 

Life policies are, as the name Im- 
plies, life time contracts with level 
premiums payable for life and the fsuse 
amount of Insurance payable at death 
whenever It oocurs. (Ordinary Life or 
Whole Life). This form Is the lowest 
cost Insurance which will provide a 
life time of protection. The one ob- 
jection to this form of policy Is that 
the Insured does not want to have to 
pay premiums all his life. Insurance 
cost must be paid for, no matter what 
the form of policy, therefore, to avoid 
the necessity of payment of premiums 
for life, the premiums which normally 
wottld have to be paid over the years 
of expectancy of an Insured are simply 
compressed Into 20 years or 30 years 
and the result Is a 20-Payment Life 
Policy or a 30-Payment Life Policy, 

In the last two mentioned policies, 
if the Insured la living at the end of 
the premium paying period, then no 
more premiums need be paid and the 
face amount of insurance Is paid tp 
and payable at death. The third type 
of policies are endowments. Any Sn- 
dowment Policy must have a definite 
matturity date and If the Insured Is 
living on the mat-urlty date, then the 
Insurance ceases and the face amount Is 
paid the Insured In cash. An Xndowment 
Policy Is actually a term Insurance 
policy written at term Insurance rates 
with enough added to the term premium 
which, with earned Interest, will equal 
the face amount of the term policy at 

The three types of life Insurance 
policy forms have been described and 
It Is now pertinent to note that no 
endowment forms are available when ITa- 
tional Service Life Insurance is con- 
verted. As the Intent of the Govern- 
ment Is to provide life Insurance and 
as the purpose of an endowment Is pri- 
marily savings, no endowment forms 
have been provided. The most pop-ular 
form of policy is Ordinary Life (also 

known as Whole Life) and sixty per cent 
of all Insurance sold each year Is Or- 
dinary Life. It provides the greatest 
amount of permanent protection for the 
least cost. 

This paragraph Is devoted to the In- 
surance planning of regular officers 
who, when young, want to plain ahead 
their course in Insurauies buying. In 
generad. Insurance Is used for three 
purposes, namely faunlly protection, 
education of children, and provision 
for auldltlonal cash or Income for re- 
tirement. Under average conditions 
family protection should be bought first 
and Increased from time to time until 
the amount Is deemed totally sufficient 
for one's estate. Next, educational 
endowments for children are advisable. 

The xuroal form Is an endowment policy 
for such period of yeaurs which equals 
the differential between the child* s 
age and college age. The Insurance 
should be on the life of the father, 
with a trust agreement which. In event 
of death, will hold the insurance prin- 
cipal at Interest until college age 
when the policy will mature for cash 
and thereby provide the necessary edu- 
cational funds. This form of Insurance 
should not be bought until the family 
has first been adequately protected 
with Ordinary Life (or 20 or 30 Pay) 
insurance as It Is high In cost for the 
Bffloxuit of insurance involved. After 
the family has been adequately protect- 
ed and provision maae for education of 
children, then the thoughts of the head 
of the family will naturally turn to 
some form of endowment which will ma- 
txire at about retirement age to provide 
funds for the purchase of a home. Such 
a program cannot be completed until the 
officer has had tieveral pay Increases. 

A good rule to remember In deciding 
what kind of Insurance to buy Is that 
the natiiral purpose of life insurance 
1s protection and " protection insur- 
ance” Is what should be bought. How- 
ever, as aforementioned, education of 
children and retirement endowment are 
valid reasons for violating the rule, 
but only In moderate amount. 

Air Corps Officers and Air Corps Se- 
serve Officers are today confronted 


with some difflcmlty In o'btalning in- 
surance without anjr restrictions Im- 
posed, such as aviation waivers and 
war clauses. However, insurance with 
out such waivers and clauses can he 
obtained, though the cos^anles still 
writing it have established limits of 
from $2,500 to $5,000. Two companies 
will consider individual eases up to 
$10,000. The Office of the Chief of 
the Air Corps advocates the purchase 
of insurance in adeq\iate amounts by all 

Air Corps personnel, especially the 
flying personnel. With conditions un- 
certain, it is not at all unlikely 
that the remaining conpanles who will 
write insurance without restrictions 
for service pilots, may at any time 
withdraw. The names of some cosQ>anles 
who yet will insure service pilots will 
be furnished on request. Officers re- 
questing this information should ad- 
dress the Office of the Chief of the 
Air Corps, Washington, O.C. 

NOVEMBER 15. 1941 POST SCRIPT ; A new 120 
day period is now running, August 18, 1941 
to December 16, 1941. See Article 10, 
page 30. 

- 8 - 

HO. 4. 


Reprint from Air forces Hews Letter, 
March 15, 1941. 

The most frequent question asked hj 
military personnel about life insur- 
ance is this: Is the life insurance 

policy I bought from the John Hoe Life 
Insurance Company still good since I 
am now in the serrice? In ninety per 
cent of the cases it is. However, one 
should not believe blindly that his 
policy is good. Neither should he be- 
lieve to the contrary without fact. 

Many cases have been known where in- 
dividuals mistakenly believe their 
policies did not cover military serv- 
ice or aviation and allowed their pol- 
icies to lapse. 

This article is intended to aid those 
individuals who are in the service, or 
who may be called into service to de- 
termine the coverage in their policies. 
Xvery word will be inqiortant and the 
article should be studied carefully by 
the individual who is concerned about 
a policy. However, it is impossible 
so completely to cover the svibject that 
all questions may authoritatively be 
answered. Anyone in doubt about the 
coverage of his policy should write the 
home office, furnish the policy number 
and ask the question. An officer once 
said: "I am afraid to write the home 

office and tell them Z am flying for 
fear they will arbitrarily cancel the 
policy." That feeling is wrong and 
should be dismissed. A cogrpany might 
be glad to have an aviator drop a pol- 
icy which he obtained before he com- 
menced flying. However, it is certain 
that no coaqpany would go on record in 
correspondence, stating that a policy 
was not good, unless it actxially did 
not cover aviation. 

Life Insurance policies are presumed 
to cover death from any cause, and if 

By Vaddell 7. Smith, 
Major, Air Corps. 

liability for any specific hazard is 
waived then it must be specifically 
waived by rider in the policy at time 
of issue. If any waiver of liability 
is put in a policy after it has been 
issued and accepted by the insured, it 
may only be done at the request of or 
with the permission of the insured. An 
example of this is a life insurance 
policy on the life of an aviator and on 
which he pays an extra premium to cover 
his occtq>ational hazard. He quits fly- 
ing and asks for removal of the avia- 
tion extra rate. The con^any does so 
at his request and then includes a 
rider providing that the policy no long- 
er covers the insured for aviation ex- 
cept while riding as a fare-paying 
passenger on the air lines. 

In addition to aviation coverage, 
policyholders often are concerned about 
two other occupational factors, namely, 
military service in time of peace and 
military service in time of war. All 
three of these occupational phases will 
be dealt with in subsequent paragraphs. 

Life insurance coirpanies are enq)ow- 
ered to issue contracts of Insurance, 
when such contracts Involve the use of 
the mortality table or, in other words, 
when such contracts are based on the 
expectation of life of the one con- 
tracted with. Inasmuch as policies 
are life-time contracts, the Issuing 
company is charged with responsibility 
for investigating and determining all 
requisite facts before entering into 
the contract . Then when a company once 
approves an application and the con- 
tract Issued, the insured is considered 
to be insured for life, the InsTorance 
to be payable in event of death from 
any cause, no matter how, when or where 

it may happen, so long as he pays the 
ji'^emituns. It is not the province of a 

' « Insurance company to he able to 
£ ,ge or readjust the terms of a pol- 
: ■ just because an insiored chooses to 

i. or his mode of living, develops 
heai-t trouble, or changes his residence 
to a feverish tropical country or learns 
r • fly, or goes to war, etc. As men- 

t' aad, the burden of determining the 
i r-pticted physical and occupational risk 
i « upon the company, based on their 
own informational sources and the state- 
ments made by the applicant in the 
inysical examination and application. 
State insurance commissions are loath 
to permit the companies to put riders 

ii. policies eliminating liability in 
event of death from certain specific 
causes, as the mortality tables, when 
developed, Included deaths from all 
causes. Life insurance policies, 
therefore, are presumed to cover death 
ii'om any cause and can never he can- 
celled or raised in rate by the com- 
panies, though some exceptions will be 
noted later. 

Until war was declared in Europe, the 
coxtunercial insurance companies were 
not s^prehensive about war hazard. Con- 
sequently in the regular routine of is- 
suing policies they felt no necessity 
to use aviation, war or military serv- 
Icfa exclusion riders, and it is x^retty 
certain that policies Issued before 
that time on applicants in civil life 
contained no such restrictions. Many 
aviation cadets and Air Corps Reserve 
officers bought insurance policies at 
Standard rates and with no exclusion 
riders before they entered or applied 
for admission to the service. Such 
X>oJicies are perfectly valid even be- 
fore expiration of the contestability 
period in the policy. However, if aj)- 
plication had already been made for 
aviation training, and the answer "No" 
v/as given to a question in an insur- 
aace application "Are you now or do 
you have any intention of becoming con- 
nected with the military or naval serv- 
ice, either reg\ilar or reserve? ", then 
tuat is a misrepresentation and, if the 
company learns about it, they cam can- 
cel the policy or, if death occurs 

from an aircraft accident, they can 
contest payment of the claim, but can- 
cellation or contest must begin within 
the cuxite stability period in the t>oli- 
cy, usually two years, 

Ihe X'Oint of expression intended in 
the preceding paragraph is that if at 
the time of application the individual 
is not already in military or naval 
service and is not then flying or has 
not in writing expressed a request for 
such service, a policy Issued on such 
application is good from date of issue 
in event of death from any cause. That 
is true even if the insured subsequent- 
ly enters the service, aviation or 
ground service. If death occurs, even 
in time of war, the face amount of the 
policy is payable. 

Since war was declared in Europe, 
all the companies have considered use 
of military service, war service and 
aviation service exclusion riders and 
have used them in individual cases or 
on certain age and sex classes where it 
was felt the possible risk was too 
great to assume. The insurance com- 
panies axe justified in tliis, for their 
first duty is to protect the interests 
and Invested assets of the policy hold- 
ers who already are in the company. 

This article relates only to policies 
already owned and in force in commer- 
cial insurance companies; therefore, no 
mention is made of what, if any, re- 
strictions might be found imposed in 
policies that may in fut\ire be appilied 
for by those who are now in the mili- 
tary service. 

The "Contestibility Clause" in every 
life insurance policy is -universally 
mi s-under stood by policyholders and 
usually adversely understood. An ex- 
planation of this clause, therefore, 
is necessary. Every company uses its 
own phraseology, but the general im- 
port is the same in all, so that an 
interpretation of one practically means 
all. When such a clause says; "This 
policy shall be incontestible after 
two years from date of issue," it does 
not mean that an insurance company can 
refuse payment within that time or 
cancel the policy within that time, 
and it does not mean that an ins-ured 

- 10 - 

vast wait two yeare to 1)6 anre of hla 
protection. It does nean that, if a 
fraud or misrepresentation is ia^oaed 
x^on an insurance oos^pangr to obtain an 
Insurance poll 07 and if the coBpanjr dia- 
cowers it within two 7oars (some poli- 
cies one 7ear) , the7 may sue to cancel 
the P0IIC7. If the coaipan7 does not 
dl scorer the fraud or misrepresenta- 
tion and the insured dies within two 
7ears, then if the compan7 can prore 
the fraud or misrepresentation the7 can 
contest paTment of the insurance. The 
fraud or misrepresentation Blast hare 
been made to obtain the Insurance and 
it must be in the pollC7, as a part of 
the statements Blade in the application 
or to the medical exasilner. If fraud 
or Bilsrepresentatlon was eomsiltted and 
the Insured dies within two 7ears, eren 
then in order to contest, the C0B^an7 
must prore that the fraud related to 
the cause of death. If an i^plicant 
concealed the fact that he was an avi- 
ation cadet and obtained insurance, but 
died in an automobile accident within 
two 7ears, the eompan7*s protest would 
not hold. As a matter of pollC7, no 
one would carr7 Insxirance pa7able iqion 
death which might not occur until BUU37 
7ears hence, if it was thought that 
the claim would be contested. Assur- 
ance is therefore given b7 the oon- 
teetlbillt7 clause that, after two 
7ears, the compan7 deprives Itself of 
an7 right of contest except for non- 
payment of premiums. By repetition it 
is again stated that a policy may not 
be contested even within the two-year 
period unless fraud or misrepresenta- 
tion was committed to obtain the policy. 

ill companies offer an additional 
feature with life insurance policies 
for an extra premium, known as a "Dou- 
ble Indemnity Clause” or "Accidental 
Death Benefit.” Three clauses gener- 
ally provide that if the death of the 
Insured occurs from accidental causes 
that the face amount of the policy will 
be doubled. In the last few years, In 
addition to all deaths from natural 
causes, siccidental deaths of all kinds 
have increased the rate by approximately 
10^, These clauses are therefore good 

added protection, bnt it mast be re- 
membered that these clauses do not 
cover all -accidental deaths. The 
clauses generally state that "Provided, 
however, that no Double Indeainlty shall 
be paid if the death of the insured re- 
sults from suicide, sane or insane, 
participation in riot, insurrection, or 
civil commotion, or from subBiarlne op- 
erations or aircraft flights (except 
M a fare-paying passenger) or from 
participation in aillitary or naval 
service in tlBie of war.” 

How Biany times have we erroneously 
heard: ins-uranee doesn't cover me 

on flints in army aircraft,” or ”Hy 
Insurance is no good in time of war.” 
These misunderstandings can nearly al- 
ways be traced to reading the excep- 
tions in Double IndoBinlty Clauses, as 
noted in the previous paragraph. The 
insured carries the iBQ>reesion that 
war service, aviation, etc., are not 
covered when actually the policy is 
good, only the Double Indemnity fea- 
ture being restricted. 

Many commercial insurance policies 
which were obtained prior to entry in- 
to the Air Corps contain disability 
clauses which provide that, if the in- 
sured is disabled from either sickness 
or accident for 120 days or more (or 
varying period), the company will waive 
future premiums on the policy and, in 
addition, pay a disability income to 
the Insured. These clauses do not gen- 
erally exclude disabilities occasioned 
by war service, flying accidents, etc. 
Therefore, policyholders in service 
who have such disability clauses may 
doubly appreciate them, especially if 
any flying is being done. 

Any reputable life insurance coiapany 
will do exactly what its policy con- 
tracts provide. Therefore, it is im- 
portant that every policyholder should 
read his policy. Most questions can 
be answered in that way. However, aiany 
qri^eetlons do come -oq> and matters of 
fjarHoe are needed. Hvery policyhold- 
er should feel free to c«J.l on the 
agent sold him the policy« or that 
office In which the policy records are 
carried, or the home office. One who 

- 11 - 

is awci7 from home can. ea8ll7 obtain 
adTlce and eervlce by calliag on the 
aeareet local office of hio inenrance 
oos^any. Hoverer, nhenerer any change 
la xuuie in a policyi or an amendment 
or an interpretationt it amat come from 
the home office in order for it to be 
binding upon the coapany* 

The foregoing article haa dealt en- 
tirely with life Insurance wit ten by 

private life insurance companies. Ho 
mention has been made of U. S. Gk>rern- 
ment Insurance or National Serrice(U.S.) 
Insurance. !Fhe fforemment, through 
the U. S. Yeterans Bureaut administers 
this Insurance, and its purpose is to 
protect against all accident hazards. 

Ho military, war or aviation exclusion 
riders are ever used. 


Beprlnt from Air 7oro«t levs Letter 
i^rll 1—16, 1941. 

Bjr Waddell 7. Saith, 
Major, Hr Corps. 

SO. 6. 

What Is an "Old Line* life Insurance 
conpan7T What Is meant hj "legal re- 
serye," a "stock cos^any" and a "mutual 
conqpanjrT* These points are most gen- 
erally understood hut ezplanatlon should 
he of Interest. 

"Old Line* Is simply a popular name 
for Legal Beserre," therefore they 
are synonymoua, and any future refer- 
ence to "Legal Beserre* Insurance will 
also mean "Old Line* Insurance. Any 
life Insurance conpany which Is char- 
tered to do huslness as a legal re- 
serve cospany most set aside the legal- 
ly required reserve which Is established 
hy law as being required to make each 
policy financially secure. The reserve 
Is nothing when a policy Is Issued, 
hut It Increases yearly as the poll^ 
Increases In age and the Increase Is 
effected hy Inpoundlng a part of the 
premium each year cuid Investing and 
compounding It. The legal reserve 
(cash value) of an Ordinary Life policy 
must continually Increase until at the 
age of 96 the reserve will equal the 
face amount of the policy. The mortal- 
ity table runs out at the age of 96; 
therefore, any persons Insured who are 
living at age 96 are paid the face 
amount of their policies. An Ordinary 
Life policy is, therefore, an Bndow- 
ment at 96. 

The amount of legal reserve must he 
continually increased even after a 
policy becomes paid xp. A twenty pay- 
ment life policy issued at age 20 is 
paid up at age 40, with a reserve 
value at 40 of approximately $460 per 
$1,000 of Insurance. After age 40 the 

reserve continues to Increase, not from 
premiums hut from Interest earned and 
cospouxided on the reserve itself. The 
reserve on an endownent policy must he 
Increased as rapidly as the age of the 
endowment Increases. At maturity of 
an endowment the reserve must equal 
the face amount of the policy In order 
to pay the face amount in cash. From 
the foregoing it can be seen that every 
life insurance policy in force on the 
hooks of a company has an Individually 
ascertainable reserve based on the age 
of the Instired at date of issue of the 
policy, age of the policy after issue, 
type of policy, such as Ordinary Life, 

20 Payment Life, or Sndowment. 

In peroalng the financial statement 
of a legal reserve life Insurance com- 
pany, the Item listed under Liabilities 
as "Legal reserve to protect the policy- 
holders” is an amount equal to the sun 
total of each individually calculated 
reserve on each policy, for that year. 

Legal reserve is of interest to poli- 
cyholders In two ways. First, If 
every policyholder of a legal reserve 
life Insurance coapany decided on the 
same day to surrender his policy for 
cash, then the legal reserve held by 
the coapany would be Just the required 
amount to pay off every policyholder. 
Second, if a legal reserve life insur- 
ance compaxiy should cease doing brisl- 
ness, then the legal reserve, which the 
various states can control, would be 
sufficient to pay all death claims as 
they occur and pay all endowments as 
they mature, provided those insured 
continue payment of their premiums. All 

legal reserve funds are invested In 
state approved securities and at any 
tine that a company is considered near 
to insecurity, the state in which, it 
is incorporated can conqpel it to cease 
selling new insurance. The legally 
recLulred reserve of course is adequate 
protection for the policyholders and 
if the state should deem it necessary 
to protect the policyholders, the en- 
tire legal reserve and the policyhold- 
ers may he transferred to another com- 
pany for management or merger. 

In buying commercial insurance it is 
ln 5 >ortant to ascertain the rating of 
the company. All of the major insur- 
ance companies have now and have con- 
tinuously had top ratings for years. 

Each company is rerated every year. 

These ratings may be obtained from the 
National Underwriter Company, Cincinna- 
ti, Ohio, or Alfred M. Best and Company, 
New York, N.Y. or your insurance agent. 
These institutions rate insurance com- 
panies Just as Dunn and Bradstreet rate 
the credit of business concerns. 

The legal reserve life insurance com- 
panies ere divided into two classes, 
"stock companies" and "Mutuals." Both 
types by law establish the legally re- 
quired reserves to protect policyhold- 
ers. The difference is that the rates 
of stock companies are fixed at the 
lowest possible level and no dividends 
are paid to policyholders. The mutual 
compainy's rates are usxially higher than 
the stock company rates, but the mut-ual 
companies refund this excess charge as 
a dividend to the policyholder and 
the amount of dividend is dependent oi 
mortality, savings, administration cost, 
and interest earnings. 

Originally, life insurance companies 
wotild issue a policy only when an ap- 
plicant was absolutely a standard risk, 
physically and occupationally. Probably 
half of the companies still refuse to 
issue a policy unless the risk is stand- 
ard and can be Issued at standard 
rates. A good many cou 5 )anie 8 , however, 
now practice writing sub-standard poli- 
cies for physical and occupational im- 
pairments. For example, a man who ?s 
Overweight would be turned down by one 
company while another company would 

accept the risk by adding to the stand- 
ard premiums. An army pilot may be 
turned down by one company yet another 
will add $1.00 per month per thousand 
and insure him. 

The $1.00 per month per $1,000 extra 
rate for Air Corps officers was estab- 
lished in 1930 and except for some 
variations, has remained and is accepted 
today as the extra premi-um required to 
cover the aviation hazard. Years back 
the accident rate was higher than now. 
The present low accident rate, however, 
has not effected a reduction in insur- 
ance extra premium charges. 

There are a number of good life in- 
surance companies who several years 
ago adopted the $1.00 per month per 
$1,000 extra rate for Regular officers 
in the Air Corps. As these companies, 
with two or three exceptions had no 
one familiar with the army and avia- 
tion who specialised in this type of 
insurance, they have to this date had 
few applications from Air Corps offi- 
cers. Having little or none of this 
aviation business, they have not felt 
impelled to withdraw their policy of- 
ferings to aviators because of the 
possibility of war exposxire. 

These companies have all, however, 
Euiopted a rule that they would not ac- 
cept any applications from brokers. 

They will, however, issue policies when 
the applications come in from their 
full time civil life agents in their 
various offices around the country. 

Care should be exercised before accept- 
ing a policy to determine that it does 
not contain a war clause or an aviation 

Air Corps Reserve officers on extend- 
ed active duty have generally never 
been eligible for life insurance with 
aviation coverage. Their hazard while 
on active duty is comparable to that 
of the Regulars. However, a life in- 
surance policy is a life time contract, 
amd if a policy is issued while on ac- 
tive duty the company must continue on 
the risk after the active duty period. 
Not knowing what the post active duty 
risk may be, the companies have not 
been willing to issue to officers with 
aviation coverage. One company is re- 

- 14 - 

putedly villiQ£, howerer, to accept 
Air Corps Eeserre officers* and. the 
Identity of the cospany vill be fur- 
nished on request. 

The office of the Chief of Air Corps 
strongly adrocates the purchase of 
life Insurance. At the present time 

there Is no guarantee that Insurance 
may be bought In the future. Any ad- 
Terse headline of the newspapers can 
easily be such as to cause the insur- 
ance companies to withdraw their offer- 
ings until complete settlement of the 
International situation. 

- 15 - 

NO. 6 


Reprint from Air Ibrces Newe Letter, 

May 1, 1941. 

QjJESTION; Can ny U. S. Government 
Life InsTjrance Policy (not National 
Service Life Insurance) be paid in in- 
stallments to ny beneficiary in event 
of my death? 

ANSWER; Yes. All U. S. Government 
Life Ins;irance Policies (not National 
Service Life Ins\irance) are paid to the 
beneficiary in a lump sum unless the 
insured elects daring his life time 
how the proceeds shall be paid and then 
the method of settlement he elects is 
a compulsory settlement. However, he 
may cancel the provision or change it 
at any time during his life time. If 
the insured makes no election, then the 
beneficiary may elect to take the pro- 
ceeds in installments instead of a 
lump sum. However, since few benefi- 
ciaries will avail themselves of the 
opportunity, tne ins'ored should pre- 
scribe the method of settlement during 
his life time. 

Option No. 2 in the policy provides 
for a limited number of monthly pay- 
ments. The amount of the monthly in- 
stallments depends on the number of 
months selected, which may be from 36 
to 240 months. The installments are 
computed by figuring in 3i% interest 
in advance 6ind the table of amounts of 
monthly installments are in the policies. 

Option No. 3 provides for a monthly 
payment to the beneficiary every month 
for life. The amount of the monthly 
income is determined by the age of the 
beneficiary at the tiae of the death 
of the insured. Two hundred and forty 
such installments are guaranteed and 
should the beneficiary die after the 
insured and before receiving at least 
240 months installments, then the re- 
maining installments will be paid to 

By Waddell P. Staith 
Major, Air Corps 

the contingent beneficiary. This option 
has the advantage of a guaranteed monthly 
income to the beneficiary, so long as the 
beneficiary lives. 

A Safe Investment 

These options should be utilized by in- 
sured personnel. A widow can rarely in- 
vest a lump sum of money with the same de- 
gree of safety and get 3^^ interest on it. 
Even though S- beneficiary should be frugal 
and not given to reckless spending, there 
still is the ever present possibility of 
improperly investing a lump sum of money. 
United States Government Life Insurance is 
a sound medium for the insured to create 
an estate, therefore it should be equally 
as sound in conserving the estate for the 
beneficiary. No reference has been made 
to National Service Life Insurance which 
is the form of insurance issued in the 
service since October 8, 1940. This in- 
surance is made payable to the beneficisury 
in installments without any action on the 
part of the insured. Any installments 
that may be due a beneficiary are not sub- 
ject to attachment for debts of a bene- 

Guardsmen Eligible 

Q,UESTI0N: I am a National Guardsmen. 

Am I entitled to buy National Service Life 

ANSWER; The National Service Life In- 
surance Act of 1940, passed October 8, 1940, 
permits anyone who is ordered into active 
service for a period in excess of thirty 
days to apply for National Service Life In- 
surance. All personnel of the National 
Guard that have been inducted into Federal 
seivice under existing law are entitled to 
apply for this insurance. Application 
must be 

16 - 

aad« however within 130 days of induo- 

Selective Service enrolleee in acti/e 
service and neahers of the Officers Ee> 
serve Corps and the Inlisted ^serve 
Corps who are ordered into active serv- 
ice for a period In excess of thirt 7 
are also ellglhle within the 130 
Halt. Officers in the Regular 
▲riiQr are ellglhle onlj within 130 daors 
of eoanlsslon. l^on proaotlon an of* 
fleer is not given a new chance to ap- 
ply. Xslisted sen in the Begolar iragr 
may ^pply within 130 days of enlist- 
lasnt and each reenllstaent. Aviation 
Oadats who failed to apply for any Ha- 
'(.ianal Service Life Insurance or the 
maxlaran of $10,000 nay aalce a new ap- 
plication for the insurance or the 
calanoe to make a total of $10,000, 
anly after discharge to aocepi a re- 
serve commission, and thau must apply 
vStain 120 days of ef'^e date of 

extended active duty. 

ifcllSSTlOirj I am in hegular Amy 

i id Jifeve a $10,000 U. S. Ckiveruaent 
,1. Insurance Policy to •^hich / have 
*iv'. .V-.' special Cii:..'..; . cl.-ar- 
ai .r^3tired seme* for 

' * T * ty will I ■. .■ >• .-Ts.y/ ’ f ’It 

the banufltt.': vl:ls ai. sabi i : ty 

fr<Tm ;r -• e 

\ a.' - 

JSy0r,7 0 ^ 

a rro'vrla ’ if t- 

When an Insured has added the special 
dlsahllity clause, for which he pays 
an extra premium, he still may not ex- 
pect automatic qualification in event 
of retirement. Though the special die- 
ahility clause does not require per- 
manent dieahility, it must he total 
disahillty for a ijeiiod 1. of 

120 days. There are cases on record 
of Air Corps officers who have collect- 
ed the special disahliity payments for 
long periods, hut who were not retired 
and who suheequently returned to a 
duty status, il. though there is some 
misunderstanding which the foregoing 
63q>loration may clear up, auiything said 
should not he considered derogatory to 
the value of this special dlsahllity 

The dlsahllity clause covers dlsahil- 
Ity for un^' uavse, whether elckneee 
or aceldec , , and it is an especsali/ 
good «uluf ‘ I is '-ii-verage in event 

of dAaftl-l,U ;/ from a^.rcraft accidenT 
and fi oo ddsabliity incurred In war 
serri ce, wh^ hae a policy of 

U. S> Ins'iraiif'-? 1« ru~ 

thC'i- . 

c! sc S' r p 'licy and should do so* 

T ' : .f ; zo'-’^ e y<? <■,.»? the 

Tt:.;"'.. r'. write i, , 1 ''etar- 

ans ^ . hTiph-! D, C.. . end. ask 

f.,;, ' f -i' .«!, 

polir- ■" 'ar 

0 ^ a 1 . - -S.S < 

het'"' > Life InsTirance 

and Xiife Tnemrence’ 

Veterans Bureau. These are the only 
tvo Insxirance hodies that are official 
gorernmental functions. 

Polic 7 Gan Be Keduoed 

qPDESTIOH: If I huy the full $10,000 

of National Service Life Insurance, 
then can I later reduce the amount of 
insurance If necessary? 

ANSWXR: Tes. The amount of Insur- 

ance can he rediiced at any time to any 
amount of $1,000 or more. Hoverer, If 
lees than $10,000 is initially applied 
for, then the amount may not he in- 
creased except \Q)On reenllstment in the 
Hegular Irmy or upon being reordered to 
active duty. If an Individual feels 
that $10,000 may he too much Insurance 
to carry permanently, the full $10,000 
still should he bought if possible in 
order to have the full amount of pro- 
tection during the emergency. Any time 
after one year, and before expiration 
of five years, the Insxired can convert 
any part of the insurance to one of 
the three permanent forms. It is even 
permissible to convert any amount de- 
sired and still continue the balance 
as term insurance for the remainder of 
the five years. It is also possible 
to convert part of the Insurance to one 
plan such as Ordinary Life and another 
part to 20- or 30-Payment Life, 

({□ilSTION: What provision is made in 

National Service Life policies in event 
of disability. 

ANSWER: If the Insured becomes total- 

ly disabled for six months or more, 
then the premiums on the policy are 
waived for life or as long as the dis- 

ability lasts. In event of death any 
premiums so waived are not deducted 
from the face amount of insurance. This 
disability clause is granted to all 
National Service Life Insurance policy- 
holders without extra charge. 

Easn'.t Received Poll^. 

(^STION: I applied for my National 

Service Life Insurance a month ago and 
have not yet received my policy. When 
should I eacpect it? 

ANSWER: Up to April 19, 1941, the 

Veterans Bureau had received 336,000 
applications for a total volume of 
$1,150,806,720 of insurance. It takes 
time and great care to process all 
these applications accurately. However, 
the Veterans Bureau is getting out in- 
dividual certificates to appliccmts, 
acknowledging the insurance liability 
of the Government and they generally 
reach the applicants within thirty 
days. This certificate will be re- 
placed by a regular policy when the 
insured converts his policy. 

QUESTION: What if I should lose my 

National Service Life InsTirance Cer- 

ANSWER: The claim will be paid in 

event of death even if the certificate 
is lost or destroyed. Indentity and 
the military status of the deceased 
will have to be established, also that 
of the beneficiary. If, however, a 
certificate is lost, the Veterans Bur- 
eau should be notified and the policy 
number furnished, if possible, along 
with a request for a duplicate. 


SO. 7 

Heprixit from Air Forces Sewe Letter, 

Mey 15, 1941. 

This article is directed to the at~ 
tentlon of all elaeeea of military per- 
Bonnel who hare applied for National 
Service Life Insurance since October 
8, 1940. 

Since that date the Veterans Admini- 
stration has received more than 395,000 
applications for National Service Life 
Insurance and it can be seen that it 
is a Herc\ilean task to process that 
many applications. This article is 
written to assure such applicants of 
the status of their applications and 
insurance coverage. 

The Insurance Division of the Veterans 
Administration has always been very ac- 
curate in its contract relations with 
policyholders and is continuing to 
maintain its standards, but due to the 
sudden load since October 8, 1940, it 
has held difficulty in keeping pace, 
plicants for insurance are urged to have 
patience and allow the Veterans Admini- 
stration time to shoulder the load. 

All applicants who have met the re- 
quirements in applying for the insur- 
ance and are paying the premiums may be 
sure that they are fully covered by the 
Insurance, even tho\igh they have or may 
not have received certificate. 

Following a practice during the World 
War, the Veterans bureau does not issue 
a policy for the aiplication for Nation- 
al Service Life Insurance. The Act of 
October 8, 1940 authorized the issue of 
a five year term contract with 3 )rlvllege 
of conversion to a permanent plan of in- 
surance after one year and before expir- 
ation of the five years. As the initial 

By Waddell F. Smith, 
Major, Air Corps. 

contract is for term insurance, the Vet- 
erans Administration issues to appli- 
cants a "National Service Life Insurance 
Certificate." This designates the num- 
ber of the contract, the amount of in- 
surance, the effective date and the 
name of the ipplicant. 

This certificate is full evidence of 
the contract of insurance and no policy 
will be Issued tmless or until the term 
contract is converted as provided by 
law after one year from isstie and within 
the five-year term period. When the in- 
sured converts, he then will receive a 
regular policy on the plan of converted 
insurance selected. 

Applications that are filled out cor- 
rectly with service record properly 
verified are usually acted on and a 
certificate issued to the applicant 
within a month. However, some are de- 
layed due to necessity of verifying 
service records with the Adjutant (Gen- 
eral, dates of Induction, extension of 
active duty. There is an endless amount 
of work which must be done and done care- 
fully and accurately in processing these 
applications before the time comes when 
the certificate can be mailed out. 

It is suggested to new applicants 
that they be certain that their appli- 
cations are made out correctly and with- 
in the 120-day period. Then they should 
pay the premiums regularly, preferably 
by deduction from pay, and in course of 
time they will receive a certificate. 

Applicants should make an exact copy 
of the application to file as a part of 
their papers and to keep until the cer- 

- 19 - 

tlfleate arrlTee. It is also a good 
plan to put a maao with the oopj of the 
application indicating how premlms are 
heing paid, h 7 allotment monthly, or h 7 
monthl 7 , quarterl 7 , semi-annual or 
annual check. 

WheneTer an 7 mone 7 is sent to the 
Veterans hureau, whether check or mone 7 
order, In paTment of an 7 premium after 
the first, it should he made payable to 
The Treasurer of the United States and 
sent to Director of 71nance, U.S. Vet- 
erans Administration, Washington, D.C. 
Delay In crediting such sums will he 
aTolded If, In communications a corre- 
spondent gires his full name, service 
number, amount of application, and age 
and date of birth. It readily can be 
seen that this will enable the Veterans 
Administration to identify his insur- 
ance record. There are so many diq>ll- 
catlons of names that action must 
be delayed until definite location of 
the proper individual's record. It is 
worthwhile to keep a copy of all such 
communications as evidence of the trans- 

Paragraph 14 in the application for 
National Service Life Insurance asks 
where and to whom the applicant wishes 
the certificate mailed. A large per- 
centage of certificates issued by the 
Veterans Administration are mailed to 
the individuals designated in Paragraph 
14 of the applications. Also a large 
percentage of such applicants forget 
that they requested that the certificate 
be mailed to some other individual and 
then wonder why they have not received 
their certificates. 

Some iq>pll cants do not have any liv- 
ing beneficiary within the permitted 
classes, namely wife, child (including 
adopted child, step-child or illegiti- 
mate child) parent* or brother or sister 
(including whole or half blood) of the 
insured. Not having any relatives with- 
in the permitted classes does not pre- 
clxide issue of the insurance. Parar» 
gr^h No. 12 of the application should 
be completed "No living beneficiary 
within the permitted classes." The 
certificate will be issued to the appli- 
cant and should he subsequently marry 

or have children he then is privileged 
to name such beneficiary. If an Instxred 
dies without having a named beneficiary, 
then search will be made and the insur- 
ance paid to beneficiaries in the fol- 
lowing order: First, widow, if she 

survives the Insured. If no widow, 
then payment will be made to child or 
children, equally. If no children sur- 
vive the insured, then payment will be 
made to parent or parents if living, 
otherwise to brothers and sisters. 

If an applicant has no beneficiaries 
within these classes, he should apply 
for Insurance anyhow because of the 
probable future need of the Insurance. 
Under normal conditions, such an indiv- 
idual could wait until the need arose. 
However, National Service Life Insurance 
must be applied for within 120 days of 
induction into the service. The extreme- 
ly high quality of the insurance and 
the very low cost make of it a value 
which is too good to pass up. 

This insurance shotild not be looked 
xpon as temporary protection for the 
emergency; rather as permanent life time 
insurance protection by conversion to 
one of the regular permanent contracts, 
after one year and before expiration of 
the five-year term. 

7ollowiz:g the Vorld Var, the War Bisk 
Insurance Division of The U.S. Feterans 
Bureau received many claims by widows 
and parents for payment of husband' s or 
son's Insurance, when such insxirance was 
never applied for. The Veterans Bureau 
was put in a bad light and had to face 
the uj^leasant task of denying payment 
to stqppoeed beneficiaries. Investlgar* 
tion in most cases revealed that the 
individual never applied for insurance, 
but for x>ereDnal reasons advised wife, 
mother, or other supposed beneficiary 
that he had government insurance when 
he had never cpplied for it. 

In recent weeks the author has talked 
with reserve officers, enlisted men, and 
selective service enrollees and found 
that some individuals were under the im- 
pression that they were automatically 
insured by the Quvemment and had so 
informed their dependents. These con- 
clusions were arrived at by casual 

- 20 - 

eonTersatlons with other uninformed 
personnel, whereas th 07 should hare 
sought accurate information from their 
organisation commanders. The estab» 
lishment of such misapprehensions as 
stated ahore may not come to light Tintll 
7sars later. 

Difficult situations also arose after 
the World War h 7 yetorans dropping their 
insurance hut concealing the fact from 
the beneficiaries. The Veterans bureau 
then haid the unpleasant task of conylnc-> 
ing the beneficiaries that the insured 
and not the Veterans bureau failed 
to live iq) to the terms of the contracts 
of insxtrance. 

▲ little aside from the foregoing 
subject is the dating of National Serv- 
ice Life Insurance when it is applied 
for near the end of the 120 -da 7 period 
after induction. Howeyer, it is of such 
interest that it will be mentioned in 
this paragraph. The law allows onl 7 120 
days and the application must be made 
before expiration of that time. Howeyer, 
regulations will permit the effectlye 
date of the instirance to be the first 

of the month following the month in 
which application is made, proylded no 
Cash payment is made with the appli- 
cation and also provided deduction of 
the first month's premiiaa is made from 
the pay of the month in tdilch applicai- 
tion is made. Acttially then it is 
possible to haye the effectlye date of 
the insurance m much as 30 days later 
than 120 days after induction into the 
service and still meet the requirements. 
The date of application and not the 
effectlye date anist be within the re- 
quirement of law of 120 days. If, how- 
eyer, the effectlye date is the first 
of the folloirlng month, no insurance 
coverage is proylded from date of appli- 
cation until that date. 

The Veterans Administration has always 
shown itself to be more than anxious 
and willing to go to any length to pro- 
tect the interests of both insureds auid 
beneficiaries. Add to that the intelli- 
gent cooperation of the Individuals 
concerned and the result will be a life 
insurance service that is unequaled in 
quality and relative cost. 

NOVEMBER 15. 1941 POST SCRIPT ; Since June 3, 1941 
aviation cadets and aviation students are automatic- 
ally insured for |10,000 of National Service Life. 
Cadets and students must, however, complete an 
application in conformance with War Department Cir- 
cular No. 132, July 8, 1941. 

eonTersatlons vith other tmlnforaed 
pereosnel, whereas ths7 should have 
sought acciarate iaforaation from their 
organisation commanders. The estab- 
lishment of such misapprehensions as 
stated above may not come to light until 
years later. 

Difficult situations also arose after 
the World War by veterans dropping their 
insurance but concealing the fact from 
the beneficiaries. The Veterans btireau 
then had the uiq>leasant task of convinc- 
ing the beneficiaries that the Insured 
and not the Veterans bureau had failed 
to live up to the terms of the contracts 
of insurance. 

A little aside from the foregoing 
subject is the dating of National Serv- 
ice Life Insurance when it Is applied 
for near the end of the 120-day period 
after induction. However, it is of such 
Interest that it will be mentioned in 
this paragraph. The law allows only 120 
days and the application must be made 
before expiration of that time. However, 
regulations will permit the effective 
date of the insurance to be the first 

of the month following the month in 
which application is made, provided no 
cash payment is made with the appli- 
cation and also provided deduction of 
the first month's premium is siade from 
the pay of the month in %dilch applica- 
tion is made. Actually then it is 
possible to have the effective d^te of 
the insurance m much as 30 days later 
than 120 days after induction into the 
service aid still meet the requirements. 
The date of application and not the 
effective date must be within the re- 
quirement of law of 120 days. If, how- 
ever, the effective date is the first 
of the following month, no insurance 
coverage is provided from date of appli- 
cation until that date. 

The Veterans Administration has always 
shown itself to be more than anxious 
and willing to go to any length to pro- 
tect the interests of both insureds and 
beneficiaries. Add to that the intelli- 
gent cooperation of the individuals 
concerned and the result will be a life 
insurance service that is unequaled in 
quality and relative cost. 

NOVEKBER 15. 1941 POST SGRIFT ; Since June 3, 1941 
aviation cadets and aviation students are automatic- 
ally insured for #10,000 of National Service Life. 
Cadets and stxidents must, however, complete an 
application in conformance with War Department Cir- 
cular No. 132, July 8, 1941. 

- 21 - 


By Waddell F. Smith 
yjajor, Air Corps 

NO. 8 

The National Service Life Insurance Act Age Monthly Qiaarterly Semi-Annual Annual 

was signed on October 8, 1940. It provided 


the insurance was issued. as 

a five-year 






level premium term contract and 

that it could 






be converted at any • 

time after on year and 






before expiration of 

the five years to either 






Ordinary Life, 

Twenty Payment Life or Thirty 






Payment Life. 

On October 8, 1941, the first 

policies will be one 

year old and eligible 







conversion. The following tables quote 







rates on the three available 

forms . 






Rates for ages 

not quoted will be furnished 






by the Veterans Administration upon direct 






request . 












Premium Rates for $1 












Age Monthly Quarterly Semi-Annual Annual 





35. 4o 










♦13. 97 













Premium rates for #1,000 











Age Monthly QuarterLv Semi-Annual Annual 


















































































































10. A4 







- 22 - 

Monthly Quarterly SemlAnnual Annual 










































































































Premium rates for $1,000 

Age Monthly Quarterly Semi-Annual Annual 






















































































Age Monthly Quarterly Semi-Annual Annual 

















































































All three forms of converted insurance 
will contain a table of surrender values 
consisting of cash or loan valvie, paid up 
insurance value and extended insurance vali 
The premiums cheirged for any of these threi 
converted forms of policies are lower than 
any obtainable old line legal reserve part- 
icipating insurance. Policyholders will 
receive a substantial euinual dividend iidiict 
will further reduce the cost of the insur- 
ance. No other insurance should be consid- 
ered t3 be equal to these converted policie 
due to the low rates and dividends. The 
table of cash and loan values and paid v^> 
and extended insurance values will be equal 
to or greater than obtainable in any other 
commercial insurance issued at the same age 
and on the same plan of insurance. 

New National Service Life Insiu:ance 

The act authorizing this insurance pro- 
vides that it must be axjplied for within 
120 days (not four months) of induction 
into the service or extension of active 
duty. By reference to the following table 
the last day upon which application may be 
made 8uid signed amd put in channels or the 
mail may be readily obtained. 

- 23 - 

Daily Table Showing the Last Day of the 
Statutory 120-Day Period During Vttiich 
Acceptable .^iplication Eor lns\u*ance 
may be Submitted. 

Entry Pinal Entry 

Pinal Entry 








Jan.l May 1 Feb.l J\ane 1 Mar.l 

J\ine 29 












July 1 



































































































































































Note ; This table being constructed for 
PebiTaary witii 28 days, the proper allow- 
ance must be Jiade for leap year. 

Entry Pinal Entry Pinal Entry Pinal 

Date Date Date Date Date Date 

Apr.l July 30 i'^jay 1 Aug. 29 Jiane 1 Sept. 29 

2 31 2 30 2 30 

3 AUg. 1 3 31 3 Oct. 1 

4 24 Sept.l 4 2 

5 3 5 2 5 3 

6 4 6 3 6 4 

7 5 7 4 7 5 

8 6 8 5 8 6 

9 7 9 6 9 7 

Entry Pinal Entry Pinal Entry Pinal 

Date Date Date Date Date Date 

May 10 Sept . 7 June 10 Oct . 8 

11 9 11 8 11 9 

12 10 12 9 12 10 

13 11 13 10 13 11 

14 12 14 11 14 12 

15 13 15 12 15 13 









































































































July 1 Oct. 29 Aug. 1 Nov. 29 Sept.l Dec. 30 









3 Dec. 1 



4 Nov. 1 









































































































































Satry Final Entry Final Entry Final 
Date Date Pate Date Date Ikte 
July 27 Hov.24 Aug.27 Dec. 25 Sept. 27 Jan. 25 



































Oct. 1 Jan. 29 Kov. 1 Mar. 1 Dec. 1 Mar. 31 





2 Apr. 








4 Feb 

. 1 





































































































































































NOTE; This Table being constructed for 
Fgbruary with 28 days, the proper allow- 
ance must be made for leap year. 

- 25 - 


Beprlnt from Air ForceB News Letter 
August 1941 

By Waddell F. Smith 
Major, Air Corps 

BO. 9 

Many claims by dependents of military 
personnel for Government Insurance, Nation- 
al Service Life Insurance, pensions, com- 
pensation, six months’ gratuity and arrears 
of pay are tindnly delayed because of not 
having at han d properly certified copies 
of birth and marriage certificates and 
divorce decrees. 

Probably 75 per cent of people over the 
age of 35 are under the inpresslon that 
they cannot obtain a birth certificate. 

Most all of these people can obtain a birth 
ceirtificate if they write to the ptoper 
office of record. 

Officers and enlisted men themselves do 
not need birth certificates except for 
passport purposes. However, it is always 
desirable to have one. It is x^B^smount, 
however, that all military personnel should 
have on file authentic certified copies of 
the record of birth of wife 'and children 
and a certified copy of the record of mar- 
riage. If either husband or wife has been 
previously married, no certificate of that 
marriags is required but a certified copy 
of the record of the divorce is required. 

Whenever a certified copy of the record 
of birth or marriage may be obtained, then 
no governmental agency charged with settling 
a claim will accept anything in its place. 
From this It may be seen that church rec- 
ords, records of family Bibles, affidavits 
of individuals who witnessed a marriage, 
ministers' certificates of having performed 
a marriage, etc., are all refiised. 

From the foregoing it may be seen that 
the first step is to determine if there is 
available a public record in the state, 
county or city in which born and in which 
married. Military personnel should write 
immediately to the proper authorities to 
obtain these documents. As the United 
States Veterans Administration has been 
constantly called upon to advise claimants 
where to obtain certified copies of these 
public records, Mr. Luther E. Ellis, of the 
Veterans' Administration compiled the 
names eind addresses in all states and 
possBssions of the offices charged with 
keeping the public records of birth and 
marriage . 

Die book is of such great utility that 
the United States Social Security Board 
asked permission to reproduce it. The 
author is glad to be able to advise that 
this book, under the name of "Custodians 
of Public Hecords" is in the hands of each 
of 477 field offices of the Social Security 
Board. These field offices are all being 
advised to make the information in the book 
available to Air Corps personnel who can 
visit any of the field offices. 

In this volume will be found a separate 
listing for each state and where to write 
and how far back the records of marriages 
and births go . Where it is found that 
state records were not kept previous to 
certain dates it will show what county 
and city authorities may be written to to ob- 
tain the records locally. The book also 

- 26 - 

Advises on records of deaths and divorces. the period in which the birth or marriage 
Obtaining these necessary certified cop- occurred. That being established, it then 

ies of the public records is very easy to is permissible to establish proof in other 

put off. However, it must be remembered ways as follows; 

that it is much easier for the records to 

be obtained now than to leave the Job to PHOOF OF AGE 

dependents, years later. The payment of 1. A Certified Copy Of A Church Record 

many claims for Govenament insurance, pen- The Child Was Baptized In A Church , 

sions and compensation have been neld up Many churches maintain such records and 

because of delay in obtaining certificates, the present registrar of the church will 
frequently occasioning much financial em- make a sworn statement of the record, 

barrassment to dependents. Even when it is 2. Sworn Statement Of Doctor Who Offi- 
found that no state records are kept , many ciated At The Birth Of The Child . In many 

cities and counties have bureaus of vital cases this cannot be obtained, due to deat 

statistics available and it always should of the doctor or removal from the comraunit; 

be the rule to write to the bureau of vital If obtainable, the doctor must swear to it 

statistics of your city or county, when no before a notary. 

state records are available. 3. Sworn Statement Of Two Witnesses 

Much bad information and misunderstand- Present At The Time Of The Child* s Birth , 

ing is extant about birth and marriage This affidavit must be made by individuals 

certificates. For example, in order to mar- who knew both parents at the time of and 

ry, a license must be obtained — but that before the birth, but they do not actually 

is not sufficient to support a claim, for have had to be present at the birth itself, 
the marriage mi^t not even have been per- but must certify that they knew of the 

formed. But let's assume that it was. Then birth and of the naming of the child, etc. 

the minister or church official who per- 4. Notarized Certificates From Entry In 

formed the service furnished a very beau- ihmily Bible Of The Birth . There are many 

tifully engraved certificate that he did avenues for fraud in making certificates 

on a certain day perform said marriage. from entries in family Bibles; therefore, 

Tdat still is not sufficient. However, the such certificates may be refused and other 

minister or church official, after perform- proof required. Or the family Bible itsel: 

ing tne ceremony, makes a return affidavit withmay have to be produced, 
the license to tne bureau of vital statistics 5. Bequest Veterans Administration To 
which is charged with keeping the record. Obtain K:om Bureau Of Census The Record Of 

That office then makes an official record The Family From First Record Of the Census 

of the marriage. A certified copy of Which Was Made After Birth Of The C«hild . 

that record, issued under seal by that This method is only a last resort and is 

office is what is actually required. not requested by the Veterans' Administrs^* 

Whenever a birth occurs, all physicians, tion unless they are convinced that no 

hospitals aind institutions are required to proof of age can be obtained as outlined 

report the birth along with the name of under the previous steps. Then the Veter» 

the child, its sex, names of parents, etc., ans* Administration must be requested to 
to the bureau of vital statistics charged obtan it from the Census Bureau. Such 
with maintaining the public record. The census reports frequently require three 

birth then is a part of the public record months to obtain. 

and a certified copy of that record, issued There is an unending delay in the settle 
under seal by the office or bureau in ment of claims, while awaiting proof of 

charge is the document required to support age and it is, therefore, incumbent \ipon 

a claim. all military personnel who are married to 

It must be recognized, however, that in begin immediately to obtain acceptable reo 

some cases there are absolutely no avail- ords of birth of a wife and children. It 

able public records of birth said marriages. will be noted that eiffidavit of parents 
In these cases then other proof will not be ao-to establish proof of age has not been 
cepted until or unless a certified state- listed as acceptable, 
ment is obtained from state or comty of- 
ficials verifying that no public records of PROOF OF MAERlACffi 

the birth or marriage is obtainable for (gee j^gxt page) 


pBoof OF wmusm 

1. Certified Cow Of Church Becord If 
MwTriagie Was Performed In A Church . See 
Proof of Age, Ko. 1. 

2. Sworn Statement Of Minister Or Public 
Official Who Performed The Ceremony . See 
Proof of Age, No. 2. 

3. Sworn Statement By Two Witnesses Who 
Were Present At The Performance Of Ceremony . 
See Proof of Age, No. 3. 

4. A Notarized Certificate Made Up Prom 
Entry Of The Marriage In Ihmily Bible . 


Whenever a widow is claiming pension or 
compensation for the death of a husband, 
and it is shown that either the deceased or 
the widow or both had a previous marriage, 
then a certified copy of the public record 
of the divorce proceedings must be obtained 
and submitted before the ri^t of the claim- 
ant can be established. 

In order to obtain copies of divorce de- 
crees, a request should be addressed to 
the clerk of the coiirt which granted the 
divorce. In a good many states, state rec- 
ords of divorces are kept, con^Jiled from 
reports submitted by the county courts. 

Sven though some states maintain records 
of divorces, they may not have any informa- 
tion other than the names of the principals 
and the date of dissolution of the marriage. 
Ibr pension purposes a certified copy of 
the actual decree and the terms thereof is 
required; therefore, the copy of the decree 
should be obtai ned from the court which 
granted it. 

The book, "Custodians of Public Records, " 
also lists information for each state, giv- 
ing the proper method of addressing ti^ 
county courts and it also supplies informa- 
tion as to vffiich states maintain state rec- 
ords of divorce. 

Inasmuch as certified copies of divorce 
decrees must be presented in support of a 
claim, then they should be obtained at 
once. Many cases are on record of coirrt 
houses burning, resulting in destruction 
' of records. Get them now when it is easi- 
est. Dependents when making a claim are 
always badly unnerved and it is the duty 
of all military personnel to obtain these 
necessary siqjporting documents in advance. 

Certified marriage certificates are not 
required for the settlement of United States 

Government Insurance, National Service 
Life Insurance or policies issued by com- 
mercial life insurance con^janies. However, 
as National Service Life Insurance is paid 
to the beneficiary only in installments, a 
certified copy of the record of birth must 
be submitted. Even if the beneficiary is 
under the age of 30 and receives the fixed 
installments of t5.51 per month on #1,000, 
for 20 years, a birth certificate is still 
necessary to establish that the age is 
under 30. 

If the proceeds of either United States 
Government Insurance, or policies Issued 
by commercial life insurance companies are 
to be paid as a life inccaie to the bene- 
ficiary, then proof of age will be required 
as the amount of the income is based upon 
the age of the beneficiary. 

A great deal of mi sunder standing exists 
about photostats. Many Individuals have 
had numbers of copies of birth certificates 
and marriage certificates photostated and 
it must be said that they are unacceptable. 
Actually the original itself in order to 
be acceptable woiold have to meet the re- 
quirements as set out in this article. 

Even if the original is acceptable, the 
photostats would not be. 

Photostats eu*e acceptable, however, vdien 
they are actually made from the public 
record by the bureau of vital statistics 
or other official agency in charge of the 
public record. It then is good only if 
before the photostat is made, a marginal 
indorsement is made certifying that it is 
an official photostat of the public record. 
It then must be signed under the seal of 
the issuing office. 

Very recently the author wrote, and the 
Office, Chief of Air Corps published a 
pamphlet titled, "Insuremce, Estate and 
Wills," which is now in the process of 
distribution throughout the United States 
Army Air Forces. It was not possible in 
that to go into detail about birth and 
marriage certificates emd divorce decrees; 
therefore, the material in this article 
may be considered as a part of or an 
addition to that publication. 

This article is the ninth of a series 
which has been published in the Air Forces 
News Letter. Following publication of 
one more article, all ten are then to be 

- 28 < 

combined into a conqpendltUD on insurance the Ihiited States Arw^ Air Ibrces. 

and printed for distribution tbrou^iout 

— 29 — 


Beprint from Air Forces News Letter 
October 1941 

By Waddell F. Snlth 
Major, Air Corps 


The Service Extension Act of 1941 was 
signed by the President and became a law 
August 18. This law ^ve the President 
authority to extend the periods of sei^ice 
of all military classes for periods not 
to exceed 18 months. 

Section 3 of the act authorizes certain 
military classes whose periods of seirvice 
are extended by the President, and who 
failed to apply for National Service Life 
Insurance or the full amount of insurance 
within 120 days of date of original in- 
duction into service, to apply for now 
and obtain the insurance without physical 
examination. The Act allows 120 days 
from signing or until December 16, 1941 
within which time application must be 

By this authority those who failed to 
apply originally for National Service 
L^fe Insurance or for the full 110,000 
may now make application, provided 
their periods of service are extended. 


The President on August 21, 1941 issued 
an executive order. The executive order 
did not extend the periods of service of 
all military classes, therefore, only the 
military classes whose service was ex- 
tended by the order are authorized now 
to apply for National Service Life In- 

This article is presented to inform all 
military classes of their ri^ts to in- 
surance and not as an interpretation of 
the law affecting their periods of mil- 
itary service. 


Some military classes are not entitled 
to apply for National Service Life Insvir- 
ance in the current 120 day period from 
August 18 to December 16, 1941, therefore, 
it is vitally important that all individ- 
uals concerned be certain of their exact 
military duty status. 

Each military class will be taken \ip 
separately and their ri^ts to apply for 
National Service Life Insurance dtuing the 
current period set out. 


Officers . No provision was made for 
regular officers in the United States Army 
inasmuch as it was not necessary by law to 
extend the periods of service of regular 

Enlisted Men . No provision was made for 
enlisted men in the regular amy. The 
euiditional opportunity to apply for insur- 
ance within 120 days of August 18 was in»- 
tended to be extended only to the emer- 
gency forces. Enlisted men in the reg- 
ular army, however, are entitled to apply 
for National Service Life Insurance within 
120 days of reenlistment without examin- 
ation. If the cvurrent enlistment should 
be continued or extended, then application 
may be made within 120 days of such contin- 
uance or extension but subject to physical 

Aviation Cadets and Aviation Students . 
Special legislation enacted June 3, 1941 
provided that all aviation cadets and 
aviation students shall be issued 
110,000.00 of National Service Life In- 
surance, the premiums thereon being paid 


"by the Government for the cadets and 
students. All classes of aviation cadets, 
assigned to pilot training, or as "boitt- 
bardiers or navigators, or to photography, 
engineering, armament, meteorology, or 
communications are included and the pre- 
miums therefor paid hy the Government 
during training. Aviation cadets and 
aviation students are entitled either 
upon graduation or discharge from such 
status to continue their insurance hy 
paying the premiums themselves. 

Due to the foregoing, aviation cadets 
and aviation students are in no way con- 
cerned with the present period in which 
certain military classes may apply for 
insurance . 

All aviation cadets and aviation 
students should familiarize themselves 
with War Department Circular no. 132, 

July 8, 1941, which may he found in any 


Air Corps Be serve Officers . All such 
officers now on duty should examine 
their orders. If they were originally 
ordered to active duty under authority 
of Public No. 18, 76th Congress, pass- 
ed April 3, 1939, and extension of 
active duty if any, authorized under 
the same Act, tiien such officers are 
not entitled to apply for National 
Service Life Insurance during the 
120 day period from August 18, 1941. 

Die periods of service of Air Corps 
Resei*ve Officers on duty under au- 
thority of Public No. 18 may he ex- 
tended hy authority of that law for 
periods up to a total of seven years. 

As there was no necessity, the execu- 
tive order of the President, which 
extended the periods of military ser- 
vice of vau:ious classes, as author- 
ized hy the Service Extension Act 
of 1941, did not extend the periods 
of service of such Air Corps Ba- 
serve officers. Inasmuch as the 
executive order did not make such 
extensions, therefore the cijrrent 
120 day period for making applica- 
tion for insurance does not apply 
to such reserve officers. 

It must he remembered, however, 
that the already existing law en- 

titles any reserve officer to a new 120 day 
period within vdiich to apply for National 
Service Life Insurance, said period com- 
mencing as of the date on which reordered 
to active duty or the present tour is con- 
tinued or extended. Vpon being reordered 
With an intervening separation from service, 
application for the insurance is not subject 
to physical examination. If the present 
tour of duty is continued or extended, then 
a satisfactory physical examination must 
accompany the examination. 

Reserve Officers . General . The reserve 
officers of all arms, branches, and ser- 
vices that are now on duty, excluding all 
hut a limited number of Air Corps Reserve 
officers and a limited number of reserve 
officers of other branches, have been or- 
dered to active duty under authority of 
Public No. 96 , 76th Congress, passed Aug- 
ust 27, 1940. The insurance provision in 
the Service Extension Act of 1941 extends 
to all such officers on active duty a new 
opportunity to apply for National Service 
Life Ijjsurance within 120 days of August 
18, 1941, subject to the following limit- 
ation. Only such reserve officers may ap- 
ply whose current period of active duty exr- 
pires within said 120 days and whose actisne 
duty is continued or extended within said 
120-day jerlod. Applications also must be 
made within the 120 day period. 



The periods of service of all of the 
above military classes were extended by ex- 
ecutive order by virtue of authority grant- 
ed to the President in the Service Exten- 
sion Act of 1941. 

Although provision is made in the ex- 
ecutive order for blanket extension of all 
of the above classes of military personnel, 
the executive order authorizes the Secre- 
tary of War to release from active service 
such persons or units as may be released 
without impairment to the interests of 
national defense, the releases to be ef- 
fected upon completion of the original 
twelve months of training and service. 


IDie Service Extension Act (approved 
August 18, 1941) granted to all military 
classes whose periods of service, training, 
active duty, etc. were extended under 
authority of the aforementioned law, anew 
opportunity to apply for and obtain Nat- 
ional Service Life Insviremce. Therefore, 
the National Guard, Selective Service, 
Begular Army Eeseirve and Enlisted Be serve 
CJorps all are eligible to apply within 
120 days of August 18, 1941, and no phy- 
sical examination is necessary. 

Individuals who may have previously 
applied for less than 110,000.00 insur- 
ance may in this present 120 day period 
apply for aiy additional amount, provided 
the total amount held will not exceed 
^ 10 , 000 . 00 . 

The fovur above mentioned classes of 
military personnel are entitled to apply 
for insm'ance imder this provision even 
thou^ their periods of service may not 
actually be extended at the completion 
of the current year of training or ser- 
vice. It is necessary, however, that 
application be made while still in active 
service and on or before December 16, 1941, 
the end of the 12D-day period. 

In addition to the privilege of applying 
within 120 days of August 18, 1941 without 
physical examination, all personnel of the 
four above mentioned classes whose periods 
of seirvice, training, or active duty are 
extended upon completion of present period 
of se3rvice, training, or active duty, are 
entitled to spply for National Service 
Life Insurance within 120 days of such ex- 
tension, but subject to satisfactory phy- 
sical evidence of insurability. Also any 
individuals in these four classes, who 
may be mustered out of service or reliev- 
ed from active duty and who may subsequently 
be, ordered back into active service, are 
entitled to a new 120 day period within 
which time application may be made for 
National Service Life Insurance. The 120 
days period begins on the date of reentry 
into the service and no physical examination 
is required. 

Retired Officers . Inasmuch as retired 
officers nho have been ordered back into 
the service are not ordered for any lin>- 
ited period of service, it was not nec- 

essary to extend their periods of military 
service, therefore, they are not eligible 
to apply for National Service Life Insur- 
ance in the 120 day pee expiring December 
16. All such officers are, however, elig- 
ible to apply for National Service Life 
Insurance without examination within 120 
days of date on vhich originally ordered 
back into service. 

Retired Enlisted Men . The Service Exten- 
sion Act authorized the President to ex- 
tend the periods of service of retired 
enlisted men who are ordered back into 
active service. The President did by 
executive order extend such periods of 
service therefore, retired enlisted men 
now in active service are entitled to 
apply for National Service Life Insurance 
without examination during the 120 day 
period commencing August 18, 1941 and 
expiring Deceniber 16, 1941. 

(Army Of The United States) 

Die President’s executive order did not 
extend or continue the periods of service 
of the above one-year enlistments. As 
these classes of military service were 
not extended, no additional opportunity 
to apply for National Service Life Insur- 
ance is applicable. 


War Department Circular No. 192, issued 
September 16, 1941, which may be found in 
any headquarters, furnishes information 
as to the rights of military personnel 
to this new 120-day period for obtaining 
insurance. It also sets out instructions 
for making the application. It is hi^xLy 
important that the application be completed 
in accordance with the instructions in 
the circular. 

Any individuals \dio may be in doubt about 
their military status and rights to apply 
for National Service Life Insurance should 
make application before December 16, being 
careful to comply ftilly with all instruct- 
ions contained in War Department Circular 
No. 192. Those applicants then determined 
to be ineligible by the Veterans Adminis- 
tration will be declined. 

Die value of National Sejrvice Life Insur- 
ance and the importance of its being app- 
lied for by all military classes cannot be 

- 32 - 

stressed too mach. No charge is made 
a^inst the premium deposits of the in- 
sxored to cover administration cost . The 
entire expense of administration and over- 
head of National Service Life Insurance 
is paid out of general appropriations for 
the Veterans Administration. Whenever a 
death claim is paid and the cause of death 
is attributable to the extra hazards of 
the service either in time of peace or 
war, the claim is paid out of a separate 
axjpropriated fund and no such claims are 
paid out of the premiums deposited by the 

Pay your premiums by deduction monthly 
from yo\ir pay. (War Department A.G.O. 

Form No. 29-3). Althou^ it is permiss- 
ible to pay premiums monthly, quarterly, 
semi-auinually, or annually by check or 
money order, deduction from pay is surest. 
When once the deduction from pay is prop- 
erly commenced then the insurance is sure 
to be kept in force. Many situations may 

arise in times of emergency which may sej 
arate a man from contact with his person 
affairs, causing temporary inattention tc 
premiums falling due. The insurance, 
therefore, might lapse when it is needed 
the most unless premiums are deducted frc 

All present holders of National Servio 
Life Insurance should give thou^t to coi 
verting their insurance. Conversion is . 
permitted any time after one year and be- 
fore expiration of the 5 year term. Bat' 
and descriptions of the converted policy, 
forms are contained in War Department Ci; 
cular No. 149, issued December 10, 1940. 
This circular may be found in any head- 
quarters. National Service Life Insurant 
is not only unexcelled protection while 
in service, but is of such superior per- 
manent value that all holders should pla 
on converting sooner or later so that 
they may continue to have the benefit of 
the insurance throughout life. 






December 22, 1941 

SUBJECT: National Service Life Insurance 

TO: All officers and enlisted men of the United States 

Army Air Forces. 

1. On December 20, 1941, the opportunity to apply for National 
Service Life Insurance at any time by all classes of personnel of the 
armed forces was granted by Section 10, Public Law No, 360, 77th Congress, 
approved December 20, 1941. 

2, The above-mentioned act amends the National Service Life 

Insurance Act of 1940 as follows: "Any person in the active service, and 
while in su'ch active service, shall be granted such insurance without 
medical examination upon application therefor in writing, made within 120 
days after the date of enactment of this Amendatory Act, and upon payment 
of premiums: Provided that alter the expiration of such 120-day period 

any such person may be granted National Service Life Insurance at any time 
upon application, payment of premiums, and evidence satisfactory to the 
Administrator showing him to be in good health." 

3. The Veterans Administration has released Insurance Form 
No. 390, titled "Information and Premium Rates for National Service Life 
Insurance." This pamphlet contains no reference to the new 120-day period 
above mentioned, (.December 20, 1941 to April 19, 1942" as it was printed 
prior to passage of the Act. However, it contains full and complete 
information about National Service Life Insurance and should be studied 
thoroughly by those who are interested in applying and also those who 
already have purchased the insurance. Inusrance Form No. 398 may be 

had by direct request to the Veterans Administration, Washington, D. C. 

4, Nothing in the foregoing should bo construed to mean that 
insurance may not be obtained without evidence of insurability after 
April 19, 1942, by persons entering the active service after the passage 
of the act. Such persons are entitled to apply without examination with- 
in 120 days from admission into the service, and at an,y time thereafter 
upon eubmlssion of evidence of good health. 

- 34 - 

- 2 - 

5. National Service Life Insurance contains no restrictions as 
to residence, travel, occupation, or military or naval service and covers 
death from any cause. All claims arising from the extra hazards of the 
service, either in peace or war, are paid by the government and not out of 
the policy-holder's premium fund. All expense of administration of the 
insurance is borne by the government, through the United States Veterans 
Administration, giving the policy-holder the benefit of insurance at 
absolute cost. 

b. It may well be said here that the United States Veterans 
Administration maintains a v«ry large and highly organized and trained 
insurance deuartment under the direction of the Director of Insurance, 

United State" Veterans Administration. This division of the Veterans Admin- 
istration is charged with the issue of the policies, collection of premiums, 
service to the policy-holders and the payment of claims. The whole organ- 
ization is highly trained and scientif ically directed, and in addition 
the organization has been imbued with a spirit of cooperation and under- 
standing to the end that any National Service Life Insurance policy-holder 
may depend on lib'^ral, exact and preferential treatment. In addition to 
this service, the policy-holders should unfailingly recognize that the 
Director of Insurance, United States Veterans Administration, through 
that agency and based upon the laws authorizing the insurance, is provid- 
ing the finest, soundest and lowest cost insurance obtainable. The 
insurance is of such great value that all policy-holders should plan on 
converting and continuing the insurance throughout life, 

V. At the close of November, 1941, 6b8,19c> uolicies had been 
issued, for a total of $3,381,451,000 of insurance. With the opening up 
of the uresent new ouportunity to buy National Service Life Insurance, it 
is exuected that the number of policies and gross amount of insurance will 
be vastly increased. T;iis vast body of insurance actually is a form of 
social security and is endorsed and guaranteed by the govf^mment. The 
benefits of it can only be had by applying for it. 

Smith _ 

Major, Air Corps 
Insurance & Morale Officer 
Military Personnel Division 

- 35 - 

The New B-I7E, Latest Flying Fortress 

^ %iJar ^^e66aqe to the 









Major General. V.S. Army 
Command ing General 



VOL. 25 FEBRUARY, 1942 NO. 1 
















Art Work By James T. Rawls 

Ten For One 

U. S. Tigers Claw Japs 

A merican pilots in , the Chinese Air Force are 
giving Japanese airmen their worst licking 
of the war. Trained In new and devastating pur- 
suit tactics by a former acrobatic ace of the 
U.S. Army Air Corps, the American Volunteer 
Group in China Is knocking down more than 10 Jap 
planes for every loss of Its own. 

In less than two months they have driven Jap- 
anese bcntoers from the vital Burma road, parried 
heavy aerial thrusts at its chief port, Rangoon, 
and blasted Jap air bases in Thailand and Indo- 
Chlna. At January's end these American pilots 
had destroyed at least 135 Jap planes In the air 
and wrecked another 50 on the ground, and had 
lost only 11 of their own pilots. They have 
become national heroes of the oft-bonibed Chinese 
who hall them as 'TTie Flying Tigers". 

All Fcainer U.S. Flyers 

The story of the Flying Tigers is one of the 
strangest sagas of American aviation— a saga of 
American planes and young American pilots touch- 
ed off by a spark of military genlis In a battle 
6,000 miles fl’am home. The pilots were fresh 
fran American military flying schools. All of 
them resigned commissions in the U.S. Army, 
Navy and Marine air forces to fight the Japs 
over China. Their fighter planes came from 
American factories that had already learned to 
make more potent pursuits . The spark of genitjs 
came frcm a tall, taciturn, Texas school tea- 
cher, Claire L. Cheimault, retired U.S. Army Air 
Corps captain and now a brigadier general In the 
Chinese Air Force. 

Chennault and his planes and pilots got to- 
gether in China last sunmer. Six mcHiths later 
they celebrated Christmas together by clawlpg 48 
Jap planes from the sky over Rangoon in the 
most spectaculeu* victory of the Asiatic air war. 

Sixty Jap bombers roared toward Rangoon at 
15,000 feet the day before Christmas. A Tiger 
squadron of 18 planes sped up to 18,000 feet, 
swooped down to make the interception and send 
their first victims spinning into the jungles 
and rice paddies around Rangoon. The Tigers 
darted at the heavier Japs in wide weaves from 
above and below Instead of making the conven- 
tional side approach. The Jap formations broke 


and fled with Tigers rtuntlng them far into Thai- 

On Christmas Day the Japs came back for more 
and got It. Formations totalling 70 planes made 
the attack and again 18 Tigers went up to meet 
ttem. In this fray the Tigers brought their two 
day score to 48 enemy planes against a loss of 
three of their own planes and two pilots. In- 
stead of climbing to 18,000 feet as ordered, 
both of the American pilots lost mixed with a 
British squadron, apparently became confused and 
met the Japs on their own level at 15,000 feet. 
There they were caught in heavy cross-fire from 
an enemy bonber echelon. 

The tactics that enabled the Tigers to hang up 
this remarkable record were developed by 
Chennault during 18 years as one of the hottest 
acrobatic pilots ever to kick around an Air 
Corps pursuit ship and four years of observing 
the Jap air force in action. 

The first World War jolted Chennault from a 
career as a business college teacher and high 
school principal. He joined the Aviation Sec- 
tion of the Signal Corps in 1917 as a ground 
officer and stayed with it to become one of its 
greatest pilots. But throughout his aviation 
career he never lost interest in teaching and 
seemed inbued with a deep seated desire to pass 
on the knowledge he had accumulated. 

As leader of the "Three Men on a Flying Trap- 
eze", he originated, taught and performed form- 
ation acrobatics that have never been equalled. 
In the early 1930s Chennault, then a captain, 
and his ccmpanions — first, Lieut. H.S. Hansell 
(now a lieutenant colonel) and Lieut. J.H. 
Williamson, and later Williamson and Lieut. W.C. 
McDonald kicked their P-12 pursuits around in 
incredible formation acrobatics at all of the 
major air shews. 

They flew as if a single hand controlled the 
sticks of the three planes. They did spins in 
perfect unison and once flew through an entire 



acrobatic routine with their ships linked by 
string. So perfect was their co-ordination that 
the thin cord remained unbroken. They finally 
Invented a climax to their act in which they did 
a formation roll while each ship barrel-rolled 

Out of these acrobatics and a two and a half 
year stretch as comnander of the 19th pursuit 
Squadron in Hawaii, Chennault evolved his pur- 
suit tactics. In 1931 he spent a year at the 
Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, fin- 
ally becoming chief instructor of the pursuit 
section and writing a text on pursuit tactics. 

Maj . Gen. John F. Curry, then commandant of 
Maxwell Field reported that Chennault was "one 
of the outstanding authorities on pursuit avia- 
tion, a fearless pilot and an able air leader." 
Chennault was frequently called to Air Corj)s 
headquarters for exxjert opinions on new pursuit 
designs and supervised many service tests of new 
equipment in the field. 

In 1936 his two partners on the Trapeze team, 
Williamson and McDonald, left the Air Corps to 
run Chlai^ Ked-Shek's Central Aviation School in 
Hangchow, China. But Chennault 's flying days 
seemed 'over in 1937 when he was retired for 
physical disability Incurred in line of duty. 

But Williamson and McDonald persuaded Chen- 
nault to join them and he arrived in China 
shortly after the outbreak of the Sino-Japeuiese 
war to teach pursuit tactics to the Chinese Air 
Force. The Chinese air effort waned as the war 
continued but Chennault stayed on, studylr^ Jap 
tactics and helping organize an air raid warning 
system, now so efficient that Chinese head- 
quarters are warned of raids while Jap bonbers 
are still warming up at their bases. Chennault 
also set up air bases in the interior, prepeu’lng 
for the day when China could strike back. 

last summer Chennault weus made a brigadier 
general in charge of Chinese Air Force combat 
units and became responsible only to Chiang Kai- 
Shek. The American Volunteer Group was formed, 
with its main task to drive Jap bonbers from the 
Burma road and Insure delivery of American war 
supplies to the Chinese armies. 

Chennault spent six months moulding his planes 
and men into as fine a fighting force as had 
ever left the ground, despite a shortage of 
spare parts, amnunitlon euid fuel. In spite of 
minor miracles performed by the ground crews, 
many of their plane losses have been due to 
overworked engines rather than Jap bullets . To 
conserve aniiMnitlon, the Tigers were trained to 
get their Japs with their first burst. Conbat 

Brigadier General Claire L, Chennault 
of the Chinese Air Force 

reports show that about 8 of every 10 Japs 
downed fall during the first "squirt" from the 
Tigers * guns . 

Chennault trained his men like a college foot- 
ball team. He quartered than in special hostels 
where American food and drinks were served and 
American chocolate and tobacco were available. 
Every Tiger carries a bottle of alcohol to 
sterilize eating utensils and be used on minor 
injuries in the field. 

The Tigers were whipped into perfect physical 
condition with daily calisthenics and plenty of 
baseball and football. In addition to tactical 
maneuvers, Chennault taught them all he knew 
about the Jap airmen until they were able to 
anticipate almost every enemy tactic and maneu- 
ver aind always keep one Jump ahead. 

They finally went into action in the middle of 
Decenber and by Decenber 27 the Burma road W6is 
free of bombs. The wrecks of 47 Jap bonbers 
east of the road marked the limit of Jap aerial 
(Continued on Page 8) 



First Air C^rps Chief Dies 

Gen* Patrick Waged Early Fight for Air Power 

■PVEATH came to Major General Mason Mathews 
-*-^JF<atrlck at a time when the Iftilted States was 
eiigaged in bulldlrig the most powerful military 
air machine ever ccaicelved. 

This gigantic air structure will serve as a 
living memorial to General Patrick, who as the 
first Chief of the Army Air Corps laid its 

As Chief of the American Air Service In France 
during the first World War, he foresaw air 
power’s potential Importance In any future con- 
flict. As first Chief of the Air Corps he waged 
a peacetime strv^ggle preparing a framework for 
the aviation expansion he knew must cane. 

Hte was 78 when he died. But age metint little 
to General Patrick. At the age of 60 he became 
a qualified airplane pilot — the first major gen- 
eral and the oldest Army officer ever to receive 
that rating* Exacting, punctual 6uid studious, 
it was typical of the General. At a banquet 
comnemorating the event, he explained to fellow 
airmen that he had taken up flying, not in 
seewch of personal glory, but to gain a clearer 
conception of the skill required of a pilot. 
(His instructor was Major General Herbert 
Dargue, then a major, who has been unreported 
for several months after an official flight 
while connandlng the First Air Force at Mitchel 
Field, N.Y.) 

Becoming a pilot was more than an outstanding 
personal feat for General Patrick. By insisting 
on being a flying air chief. General Patrick 
built up the morale of the Corps; In his con- 
stant emphasis on flying as an essential mode of 
treinsportation he did much to convince the pub- 
lic of Its great usefulness In time of peace. 

Followed Aviation Developments 

Active until about a month before his death on 
January 29 at Walter Reed General Hospital in 
Washington, General Patrick had kept in touch 
with recent aeronautical developments. Follow- 
ing his six-year administration of the Air Corps 
ending in 1927, he carried on his fight for 
aviation progress as an expert on air traffic, 
lecturing on this subject before military and 
private audiences. Fran 1929 to 1933 he served 
as a mentoer of the Public Utilities Cormlssion 

in Washington, where he made his home. His 
wife, the former Grace Cooley of Plainfield, 
N.J., died in 1938. Their one son, Capt. Bream 
C. Patrick, is now oi duty with the Headquarters 
Army Air Forces. 

General Patrick’s genius was organization. It 
was organization that was needed when he became 
Chief of the American Air Service in France, and 
organization was demanded in setting up the 
post-war air program. A trained engineer, 
he applied his construction skill to aviation. 
General Patrick had graduated fron the United 
States Military Academy at West Point in 1886 as 
number two man in a class of 77, and was com- 
missioned in the Corps of Engineers. At the 
close of the Spanlsh-Amerlcan War, he was named 
Chief Engineer Officer with the Army of Cuban 

Fine Shcwli^ In World War I 

By 1917 he had reached the rank of colonel. 
Ife sailed for France that year in coomand of the 
First Engineers. After a few months overseas he 
was promoted to brigadier general emd placed in 
charge of all construction and forestry in the 
AEF. Only soldiers who knew the vast camps, 
great cantoranents and vast docks which sprang up 
almost overnight can appreciate the magnitude of 
that task. For six months General Patrick 
served as Caanandiiig General of the Line of Com- 
nunications. Then seeking a man with vision and 
a strong hand. General John J. Pershing, his 
classmate at West Point, appointed General 
Patrick Chief of the Air Service. 

The success of General Patrick’s administra- 
tion is a matter of record. American airmen 
shot down 776 German planes while losing only 
290 of their own. Within the short space of a 
year America had turned out 7,118 airmen from 
her flying schools, built up an air force of 
149,000 men and produced 11,760 planes and 
30,630 engines. The air force thus created was 
more than twice the size of America’s entire 
army before the war. 

But General Patrick’s work in aviation had 
just begun. Followir^ the Armistice he was as- 
signed the job of tearing down the tremendous 
edifice he had built up overseas — the job of re- 




turnir^ the men to civil life, disposirig of sur- 
plus property and building for peace. 

There was no settling down for General 
Patrick. He was detached from the AEF air force 
and assigned to the Inter-Allied Aviation Com- 
mission, representing the United States on air 
matters at the Peace Ccviference. He returned to 
this country in July, 1919. For his war service 
he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, 
the French Legion of Honor, the Italian Order of 
St. Maurice and St. Lazurus, the Belgian Certi- 
ficate of the Order of Leopold and the Order of 
the British Empire. 

After serving as’ commanding officer of the 
Engineer School at Fort Humphreys (now Fort 
Belvoir, Va.) for two years. General Patrick in 
October, 1921, was appointed Chief of the Air 
Service. The Air Service became the Air Corps 
in 1926, and he served as Chief until reaching 
the retirement age of 64 on December 13, 1927. 

Reorganized American Air Power 

These were aviation's formative years in the 
United States and one of the most crucial per- 
iods for military aviation. General Patrick's 
task was the complete reorganization of the Air 
Corps. Having already been subjected to several 
investigations. Army aviation was ultimately 
placed under scrutiny by sane 13 separate boards 
and commissions appointed by the Executive 
Branch or by Congress to examine its structure 
£uid mal® reconnendations for changes. To many. 
General Patrick is best known as the firm, far 
sighted air leader and orator who appeared be- 
fore ccmnlttee after committee on Capitol Hill, 
sending home his message of progressive thought 
on aviation. The record of his testimony reads 
like prophecy of what has now cone to pass. 

While conducting the fight for adequate legis- 
lation, General Patrick was putting his words 
into action. Ife saw the great need for building 
up the American aircraft Industry. But faced 
with the necessity of operating with the great- 
est possible ecaiomy, he had to make maximum use 
of the equipment at hand and the large stock of 
war-built planes which could be rebuilt and re- 
conditioned at about half the cost of new ships. 

To stimulate aircraft production and air- 
mlndedness on the part of the public. General 
Patrick built up a new interest in aviation by 
fostering spectacular but scientifically valu- 
able air exploits. The public soon sensed the 
futtire in store for aviation by such achieve- 
ments by Army flyers as the around-the-world 
flight, the good will flight around South Amer- 
ica, the flight to Puerto Rico, the non-stop 

flight across the American continent, the dawn 
to dusk cross-country hop, and the flight from 
Oakland, Calif., to Honolulu, Hawaii. 

No opportunities were neglected to demoTstrate 
the practicality of the airplane in peacetime. 
General Patrick directed the greater use of 
planes in spotting forest fires, patrolling 
flooded areas and directing rescue operations, 
dustiiTg cotton and other crops to eliminate in- 
sect pests, and in aiding in mapping areas in- 
accessible by foot. 

Supported Technical Developments 

Building up what finally became the Materiel 
Division, located at what is now Wright Field, 
Dayton, Ohio, General Patrick fostered the j)ro- 
ductlon of new planes and the stauidardlzatlcsi of 
types into pursuit, attack, ba±>ardment, observ- 
ation and cargo ships. In the six years fran 
1921 to 1927 work was Intensified on air-cooled 
and water-cooled engines and on numerous in- 
strument aids to aerial navigation; the para- 
chute and other flying safeguards were perfected 
and wearing of a parachute by Army flyers made 
mandatory; a network of landing fields and air- 
ways was begun; air navlgaticai maps were devel- 
oped on a new status, and aviation medicine and 
radio came into being c»i a modern scale. 

Training kept pace with technical advanconent . 
General Patrick directed the establishment of 
Randolph Field, Texas, and the coordination of 
courses of instruction at primary and advanced 
flying schools . Every effort was made to turn 
out airmen accomplished in aerial gunnery and 
bombardment, and competition in bombing among 
tactical squadrons was fostered. Impetus was 
given to the training of Air Corps Reserve 
Officers, and aviatlcxi training applied to Nat- 
ional Guard and R.O.T.C. Officers. In 1926, 
Sumner training camps for Reserve Officers were 
held at virtually all Air Corps fields . 

The persistent efforts of General Patrick to 
secure an increase in Air Corps personnel cul- 
minated in the appointment by the Secretary of 
War, in 1923, of a board of officers known as 
the Lassiter Board to make reconnendations on 
reorganization of the Air Corps. The program 
formulated by this body contonplated a mi nimum 
peacetime strength of 4,000 officers, 2,500 fly- 
ing cadets, 25,000 enlisted men, 2,500 airplanes 
and sone lighter- than-alr equipment, all to be 
secured by, progressive developnent over a 10 
year period. Although the Secretary approved 
the proceedings of the Board in principle, no 
(Continued on Page 40) 



Air Power Recognized 

War Changes High Commands 

T he first two months of war brought a series 
of promotions and transfers to Army Air 
Forces senior officers, and again emphasized the 
Increasingly Important role of air power in the 
grand strategy of the liilted Nations. 

IfeJ . Gen. Henry H. Arnold, Chief of the Army 
Air Forces, was promoted to the grade of lieu- 
tenant general. Ma j . Gen. George H. Brett, 
Chief of the Air Corps, was named Deputy Supreme 
Connander of the Allied Forces In the Southwest 
Pacific with the rank of lieutenant general. 
Lieut. Gen. Delos C. Liiinons, former Chief of the 
Conbat Ccrauand, was appointed military coranander 
of the vital Hawaiian area. Brig. Gen. Joseph 
T. McNarney was made a member of the board In- 
vestigating the Japanese atteick on Pearl Harbor 
and promoted to major general. 

Maj . Gen. Millard F. Harmon, former comnander 
of the Second Air Force, was appointed Chief of 
the Air Staff succeeding Brig. Gen. Carl Spaatz 
who was promoted to major general and made chief 
of the Combat Command. Maj. Gen. Walter R. 
Weaver left his x>ost as commander of the South- 
east Air Corps Training Center at Maxwell Field 
to becane Acting Chief of the Air Corps . 

Maj. Gen. Frederick L. Martin was given coti- 
mand of the Second Air Force In the vital West- 
ern Defense Conmeund on the Pacific coast. He 
was relieved as ccmmander of the Hawaiian air 
force to testify before the Pearl Harbor invest- 
igation board. General Martin was succeeded by 
Brig. Gen. Clarence L. Tinter, former ccxnnander 
of the Third Interceptor Comnand, who was pro- 
moted to major general. 

Arnold's Rise Rapid 

General Arnold's elevation to lieutenant gen- 
eral climaxed a series of pronotlons from brlg- 
euiier general coranandlng the First Wing of the 
GHQ Air Force at March Field in 1938 to the |X)st 
of Chief of the Amy Air Forces, Deputy Chief of 
Staff for Air and represented American air power 
at the important Anglo-American military con- 
ferences held In Washington during the visit of 

(It is interesting to note that the Roberts' 
report covering the investigation at Pearl 
Harbor gave no intimation of dereliction of duty 
on the part of any Air Forces personnel .--Ed.) 

British Prime Minister Churchill. General 
Arnold Is also president of the Air Council. 

General Brett several months ago began an ex- 
tended tour of the world war fronts 6uid flew 
General Wavell, British Comnander of India and 
Supreme Comnander of the Allied Southwest Pa- 
cific forces, to the conference at Chungking 
where plans for the unified ccmmand were formu- 

Brett A Specialist 

General Brett learned to fly In 1915 after 
service as a lieutenant of the Philippines 
Scouts. He has been a specialist In air supply 
service and administration and has also served 
as comnander of several tactical units and air 
bases. In October, 194:0, he was promoted to 
major general and the following month weis de- 
signated Assistant Chief of the Air Corps. He 
succeeded General Arnold as Chief of the Air 
Corps last May. 

General Emnons served as Chief of the -Caabat 
Comnand (formerly GHQ Air Force) since 1939. He 
returned to familiar territory in taking over 
the Hawaiian comnand for he served a tour of 
duty in Hawaii as connandlng officer of the 18th 
Composite Wing shortly after his graduation fVcm 
the Command and General Staff school at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas, In 1933. 

Harmon Served In Philippines 

General Harmon came to AAF headquarters with 
a long record as a coranander of tactical units. 
A West Point graduate. General Harmon began 
his army service in the Philippines with the 
Infantry. He was assigned to the Aviation Sec- 
tion of the Signal Corps in 1916, served with 
the First Aero Squadron on the Mexican border 
euid accompanied a special expedition Into 
Mexico. A month before the United States 
entered the first World War, General Harmon 
sailed to France on an observation mission and 
attended French aviation schools . He was as- 
sistant chief of the Air Service Advance Zone 
In AEF headquarters for six months, and later 
served as a pilot with a French combat group 
near Solssons, where he won the Croix de 




Guerre with a bronze star. In April, 1918, he 
returned to ABF headquarters to select alrdronK 
sites and types of motors for American equip- 
ment . After the war he served a year as a 
menfcer of the Air Service Advisory Board. He 
graduated from the Command and General Staff 
School and the Army War College and served on 
the War Department general staff before being 
appointed as comnandant of the Air Corps Primary 
Flying School at March Field, California, in 

General Harnm also served as an Instructor in 
the Comnand and General Staff school and asslst- 
tant cannandant of the Air Corps Tactical school 
at Maxwell Field, Alabama. Among the tactical 
units he has ccrananded are the 3rd Attawik Wing 
at March Field, California, the 20th Pursuit 
Group at Barksdale Field, Louisiana, the 7th 
Pursuit Wing, Mltchel Field, Long Island, and 
the Fourth Interceptor Ccmmand, Riverside, Cal- 
ifornia, and the Second Air Force, at Fort 
George Wright, Washington. 

Tinker Holds Medal 

General Tinker wears the Soldier's Medal, 
awarded with the following citation: 

"For heroism on Sept. 21, 1926, in rescuing 
Ccmmander Robert Burg, U.S.N., from a burning 
aeroplane near Kenley Aerodrome, London, Eng- 
land. Although injured and in a semi-dazed ccxi- 
dition due to the crash. Major Tinker was able 
to get clear of his biirning plane, but when he 
realized that Conmander Burg was still in the 
cockpit, he rushed back into the flames in aui 
attempt to rescue his passenger. He was driven 
back by the intense heat, but returned to the 
other side and after repeated and determined 
efforts, being badly burned in the attempt, he 
extricated Cannander Burg and dragged him, un- 
conscious, to a place of safety." 

General Tinker spent many months in English 
6ind American hospitals recovering from the in- 
juries he suffered in the crash. After his re- 
covery he served as assistant comnandant of the 
Advanced Flying School at Kelly Field, Texas. 
He subsequently comnanded ifeither Field, Cali- 
fornia, and then began a series of tactical unit 
ccmimands. He was in charge of Route 18 from 
Oakland while the Army Air Corps flew the air 
mall and then ccnmanded pursuit and bontoardment 
units at March and Hamilton Fields. After a 
tour as Chief of the Aviation Division of the 
National Guard Bureau and Chief of the Supply 
Division of the Office of the Chief of the Air 
Corjjs, he again resumed command of tactical 
units, leading the 27th Bombardment Group at 


Barksdale Field, the 3rd Bombardment Wing at 
MacDlll Field, Florida, and finally the Third 
Interceptor Command at Drew Field, Florida. 
General Tinker began his military career as a 
second lieutenant in the Philippines Constab- 
uleiry in 1908 and learned to fly in 1920. 

General Weaver ccanes to the Office Chief of 
Air Corps from the cannand of the Southeast Air 
Corps Training Center at tfeixwell Field.' He was 
assigned to the Air Corps during the World War 
after 10 years service in the Infantry. General 
Weaver learned to fly in 1920 and has since spe- 
cialized in Air Corps administration. Aroopg his 
notable achievements in this field was his hand- 
ling of flood relief in southern Alabama diming 
the Mississippi River flood of 1929 durlrg which 
28 tons of food and medical supplies were de- 
livered by air to stricken ccsmunltles . General 
Weaver has also devoted much time to the devel- 
opment of aircraft radio. 

General McNarney learned to fly in 1917 and 
spent nearly two years in France with the Air 
Service of the AEF. He comnanded the Observa- 
tion Groups of the First Corps in the Chateau 
Thierry offensive, the Fourth Corps in the St. 
Mlhlel drive and the Fifth Corps in the Argonne 
operations. After the Armistice he remained in 
Paris for several months writing a manual on 
observation techniques. Since the war General 
McNarney did several tours of duty in the War 
Department and commanded various flying schools 
and tactical bombardment units. He was ap- 
pointed to the joint Army Navy Planning Can- 
mlttee in 1939. 

General Eaker is anotter colorful veterem of 
the Army Air Forces with a reputation as an au- 
thor as well as a pilot. Ife collaborated with 
General Arnold in writing "Winged Warfare" and 
"This Flying Game", and was decorated by three 
foreign governnents for his participation in the 
Pan American Goodwill Flight in 1927. He also 
wears the Distinguished Flying Cross with an Oak 
Leaf Cluster . He was chief pilot of the "Ques- 
tion Mark" which set a world endurance flight 
record in 1929, and made the first blind flight 
frcan coast to coast. He connanded the 34th Rir- 
suit Squadron and the 17th and. 20th pursuit 
Groups. His present permanent station is with 
the First Air Force at Mltchel Field, Long 

General Olds, 45-year-old chief of the Ferry 
Conmand, is one of the youngest generals in the 
Army. He is a pioneer in the field of heavy, 
long range bonbardment and commanded the famous 
Second Bcnbardment Group at Langley Field, which 
service tested the original B-17s. He ccnmanded 




a group of six B-17s cm a Goodwill Flight from 
langley Field to Buenos Aires and return and a 
year and a half later participated in another 
mission under the command of General Ensnons 
which took seven B-I7s on a rourrl trip to Rio de 
Janelroi For his South American flights, Qen> 
eral Olds received the medal of the Inter- 
natlmal League of Aviators, the Mackay Trophy, 
the Distinguished Flying Cross and decorations 
from Latin American countries. General olds 
served as an air traffic expert for the Anry Air 
Forces shortly before his assignment to organize 
the Ferrying Comnand. Originally organized to 
speed boDibers to Britain, the Ferrying Command 
Is now the largest air line In the world, glrd> 
ling the globe to supply the combat units of the 
AAF and of Its allies with planes, parts and 



All of the enqdoyees of the Waco Svib-Depot Sup- 
ply, Waco, Texas, signed a letter addressed to 
the comnandlng officer of that Air Service Com- 
mand activity, reading as follows: 

"During this period of extreme emergency, we, 
the uixlerslgned onployees of the Waco Sub-Depot 
Supply, Waco, Texas, volunteer to work as many 
hours per day, seven (7) days a week. If and when 
necessary, as the Svi>-Depot Commander may direct, 
with the understanding that no compensation will 
be derived." 

Ebsployees who signed the letter are: George 
W. Whitlock, Amos D. Alley, John H. Mack, Alvls 
T. Barkley, Elroy C. Untermeyer, David Conib, 
Joe B. Reed, Harry p. Ankerson, Jr., Earllne 
Carpenter, Carmon F. Beavers, Maurice Cole, 
Martin J. Arnold, Elmer Cunnlnghcun, Wynell L. 
Woodall, Marie Helen Adler, Catherine Camp and 
Fl'anois Collls. 

"Wings" were recently presented to the first 
group of Royal Air Force cadets undergoing In- 
struction wder the American flying training 
program. Tl^se cadets graduated from the Ad- 
vanced Flying School at Turner Field, Oa., which 
Is imdsr the Jiffisdlotion of the Southeast Air 
Corps Training Center. Col^l John B. Patrick, 
coBumndlng officer of Turner Field, delivered 
the graduation address, and Major Norris B. 
Harbold, the director at Tralnlr^, presented the 
"wlt^" to the Et^llslxnen. 

A 30-minute coast-to-coast radio broadcast 
featured the graduation «cerclses, and the pro- 
gram was sent to England over short wave. 

U.S. TIGERS.. , (Contitnipd From Page 2) 
operations. The world knows now how the pilots 
from Texas, New York, California, Ohio, Florida 
and a dozen other states routed the Japs again 
in the blazlpg holiday battle over Rangoon; how 
they carried the war to the enemy by esowtirg 
Chinese and British bombers to burn and blast 
the big Jap air bases at Hanoi, In Indo-China 
and Raheng, Tak and Mssod in Thailand and a half 
dozen other fields. 

Civilian pilots between the ages at 31 and 49, 
who possess 500 certified flying hours, of which 
250 hours have been on Aircraft of ^ h.p. or 
better, are eligible for employment in ferrying 
aircraft for the U.S. Array Air Corps Ferrying 
Conaand. They will receive tonporary w^eyment 
under the Civil Service for an initial period ^ 
90 days, beginning at a salary of $3,600 per an- 
num. A per dies expense allowance of $5.00 will 
be paid on all danestlc ferry trips away from 
home station, and $6.00 on trips outside the 
United States. 

Advancements may be effected at the end of each 
90-day period, upon the recommendation of the 
Control Officer of the Air Corps Ferrying Com- 
mand, who may at that time also recoimiend ferry 
pilots for reserve coianlsslons, grades of rank 
being dependent on age and experience. 



The Setting Sun 

A German View of Japanese Air Powe 

T T is difficult to get an exact picture of 

-*-the air power of the land of the Rising Sun, 
for everything that concerns its military power 
is concealed behind a heavy veil of secrecy. 

Japan has no separate. Independent air power. 
All planes are divided between the Army and the 
Navy. The highest estimate of the total number 
of Japanese planes is 4,500. The British mag- 
azine Aeroplane , in the March 7, 1941, number, 
places the total at 3,000 or less. The German 
Handbuch der Luftfahrt of 1939 estimates 2,600 
planes, training planes and reserve material in- 
cluded, with a total personnel of 33,000 men. 
These are divided between the Army and the Navy 
at a ratio of two to one. 

French And German Influence 

Originally the air arm of the Army was influ- 
enced strongly by the French and Germans, both 
in planes and Instructors. French and German 
influence are still plainly noticeable in Japan- 
ese plane construction. Only in recent years 
has American influence made Itself felt. The 
Japs Iiave no originality either in plane con- 
struction or in the field of tactics. 

In the Army air force the regiment is the 
h.ghest tactical unit. The regiment has its own 
flying fields, ground service and training 
schools. The regiment consists of two to five 
squadrons of about 10 planes each. The planes 
are of the same type, although squadrons appear 
in China which have three heavy bonbers and six 
planes of a lighter type which are also scoutliig 
planes. Among the planes in the first line is 
an approximately equal nuntoer of bonbers, pur- 
suit planes, and scouts. The Army has six 
training schools for its air power: a flying 
^and technical school at Tokorozawa, and air 
fighting school at Akeno, an observers’ school 
and specialist training school at Shlmoshizu, 
bonb-dropping training school at Hamamatsu, a 
flying school at Kumagl, and an air defense 
school at Inagemachi. There are said to be 
3,000 Ariny flyers. The Navy Is supposed to have 
2,100. The training schools produce a bare 700 
a year. 

In the field of warship construction Japan 
patiently followed and imitated the great West- 

ern Powers for many years. Neither did she do 
apy pioneer work in the field of aviation. Be- 
fore 1914 only a few officers of the Army and 
Navy had voluntarily dedicated themselves to the 
air service and had gotten training as flyers 
abroad, particularly in France. After the World 
War Japan begeui to use planes more generally in 
its military operations in Siberia. In 1919 the 
systematic building up of the air services was 
begun. The first flying field for the Navy was 
at Kasumlgaura, and for the Array, at Tokorozawa. 
Just as once under the shogims and at the begin- 
ning of the Meiji period between 1845 and 1875 
foreigners were called in to organize the Army 
and the Navy, so now also foreign instructors 
were taken in to organize the new war weapon. 

In the spring of 1919 sin English comilssion of 
40 men under Lieutenant Stempthill arrived to 
organize the naval flying service, and a French 
coDmission of 60 men tinder Lieutenant General 
Faure for the Army air service. Interest in 
flying clubs and aeronautical companies was 
stimulated. Now Japan stands among the great 
powers in respect to its air force. 

The Naval Air Force 

After the first Navy flyers returned in 1912 
fron training in France and the United States, a 
training field was constructed at Opama near 
Yokosuka. English officers shared in this 
training from 1919-22. During this period the 
Japanese air weapon thrived and an extensive 
construction program was set up. In 1923 there 
were already 9 squadrons with 8 machines each, a 
few reserve planes at tte land bases, together 
with a number of planes for the ships. From 
1927 on this naval air force grew quickly. In 
that year a special bureau for the Naval Air 
Force was set up in the Navy Department. In 
1937 there were 19 naval bases with 33 squad- 
rons. These bases were in the bay of Tokyo: 
Opama (Observers ' School) , Tateyama, and Klsar- 
uzu; to the north was the large flying school 
Keisumigaura; on the inland sea; Kure, Hire, 
Saeki, and Kishlmota; on the west coast of Kly- 
shu: Sasebo, Omura, Kagoshima and Kanoya; on 
the west coast of Honshu: IQjrltza near Mazaru; 
in Korea: Chinkai; in the north: Ominato and 




Namuro; In the south: Chlchlina on Bonin Island 
together with Saipan and Palau. In addition 
there are bases in all larger cities of the main 
Islands growing steadily. 

According to the latest information, the Navy 
has 39 squadrons with between 1,000 and 1,500 
planes. The greatest nuriber of these planes are 
shore-based. These planes have an active sh£U"e 
in the war on l«md in China. The ships which 
carry plEuies are the carriers, the battleships, 
cruisers, and plane tenders. The carriers are 
the Hbsho with 26, the Kaga with 80, the Akagl 
with 60, the Ryujo with 21, the Soryu, Hlryu, 
and Koryu, each with 40 planes. The tenders are 
the Notoro, Kamol, Chltose, Chlyoda, and Mld- 
zuho. These ships have no flight deck, but 
carry a number of seaplanes. The nine battle- 
ships, modernized after 1928, have a catapult 
and three planes aboard. The 37 cnilsers over 
5,000 tons have one or two catapults and bne to 
four planes. No information is available on 
newly constructed warships. 

The Planes 

The negligible pioneer work in the Japanese 
airplane industry has alreaxiy' been pointed out. 
A closer view of the types of planes shows that 
the Japanese are far behind their contemporaries 
abroad. This is true at any rate for the ma- 
chines designed in Japan. In addition there is 
nuch construction under license, which furnishes 
good copies of original machines and plane mo- 
tors. The airplane industry has to fight 
against various difficulties. First of all 
there is little cooperation in the air field. 
There is no central organization that regulates 
development and production. The mlllt€u*y air 
service is under the Naval Ministry; the clvll- 
ieui service under the Department of Canmerce; 
wheretus aeronautical research belongs to the 
Ministry of Instruction. FXirthermore, the air 
service industry lacks, in spite of its priv- 
ileged position, trained workers, modern mach- 
inery, and above all the necessary raw mate- 
rials. In the field of raw materials, machinery 
and technical workmen, Japan is dependent on 
other countries. German technicians are now 
trying to supply the necessary schooled person- 
nel. Estimates concerning the output of Jap- 
anese airplane industry vary. Insiders consider 
it to be from 1,500 to 2,500 planes a year fr<Mn 
the 40 or more factories. This means that Japan 
will not be able to supply its own needs if it 
becomes involved in a war against the Dnlted 
States or even in a War against the Russian air 
power in the Far East. According to reliable 

information the construction of 1938-39 was 
little more than 1,000 planes. 

The great airplane firms are Kawanishl, Kawas- 
aki, Mitsubishi, Nakajlma, and Tatlkawa. These 
are the factories fran which the Army and Navy 
draw almost all their planes and supplies. In 
addition, in the last years Japan has been able 
to import a great madDer of foreign planes or to 
build them under license. These are the Junkers 
G 38, 86, and 87, the Helnkel 112, the Fiat CR 
42 6Uid BR 20 M, the Koolhoven FK 58, the Hawker 
Nimrod, the Lockheed 14, the North American 16, 
the Seversky P 35, and the Martin 166. Kawan- 
ishi builds among other kinds Short seaplanes 
and Rolls Royce motors under, license for the 
Navy. Kawasaki furnishes pursuit planes and 
bombers, and has licenses from Dornier and 
B.M.W. Mitsubishi builds for the Army and the 
Navy, has licenses for Blackburn scout planes 
and torpedo planes, Curtiss pursuit planes. 
Junkers dive bombers and Hispano Suiza, Sydney 
and Junkers motors. Nakajlma builds its own 
designs, has licenses from Doi^glas and Fokker 
for commercial planes, and for Lorraine and 
Bristol motors. 

The Navy and Army air power both operated in 
the Chinese conflict. The Naval Air Force seems 
to have specialized more on bonbii^gs behind the 
front, insofar as one can still speak of fronts 
here. The distribution of the naval air fields 
along all the Japeuiese coasts and over the cai>- 
tured islands in the nandated territory shows, 
however, that the real task of the shore-based 
naval air power is the guarding of the coasts 
and adjoining seas in collaboration with the 
other naval units . The Japanese Naval Air Force 
conblnes, like the Dutch East Indies Naval Air 
Service and the U. S. Naval Air Force, the tasks 
of the British Coastal Ccmmand and the British 
Fleet Air Arm. The main task of the Japanese 
Naval Air Force is not much in evidence in the 
Chinese conflict, for China has no sea power, 
and the sea wau* can be limited to a blockade. 

Sonethlng About Japanese Tactics 

Four years of war in China have shown a few 
things about the nethods of the Japanese air 
force. Jaj)anese bombers are assigned tne fol- 
lowing activities: Bombing of enemy plane 
bases; operations against railroads and shipping 
(coastal and river) ; bombing of enemy military 
forces on the battlefield and behind the battle 
lines; and bombing of large industrial and pol- 
itical centers. 

Tte Japanese air force precepts prescribe as 
first task of the air arm the annihilation of 




the e.emy air forces In their bases. As a rule, 
the Japanese bonibers undertake flights up to 250 
miles past the front, accompanied by fighters, 
with which they frequently a^senble along the 
route. Balds on flylpg fields au*e carried out 
by large groups (30-40 pleuies) , and seldom by 
less than one squadron. Preliminary reconnais- 
sance flights over air fields without simultan- 
eous bonbardment are never made. The accom- 
jenyliTg fighters (15-30) fly In groups of three, 
echeloned at two or three levels, above, behind, 
right and left of the bcxdsers, at a distance of 
3,000 — 6,000 feet. The bcmibers usually ap- 
proach at a height of 6,000 — 12,000 feet with 
tte sun behind them, In formations dependent on 
tlie nutrber of bombers. If they come upon enemy 
fighters, the bombs are Imnedlately dropped from 
this formation. If there Is no active air de- 
fense, a run Is made over the objective, and 
finally test bombs are dropped. After that the 
flight Is divided Into groups of three or Into 
squadrons, which attack separately their own 
assigned objectives. The bombs are dropped In 
horizontal flight. 

Planes First Objectives 

The objectives are first of all planes on the 
ground, then hangars or buildings. For the 
first target small fire and fragmentation bombs 
of 25 to 50 lbs. are used. These bcmibardments 
do not have much success. There are cases known 
where 40 Japanese bonisers have let more than 200 
boobs fall on a certain terrain, edT«r which the 
Chinese could still use the field for taking off 
and landing. The return trip Is often divided 
Into groups of three (two bombers and one 
fighter) . These return along different routes , 
thus making reconnaissance flights. 

Night bcxnbardments are little used. They had 
little success euid were not made necessary by 
great Japanese losses In day attacks. The day- 
light attacks on flying fields, however, seldom 
caused the Chinese great losses, for they could 
spot the approach of the enemy and move their 
planes to a place of safety In plenty of time. 

Railroads and ships are attacked with small 
formations of several planes and often In dive 
bonbardments from 2,000 to 2,500 feet. Hits on 
railroad bridges are the greatest damage they 
can cause although this seldom occurs. Seldom 
do they cause a delay of more than 24 hours. 
Many river craft are sunk, however. 

Against land military forces one-motored 
bombers are used exclusively. They attack by 
diving with fragmentation bombs of 25 lbs. 
Thirty to forty bonbs are carried In one plane 

along with machine gunners. They seldom come 
lower than 300-400 feet. The cooperation with 
the Amy must be very good for this. 

Incendiaries Used 

In Industrial and political centers the Jap- 
anese have a preference for bonblng the Chinese 
quarters of cities, universities, government 
buildings, and hospitals. Against Chinese quar- 
ters they use Incendiary bonbs. In European 
quarters they use boobs of 500 to 750 lbs. When 
the Chinese air defense was still In a chaotic 
state, these massacres took place from low alti- 
tudes 6uid were accompanied by formation demon- 
strations. Later when tjie Chinese had antl- 
aircreift protection and fighters, the Jap boob- 
ers flew at 10,000 to 12,000 feet, and a pro- 
tecting screen of flghtem was taken along. 

In a defensive fight the Japanese bonbers keep 
a closed formation for mutual firing support. 
The Japemese flight precepts jirescribe: "Don't 
fire on the one whan you attack by chance, but 
on the one whom your comrade can't fire a- 
gainst," With a view to bringing all machine 
gunners into the firing, the Japanese groups 
change their formations during the air battle, 
and go above and below the pursuing planes to 
get them away from their leader. When once In 
battle the Japanese squadron as a rule attempts 
no dodging maneuvers which might result In the 
separation of a plane and Its certain destruc- 
tion. In other words, the defense of the squad- 
ron Is such that the expedition continues, with 
mutual fire support, while transfers can be made 
within the group. Mutual firing support Is c(k>- 
sldered to have little value In a squadr<xi group 
when the planes are too feu* apart. The Japanese 
prefer a short firing distance (50 to 200 yards) 
for all types of planes. 

- Reprinted from Seemacht (Sea Power), a 
German magazine published in Berlin. 


Lost during a cross-country flight, an avia- 
tion cadet made a forced landing in a plowed 
field near a Nevada town when his fuel supply 
became exhausted. Since the town residents had 
only once before seen a plane at close rai^e — 
a Cub durirg a county fair, the cadet was ac- 
corded quite a reception, especially since the 
picture "I Wanted Wings" was shown that night at 
the local theater. 

Negotiating with one of the citizens to guard 
the airplane during the night, the cadet was sur- 
prised to see that Individual reappear shortly 
with a rifle, a pistol and two dogs. But, then, 
everyone In town carried a gun. 



Airm«^ii Awarded DSC’ss 

First War Heroes 

By Lieut. Bobert Hotz 

A rmy airmen are writing a new chapter in the 
annals of winged warfare. The tradition 
that began more than 20 years ago over the 
fields of France has been treinsplanted to Pac- 
ific skies where American air power stands as- 
tride the Japanese path to cOTiquest. 

Siarprised sind outnunfcered during early phases 
of the battle, the pilots, gunners, bcmbardiers, 
and navigators of the Army Air Forces fought a 
magnificent action against swarms of Japanese 
attackers. Ground crews did a superb Job to 
"keep ’em flying". After more than six weeks of 
bitter battle against superior enemy forces, AAF 
pilots were still In the air over Luzon and 
P-40s were still knocking down Jap bombers. 
Over the Indies, AAF bonfcers are pounding Jap- 
anese sea power with ever Increasing violence. 

Battle confusion and overloaded cables make it 
Impossible to single out all the heroes of the 
AAF's baptism by fire. The names of many a 
young lieutenant who plunged his P-40 into a 
formation of enel^y bonbers eind of many a bcntoer 
crewman who came through in a pinch are missing 
from the dispatches. To these unsung heroes is 
due a share of the formal honors given to airmen 
whose spectacular deeds have been recorded. All 
possess the skill and valor that is the invis- 
ible badge of the AAF. 

Captain Kelly A Synbol 

The story of Capt. Colin P. Kelly, Jr., has 
been indelibly engraved in public prints and the 
hearts of his six fellow crewmen. Together 
Captain Kelly and his crew brought their big 
B-17 across Pacific wastes from Hawaii to the 
Philippines as part of the most spectacular 
trans-oceanic formation flight ever made by land 
planes. Flying a circuitous and uncharted route 
to avoid Jap patrols, they arrived in the Hill- 
ippines less than two months before the outbreaJc 
of war. 

Together at 23,000 feet. Captain Kelly and his 
crew found, bonbed and sunk the 29,000 ton Jap- 
anese battleship Haruna off the northern tip of 
Luzon. Homeward bound, their mission completed, 
they were attacked by a i».lr of Jap fighters. 
Their bonber was badly hit and began to burn. 

Captain Kelly, as pilot and canmander, ordered 
his six ccmpanlcns to bail out and held the ship 
steady as one by one each crewman dove to safe- 
ty. Captain Kelly vanished with his flaming 
ship. To the American people Captain Kelly has 
become more than a hero. H© is a symbol of 
American air power victorious in conbat. 

Captain Kelly W£is awarded the Distinguished 
Service Cross posthumously at a ceremony which 
saw General MacArthur pin the Cross on Capt. 
Jesus Villamor of the Philippines Air Force and 
Lleuts. J.D. Dale and Boyd Wagner of the AAF. 
Captain Villamor was credited with knocking down 
a trio of Japs while leading his squadron of 
Filipino pilots. Lieutenant Wagner was the 
first AAF pilot to officially shoot down five 
enel^y planes in World War II and was also cred- 
ited With destroying a score of enemy planes In 
a daring ground strafing of a Jax»nese airfield 
near Vigan. Lieutenant Dale was credited with 
sending a pair of Japanese planes down in flames 
during the early days of the battle of Luzon. 

Lieut. Marshal J. Anderson was described by 
General MacArthur as "one of the most intrepid 
pilots in the Philippines." The General persoi>- 
ally decorated Lieutenant Anderson with the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross at a Luzon airfield 
almost immediately after his return fpom a fcH*ay 
in which he led his squadrcxi to attack and dis- 
perse a strong formation of Japanese dive bonb- 
ers and then strafed an enemy truck column. 
Lieutenant Marshal shot down a Jaj)anese observ- 
ation plane during this attack and several days 
later sent a Jap fighter down in flames. 
own ship was damaged during the latter attack 
and Lieutenant Anderson balled out. Two Jap 
fighters followed his parachute and shot him to 
death while he daigled helplessly in mid-air. 

Col. H.H. George and MaJ . Emmett O’Donnell 
have been singled out for special mention in 
heavy bcmbardment operations . General HfecArthur 
recommended Colonel George for promotion to 
brigadier general as a result of "distinguished 
leadership and gallantry in action". A veteran 
in heavy bonbardment. Colonel George won the 
Distinguished Service Cross as a pilot in the 




first World War and participated in the famous 
B-17 flights to South Am erica. 

Major O'Donnell was the leader of the mass 
flight of B-17s from Hawaii to reinforce the 
Hiilippines. Early In the war Major O'Donnell's 
hcmtoer attacked Japanese naval units covering a 
landing at Legaspi. While pressing home the 
attack, a squadron of Japanese carrier-based 
fighters attacked the AAF bomber. Continuing 
the attack on the naval imits, the crew of the 
bonber shot down five Jap fighters and arrived 
safely at its base after Major O'Donnell made a 
perfect landing despite a pair of flat tires on 
his landing gear. 

Others Cited For Bravery 

Other fighter pilots cited in dispatches from 
the Philippines Include: Lieut. Randolph 

Preator, credited with being the first AAF pilot 
I to knock down an enemy plane over the Phil- 
ijipines; Lieut. Joseph Moore, who destroyed two 
: of five Japanese planes engaged in machine gun- 
i nlng an AAF pilot who had balled out, and Lieut. 

1 ; Samuel Merrett, who was killed leading his 
t squaxiron in an attack on Jap naval units. 

Outstanding heroes of the attack on Hawaii 
were Lieuts. George S. Welch and Kenneth W. 
Taylor. Both were awarded Distinguished Service- 
Crosses for "extraordinary heroism over the 
Island of Oahu on Decenber 7, 1941". 

Surprised by the early morning Jap attack on 
Oahu, Lieutenants Welch and Taylor drove 10 
miles under fire from Wheeler Field to Halelwa 
Field where their P-40s were stationed. They 
took off on their own initiative without making 
an effort to determine the nuober of Jap raid- 
ers. Over Barbers Point they sighted a form- 
ation of 12 planes 1,000 feet below and 10 miles 
away. They closed to attack. Lieutenant Welch 
shooting down a dive bomber and Lieutenant 
Taylor a pair of Jap planes. Lieutenant Welch 
broke off the attack after his guns jamned and 
an incendiary bullet passed through his plane 
just behind his back. Clearing his guns in 
cloud cover, he returned to the attack and shot 
down another Jap plane. Both AAF pilots re- 
tvirned to Wheeler field for more fuel and annu- 
nition. While still on the ground another Jap 
formation attacked the field. Lieutenant Welch 
took off with three Japs on his tail and went to 
the assistance of another AAF pilot who was 
being attacked from the rear. Lieutenant Welch 
shot the Jap off the AAF plane's tail and pur- 
sued another Jap plane five miles out to sea 
where he shot it down. Lieutenant Taylor took 
off despite the fact that his guns were not 

fully loaded and escaped into the clouds with a 
quick take-off ending in a chandelle . He eluded 
a formation of eight enemy planes. 

Four other AAF pilots were cited for heroism 
under fire by Lieut. Gen. Walter Short, Hawaiian 
military ccnmander. They were Lieut. lewis M. 
Sanders who destroyed a Jap plane that had just 
sent an AAF ship down in flames; Lieut. Gordon 
Sterling, who attaclred a Jap formation of six 
planes and destroyed one of them; Lieut. Hilllip 
Rasmussen, who engaged a Jap pursuit over Scho- 
field barracks and shot it dcwn after a furious 
battle, and Lieut. Harry Brown, who suddenly 
found himself in the midst of a Jap formation 
and shot his way out after destroying one plane 
without damaging ^tLs own. 

No story of the Pacific air war would be com- 
plete without menticxi of Marine Fighting Sqviad- 
ron 211 of Marine Alrcredl Group 21 emd its com- 
mander Major Paul A. Putnam. The initial Jap- 
anese attack on Wake Island by 24 bonbers knock- 
ed out eight of the squadron's 12 Grunioan Wild- 
cats but it took weeks for fantastically super- 
ior Jap formations to knock the other four from 
the air. During that period Marine flyers shot 
down five Jap planes, sank one ship and one sub- 
marine. Never were there more than four Marine 
planes in the air at a single time and never did 
the Jap formations ntnber less than 27 bonbers. 

Lauding the work of his ground crews. Major 
Putnam wrote in his last report: "Since the 
first raid, parts and assemblies have been 
traded beick and forth so that no airplane can be 
Identified. Engines have been traded from plane 
to plane, have been junked, stripped rebuilt and 
all but created. I wish to conment peu'ticularly 
on the indefatigable labor, ingenuity, skill 
and technical knowledge of Lieutenant Kinney ani 
Technical Sergeant Hamilton. It is due solely 
to their efforts that the squadron is still 

The Japanese actually shot down 13 Marine 
planes, since Marine mechanics fashioned 
a new plane from the parts of the planes 
wrecked in the first bcmblng attack. The l«ust 
Marine planes were knocked from the air on Dec- 
enber 22, exactly 14 days after the first Jap 
attack. They were flown by a captain and a 
second lieutenant against a force of more than 
GO Jap carrier and land based bonbers. The cap- 
tain was forced down, wounded, his ship a total 
wreck. The lieutenant was reported "lost". 
Thus ended the epic of ikfeirlne airmen over Wake 
Island, a performance that will stir toasts from 
AAF men everywhere. 



Sipottlng the Enemy 

British Reveai Observers’ 

By Air Commodore II. LeM. Bro«*k 

vice Commander, Royal ObMertrera Corps 


'^HE man who has, so to speak, been brought up 
-*• with aircraft will have no difficulty in 
distinguishing the peculiar features of the va- 
rious types. He knows the whys and the where- 
fores of the constructional details, he knows 
the function of each type, lie is Interested in 
engines and performances, and notices new fea- 
tures. His knowledge is always up-to-date and 
lie seldom fails to recognize anything he sees, 
or, if he does, he wants to know what it is. He 
is in much the same position as the coimtryman 
who has known all the common birds of the coun- 
tryside since childhood and notices the rarer 
species that occsislonally visit his neighbor- 

bered and a tey of the nuitiers prlnte<i on a sei>- 
arate canl. 

The silhouettes should not be all-black for 
learners. White continuous or dotted lines 
should be used to sliow tlie constructional de- 
tails of tlie aeroplanes, such as tlie flaps, rud- 
ders, lindercarriage, eiglne nacelles, etc. Al- 
tiiOMgh some of these features may not be visible 
at a distarice against the sky, tiiey are of great 
assistance in learning to distinguish the sil- 
houettes, ani also for Instlllirig into the mind 
of the learner an incipient Interest in the 
parts of an aeroplane. 


The novice in aircraft recognition is in a 
very different position. He will, no doubt, 
know by now that there are fighters and bonhers, 
that some alight on land and otliers on tlie sea, 
or on the decks of ships, that some have only 
one engine and others two or more, that tiiere 
are monoplanes and biplanes; but he will know 
the names of only a few that have been much 
written about in the press, and he will not know 
how to start distinguishing them in the air. It 
is the novice that we are considering in this 
short article, and one who cannot afford the 
time to attend courses, but must acquire the 
knowledge and skill at home. 

Silhouette Is Basic 

It is now generally accepted that the silhou- 
ette is the foundation of all instruction in 
recognition. Silhouettes are easy and quick to 
produce on paper, they can be accvirate and up- 
to-date, and can be distributed easily. They 
can be studied in the home and carried about in 
the pocket, in the form of books or, better 
still, as packs of cards. 

Three views of the aeroplane are essential, 
the plan, the side and the head-on-view. If a 
three-quarter front view can be supyilled as 
well, all tiie better. 

There is no need, to start with, for any de- 
scription of the aircraft, but only for their 
names, which should be printed on the backs of 
ti»e cards. Mternatively, tiie cards can be num- 

Novice Should Learn 50 

The nunber of types presented to the, novice to 
learn in the first Instance must be limited. 
Fifty is a convenient nunber. Three silhouettes 
of each will make a pack of 150 cards. Someone 
with full eind up-to-date Imowledge of the most 
ccnnKxi or important types, i.e. tiiose tiiat every 
observer oi^ht to know, must compile the list. 
This is a very important part of tiie proceedipgs 
and must receive careful consideration. Bi- 
planes should be omitted from tiie first 50 air- 
craft, and seaplanes and flying -boats can be 
omitted frcm the packs made for Inland observ- 

The pack of 150 cards can tijen be presented to 
the observer. It has been found that comy)lete 
beginners can learn to recognize aivl name every 
card in a pack of 150 in 10-12 houi's stuly. 

A learner siiould start by dividing; the pack 
into categories. A convenient division of tlie 
aircraft is those with:- 

(a) Sir^gle radial ermines. 

(t>) Single epgines in line. 

(c) Twin engines with single fin and rudder. 

(d) Twin engines with twin fins and rudders. 

(e) Three aiil four engines. 

By this means he can work up from the sim- 
piest and fewest to tlie more cottifilex. 

All he need do Ls to sit in his chair, lay out 
the cards -on a table, starting with category 
(a) , and note their names and distinguishing 
features, Tiien he sisould pick up the carris , 




shuffle them and go through them repeatedly 
until he can name every one correctly. He may 
then get a menfcer of his family to display them 
In turn for him to name aloud. This Is Impor- 
tant. He most learn to say the names quickly. 
Havlpg leeirnt the first category, he can proceed 
through the pack In the same way until he knows 
them- all. It Is easier than It seems at first 

TtUdes "Screen Test" 

He Is then ready, along with others, to be put 
through a test with a prescribed nimber of the 
silhouettes projected on to a screen for, say, 
10 seconds each, each competitor writing the 
names down on a piece of paper. When he has 
passed the prescribed test he has completed the 
first and most Important stage of his career as 
an observer. 

It Is worth while saying here that not every 
observer has started In this way, yet the sil- 
houette must be the foundation on which every 
beginner has had to base his learning. No 
doiibt. If accurate scale models were available 
of every type, they would be of great value, but 
they are not easily produced in large nmbers 
and they are apt to become obsolete rather 

So far, the observer has only an arm-chair 
knowledge of silhouettes. This alone will not 
make him a good observer in the field, but he 
will have gone a long way towards becoming one. 
First of all, he will have becone Interested In 
aircraft, and, secondly, he will have begun to 
learn exeictly in what way alrcrsift vary In their 
appeeu'ance or construction. He will also have 
learnt a lot of names, many of which are likely 
afterwards to be coming constantly to his notice 
In the picture papers. He will see photographs 
of them from different angles and come to know 
their uses, and who makes them. He has reached 
the stage when he feels he ought to be able to 
recognize them In the air. 

Total Depends On C Ircuns tances 

Unfortunately, a difficulty Imnedlately arises 
here. In that the number of types seen in any 
locality Is usually very small, and very often 
they may be just those which are not on the list 
of the first 50. This brings us to the neces- 
sity of further lists and further packs of 
cards. The total must depend on the circum- 
stances. In the tests of the R.O.C. Cltib there 
are 65 In the 3rd Class list, 56 In the 2ndj and 
80 In the 1st Class list, a total of 200. The 

2nd and 1st class lists include a number of 
Italian and French types which might be seen 
over Britain, as well as the less likely German 
types. The 3rd class list Includes, of course, 
all the more important German types. It is 
reckoned that the total of British, American, 
German, Italian, Russian and Japanese types Is 
at least 660. 

The observer should now be In a position to 
learn to recognize at sight everything that he 
sees every day frcan his post and to notice and 
name new types whenever they appear. The as- 
sistance of an expert at this stage will be in- 
veduable. The novice will discover quickly that 
In spite of near resenblances of many types, 
nearly every aeroplane has Its peculiar 'sit' In 
the air. After a time It will often be the 
'sit' that Is recognized and not any particular 
feature, though an observer should never allow 
himself to take anything for granted In this 
respect. First sights are very often deceptive 
and there are too many "catches" in recognition 
for anyone ever to be certain of first Impres- 
sions. The use of binoculars is often essen- 

At this stage the observer must begin to seek 
practice. He must not only go on with the addi- 
tional packs of silhouette cards, but he must 
study photographs and be shown films. A keen 
interest must be maintained amoigst observers by 
the perusal of periodical literature dealing 
with aircraft, especially with new types comlrg 
Into the service of the several countries. In- 
teresting descriptions of aircraft, their per- 
formances , armament and functions will help to 
Impress on their minds their salient features. 
Very often neither silhouettes nor photographs 
will be available of new enemy types. Odd bits 
of Information about them may be picked up 
which, if remenbered, may help «ui observer to 
recognize an aeroplane as soon as he sees It. 
He may know that it cannot be anything else. 

Films Are Valuable 

The use of films, with conmentarles, may be a 
very valuable method of teaching the elements of 
recognition, and might, if there is the oppor- 
tunity, form the ground-work of Instruction. 
Their development In this country has been slow, 
but they take time and care to make and require 
the facilities to show, which may not exist In 
country districts. 

Lastly, competitions of all sorts should be 
eirranged with silhouettes, photographs, models, 
etc., and even with pmrts of silhouettes, such 
(Continued on Page 39) 



ITandin^ ’Em Important, Too 


By Lieut. Col. Stedman Shumway Hanks 

N Important contribution to National Defense 
can now be made by State and County highway 
departments in the construction of "Flight 
Strips" in highway rights-of-way or roadside de- 
velopment areas near main arid secondary roads. 
Under sections 8, 9 and 14 of the Defense High- 
way Act of 1941, $10,000,000 has been author- 
ized at the present time frcmi Federal funds for 
the construction of "Flight Strips." 

The entire project is to be carried out in co- 
opera.tion with the Army Air Forces and the Com- 
missioner of Public Roads is authorized to make 
the necessary erglneerlng surveys and pleuis, and 
also to enter into agreements with the various 
State highway departments to acquire such new or 
additional rights-of-way, or lands, which may be 

Primary Importance 

In signing the Defense Highway Act, the Pres- 
ident sent a letter to Congress in which he 
stated that the Secretaries of War and Navy re- 
gard the authorization for the construction of 
access roads to military and naval reservations 
and defense industry sites to be of primary im- 
portance and urgency. 

"The Secretary of War also places in the same 
category the authorization for the construction 
of "Flight Strips" for the landlig and tal«-off 
of aircraft. Under these authorizations, esti- 
mates of appropriations may be provided, in such 
amounts and for projects in such areas as will 
best meet our defense needs." 

The accepted definition for a "Flight Strip" 
is "a landing area not less than 200 feet in 
width and not less than 1,800 feet in length 
(the area could be as large as 800 by 8000 feet) 
with clear approaches, located in a highway 
right-of-way or adjacent to a public highway, on 
public land, developed with State and/or County 
funds, including Federal aid." 

Idea A Sound One 

In testimony before the Senate in connection 
with the Defense Highway Act, General Arnold 
stated that he felt the "Flight Strip" idea was 

a sound one in that it was believed by lislpg a 
minimum amount of money, by taking straight 
stretches of road polntipg generally in the pre- 
vailing wind direction, that the Air Forces 
would be able to get landing areas with the 
least possible expense. Re said they could also 
be used for parking of military convoys. 

When General Brett appeared before the House 
Carmlttee on Roads he stated that the Air Corps 
was primarily Interested in "Flight Strips" from 
tlie standpoint of coordlnatlpg with the people 
who do the work in connection with, the actual 
location of the "Flight Strips", as Well as the 
actual specifications to be used, such as sur- 
face width, construction and length of the 
"Flight Strip" area. 

General Brett pointed out the extreme impor- 
tance of the "Flight Strips" in the movement of 
large numbers of airplanes frcm one part of the 
country to another, and also as making it possi- 
ble for the Air Forces to disperse their air- 
planes so as to prevent their loss on the ground 
in case of attack. 

Will Be Auxiliaries To Bases 

Each Air Force ccramander will cooperate in the 
selection of "Flight Strip" areas, and the re- 
gional managers of the Civil Aeronautics Admin- 
istration will be consulted regarding the gener- 
al location of these areeis in relation to other 
landing facilities. In general, military 
"Flight Strips" will be located within a radltis 
of from 5 to 50 miles from air bases and will 
serve as auxiliaries to those bases. 

In modern warfare air bases and airports are 
the first targets of banbing operations by enemy 
planes. For this reason it is better to avoid 
concentrations of bonSsers and fighting planes at 
the central air bases, and have them serviced 
and stored by squadrons scattered from the main 
base. Properly camouflaged "Flight Strips" pro- 
vide a good part of the strategic answer to this 
problem. Using rubberized cement, such things 
as fences, stalks of corn, tobacco plants, 
brooks, trees, etc. can be outlined on the 
"Flight Strips", while the operation offices may 
easily be disguised as farm buildings. 




DIAGSAM shows how 
“flight strip” can 
be laid out beside 
highway “right-of- 
way " line. 



DRAWING of specimen area. 
This illustrates how flight 
strips should be located 
near airports and auxiliary 
landing fields. 


t Auxiliory Field 
Municipal Airport 

Flight Strip Loeotione 

Roads and Highways 




Conplete servicing and repair facilities nusi< 
necesseo*ily be located at the main air base, but 
airplanes may be flown easily to the base for 
these overhaulli^ operations from nearby "Fll^t 
Strip" areas and thus prevent a heavy concentra- 
tion at planes at one point at apy given time. 

The question of maintenance is of great impor- 
tance. All "Flight Strips" must be maintained 
by some responsible authority. If and when the 
Amy should require these areas for their perma- 
nent operation, then the "Flight Strips" should 
be maintained by the military authorities . 

First Thing Is To Build Than 

On the other hand, if and when the civilian 
authorities are to use these "Flight Strip" 
areas, then the Federal Government, through Con- 
gress, may have to peuss further legislation and 
appropriate funds for their maintenance, or the 
States affected may wish to do so. 

The first thing Is to get some actual "Flight 
Strips" biillt. When the Federal authorities re- 
alize how effective these areas are, the Federal 
Conmlss loner of Public Roads and the Chief of 
Army Air Forces will be in a position to know 
more about the provisions that will be necessary 
to take care of their maintenance, and appro- 
priate reconniendatlons can be made then. 

When it is found that a hard surface is diffi- 
cult to obtain without considerable expense, due 
to a lack of granular soil, etc., it may be nec- 
essary for the Army's aviation engineers to 
place portable airplane steel plate runway mats 
on the "Flight Strip" area. The cost of main- 
taining such a runway would be negligible and 
would probably be assuned by the Army Air Forces 
as long as these mats remain on the ground. 
These runway mat installations proved highly 
successful durlpg the recent "Battle of the. Car- 

Already many States have planned for the con- 
struction of "Flight Strips". Now that Federal 
legislation has been enacted and funds are 
available, speedy action may be expected in view 
of the recognition on the part of the President 
and highest military authorities of the primary 
Importance of "Flight Strips". 

Air Corps officers recently detailed as mem- 
bers of the General Staff Corps with troops were 
Lieut. Cols. Ftall C. Kiel and Robert E. Douglass, 
Jr. Detailed as menbers of the War Department 
General Staff and assigned to the Office of the 
Chief of Staff In Washlpgton were Majors leonard 
H. Rodleck and George F. Schulgen. 


A new Air Service Connand has been established 
to supply, maintain and store materiel and 
equipaent and provide essential services for the 
Army Air Force. With headquarters at Dayton, 
Ohio, the new Conmand replaces the old Air Corps 
Maintenance Connand. 

Although the Maintenance Connand operated as a 
part of the Materiel Division, the new Air Ser- 
vice Conmand will functicsi as a separate organ- 
ization. This chapge has been made because un- 
der the expanded Air Corps program the Materiel 
Division is concerned primarily with experimen- 
tal work and the procurement of new aircraft. 

General Miller Is Chief 

Chief of the Air Service Connand is Brig. Gen- 
eral Henry J.F. Miller. His organization will 
be equal in liiportance to the Materiel D1v1s1<hi, 
which operates directly imder the Chief of the 
Air Corps, Major General George H. Brett. 

Slogan of the connand is "We Keep 'Em Flying". 
This is an accurate description of its duties, 
which are to keep every airplane of the Air 
Force ready to fly. Specifically the connand 
Is charged with supply, maintenance, warehousing 
and air transport between stations, and is re- 
sponsible for the adequate stocking, proper cat- 
aloging &nd rapid distribution of supplies and 

For the purpose of executing these functions 
the Ccmnand heis divided the United States and 
its possessions into seven divisions, four in 
the United States and three in outlying terri- 
tories. Mobile units will operate in these 
areas for the purpose of maintaining and stipply- 
iig field operations. These regions were for- 
merly served by the nine corps areas, but in 
July all service elements and functions were 
placed under the control of the Chief of the Air 

$2,500,000 Building 

Now under construction on a government-owned 
tract of land located near Daytcm, Ohio, is a 
$2,500,000 building which will house ihe head- 
quarters of the Air Service Connand. It is ex- 
pected that construction will be conqpleted some- 
time In the spring. 

In additicMi to the 800 civilians now; employed 
by the connand, approximately 2,400 will be add- 
ed before staffing is complete. A large mmi>er 
of prospective employees are now in training at 
air depots for supervisory Jobs. 



. t HERE are three aviation cadets on the way to their positions in a bomber 
Together they constitute one of the many "Three Musketeer " combat teams of th. 
Air Forces. Left to right, they are a navigator, a bombardier and a pilot 

More Musketeers 

Combat Crew Eligibility 

By Oliver Townsend 

"Three liLsketeers" of the Air Forces— bom- 
hardlers, navigators and pilots — can now 
be recruited ft’om an eligibility list Increased 
to approximately 2,000,000 by the lowering of 
the age limit for aviation cadets to 18 years, 
the extension of eligibility to married men and 
the abolition of formal educational require- 

Under the new rulings any male citizen of the 
United States between the ages of 18 to 26 in- 
clusive, Including Army enlisted personnel, may 
apply for tralnli^. If married, the applicant 
must furnish an affidavit that his wife and fam- 
ily have adequate Independent means of siippcwt. 

Lanadlate Appointment 

As part of the overall changes In Air Corps 
recruitment and training technique the procedure 
for enlistment has been changed so that appoint- 
ment as an aviation cadet immediately follows 
enllsiment. This has been made possible throC^h 
the establlshaent of an Increased nimi>er of Ca- 
det Examining Boards In each of the nine Corps 

Uxler the new procedure applicants apply di- 
rectly to the nearest Cadet Exeunlnlng Board, 
where they must present three letters of recom- 
mendation signed by citizens of established 
stcuidli^ In the comnunity, and a birth certifi- 
cate or other documentary evidence of date of 
birth and proof of at least 10 years' citizen- 

At the local Cadet Examining Board the pros- 
pective cadet Is given a preliminary physical 
examination (Type 63) , and a mental "screening" 
test, designed to determine the applicant's fit- 
ness to pursue successfully Air Corps courses of 

Physical requirements are similar to those of 
Reserve Officers called to active duty, except 
that the prospective flying officer must have 
"20/20 eyesight" and normal color perception. 
The "screening" test is designed to test the 
applicant's aptitude for Air Corps training, not 
his knowledge of certain academic fields. The 
"screening" test Is a "multiple choice" type of 
examination, in which the examinee chooses the 

correct answer from a list of five possible an- 
swers for each question. The Local Examlnirg 
Board also holds formal proceedings to determine 
whether the applicant possesses the required 
moral emd character qualifications. 

If successful, the axipllcant is enlisted at 
once, appointed an aviation cadet, and sent Im- 
mediately to one of bhe Three Air Corps Replace- 
ment Centers. There he Is given additional 
tests to determine the type of tralnlrg he is to 
receive. Including a Type 64 physical examina- 
tion for flying duty. 

Depending upon the results of his aptitude 
tests at the Training Center, and provided he 
passes the physical examination for flight duty, 
he is assigned fco* aircrew trainli^ as either a 
bcobardier, navigator or pilot. All alrcrewmen 
who successfully conplete the Air Corps training 
program, which Includes 10 weeks at a Replace- 
ment Center, 10 weeks at a primary training 
school, 10 weeks at a basic school, and 10 weeks 
at an advcmced single or twin-engine school, 
will receive conmisslons as second lieutenants. 
In addition all aviation students who have 
applied for but not yet begun enlisted pilot 
training nny apply for cadet status. During the 
training period aircrew cadets receive $75.00 
per month/ plus $1.00 per day subsistence. They 
also receive necessary clothing, equlpnent, med- 
ical care, and a $10,000 life Insurance policy 
dta*lng the period of training. On eisslgrment to 
active duty they me^ continue the xwlicy by pay- 
ing the premluiE. Upon graduation each cadet 
receives an initial uniform allowance of $150 
cash. On release frtxn active duty in the Air 
Corps Reserve, he receives $500 for each year of 
active service. 

Bay Be Ground Officers 

New aviation cadets who fall to pass the ad- 
vanced Type 64 physical examination at a re- 
placement center are Inmedlately considered tor 
training as Air Forces ground officers. 

Ground courses offered by the Air Forces and 
leading to conmisslons as second lieutenant are 
In the fields of armament, engineering, meteor- 
ology, conmunlcations and photograjjhy. Eligi- 
bility for armament training Is extended to 




civilians, aviation cadets, am to former avi- 
ation cadets nowr in civil life — preferably to 
those who have had training in engineering or 
physics. Aviation cadets and former cadets nust 
be recamended by the conmandlng officer of the 
Air Cori>s training detachment for armament 
training for their mechanical aptitude, and may 
not have failed any ground school siibject. 
f Candidates for engineering training must have 
^cwipleted at least three years of engineering 
^yudles at an accredited college or university. 
Communications training is open to aviation 
cadets who have conpleted either two full years 
of engineering studies or have had two years of 
college and hold an amateur radio license. 

Many Ground Courses 

Those eligible for meteorological training are 
college graduates who have specialized in sci- 
ence, engineering or similar technical svfcjects. 
They must have satisfactorily completed courses 
in mathematics, including differential and in- 
tegral calculis, and physics. Including heat and 
thermal dynamics. 

Applications for photographic tralnlxig are not 
being accepted at present, but when they are 
needed only applicants who have had at least 
three years of chemistry or geology in an ac- 
credited college will be accepted. Preferably, 
applicants should also have had some profes- 
sional or considerable amatew experience. 

In addition to the many courses leading to 
ccxnmlssions open to aviation cadets, the Air 
Corps also offers many other technical and pro- 
fessional courses leading to non-conialssloned' 
c^lcer appointments for new applicants and for 
aviations cadets who do not take flight training 
<|P a ground-officer's training course. 

Generals Tramferred 

In connection with the revised and expanding 
Air Corps training and recruitment program three 
general officers of the Air Forces have been 
ordered. transferi*ed to new stations . These are 
Major General Barton K. Young, who has been as- 
signed to the Office of the Chief of the Air 
Corps from the West Coast Training Center; Brig. 
Gen. George E. Stratemeyer, who has left the 
Office of the Chief of the Air Corps to go to 
the Southeast Air Corps Training Center as Cdn- 
niandlng Officer; and Brig. Gen. Ralph R. 
Cousins, who has been relieved of duty as chl^f 
of the A-1 Division of the Air Staff and ordered 
to conmand the West Coast Air Corps graining 



rr^HERE are no cloud cops at Randolph Field, 

* but nl^t flying traffic probably couldn't 
be controlled more efficiently even if there 
were— thanks to a cleverly devised system which 
enables Instructors to maintain close watch from 
the ground over all students aloft. 

Needless to say, safety is paramount. Each 
ship must have a definite place in the field 
pattern and each student must know where and 
when he is to make an approach 'for a practice 
landing. This problem of traffic control in 
night flying has become even more involved with 
the aviation cadet training program now neeu*lng 
its peak. 

By dividing areas on the east and west sides 
of the field into quarters , this systan makes it 
possible for as many as sixteen planes to be in 
the air at once . It's accomplished by stacklrg 
two planes in each zone, of course, at different 

One flies at an altitude of from 1,000 to 
1,500 feet, while the other circles at from 
2,000 to 2,500 feet. White blinking ground 
lights spaced at five-mile intervals clearly de- 
fine the boundaries of each quarter and elimi- 
nate the possibility of ships flying into zones 
other than their own. 

Night flying is Inserted into the cadet course 
beginning with the fourth week of the ten-week 
basic training program here, or after the enbryo 
pilot has had approximately 25 hours of dual and 
solo daytime flying in his basic trainer. On 
his first night flight, the student is acconpa- 
nled by the Instructor until he has mastered the 
trick of after-dark landings. Aftw that, which 
usually requires about 30 to 40 minutes of in- 
struction, he's on his own. 

Normal ccmmunlcatlon is by radio, but often 
light signals govern landings. Of these, there 
are two types — bar signals and circle lights 
atop a ham^, and the spotlight. The bar sig- 
nals are used to indicate t^hat the plane in a 
certain zone is to land. Onb bar of light indi- 
cates the first zone, two the second, and so on. 

One Bar For First Zone 

If it is desired to bring in the ship in 
lower section of the first zone, one bar appears 
in bright red lights . The student in that zone 
flashes his landing lights to indicate he has 
received the signal. He drops down to 600 feet 
where he enters the traffic pattern and lands. 

(Continued on Pate 28 ) 


Ferry Coiiimau«l II ou line 

The Cruise of the Arabian Night 

By IJeut. Col. Caleb V. Haynes; 

E arly in June I was ordered to Washington for 
sixty days duty with the Atlantic Division 
of the Air Corps Ferrying Coomand. After three 
months, In which I made North Atlantic Trips No. 
1 and No. 4 to England, I was discussing my re- 
turn to Puerto Rico with Colonel Robert Olds, 
Chief of the ACPC, when my phone rang. A trip 
to Africa and the Middle East was In the offing, 
to transport MaJ. Gen. George C. Brett, Chief of 
the Air Corps, and staff on an inspection trip. 

General Brett asted me to suggest an itinerary 
and smiled when I told him we might expect motor 
trouble In the vicinity of Borinquen Field, P.R. 
as this is iqy home station. A relay cutout did 
catch fire Just out of Borinquen, and forced a 
lay-over of two days. At that point, the General 
said, "C.V., I knew we’d have a layover at Bo- 
rinquen Field, but I didn't think you'd have to 
set the plane on fire to do it ! " 

Picked Crew 

However, I'm getting ahead of my story. I was 
very fortunate to secure a picked crew for our 
mission. Navigator was Major Curtis E. LeMay, 
copilot and assistant navigator Capt. Carlos J. 
Cochrane. Special credit Is due to our enlisted 
men., M/Sgt. A. Cattarlus, the air engineer; 
W/Sgt. B.R. Martin, assistant air engineer; 
M/Sgt. J.E. Sands, radio operator, and Mr. H. 
Parker, British assistant radio operator, per- 
formed all the functions usually performed by a 
coiriDat crew of five men, plus all ground mainte- 
nance necessary on our trip. Ground maintenance 
for a ship of this type, the Consolidated B-24, 
normally takes twelve to eighteen men. 

We left Bolling Field (at 9.18 A.M. EST) on 
Avgust 31. After an vmeventful trip we reached 
Miami at 1.20 P.M. that day. We were there 
Joined by General Brett, his aide. Lieutenant 
Jack Berry; Colonel Ray Dunn, and Colonel H.B. 
Newman, of the Office of the Chief of the Air 
Corps, and Mr. H.C. Short of the Middletown Air 

The following day we proceeded to Borinquen 
Field, P.R. , where the relay cut-out fire men- 
tioned above occurred and was repaired. 

We left Puerto Rico (at 13.20 GMT,) reached 

Port-of Spain, Trinidad, at 16.55 GMT, September 


Gassing Done By Hand 

Pan American Airways weather facilities, radio 
and maintenance were used from Trinidad to 
Belem, Brazil. Belem lacks hangars. Gassing 
was done by hand pumps from drums, and we took 
forty-five minutes to service. The same day 
(September 4th) we flew on to Natal, arriving 
there at 19.55 GMT. 

We were greeted at Natal by Colonel White, the 
American Attache, who boasts a most unusual col- 
lection of tropical fish. One fish could swim 
as well backwards as forward. Due to a shortage 
of transient acccranodatlons, our party spent the 
night In the Catholic hospital. 

Our ship departed Natal at 00.28 GMT the night 
of the 6th. Although we had considered landing 
at Bathurst, Sierra Leone, decision was reached 
enroute to land at Free Town on the Gold Coast. 
Weather was poor on the West, Southwest Coast of 
Africa. We spent the night with the governor of 
the colony, continuing on to Takoradi on the 

Warned About "Gyppy Tunny" 

On our arrival in Africa we were warned 
against a disease known as "Gyppy Tummy." A 
particularly painful and vicious form of stanach- 
ache, the only treatment seems to be doses of 
whisky and aspirin. Some times the aspirin is 
deleted frcm the prescription. Major LeMay was 
to suffer a very severe attack of it in Cairo. 
(He was advised to consult a certain Dr. Hamil- 
ton, who is conceded the East's leading authori- 
ty on this malady, but cai further inquiry learn- 
ed that the good doctor himself was in bed with 
"Gyppy Tunmy"!) 

With permission of the Liberian government we 
flew over Liberia enroute to Takoradi. We re- 
mained over night at Takoradi. 

In order to avoid passing over Vichy-French 
territory, we flew to Kano via Lagos. An exotic 
village where the Jungle meets the desert, Kano 
Is the Junction of a railhead and several Impor- 
tant caravan routes. There are no hotels, and 




most of the buildings are conical mud huts. The 
t£wn is very old. It has some remarkable primi- 
tive dye works which are still in operation. 
These are mentioned in the Bible. Here our 
party bought a supply of fine leather goods, 
learned the art of African bargaining — never pay 
more than one-fourth the first price asked by 
the seller. 

Natives Curious 

The native chief and some two hundred villag- 
ers were out to see our plane land. Their pre- 
sence proved fortunate, as our wheels broke 
■through the runway. At a signal from the chief, 
the natives started to push us off. At first 
all pushed in different directions, but they 
were finally straightened out, and to the thump 
of tom toms rolled us to firmer ground. We de- 
flated our tires to 45 pounds and had no further 
trouble of this kind. 

The face of the engineering officer at El Fash- 
er dropped when we mentioned our gas require- 
ments. He had what we needed, he hastened to 
explain, but almost every gallon was brought 425 
miles in small drums on truck or camel. El 
Fasher also is a caravan center whose markets 
offer elephant tusks and strange animal hides. 
Giraffes and other big game are plentiful. ■ It 
was near this point that General Brett carefully 
photographed a herd of "gazelles", only to learn 
on developing his negative that the gazelles 
were the common garden variety of goats. 

Colonel Perrin asked permission to Join our 
party at El Fasher, but Colonel Dunn protested 
vigorously. I wondered why, until I realized 
that Perrin would make the thirteenth passenger. 
Fortunately a British official also wished to go 
to Cairo. His presence made fourteen instead of 
thirteen and Colonel Dunn was happy. 

The governor, who had entertained us hospita- 
bly, urged us not to fly to Cairo direct, as a 
forced landing in the Sahara desert would be 
most dangerous. Accordingly we took off on the 
morning of the tenth in the direction he ad- 

Use Secret "Corridor" 

Flying over the ruins of the Nile valley, we 
approached Cairo along the secret "corridor" 
which must be used by all friendly aircraft in 
that area, giving the signal of the day when re- 
quired. In Cairo we were met at the airport by 
Mr. Kirk, American Minister; Colonel Burwell, 
Lieutenant Atkins, Major Nick Craw and several 
British officials. Major Craw has had many ex- 
citing experiences including Greece, Crete and 


so forth. He was a prisoner for several days on 
one occasion. 

On our third day in Cairo we were advised by 
British Intelligence of an expected air raid 
and advised to move our ship. However, we felt 
that with its conspicuous markirigs the B-24 was 
safer in the hangar. The raid came off on 
schedule, and thirty-nine people were killed, 
sane ninety injured. 

While in Egypt we had an opportunity to visit 
several advanced British outpost air units in 
North Africa. Most of the men are Colonial 
troops: Australians, New Zealanders, South Afri- 
cans. Their morale appears high and they are 
doing a wonderful job in face of almost incredi- 
ble hardships. 

Dust Worse Than Heat 

Dust is more .of a problen than heat, yet mech- 
anized equipment appears to function in spite of 
it. I talked with several British officers who 
were enthusiastic about the quality or such 
American equipment as they had received. 

On September 23 several menibers of our party, 
accai 5 )anled by British Air Meirshall Dawson, flew 
to Basra, Iraq. On the way we were requested to 
fly low and give the signal of the day at sever- 
al desert outposts. Bagdad has a fairly well- 
developed airport which still bore some scars of 
a recent Iraq uprising. Basra, at the head of 
the Persian Gulf, was the most easterly point of 
our travels . 

After a night spent in Habbaynla, Iraq, we re- 
turned on the morning of the twenty-fourth to 
Lydda, Palestine. Weather facilities and main- 
tenance appear excellent through the part of the 
Middle East covered. Following a day of sight- 
seeing the party, with the addition of Wing Con- 
mander Brown, vdio had entertained us royally in 
Jerusalem, departed for Cairo. Copmander Brown 
flew the "Arabian Knight" (as we had unofficial- 
ly dubbed her) about a hundred miles and ex- 
pressed himself well pleased with her perform- 
ance. In Iraq we had been promised the chance 
to fly a captured German ME-llO, but were told 
it was out of conmlssion when we accepted the 
offer. We reached Cairo on the twenty-fifth. 

General Brett and Lieutenant Berry left us at 
Cairo. They were replaced on the return trip by 
Colonel Burwell and Wing Connander Harris, whose 
brother is at present stationed in Washington. 

Food Plentiful 

Food is quite plentiful in Egypt, but far more 
expensive than it is in Londoi. Acconmodatlons, 
(Continued on Page 40) 


New Army Record 

180 Miles Withoul: a Motor 

By Lieut. Claude L. Luke 

Several months ago Lieutenant Luke estab- 
lished a distance record for Army glider pi- 
lots when he flew a soaring plane from the 
Army Glider School at Elmira, N.Y., approxi- 
mately 180 miles to a farmer’s field near Fort 
Dix, N.J. Recently he told the story of the 
flight to Corporal George Eckels, editor of 
the Middletown Air Depot publication , "Wings 
Over Olmstead" 

Last November Lieutenant Luke was killed in 
the crash of an Army Air Forces glider at Pat- 
terson Field, Ohio, His was the first fatal 
glider accident to be recorded since The Army 
Air Forces began its experimental program in 
the use of powerless aircraft for military 

I T was clear and bright the morning of the 
flight. The Ifrjited States Weather Bureau's 
meteorologXst, Barney Wiggins, attached to the 
Army School at Elmira, forecast that this would 
be an excellent day to soar cross-country. 

My plane was a Wolfe, produced in Germany by 
Wblfe-Hirth. It has a wingspread of fifty-two 
feet and weighs about three hundred pounds. In 
soaring circles the Wolfe has a good name for 
speed and lightness. It has very sensitive con- 
trols and heel-action pedals. Most United 
States gliding airmen are familiar with toe- 
action. Flying the Wolfe must be very like fly- 
one of the earliest type motor-driven ships. 
It is unstable and requires constant attention 
to keep it in flying position. 

I had been away tram the Army School at Elmira 
for about forty-five days. Having flown no^ilng 
but transports during this Interval, I admit 
that I felt no little trepidation in preparing 
to fly cross-country in a plane I still found 
somewhat foreign and unfamiliar. 

But the officials smoked a barograjd! and after 
checking it installed it in the Wolfe. They 
handed me a chocolate bar and a wide necked 
bottle filled with orange juice. It was 10.30" 
A.M. I was towed off Harris Hill and as the tow 
line reeled out to the end I reached an altltiide 
of seme six hundred feet. For a ^dille 1 soared 
up and down the slope in front of a thirty-five 

Lieut. Claude L, Luke 

mile wind blowing out of the north. I nosed 
around for some thermals. I fotmd one or two 
but my turns in a plane so strange to me caused 
much grief. Each one felt like an incipient 
spin. (Some of you may wonder what a ’ thermal • 
is. A thermal is a mass of moisture-laden air 
that rises from spots on the ground heated by 
the sun, until it reaches the inversion point - 
or where cold air turns the thermal into a 
cloud. The loglcad indication of a thermal is a 
cloiid, although not always. When clouds build 
iq) over a widespread area, ’lift' results.) 

Othqr gliders had taken off, some before and 
some after me. They all seemed to clinft) much 
higher than I could. For about ninety minutes ' I 
sl(^-soared over Harris Hill. Time after time, 
the Wolfe's nose nuzzled the warmth of a goodly 
thermal. I would rise several thousand feet. 
Each time I believed there were not enough ther- 
mals to permit me to leave the air over Harris 
Hill. And each time I came back to slope-soar 
and wait. I was Intent on staying up five hours 
at least, to qualify for the Sllver-C award, 
granted by the Federation Aeronautlque Inter- 
nationale. (Ot-her reoulrements : Altitude, 3000 

feet; distance, 30 miles.) I hoped I could meet 
some of these qualifications by slqpe-soaringialone. 




From tine to time I headed back to the field 
after riding thermals to several thousand feet 
and had several very, close calls. About noon- 
time I hooked on to a strong thermal that shot 
me upward to four thousand feet in two and a 
half minutes. This was encouraging. For the 
first time I believed I really had a good chance 
to take off cross-country. Overhead the sky had 
b^un to form into small cottony cmulus clouds. 
I found enough lift, hopping from cloud to 
cloud, to gain altitude little by little. Cir- 
cling to stay in the area of lift I began to 
drift down wind. In the next five minutes I 
would have to decide whether to shove-off, or go 
back to Harris Hill. The wind decided for me. 
I was too far to "get in" to Harris Hill. So I 
was on the way! 

The simplest way to fly cross-country in a 
glider Is to go down wind. You must circle to 
hold altitude because the cross-section of a 
thermal Is very small. Sometimes they are CMily 
"bubbles.” These drift with the wind. If your 
objective lies down wind, that nuch distance Is 
gained. In other words. It Is logical that a 
cross-country gliding flight Is no more than a 
series of spirals, while flying with the wind. 

Senses Chance At Becord 

When I left Elmira I chose Middletown Air De- 
pot as a tentative goal. It was almost due 
south. I would have liked to land there at my 
h<xne station. But the wind was coming out of 
the northwest now - It must have been one 
o’clock - and progress was so rapid that I felt 
I had an outside chance to establish some kind 
of record If I continued <xi a stral^t down wind 
course. The upper Susquehanna river was my com- 

Northwest of Scranton I was down to 2000 feet 
and losing altitvide rapidly. There was a range 
of mountains to cross If I were to go on. I 
circled to gain altltiide. A thermal picked me 
up under a cloud and soon I was half across the 
mountain ridge. I had to go on. In this region 
I put to practical use a bit of Information glv- 
ai us by instroictors at Elmira. I watched hawks 
wheeling over the mountain tops and crowded one 
of than out of his own thermal. I gained alti- 
tude coi hawk-course Just south of Scranton’s ex- 
cellent airport. 

There are many mountains between Scranton and 
Allentown. Scranton looked taipting. Besides, 
I was hungry! To go up or come down, that was 
the question. But clouds, gleaming In bright 
sunlight, were favorable to staying up. Lift 
was good up to the Inverslcxi point at the base 

of the clouds - almost constant at 8000 feet - 
but no higher. 

Upward BOO Feet Per Minute 

Many times during the fllglit I got down to cme 
thousand feet or even less and picked out tenta- 
tive landing fields to come in on if the sky 
gave out on thermals. But again and again I 
found one of these up-currents to ride. They 
were well-defined, if not numerous. When I did 
find (Mie my rate of ascent was well In excess of 
five hundred feet p)er minute. Visibility w€is 
excellent. I had no conpass and was sitting on 
my map. I had to depend on menory for local ge- 
cgraphy. With relief I foimd towns turned out 
to be what I had guessed they were. 

After crossing another range of mountains 
north of Allentown, where I found no emergency 
fields within range of my gliding angle, I got 
hungry again. Now for that chocolate bar, I 
thought! But my heavy winter flight Jacket 
pressed too snugly against the sides of the 
cockpit and I couldn't reach the candy - or the 
map I was sitting on, when I wanted It badly. 
Another handicap was the hood that fitted over 
my head like a cowl. I must have looked like a 
turtle, sitting up there in the cockpit with 
only my head showing! While Jiiggling for the 
chocolate bar I dropped a thousand feet of pre- 
vious altitude and actually dragged out by my 
shoe tops. 

Somehow I arrived over Allentown, down very 
low. I looked overside for a spwt to land on. 
There were the fairgrounds enclosed in a race- 
track and packed with people! I circled the 
field several times. Surprised falrgoers looked 
upward and began to clear the field. I saw a 
plane on the grounds. I suppose the pilot gave 
the sign to clear the field. 

Suddenly my variometer indicated a thermal and 
I soared uoward again, almost a mile. I could 
come in at Allentown aiiTXjrt now if I wanted. I 
wa.s hui^ry enough to want to. But warm air from 
the city held me comfortably aloft. Far off I 
could see the gap where the lAisconetcong river 
cuts through the hills to reach the Delaware. I 
saw smoke rising from a factory stack and headed 
off to ascend its artificial thermeil before wind 
dispersed it. But I came too late. Still, I 
got on another hawk’s beam. But this time I 
didn't crowd him and we shared the useful warmth 
of his thermal! Round and round we soared, up 
to eight thousand feet - enough to cross the 
mountains. Trenton, New Jersey was in sight! 

(Continuad on Page 40) 



Important Changes Made 

Air Corps Reorganized 

I N a sweeping reorganization, the old divi- 
sion hreaMcwn of the Office of the Chief of 
the Air Corps nas been revised and a new or- 
ganization under a series of ** assistants to the 
chief" has been set iq). 

The reorganization was made in order to meet 
the demands of full-scale aerial combat called 
for by the President in his war message to Con- 
gress. The biggest step in the adjustment of the 
internal organization of the Air Forces since 
their creatlcm as a seml-autoncHnous part of the 
War Department last June, the new plan provides 
for closer coordination of effort both within 
the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps , and 
with the ifeadquarters Army Air Forces and Air 
Ccntiat Forces . 

Will Speed Up Procuraoent 

Instituted soon after the appointment of Major 
General Walter R. Weaver as Acting Chief of the 
Air Corps, the reorganization for the first time 
gives the Air Corps an Adjutant General, Judge 
Advocate General and a Fiscal Officer, These 
and the other changes are expected to speed up 
the procurement of equljxnent, the training of 
personnel and the delivery and maintenance of 
combat aircraft in theaters of operation — the 
primary functlcais of the Air Corps in its place 
in the Air Forces. 

Serving directly under the Chief of the Air 
Corps under the new organizatlcwi is an Executive 
Assistant. The Adjutant General performs the 
normal dutues of such an officer, the Judge 
Advocate General performs those functions for- 
merly charged to the Chief of the Legal Divi- 
sion, and the Fiscal Officer performs those 
duties formerly charged to the Chief of the Fis- 
cal Unit. 

Another newly created office is that of the 
Inspector General, who performs those functicxis 
formerly charged to the Chief of the Inspection 

The series of asslsteuits to the Chief of the 
Air Corps provided for in the new organization 
Includes an Assistant for Procurement Services, 
an Assistant for Supply and Maintenance Serv- 
ices, an Assistant for Personnel and Training 
Services, an Assistant for Ferrying Service, 

and an Assistant for Army Air Traffic Services. 

The Assistant for Procurement Services re- 
places and performs the duties formerly charged 
to the Chief of the Materiel Division. The As- 
sistant for Supply and lifeilntenance Services re- 
places and performs the duties formerly charged 
to the Commanding General of the Air Service 
Canmand, the Chief of the Building and Ground 
Division, euid the Chief of the Amnunition liiit 
and the Airplane Unit of the Operations Divi- 

The Assistant for Personnel and Training Serv- 
ices replaces and performs the functions for- 
merly charged to the Military Personnel Divi- 
sion, the Civilian Personnel Division, Training 
Division, the Intelligence School Section, euid 
the Medical Division — less those functions 
transferred to the Air Staff. The Assistant for 
Ferrying Services replaces and handles the func- 
tions formerly charged to the Ccminanding Officer 
of the Air Corps Ferrying Command. 

Intelligence Remains 

The Assistant for Army Air Traffic Services 
will take care of the Administrative Regulations 
of Army Flying, the operation of the Army Air- 
ways CcHnnunicaticn Service, the Weather Service, 
Bolling Field, the duties now charged to the Map 
Section of the Intelligence Division, the func- 
tions of the old Operations Division, and the 
allocation of aircraft to activities eind agen- 
cies under the control of the Chief of the Air- 
craft . 

Under the new organization the Intelligence 
Division will he continued for as lor^ a time as 
is necessary, until the absorption of its act- 
ivities is accomplished by other agencies. 

Executive Assistant to General Weaver, under 
the reorganization, is Lt. Col. L.S. Smith; 
Assistant Executive for Administrative Planning 
and Coordination is Lt. Col. Byron E. Gates; 
Assistant Executive for Technical Planning and 
Coordination is Lt. Col. James G. Taylor; the 
Air Corps Adjutant General is Col. William F. 
Pearson; the Judge Advocate General is Lt. Col. 
E. H. Snodgrass; the Fiscal Off leer is Lt. Col. 
A.W. Martensteln, and the Inspector General is 
Lt. Col. G.H. Beverley. 




Brig. Gen. Oliver P. Echols is the new Assist- 
ant for Procurement Services, Brig. Gen. Henry 
J.F. Miller is the Assistant for Supply and 
Maintenance Services, Brig. Gen. Robert Olds Is 
the Assistant for Ferrying Services, Col. Walter 
F. Kraus is the Assistant for Personnel and 
Training Services, and Col. Oliver S. Person is 
the Assistant for Air Traffic Services. 

Lt. Col. J.G. Taylor remains as Chief of the 
Air Corps Intelligence Division. 

M AINTENANCE of piloting skill will be given 
first consideration among the duties as- 
signed to personnel holding flying ratings, ac- 
cording to a new Army Air Forces Regulation 
listing the minimum annual flight requirements 
for Air Corps pilots. 

Under the new Regulation commanding officers 
are directly charged with the responsibility for 
seeing that regular and frequent flights are 
made by all personnel holding flying ratings, 
and by all non-rated officers placed on flying 
status by the Chief of the Air Corps. 

CoDiuandlng officers are further held responsi- 
ble for assurance that pilots are thoroughly 
qualified to "pilot", and that they have suf- 
ficiently demonstrated familiarity with the 
various aircraft types before they are permitted 
to fly them. 

Flight Requirements 

The minimum annual flight requirements which 
must be met by all personnel holding flying rat- 
ings, and by all non-rated officers on flying 
status, are as follows: 

1 . One hundred hours of flying time . Not 
less than 40 of these hours must be accomplished " 
during each six months' period of the fiscal 
year . 

2. Ten hours of night flying. Not less than 
four of these hours must be obtained in each 
half of the fiscal year. 

3. Twenty hours of instrument flying. Not 
less than eight of these must be accomplished 
during either six months' period. 

4. Two instrument tests. Pilots of limited 
status whose limitations do not prohibit instru- 
ment flying must meet these Instrument tests as 
"pilots". At least one of the tests is per- 
fonned in an airplane if possible. Rated pilots 
assigned to duties involving piloting who pass 
this test are furnished a certificate showing 
they have qualified as Instrument pilots. This 
applies alike to Regular Army, Reserve and 
National Guard officers. 

Officers and men rated as pilots but not 
technically qualified to fly the planes with 
which their units are equipped, due to lack of 
flying hours, are given credit for co-pilot time 
in meeting the annual flight requirements. 

Other rulings instituted by the new regulation 
are that personnel placed on a limited flying 
status must meet all requirements in conformity 
with their duties, ratings and limitations; and 
that non-rated officers on flying status must 
meet requirements similar to those of "unlimit- 
ed" pilots. 

It was also provided that personnel on flying 
status for only part of a fiscal year must meet 
a proportional amount of the requirements. 

CLOUD COPS. . . (Continued From Page 22) 

The circle lights atop the hangars are used in 
conjunction with the bar signals to bring in the 
ig)per zone planes. After the plane in the lower 
zone has landed, a combination of one red bar 
and a green circle is the signal for the plane 
In the upper section of Zone 1 to drop down into 
the lower zone and make his landing approach. 
Planes in other quarters are handled in similar 
manner, the number of bar lights Indicating the 

Spotlights are used as an auxiliary to the re- 
gular bar light control, but take precedence 
when used. They are used in three colors — green 
to indicate that the plane is cleared for tate- 
off or landing, red to warn that something is 
wrong and that the pilot about to land should 
return to his zone, and white for identifying 
ship numbers, to assist the pilot in parking. 
When flashed intermittently, it's a signal to 
taxi into the line. 

The student is drilled in three phases of 
night landing. First he im^t set his plane down 
with all the field's floodlights on, then with 
only his ship's landing lights and the boundary 
markers of the field. Third phase is on a small 
runway outlined only by small beams of light 
shining parallel to the thus Improvised runway 
and visible only from a point directly opposite 
the entrance to the runway area. 

This last phase of training needs a portable 
lighting system and generator recently Invented 
and developed at Wright Field, Ohio, which can 
be set up and in operation in fran 30 to 40 min- 
utes and enables the operators to transform into 
an airdrome what a few monents before had been a 
cow-pasture. Thus are simulated actual condi- 
tions encountered by pilots engaged in tactical 
problems . 



Yanks In the R. A. F. 

Airacabras Strike for Britain 

A Sqiiadron Leader who won the Distinguished 
Plying Cross In the Battle of Britain and 
has had eight confirmed victories over enemy 
aircraft, now comoands a famous fighter squadron 
which has recently been equipped with the Bell 
Airacobra filter aircraft. Ife Is very proud of 
the distinction, and so are his pilots; they In- 
clude men from edl parts of Great Britain, from 
three of the great Dominions, several Czechs, 
and recently there was also a Slngalese pilot. 
To a representative of Flight the Squadron 
Leader explained that the Airacobra Is In some 
ways the most modem aircraft In the world, at 
any rate the most modern fighter. It Is a 
specially designed machine, full of new Ideas. 
Its' outstanding featvires are the position of the 
liquid-cooled Allison engine (of 1,1B0 h.p.) be- 
hind the pilot, with shaft drive to a tractor 
airscrew In the nose, and a nose-wheel under- 

Pilot's Back Is Safe 

Naturally, two questions which the Squadron 
Leader was asked were whether the nose-wheel 
stood up well to rough landings, and whether the 
engine showed any tendency to move forward Into 
the snail of the pilot's back. To both he was 
able to give satisfactory answers. 

The Airacobra was designed to work off run- 
ways, and the aerodrome where his squadron Is 
stationed Is far frcm resedillng a croquet lawn, 
but all the same the nose-wheel has stood up 
well. It otight to do so, for Its strut looks 
very solid, not to seiy heavy; and, as a matter 
of fact, the machine altoge^er is heavier than 
British standard single-seater fighters. The 
squadron has had one breakage of this member 
from an unusually heavy landing at night, and 
three other cases of damage, which were not 

There have been no serious accidents, but In 
sane landings which might have been better the 
engine did not move from Its bed, and showed no 
sort of inclination to do so. The squadron 
feels no anxiety on that point. 

No Trouble pyom Plnglne 

As for maintenance of the engine, It was 
treated with the same care as the Merlins In 

British fjgnters, and the squadron did not know 
what Its flying life would be before It had to 
be taken out for a major overhaul. Up to the 
present It has given no trouble. 

Few facts can be stated about the perfonnance 
of the Airacobra, but in the U.S.A. it has 
been published that the top speed is In the 
neighbourhood of 400 m.p.h. The pilots say that 
air combats now are decided by speed and fire 
power. The Airacobra certainly has the first, 
and It excels at Its own favourite height. Its 
armament likewise Is formidable. Several 
versions are possible. The machines of this 
squadron have one 20-mn. cannon firing through 
the airscrew hiib, two machine guns In the nose 
which fire throu^ the arc of the airscrew, and 
four machine guns In the wings. The amount of 
aamunltlon carried Is Impressive, and no doiibt 
the enemy would like very much to know the pre- 
cise figures. 

The Airacobra as built for the R.A.F. Is In 
some particulars different from the form In 
^Ich It Is used In the Ikilted States. Our men, 
too, after receiving their machines, have them- 
selves Introduced some modifications. These 
will be notified to the manufacturer and will be 
Incorporated in future deliveries. 

Spares A little Late 

It was mentioned also by the squadron that all 
the spares did not arrive with the machines, and 
this was a bit of a nuisance. But R.A.F. 
aircraftmen are Ingenious, and the machines have 
not been kept aground by the non-arrival of the 
spares. The squadron presumes that the said 
spares had been dispatched, but had gone astray 
somewhere on the way. We may recall that 
something of the same sort happened In the case 
of machines delivered to the Russians, who had 
to manufacture the necessary tools before they 
could erect the aircraft. But things will 
sometimes go astray In time of war, and It Is 
not suggested that the Americans were careless 
In the matter . Everyone knows how anxious they 
are to help tile Miles. 

One very gOod polht about the Airacobra Is the 
splendid view whlcbi the pilot gets behind hta by 
slnply turning his fiea^. It is a very Important 




matter in a dogfight, and this American machine 
is about the best of the lot in that respect. 
The entrance to the pilot's cockpit is throi^gh a 
side door, not throu^ the opening at the top. 
In fact, the top of the transparent cover does 
not open, and this means that very tall pilots 
can hardly be comfortable inside. 

Short Pilots Best 

It is preferable to pick pilots of not over 
5 ft. 10 in. The Americans also suggested 
putting a limit on the weight of the pilot, but 
so far this squadron has not found it necessary 
to stick to the limit which the designers spg- 
gested. When a pilot has to do a "brolley hop" 
(it has not yet been necessary) there is a quick 
release of a door in the side, and the pilot 
rolls out on to the wing, and then off that into 
open air. That obviates the manoeuvres which 
are found advisable when a man has to quit a 
ftirrlcane or Spitfire. 

Of the flying qualities of the Alracobra 
nothing but high praise was heard from the 
pilots, even though sane of them who had been 
before in Hurricane squadrons had got so at- 
tached to their old machines, as pilots will, 
that they felt rather homesick for them. 

Condensed From FLICMIT 



Eleven-year-olds may still be a little young 
for enlistment as aviation cadets, even under 
the newly lowered age limits, but that didn't 
stop ThaddeiB Schultz of Manoa, Pa., from apply- 
ing. Thaddeus wrote the 33rd Rirsult Group at 
Philadelphia and said: "I would like to Join 
the Army Air Corp. lHy father was a fighter in a 
boxing ring and 1 would like to be in the Air 
Corp. I am 11 years of age and In good health. 
P.S. — I am a Polish decente not a German 
decente . " 

Thaddeus was told the Air Corps appreciated 
his "fine spirit and willingness to serve", but 
that he'd have to wait a few yeeu's, under pres- 
ent regulations, before he could take flight 


There is quite a siminkllng of so called "G- 
ifen" and "Bobbles," the British equivalent of 
American pollcanen, "Cops," "Flat Feet," or irtiat 
have you, among the Britishers undergoing flying 
training at the Southeast Air C(»^' Trednlng Cen- 
ter. The majority of 66 former representatives 
of the law are patrolmen, the remainder being 
ex-detectives and special investigators who were 
associated with Scotland Yard. 


THIS is the new official insi6nia of the 
Southeast Air Corps Training Center. The im- 
age on the crest is that of a Griffin, mytho- 
logical half-lion, half-eagle which could 
never be taken by an enemy. The clenched fist 
directly below stands for defensive action, 
and the seven shafts of lightning symbolize 
the seven pAaaes of instruction— elementary , 
basic, advanced, bombardier ing, navigation and 
gunnery — which prepare cadets for aerial com- 
bat. The background of the shield is azure, 
and represents the clear skies of the States 
included in the Southeast Training Center. 

Approximately 10,000 persons were present at 
the dedication recently of Gardner Field in Taft, 
Kern County, Calif., <Mie of the four basic fly- 
li^ schools in the West Coast Air Corps Training 
Center . 



Mew Combat Teams 

Support Commands Provide Lightning Punch 

By Col. William E. Lynd 

A ir support aviation has been developed to 
provide ground forces with the close air 
si^^rt essential to their success in conbat. 

All designated air support units are con- 
tained in the Air Force Conbat Ccmnand. A staff 
section exists in headquarters of this ccamand, 
with an Air Support Officer as chief. As the 
functioning of air support aviation is in close 
conjunction with the operations of ground for- 
ces, the Air Siqjport Section has been located at 
the Army War College, the location of the Gen- 
eral Headquarters of the Army. 

Five Air Support Conmands are organized, one 
within each nunbered Air Force and the fifth 
directly xmder the Conbat Command to work with 
the Armored Force. 

Works With Ground Forces 

The function of Air Support Commands is to 
handle all types of aviation working in direct 
connection with and support of ground forces. 
This type of aviation includes light and dive 
bcnbardment, observation, photographic, and oth- 
er elements such as tow target, and transports 
for air-borne and parachute troops. 

Before the war there were eleven observation 
groups. Including forty observation squadrons. 
Additional group headquarters and observation 
squadrons are now being authorized by the War 
Department. There is new cme pdotographlc group 
of foiiT squadrons with new authorization for 
still more. Observation organization is de- 
signed to provide a group for each corps, con- 
taining one squadron to support each division, 
and one for corps use. In 6uidltlon to corps 
groups, one observation groig) is being provided 
for the support of each array. 

One of the major changes being made in observ- 
ation aviation is the utilization of two-engine 
bcnbardment and pursuit type planes for assign- 
ment to observation squadrons. The war has 
jjroven rather conclusively that the medium speed 
ordinary two-engine cbservatiwi airplane cannot 
live in modern conbat. The old theory of con- 
tinuous observation or surveillance of an enenjy 
area can no Ipnger be employed. Observation be- 
yond the enemy lines will now consist princi- 
pally of going in to observe a particular point 

or sc*ne particular activity and returning as 
soon as that Information is obtained. Either 
speed or defensive fire power or both must be 
depended upon to obtain this information. The 
information or verification ordinarily will be 
secured by jbotography. A considerable nunber 
of the light tyi>e un-armed liaison planes is 
also being provided to observation units for 
courier and messenger service. 

Provides Close Siqiport 

One of the principal functions of Air Support 
Commands is to provide both close and direct 
conbat air support. Conbat support is provided 
by light and dive bombardment. Light bombard- 
ment groups of four squadrons each with one 
additional squadron, are now included in the 
five Air Support Commands. It is hoped to pro- 
vide light bcnbardment for air support in the 
ratio of two squadrons per each Armored Divi- 
sion, and one squadron per each infantry and 
motorized division. The present light bonbard- 
ment airplane is the A-20-A fast two-engine 
horizontal bember. Dive bonbers now being used 
are the A-24 type, the same as the SBD-3 in use 
by the Navy. Much attention has been jjald to 
the tactics and technique of coobat air support 
of ground troops . Several exercises euid maneu- 
vers have been held in this ccwmectlon, j)artlc- 
ularly with armored forces. 

Signal ccmmunication plays an Important role 
in air support, as ground organizations must be 
able to contact their supporting air unit and 
ask for the destruction of a certain objective 
or for the reconnaissance of an area. The can- 
mander of the air organization must then be able 
to contact his various squadrons either on the 
ground or in the air. For this purpose. Signal 
Ccmpanles Aviation are included in the Air Sup- 
port Commands. 

In order to ftirnish aviation for the towlig of 
targets for antiaircraft artillery fire, tow 
target detachments are Included in the Air Sup- 
port Commands . These detachments are to be 
equipped with airplanes and equipment for towlig 
and tracking missions to assist the antiaircraft 
artillery in their training. 




Transx)ort aviation for the movement and con- 
veyii^; of hoth parachute eind air-borne troops 
will be provided by Air Support Commands. One 
transport squadron was utilized for this purpose 
in the Louisiana maneuvers and a transport group 
of three sqviadrons was used during the Carolina 

IVactlce At Maneuvers 

The Air Support CcmnEinds of the different Air 
Forces support and assist in the routine train- 
iiTg of the army with which the Air Force is as- 
sociated. Air Support Commands as such have 
X>articipated in maneuvers only during the GHQ 
control portion of the Carolina maneuvers. All 
avlatiOTi operating during this phase of the Car- 
olina maneuvers was included in the First and 
Third Air Support Conmands supporting the First 
Army and Fourth Corps respectively. The results 
obtained fVom this first maneuver employment of 
Air Support Commands were very gratifying. It 
developed the conclusion, as expressed by sev- 
eral high comnanders , that the air support or- 
ganization i^ sound and logical. Of course 
there are many details yet left to be worked out 
and adjustments made, but the fact that air sup- 
port as now organized is functioning along cor- 
rect lines, augurs well for the future develop- 
ment of aviation support of ground forces. 

Xews Letter Changes 

N o AIR FORCES NEWS LETTER was issued for the 
month of December or January because of the 
extra pressure of work placed on the Head- 
quarters Army Air Forces by the war. 

COTditlons have so been adjusted however, that 
it is expected piiblication on a regular monthly 
schedule can now be resumed. In the future the 
JVEWS LETTER will be published on or about the 
first of each month so long as publication does 
not interfere with necessary war business. 

A nuiiber of changes have been made recently in 
the instructions covering the preparation of 
material for the NEWS LETTER and in the method 
of distribution of the publication. Potential 
contributors and officers assigned as local NEWS 
LETTER correspondents should familiarize them- 
selves with these changes, which are outlined in 
detail in Army Air Force Bulletin No. 41-8; Army 
Air Force Regulation No. 5-6 and Army Air Force 
Policy No. 5-1. 

Distribution of the NE^S LETTER no longer is 
on a personal basis. With the exception of a 
few general officers, active and retired, no in- 
dividuals receive the publication as individu- 

als. Distribution to the field is on the same 
basis as Army Air Forces regulations, except 
that Wright Field, like Washingtcxi, receives one 
copy "for each headquarters or division and one 
additional copy for every four officers and key 
civilian personnel assigned thereto." Requests 
from individuals to be placed on the mailing 
list cannot be granted. 

Personal Itans Not Wanted 

The biHletin outlining the type of material 
desired and the method of preparation states 
sj)eclflcally that "personal items are no longer 
wanted" and that public relations officers and 
other contributors "should not send information 
on such matters as squadron picnics, dances, the 
promotion of enlisted men (unless the circum- 
stances were unusual) or of officers, descrip- 
tions of athletic events, etc." It says further 
that news releases ARE NOT STITT ARTF. as a substi- 
tute for material prepared especially for the 

The bulletin states that material considered 
appropriate lor publication includes stories on 
technical developinents in the Materiel Division, 
changes of policy with respect to aviation, de- 
scriptions or discussions of new airplanes, out- 
standing flight achievements, articles discuss- 
ing in detail innovations of military technique 
worked out by Army Air Forces personnel, and de- 
tailed accounts of maneuvers, including descrip- 
tions of the problems encountered and how they 
are solved. 

Contributors may save themselves and the per- 
soinel in charge of the NEWS LETTER a great deal 
of trouble by reading the bulletin, policy and 
regulation governing publication of the NEWS 
LETTER before sending material to Washington. 
Articles of the sort carried in the current is- 
sue are wanted. Provided he knows what he is 
talking about, the author may be of any rank or 
frcm any organization. 


With the establlslment of sub-dexx)ts in Merced 
and Lemoore, Calif., a total of eight subsidiary 
depots of the Sacramento Air Depot have been es- 
tablished duripg the past year in California and 

Training aviation cadets in night cross-country 
and formation flying is an experiment started at 
Goodfellow Field, San Apgelo, Texas. Heretofore 
such training was conducted cmly at advanced fly- 
ing schools. If successful, it is possible that 
this type of flying will be inaugurated at the 
various other basic flying schools. 


5BRUARY 1942 

Bolt From The Blue 

Patrol Bombers Corral Sub at Sea 


A n aircraft of the R.A.F. Coastal Connand has 
captiired a German U-boat — the first time a land 
aeroplane has forced a submarine to surrender 

They fought out one of the strangest duels in 
history, with one adversary in the sky, the 
other beneath the sea. The sky won. After the 
aircraft, a Lockheed Hudson bomber, had attacked 
the U-boat the crew of the submarine canv? tumb- 
ling out of their conning tower, waving a white 
shirt as token of surrender. 

The Hudson, completely unaided, held the U- 
boat prisoner for nearly four hours. A Catalina 
flyiiTg-boat of the Coastal Caimand then arrived, to 
relieve the Hudson. The Catalina acted as 
gaoler, assisted by other Hudsons and Catalinas 
of the Coastal Command, for nearly ten hours 

Ship Takes Over 

One of His Majesty's ships was able to arrive. 
Just as daylight was fading, to take over from 
the aircraft. By then the U-boat had been held 
prisoner from the air, without any actual con- 
tact except the threat of machine-guns, for 
nearly thirteen hours. 

The Hudson took off early in the morning, and 
headed out over the Atlantic^ Visibility was 
poor, frequent rainstorms swept across the sea. 
The water below was angry and rough, covered 
with white caps. 

They were "toddling along with George (the 
automatic pilot) doing most of the work, " when 
suddenly there was a shout from the navigator's 
cabin in the nose of the aircraft. 

"There's one Just in front of you, "(Routed 
the navigator^ Tne pilot gazed out where the 
navigator was pointing, at the same time pulling 
out the automatic pilot and taking control. 
There, about 1,200 yards away on the port bow, 
was a U-boat. 

Navigator Watches 


The pilot thrust the nose of the aircraft 
down, and dived. The navigator stood with his 
face pressed to the cockpit window, keeping the 
suumarlne in sight. 

"Let me know when its time to drop. Jack," 
called tlie pilot quickly. 

The navigator nodded, and a few seconds later 
yelled "Now!" 

The rear gunner, who had been hastily winding 
in the aerial, popped his head into the astro- 
dome Just in time to see a column of water 
shooting high into the air. 

Then the pilot turned the Hudson steeply, and 
climbed. Below him he could see the wide area 
of churned waves. As he watched there was an- 
other shout from everybody in the aircraft. The 
U-boat had cane to the surface. The gunner, who 
had rushed into the rear-turret, had the best 
view. He saw the U-boat surface rapidly, on an 
almost even keel. She came surging up through a 
mass of foaming water. 

The navigator reached for his camera and call- 
ed to the rest of the crew. 

"Machine-gun them, let's machine-gun them." 

The wireless operator dropped to the floor and 
rapidly wound down the belly-gun. Then the air- 
craft dived across the U-boat, all guns blazing 
tracer bullets — front guns, rear-turret and 

Crew Timbies Out 

As the Hudson dived, the U-boat's conning 
tower hatch was thrown open, and about a dozen 
of the crew tumbled out and dropped on to the 
deck. The Hudson crew thought they were manning 
the guns so they kept their own guns firing 
hard. The red streaks of the tracer were pep- 
pering into the conning tower and kicking up 
little spurts of water all round the U-boat. 

This was too much for the Germans. Those who 
were already on the deck turned and ran back in- 
to the conning tower, those who were coming up 
from below still tried to push outwards. For a 
few moments there was "an awful shanfcles" in the 
conning tower, the Hudson pilot afterwards 
described ItT? The U-boat crew were all mixed 
together, some stn;ggllng to get in, others to 
get out. All the figures seemed to be capless, 
and they were distinctly visible from above, for 
they were all wearing bright yellow life-saving 

Four times the Hudson roared over the U-boat, 




guns streaming, banking steeply each time to 
swing roijnd. into the attack again while the rear 
guns and belly-gun kept up the fire. The rear- 
turret was firing practically all the time. All 
the pilot remembers hearing, besides the din of 
the firing, was the navigator muttering: 

"I've lived all niy life to see those baskets 
scrambling out of a conning tower." 

U-boat Surrenders 

As the Hudson was coming roiind for the fifth 
attacl^the U-boat Q^e of its crew 
held a white shirt up from the 'conning tower, 
waving it violently. The airmen ceased fire 
but continued to circle with guns trained, 
watching suspiciously. The Germans followed 
them anxiously round with the shirt, and then to 
make their intentions quite clear, held up what 

I appeared to be some sort of white board. - 

"They've shoved a white flag up," called the 
wireless operator triumphantly. 

The Hudson then flew right over the U-boat at 
about 50 feet, to see what it was all about. By 
then^the entire U-boat crew hM crowded into the 
y-crjniiing tower, some thirty to forty of th§m. ,, 
pacted so tightly they could scarcely 


TAnd a very glum lot they looked," the. pilot 
said^'’.^ierwards't " 'We were qwite close enough 
( to^ee their faces, and not a smile anywher^lJi — ^ 
The U-boat now lay stopped in the water, 
slightly down by the bows, with the waves break- 
ing over her decks, and sometimes right over the 
connlpg tower, drenching the crew. 

conning tower of the siibmarlne. 

The message reached base, and it was deter- 
mined to bring that U-boat and its crew to shore 
if it were humanly possible. Never before in 
history had an underwater craft surrendered to a 
land aircraft. It was determined not to let the 
U-boat get away. A Catalina was at once sent 
off to relieve the Hudson, and all the other ' 
aircraft in the vicinity were diverted over the 
U-boat frcsn time to time, to demonstrate to the 
crew that there was a big striking force ready 
if they tried to escape. Hudsons, Catalinas, on 
patrol — they all flew over the U-boat fran time 
to time. 

Catalina Arrives 

Holding Thou A Problem 

Then, for the first time, the Hudson crew 
^ realized with jxibllation that the U-boat really 

Vrhe relief Catalina arrived in the early 

' Wfien the Hudson crew saw the Catalina ap- 
proaching they were afraid it might bomb and 
sink the U-boat. So they signalled anxiously to 


[ "Look after our, repeat OUR, submarine which 
has shown the white flag." 

"O.K. " signalled back the Catalina. 

Then the Hudson crew, satisfied, dived twice 
more over "their" U-boat to have a last look at 
it. One or two of the Gennans, who had got down 
on the deck, waved mournfully to them'. The 
pilot waved cheerfully back, and set course for 

Then it was the Catalina's turn to circle end- 
lessly, the blister guns trained on the U-boat 
crew. They kept it up for eight hours, without 
having to fire a single shot. Surface craft 
were steaming towards the spot as quickly as 
ixjsslble, but they were a long way off yet. The 
question was, could they get there before night- 

had surrendered to them. The problem remained, The hours dragged by, in those interminable 

•» J_ _ 1 _ _ 1 -T J J ^^ 4 . 

how to hold prisoner;^ and get them taken 
into custody. 

The navigator prepared a message for base and 
the wireless operator's hand rattled up and down 
on the key. \ 

All this time the pilot was circling the U- 
boat, keeping his eyes glued to it. He did that 
for three and a half hours. Had he lost sight 
of it for one second he might easily have lost 
it altogether. When at last he stepped on to 
his home aerodrome, his neck was so stiff he 
could not turn his head. 

All this while too, as the navigator and wire- 
less operator were working away at their 
signals, the rear-gunner kept his guns trained 
ceaselessly on the U-boat crew huddled into the 

circles. Some of the U-boat crew, now and then, 
walked out on to the deck from the conning 
tower, in spite of the waves — they were all 
drenched as it was, so what did the waves 
matter? The Catalina took the precaution of 
frequent dives over the U-boat to ensure that 
the hatch was still closed. Other aircraft came 
periodically to axM to the threat — ^but still no 
surface craft. 

Ship Arrives In Time 

The weather was growing worse, daylight was 
fading. There was every chance of losing the 
U-boat during the night, and the Catalina crew 
were growing desperate. (Continued on Page 39) 



Lost on West Coast Flight 

Sinee December 18 

Gen. Dargue Missing 

By Maj. Falk Harmel 

'Ky^AJ. Gen. Herbert A. Dargue, conmandlpg the 
First Air Force, Mitchel Field, N.Y., has been 
missing since Decenber 12, 1941, when he depart- 
ed on a transcontinental flight in an Army trans- 
port plane, accompanied by Col. Charles W. Bundy 
and Lieut. Col. George W. Ricker, of the War De- 
partment General Staff; Major Hygh F. McCaffery, 
Capt. J.G. Leavitt, 1st Lieut. Homer C. Burns, 
Staff Sgt. Stephen Hoffman and Pvt. 1st Cl. 
Samuel J. Van Hanm, Jr., Air Corps. 

General Dargue belonged to the small group of 
officers who were affiliated with Army aviation 
practically from its inception. His contribu- 
tion to the development of this branch of the 
sei^lce during a period exceeding a quarter of a 
century has been of an exceptional character, 
and his untimely end has left a void in the 
ranks of the Army Air Forces which will prove 
exceedingly difficult to fill. 

Taught By Laim 

General Dargue learned to fly in an old hydro- 
plane at Fort McKinley, P.I., in 1913, his in- 
structor being no less a personage than Maj. 
Gen. Frank P. Lahm, Retired, who was then a 
lieutenant of the 7th Cavalry serving a detail 
with the Aviation Section, Signal Corps. 

While a member of the First Aero Squadron, 
General Dargue saw seinrice with the Punitive Ex- 
pedition into Mexico in 1916, where he did a 
considerable amount of flying in the early Wright 
biplane and where, amidst natives extremely hos- 
tile to Americans, he encountered mapy thrilling" 
experiences and extreme privation. 

Forced landings in his fragile plane necessi- 
tated Icmg and hazardous treks on foot, without 
food or water, through alkali deserts and moiai- 
tains, and often he reached a condition border- 
ing on thorough exhaustion before he finally ar- 
rived at localities occupied by friendly troops. 

During World War I, General Dargue was on duty 
for several months with the A.E.F. in France and 
England, making a study of the training of 
pilots, observers and mechanics. He tten return- 
ed to the United States for duty aua Assistant 
Chief of Training in the Office of the Director 
of Military Aeronautics. 

After graduating in 1920 fi’om the one-year 

General Herbert A. Dargue 

course at the Air Service Engineerii^ School at 
McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, General Dargue serv- 
ed on staff duty in the Office of the Chief of 
the Air Service, Washington, D.C., until August, 
1928, occupying responsible positions in the Op- 
erations Division, the War Plans Division euid 
the Training and Operations Division. These 
staff duties were interrupted in 1924-1925, when 
he attended the Conmand and General Staff School 
at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., and fran which he 
graduated with distinction. 

From December 21, 1926, to ^fe.y 2, 1927, he com- 
manded the flight of four Army planes on a good 
will tour around South America, during the course 
of which he narrowly escaped death following a 
mid-air collision with one of the other Army 
planes in the flight. After he released his 
safety belt and jumped from his violently spin- 
ning plane, his parachute became entangled in 
the wreckage. Fortunately, his parachute broke 
away from the wreckage and he escaped Injury, 
although he struck the ground violently. In re- 
cognition of his organizing ability and leader- 
ship of this flight. General Dargue was awarded 
the Distinguished Flying Cross . 

(Continued on Page 39) 


A. N. G. Aircraft Types Coordinated 


A n Army-Navy-Clvll Comnlttee to coordinate 
the development of aircraft design criteria 
has been established by the Secretaries of War 
and Navy, and the Administrator of Civil Aero- 
nautics. The new canmlttee works under the su- 
pervision of the Aeronautical Boaj*d. 

Menbershlp of the committee Includes the sen- 
ior Army and Navy members of the Aeronautical 
Board's workliTg connlttee; three menbers desig- 
nated by the Assistant Chief of the Air Corps 
Materiel Division; three members designated by 
the Chief of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, and 
four menbers designated by the Administrator of 
Civil Aeronautics. 

Air Corps members of the comnlttee are Lt. 
Col. D.G. Llngle, Army menber of the Aeronaut- 
ical Board's working comnlttee, who Is chairman; 
and Lt. Col. H.Z. Bogert, Lt. Col. Orval R. 
Cook, and Major C.K. Moore, of the Materiel 
Division, WrJght Field. 

Conmlttee FtoKtlons 

ments, and In order to report progress and the 
results of investigations to the meuber branches 
of the government. 

Structural design problems of the Conmlttee, 
In general, fall Into three classifications: 
external loads. Internal stresses, and allowable 
loads. These general classifications are fur- 
ther broken down Into projects, eaudi handled by 
a technical sub-conmlttee. Projects of the ANC 
Comnlttee are sponsored by either the Arn;y Air 
Force, the Navy Btoreau of Aeronautics, or the 
Civil Aeronautics Administration. 

First publication Issued by the ANC Cfflnnlttee 
Is a Groiind Loads Handbook, Issued on ANC Proj- 
ect Number Two. The handbook Is divided Into 
three sections covering the strength require- 
ments for tall wheel type landing gear, tricycle 
type landing gear and emergency landing and 
handling structures. The booklet will be dis- 
tributed among the services and the Industry In 
order to standardize and coordinate the design 
of aircraft. 

The functions of the ccnmittee, as outlined In 
the precept, are as follows: 

(a) To develop aircraft design criteria gov- 
erning: Inpssed loads, structural design, allow- 
eble stresses, methods of analysis, methods of 
testing, performance calculations, etc., and 
recomnend the adoption of these criteria by the 
three menber branches of the government. 

(b) To arrange for such studies, tests, in- 
vestigations, eund conferences as may be neces- 
sary for the development of these criteria. 

(c) To arrange meeuis for exchange of tech- 
nical Information related to these criteria be- 
tween responsible personnel In the menber bran- 
ches of the government and for maintenance of 
effective liaison. 

(d) To arrange for prcsmulgation, including 
publication, of criteria adopted by the menber 
branches of the government. In the form of ANC 
Bulletins . 

12 Sib-Ccmnittees 

The ANC Committee holds meetings when deemed 
desirable In order to arrange for 12 technical 
svto-commlttees, operating as part of the ANC 
design criteria program, to carry out asslgn- 


A new civil contract glider-training school 
has been opened at Twenty-Nine Palms, a 
small desert community 60 miles from Palm 
Springs, California. Successful conq)letlon of 
the gllder-pllot training courses given last 
summer at Lockport, Illinois, and Elmira, New 
York, has led to the establishment of the new 

Students will be volunteers selected from the 
ranks of Air Forces officers serving as Instruc- 
tors at airplane pilot-training centers. In- 
struction will be provided by the contractor, 
the Twenty-Nine Palms Air Acadeny. 

The first cletss, of 12 students, began train- 
ing early in January, with subsequent classes 
entering at two-week Intervals. The second 
class began training about January 14. Later 
classes will each Include approximately 24 stu- 
dents. Pre-war plans called for the training of 
126 glider pilots at the school. 

Stixlents, all trained power-plane pilots, will 
be given an average of 30 hours instruction In 
gliders of the two-place TG-1 and TG-2 types. 
These gliders were both used successfully In 
earlier glider-pilot training programs . 



For Duty Abroad 

How to Bundle for Britain 

Bt Lieut. Bruce Buttles 

American Embassy, Eondon 

W HETHER assigned for permanent or temporary 
duty, Air Force personnel traveling to the 
United Kingdom this winter should plan their 
clothipg and equipnent with utmost care. Every 
article must be studied, and the advantages of 
each garment carefully weighed, to determine the 
best possible selection within prescribed bag- 
gage limitations . 

These are 40 pounds for the Air Corps Ferrylpg 
Ccmmand and 20 kilos (44 pounds) for British 
Overseas Airways Corporation — the two most like- 
ly gateways for passengers in a hurry. It is 
true that Pan American Airways permits some 20 
pounds more on the route from New York to Lis- 
bon, but this generosity is of no advantage when 
BQAC restrictions apply beyond. Neither minimum 
Includes an overcoat on the arm or articles 
tucked into pockets, and this loophole is often 
a helpful escape for bulky travelers. 

What The Traveler Can Take 

The actual situation is, however, that one can 
travel light and still have plenty of essentials 
if he exercises a reasonable choice. Naturally, 
the exact selection will depend upon type and 
place of service, but by using the Air Corps 
issue flight bag, the 40 to 44 pounds should 
provide, roughly, for the following or equiva- 
lent articles: 

One civilian suit (two suits for service in 
London) a complete field uniform with an extra 
pair of slacte (dark shades are best) , two O.D. 
cotton and one O.D. woolen shirts, six civilian 
shirts, two suits of heavy underwear, some 
changes of light underwear, and extra pair of 
good heavy shoes, warm slippers and a bathrobe, 
ties, handkerchiefs and the usual toilet arti- 
cles, plus a modest reserve of razor blades, 
matches, lighter flints and fluid, chocolate bars 
and flashlight batteries. Extra insignia and 
jewelry are essential. 

In addition the wise traveler probably will 
Include a few gifts for British friends if he 
can spare the weight and space. The ideal se- 
lection will vary from time to time, but cur- 
rently cigarette lighters, safety matches, silk 
hosiery, cosmetics and miniature flashlights are 

highly prized. Such articles are valuable in 
repaying inevitable social obligations to Brit- 
ish subjects £ind their wives. 

What To Wear 

Personnel of the Air Force customarily wear 
mufti in London and the uniform elsewhere. That 
makes two overcoats essential in winter unless 
a conbination garment is adopted. This may be a 
heavy trench coat with removable lining and 
shoulder straps. In selecting both civilian suxi 
military apparel, it is Important to note that 
even in London cleaning requires much longer 
than in the United States and sometimes cannot 
be done at all. Usually garments will not be 
retvirned within a week and some articles (such 
as leather gloves) currently require three 
months. laundry facilities are also slow. As a 
result, dark materials are popular. Neither the 
blue uniform nor civilian dinner dress is worn. 
Flying clothing is issued on this side. 

Persons permanently assigned should send a 
small trunk by water freight. But in view of 
the uncertainty of shipping, it is unwise to ex- 
pect delivery in less than two months, and the 
possibility of complete loss should be consid- 
ered fran the start. 

Although clothing is severely rationed in the 
Ikiited Kingdom, arrangements were completed re- 
cently with the Foreign Office to obtain extra 
clothing coupons for Americans where necessary. 
Whenever possible, however, it is best to bring 
as much clothing as is required from home. It 
is actually out of the question for an officer 
to supplement his wardrobe and buy replacements 
during the year on the ordinary civilian ration. 

Adeqiiate Food 

Insofar as food is concerned, Americans in 
London usually find that the quantity is ade- 
quate. There is a noticeable shortage of but- 
ter, eggs, fresh fruits, bacon, milk and similar 
dishes common at home. One cannot expect orange 
juice with his breakfast porridge. However, the 
diet in some instances has added weight to vis- 
itors who found less physical activity than they 
were accustomed to enjoy across the sea. Most 




American officers brlig concentrated vitamins as 
standard practice to supplement the food supply, 
although similar products are available In Lon- 

American cigarettes, tobacco, toilet articles 
and non-perishable foods of various kinds can be 
had through a commissary primarily set up for 
the benefit of permanent officers and employees 
at the EM)assy. Prices are not much above — and 
in some Instances are siibstantlally below — those 
cnarged In retail stores In the United States. 
Since the goods desired may not be In stock on 
your arrival , it Is good procedure to have a 
personal supply in the flight bag, or kit, of 
tobacco products. 

On the other hand, travelers passing through 
llsbcai may find much grief In carrying more than 
three or four cartons of cigarettes and a rea- 
sonable quantity of matches. Porttguese custons 
officers are likely to place a quite elastic 
Interpretation on regulations and charge approx- 
imately $6.50 "In transit" fees to pass any 
"unreasonable" quantities of tobacco, matches, 
silk stockings or concentrated vltamlre through 
the country. One Air Force officer who paid 
$1.05 a carton for cigarettes in Washington 
found it necessary to i>ay $6.50 In Lisbon and $7 
more In the United Kingdom on seven cartons, 
OTily to find the same cigarettes through diplo- 
matic stores at 75 cents a carton in London. It 
was possible recently to purchase standard 
brands of Amerlceui cigarettes in Portugal for 
about $2 a carton. 

Bring Portuguese Money 

When entering Lisbon it is valuable to have 
not less theui 150 Portuguese escudos in small 
bills and coins to avoid exchanging American 
currency at unfavorable rates. For the most 
part, travelers' checks or a letter of credit 
are the best means of carrying ftmds, but these 
roust be cashed at a bank under present regula- 
tions. They command a substantially better 
figure than dollar bills, which should be avoid- 
ed canpletely. As a matter of fact, American 
currency ceui be bought In Lisbon banks at vari- 
ous discounts — recently 12 per cent — ^by tender 
of draifts on New York. 

No distinction is made between the different 
dencminatlons of currency, which need only be 
kept to 10 pounds. Thus it would be possible to 
bring in two flve-xx)und notes or one 10-pound 
note just as well as 10 one-i)ound notes, with 
the added advantage that the larger denomina- 
tions are much cheaper. Some loose British sil- 
ver is also helpful. Prices of five euid ten 

pound pieces in Lisbon have been about $1.90 to 
the pound recently, and about 90 cents more in 
New York in small quantities. Five pound notes 
£ire more convenient. Purchasers should beware 
of counterfeits. The Portuguese escudo is worth 
about four cents in American exchange. The 
American Express Company, which has offices in 
many cities, and Perera & Co., 10 Broadway, New 
York, are large dealers in foreign exchange. 

Where To Stay 

Hotel reservations are usually meide automat- 
ically at Lisbon but not in London, where the 
traveler is more or less on his own. For that 
reason, it is advisable for new arrivals to 
telegraph ahead on landing for space. London is 
very crowded and the Quartermaster, 20 Grosvenor 
Square, W. 1., is frequently of help in obtain- 
ing acconmodatlons. American officers usually 
stop either at the Cunberland Hotel (about $2.75 
a day) , the Dorchester (around $4.25 a day) or 
Grosvenor House (also about $4.25) . All these 
establishments are convenient to the Enfceissy in 
Grosvenor Square. 

Despite a 17 per cent depreciation in sterlli^ 
exchange, British prices will be definitely high 
to American visitors. Lunch or dinner In a good 
restaurant will be about 10 shillings, or $2, 
and desirable places are so crowded that tables 
must be booked in advance. Drinks are roughly 
twice as expensive as at heme and the prices of 
some unratloned foods are fantastic. Fresh 
pears, for example, are currently on sale at 3/6 
(about 70)^) and white grapes were priced re- 
cently at 20/ ($4) a pound. But expenses in the 
field are negligible and the Air Force officer 
will find that by using care his extra expenses 
In London are usually balanced by savligs at RAF 
stations. In any event, he will return home 
with his life enriched by an exjjerience in llv- 
Ing not available to the average person. 

(This article was written by Lieut. Buttles in 
London before this country entered the war. 
Uniform requirements have since been revised so 
that uniforms are worn at all times while on 
duty. ) 


In a class of 756 aviation cadets undeigolig 
processing at the Air Corps Replacement Center 
at Montgomery, Ala., before flight training, 63 
had not attended college but secured their cadet 
appointment by peisslng the difficult entreuice 
examination, thus indicating that lack of a col- 
lege education Is not necessarily a bar to young 
men seeking appointment as aviation cadets. 




OBSERVERS... (Continued From Page 16) 
as tails. Tails are very Important. 

Every observer should have euscess to a c<m- 
plete and up-to-date reference book of silhou- 
ettes, and they should all be provided with 
folders, which can be carried in the pocket, 
depleting by categories the aircraft listed for 
the three classes of tests. 

SUPPORT. . . (Continued From Page 34) 

But at the last mcnent they sighted <me of H. 
M. ships, which steamed up, and started to 
signal orders to the U-boat crew. 

Then came darkness, the Catalina lost touch, 
and had to go home. 

Long before daylight next day, however, an- 
other Coastal Command Catalina was In the area, 
continuing the vigil. By now a gale was blow- 
ing. The nl^t was Jet black, and rain storms 
were lashing everywhere. 

toee. In the darkness, they picked up a glow 
of light from the svibmarlne, but so fierce was 
the gale that, as they circled, they were blown 
off their course and lost her again. 

But soon they saw her reflected In the dim 
light through the storm with the white foam of 
the waves breaking across her bows. 

Throughout the remaining hours of darkness .the 
Catalina continued to circle, sometimes losing 
the U-boat's light for as much as fifteen 
minutes at a time, but always finding her agedn. 

At last light began to break, and the crew 
could Just see the thin outline of the sub- 
marine. As the light strengthened they could 
make out <xie ship lying near by, and soon they 
saw other shliis approaching. The Catalina crew 
watched the beginning of the long task of 
getting the U-boat and her crew to harbour. 

Fran the time the first ship arrived, the U- 
boat was covered fron the air by Coastal Command 
aircraft for practically the whole of the next 

Staff Sgt. Angelus J. Havers tockandPvt. Ralph 
C. Krebs, Jr;, Air Corps, received the Soldier's 
Medal for heroism in rescuing & fellow soldier 
from the burning wreckage of an airplane which 
crashed at Lovell, Texas, on June 12, IMl. The 
Imperiled soldier was trapped In the gunner's 
cockpit from which he was taken to a place of 
safety by his rescuers, who were undeterred by 
the Intense heat, smoke and flames or by the 
thought of the quantity of gas in the tanks of 
the airplane. 

BARQUE ... (Continued From Page 35) 

Shortly after returning from this flight, lie 
made a good will air tour of 70 cities In the 
lilted States. This flight, which oiferaced 35 
states and Included a visit to Ottawa, Canada, 
involved a total distance of approximately 
10,000 miles. 

General Dwgue graduated from the Army Wdr Col- 
lege In 1928 euid from the Naval War College the 
following year. He was stationed at Langley 
Field, Va., for nearly five years thereafter, 
comnanllng the Second Boobardment Group until 
August, 1933, and the Secona Bombardment Wing 
intll October, 1934. For the next four years he 
was on duty 8us Assistant Commandant of the Air 
Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, Ala. He 
was then appointed a Brigadier General and as- 
signed to the comnand of the 19th Wing &t Albrook 
Field, Panama Canal Zone. During his two yeaps 
of distinguished service In Panama, he made nu- 
merous flints to neighboring South and Central 
American countries and proved to be an outstand- 
ing anbassador of good will. 

Shortly following his return to the United 
States, General Dargue weis appointed Brigadier 
General and Assistant to the Chief of the Air 
Corps, and assigned to duty as Chief of the In- 
spection Division, Office of the Chief of the 
Air Corps. More recently he was elevated to the 
rank of Major General and placed In command of 
the First Air Force at Mltchel Field, N.Y. 

An active flier throughout his military career, 
General Dargue, over a span of a quarter of ^a 
century, has piloted the various types of mili- 
tary planes with which the Air Corps has been 
equipped, fron the 40 h.p. Wrl^t biplane of the 
pioneer days of flying to the modern "Flying 
Fortress." A scholarly officer who mastered the 
courses at the various service schools, he ex- 
hibited superior ability In both military and 
naval air tactics. Under his guidance as head 
I of the faculty of the recently discontinued Air 
^Xlorps Tactical School, It rose to an unusual 
height among service schools, being considered 
by many as the first school of Its kind In Its 
teeu:iilngs and Its broad conceptloi of air tac- 
tics, particularly air strata; of cooperation 
in both tactical and strategical operations with 
ground and naval forces, and the role of the 
long range bonber In modem warfare. 


Air Corps noncoiB enjoyed a field day recently 
when 400 technical sergeants were temporarily 
promoted to master sergeant and 1,000 staff ser- 
geants to technical sergeant. These promotions 
were widely distributed. 




CRUISES ... (Continued From Page 24) 

however are limited at stations outside of 


Radio facilities are excellent in the Middle 
East. Stations are equipped with homing de- 
vices and can provide weather and navigational 

We left Cairo at 05.13 GMT on the twenty- 
eighth, and spent the night at El Fasher. The 
next day we encountered an unidentified pursuit 
plane, which eventually turned away. We landed 
at Takoradl at 13.15 GMT the evening of the 
twenty-ninth. Torrential rains delayed us two 
days at Takoradl, and another two were lost on 
account of the Illness of Mr. Parker, our Brit- 
ish radio operator. During the stopover some 
time was spent in inspecting the neighboring na- 
tive markets. Camel meat, water buffalo and py- 
thon were much in evidence. So far as I know, 
however, none of our party sampled these local 
delicacies . 

Averaged 250 MPH 

Leaving Takoradl at 6.04 the morning of Octo- 
ber 3 we reached Bel«n that afternoon at 19.42, 
approximately one and a half hours before sun- 
down, covering a distance of 3405.15 statute 
miles in 13 hours and 38 minutes. Average speed 
was approximately 250 miles per hour. 

We took off in a slight overcast. The weather 
was poor for about five hours out. Speed was 
aided by a slight tall wind. The automatic pi- 
lot did not function and the plane had to be 
flown manually most of the way. The navigator 
was interested to find that on taking the noon 
reading the sun was directly overhead, so there 
was no angle at all on the octant. But, thanks 
to Major LeMay's skilled navigation, we hit 
Belen on the nose as ETA predicted. 

A severe oil leak developed in No. 3 engine, 
out 5f Belem. As we were too heavily loaded to 
go back, we continued on to Borinquen ready to 
feather No. 3 at any time. The oil leak was 
caused by a loose hydraulic pump housing. We 
remained in Puerto Rico a day and a half for 
maintenance. The home stretch was completed 
when we reached Bolling Field at 3.02 P.M. on 
October 7, having completed approximately 26,000 

Few Replacements 

It is interesting to note that the only re- 
placements needed were a hydraulic pump shaft, 
nose wheel inner tube and relay switch, all of 
which were carried on board. Routine inspection 
replacements were, of course, made. And, as 

previously noted, ccmfcat crew performed most of 
the grottnd maintenance work. 

The Southern route to Middle East and to Eu- 
rope is more feasable during the winter months 
than the northern route via Newfoundland, Got- 
land, etc. due to the absence of icy conditions 
along the tropical South Atlantic route. 

LUKE,,, (Continued From Page 26) 

It was 5.30 P.M. Clouds that I sailed toward 
faded out, just as steam disappears in the open 

After Trenton there were no more thermals and 
I did a straight glide, depending entirely on my 
gliding angle for distance. I passed Quaker- 
town, Doyles town, and larighome. The flight was 
about to end. I picked out a farmer's field, 
circled once, and landed, to the astonishment 
and fright of sane cows that made way reluctant- 
ly. Now it was six o'clock. Some farming peo- 
ple came out and invited me to dinner. Hunger 
had fed my ignorance, perhaps, for I did not 
know how to say 'no.' I still had the chocolate 
bar. But roast chicken . . . After dinner we 
dismantled the ship and stored it in one of the 
farmer's barns. 

From the farmhouse I phoned the ground crew at 
Elmira and called Fort Dlx. They sent a car and 
two men to assist me. The next morning we 
picked up the Wolfe on a trailer and took it 
back to Elmira. 

A glider landing near Fort Dix caused strange 
and lively Interest. I was regarded with a cu- 
riosity appreciable only to those real pioneers 
who flew early in the century. Aerodynamlcally 
a glider may be classed as a plane, but my Wolfe 
was a hawk with frozen wings and I also set a 
record for hunger! 

PATRICK (Continued From Page 4) 
action was taken for three years. 

Congress finally passed the Air Corps Act of , 
1926 authorizing a five-year expansion program 
which contemplated at the end of the period 
1,650 officers and 15,000 enlisted men, includ- 
ing 500 flying cadets, and the production of 
1,800 serviceable airplanes. 

The Air Corps Act of 1926 was a victory for 
General Patrick, however meager it may appear in 
comparison with the present 125,000 warplane 
program. And it was General Patrick who opened 
the wedge for the mighty Army Air Forces of 
today. The man who learned to fly at the age of 
60 "tept .'m flying'' in a crisis. 



Come to the skyways. Brother. Come with me 
And know the life that's free from fear and dread, 
Where courage rides in constant rivalry 
And weakling never yet has dared to tread. 

Come to the aky*isys. Brother. Come this hour; 

Nor heed the dirge of him who has no spine. 

Come feel the thrill and joy of speed and power 
And know the glory of this life of mine. 

Come where the air is free of sordid stains. 

Where the pace is set by skill alone. 

Com feel the surge of red blood in your veins 
And guaff the cup that coward ne’er has known. 

Fear not. Though danger seems to ride apace, 

‘Tis but the snarling of a conquered wind. 

This life of ours is but one glorious race; 

Yet he, who’d win, ssist leave all fear behind. 

So to the skyways. Brother. Come today 
And venture tip beyond where eagles fly. 

Come! Seek real adventure while you may 
And drive the foes of freedom from the sky. 

Major N.R. Cooper 



VOL. 25 MARCH-APRIL, 1942 NO. 2 


Ferry Comnand fights jungle and desert — By Major Geoffrey Bonnell ... 1 


An Amy bcniber on submarine patrol — By Capt. lynn Farnol 3 



Keeping them fit for flying — By Maj. Gen. W.R. Weaver 7 


Aviation's undersea weapon — By Lt. F.J. NovltsldL, USN . 11 


Action behind the combat scenes — By Maj. Gen. Henry J.F. Miller .... 13 

"Intruder tactics" bag Nazi bombers 17 


The Flylrg Training Comnand — By Maj. Gen. Barton K. Yount 19 


Panorama view of a new battlefield — By Oliver Townsend 21 


Builders of airdromes — By Brig. Gen. Stuart C. Godfrey 23 


Daredevils of the Royal Air Force — By Lt. Robert B. Hotz 27 


Night boniblng over western Europe — By Flight Lt. G.L. Chesire, RAF. • . 31 

Island pilots win their "spurs" — By Major Falk Harmel 33 


Motor less attack ani transj^rt — By Lewln B. Barringer 35 


Typifies Air Forces Expansion — By Lt. John H. Cheatwood ... 39 



The hman angle at 40,000 feet ~ By Col. David N.W. Grant. 43 


What's going cxi "upstairs" — By Capt. Nathaniel F. Silsbee ....... 47 


Cold Chamber Testing at Wright Field 

Art Work By James T. Rawls 

PHOTO SOURCES; Rudy Arnold Photos, pp 3,41; Flight Uagaxine, p 11; Douglas 
Aircraft Co,, p 17; Life Magazine , pp 26,33; and official 
U.S. Army Air Forces photos. 









Colonel, Air Corps, 

Ammiatant Chief of the Air Staff, A-3. 

Safari on Wings 

By Major Geoffrey Bounell 

Air Force Ferry GomniMnd 

F Om months with the Ferry Conmand In Africa 
and the Middle East shows you how such of 
this war has to be won on the grOimd before It 
can be won In the air. 

Service and supply are the heart of the Com- 

Ferry pilots tind flight crews are doing a 
great job, but every flyer knows that the back- 
bcHie of the show Is on the ground, In the hands 
of the maintenance men and mechanics who service 
the planes in a mess of sand and heat all the 
way adopg the line. 

And before warplanes are ferried In quantity 
to the Far East, African natives carry tons of 
foundation rock for runways, and hundreds of 
camels carry fuel for engines. Camels and na- 
tives are In the thick of It over there. 

The ground Is being won. Airdromes are build- 
ing up, supplies are coming In, and communica- 
tions are much Improved since we set up the 
first Ferry Conmand base In the Middle East last 
winter. At the moment I am some 9,000 flying 
miles away but only a few days out from my 
base, and I know that the ships are being pushed 
through as fast as possible. But It Is one 
thing to talk about fighting an air war thou- 
Sfmds of miles fron home and einother thing to do 
It. A lot of angles enter In when you start 
close to scratch. 

There were service stations across Africa vdien 
we started, but they were British stations used 
only for ferrying single engine ships . The 
British shuttled the fighters <si short hops In 
squadrons. The bulk of their boni}ers had to be 
based on the Isles to carry 
the war to Germany, so the 
British weren't ferrying big 
planes, and had no need for 
large airdromes. 

We could use the British 
stations for forced land- 
ings, but to push across the 
four-motored Jobs you need 
airdromes with plenty of 
length to the runways. You 
need room to get heavily 
loaded ships off the ground, 
and with all that weight 
they will run a long dis- 
tance after alighting. We 
use the brakes as little as 

possible to save the llnli^. 

Existing runways had to be made longer and 
their foundations strengthened. New runways and 
foundations had to be built. For this work 
natives are ised. I have seen hundreds of half- 
naked African natives carrying crushed founda- 
tion stone In buckets balanced on their heads. 

Desert sand has a habit of seeping Into your 
engines while your ship Is being warmed up, so 
concrete plaitferms had to be built. We use the 
engines as little as possible on the grotsid. 
When the sand Is blowiig you have to watch your 
fuel. Sand doesn't add octane to gasoline. 
Neither does the trojdctLl sun. 

Planning ahead for ftiel Is one of our biggest 
tasks, and the oil companies engaged In the work 
have done a splendid jcib In filling our needs. 
Fbellng was done entirely from tin cans when we 
started. We travel light on fuel, carrying just 
enough for each trip, and we plan It careftilly. 
Save on fuel and you gain on cargo space. And 
cargo space Is gold when It holds tools and 
spare parts. 

At one desert airdrome they had to employ a 
thousand camels In addltlcwi to desert trucks to 
keep up with the Increasing demand for fuel. 
Bach of the big ludberlng animals brought In 39 
gallons of fuel In cans. Supplying fuel by 
camel, you have to figure on something like a 
29 per cent loss; camels are high off the ground 
and many cans break when the natives unload. 
But the camels kept the ships flying on. 

Servicing Is Important enough for us to build 
our flight schedules around It. Long hops, for 
Instance, are made princi- 
pally at night. We time 
th«n for dawn arrivals, al- 
lowing ground crews as many 
daylight hoiirs as possible 
for repair work. 

You use a minimum of sig- 
nals to keep the enemy from 
getting In on the party. 
This means that your radio 
Is used sparingly, and that 
navlgatlcm Is lasually celes- 
tial. We started out with 
French maps on the desert, but 
they offered few landmeurks, 
many of those misplaced. We 
have our own maps now. 

Major Botmell waa one of the first 
Ferry Coamand staff officers in the 
Middle East, from which he has just 
returned, A veteran in aviation, he 
flew with the first English scout 
squadron to leave for France in the 
last war, and later joined the Amer- 
ican Army and flew with the famous 
First Pursuit Group. After the war 
Major Bonnell organised the Florida- 
West Indies Airway, called the first 
airline to carry U.S. mail to a for- 
eign port. He spent 30 years on Wall 
Street before rejoining the Air 
Forces in July, 1941. 




Adequate comnunlcatlons develop only after an 
organization has passed through its early 
stages, particularly in the type of country we 
are working. The comnunlcatlons network is 
getting smoothed out, but I've seen the day wh^ 
the message carrying your departure time reached 
your objective after you got there. Signal 
changes are a necessity; keeping up with the 
changes is a job in Itself. It pays to be ready 
with the right answers. Mistakes in signalling 
may mean anti-aircraft fire. 

The African landscax)e doesn't have a reputa- 
tion for carpets, so it isn't ideal country for 
forced landings. Flying miles of jungle 50 feet 
up, I've seen a natural zoo, with lions, ele- 
phants, antelopes and all the main attractions. 
We actiially had a lion greet us after cme land- 
ing, but it was at an airdrome and the li«i was 
a ciib, a pet of one of the boys. The llcm ran 
around the alrdrane like a dog* I really felt 
sorry for him, because everyone wanted their 
pictures tak«i holding him in their arms. 

Operating a ferrying service over desert and 
jungle has a thousand side shows, and a thou- 
sand problems. Sabotage, for instance, is al- 
ways a threat. It forces you to double check 
every detail before a take-off, even though 
everything has functioned perfectly on the last 
1^ of the trip. No matter how strange or dif- 
ficult the prdblOT, each man pitches in to solve 
it. The personnel is top rate. 

Having served with the RAF in the last war and 
knowing how they had built up an air force to 
function in all parts of the world without 
established bases or the proper equipment, I got 
a great kick out of our first formation of 
heavy bombers to come in at a British airdrome. 
They arrived in perfect formation and after 
landing the crews carried on like veterans. 

Our officers and men get along famously with 
RAF personnel, with whom we are housed and 
messed. Mess halls are like trading posts, 
where cigarettes, pith helmets, shorts and the 
like are ccHitlnually being swapped. Captured 
Italian and German revolvers and field glasses 
bring large trades. 

Ihe British fix up comfortable living quarters 
and mess halls, and there is a good table all 
along the way. But the coffee Is bad; if you're 
ccmilng, bring your own. We are very careful 
about food and water, and either you lay off 
food which doctors advise against or you get 
Gippy Tummy (a form of dysentery) . Each plane 
carries enough water for the trip; at the hotels 
we drink bottle water. And it piays to perscav- 
ally see to it that your table utensils are 

Actually, the little things count most over 
there. Food, rest and a change of clothes are 
the necessities, especially on long ferrying 
flights. There is a lot of psychol(^ tied up 
In it. Day in and day out a man can do a better 
job when he is shaved and clean and smart look- 
ing. It is up to the captain of each plane to 
see that his crew is neat appearing. 

We wear simmer uniforms, topjpjed by pith hel- 
mets in which the boys all want their pictures 
taken, and we are fast adopting shorts. Not 
that it is hot— a mere 120 degrees when I left. 
But you get a dry heat over there and it does, 
cool off at night. The heat doesn't seem to 
affect the engines, but it can affect the men, 
and teeplng fit is Important. High boots are 
issued on reaching the coast eis a protection 
against mosquitoes; we sleep under nets. Some 
of those bugs se«n as big as the planes we flew 
in the last war. 

lAich of the plcwieerlng has been d(»ie, but it 
is as great a show as ever and we are all proud 
to take part in it. When you're a thousand 
miles frcMD nowhere it means something to have 
your crews thinking and working as teams. Ibat 
is half the battle. The esprit de corps Is do- 
ing a lot to push the planes up front. 


A IR Forces enlisted men are now eligible to 
•^^beccme ccnmlssloned officers for administra- 
tive px)sts, and an Officers Candidate School has 
been established for this training at Miami 
Beach, Fla. Also eligible for the school are 
Air Forces Warrant Officers and Avlatlcxi Cadets 
reccnmended by their school ccmmandants . 

The men accepted will be trained for adminis- 
trative duties such as squadron adjutants, and 
mess, supply and transportation officers. Upon 
satisfactory conpletlon of the 12 weeks course, 
graduates will be commissioned Seccwd Lieuten- 
ants in the Army of the United States and as- 
signed to units of the Arny Air Forces. 

Applicants must have passed their 18th birth- 
days and not have reached their 36th birthday on 
the day of conpletlcai of the course for irtiich 
they are selected. Other requirements Include 
United States citizenship, a score of 110 or 
hl^er in the Amy General Classification test, 
and three months of military service Inmedlately 
preceding the date of enrollment, or a mlnliiuD 
of six months cunulative service within the 12 
mwith pieriod Inmedlately pjrecedlng the date of 
enrollment. Men Interested in enrolling in the 
school are instructed to apply to their Cchd- 
mandlng Officer. 



Hunting For Tin Fish 

By Capt* Lynn Farnol 

First Air Force 

A S far back as the early 1930 's the Army 
Included off-shore patrolling In maneuvers, 
using Martin B-lOs to sweep the Pacific for 
Imaginary Invaders j similar exercises were car- 
ried on by the Second Bombardment Wing at Lang- 
ley Field. 

Army flyers hunt real prey now. They seek 
"tin fish" off the coastlines of two oceans and 
the Gulf of Mexico. Hunting eneny submarines is 
exacting work. Day in and day out it is rou- 
tine, but a routine flight can suddenly become 
alive, as happened recently on an off-shore pa- 
trol operating from an Air Force base on the 
Atlantic coast. Let's follow that flight. 

The story really begins at various points in 
the country from seven months to a year before, 
at Kelly Field where the pilot was trained, at 
Barksdale with the bodbardier, in Florida with 
the navigator, and with the training of the co- 
pilot, radioHnan and gunner. On patrol duty the 
crew does not include an engineer. Each menl)er 
can handle a machine gun. On this flight the 
gunner also mans the camera. 

At a "brief" held shortly before take-off the 
squadron conmaiKier sketches the route of the 

patrol on a green hydrographic chart while the 
crewmen stuff themselves into heavy sheejjsktn 
flying clothes. An Army "jeep" takes them to 
their B-25 in battle paint. A gasoline trailer 
and several ammunition trucks are moving away 
from the plane as they arrive. The crewmen 
stand in front of the ship while the engineer 
gives the Twin Wrights a final check. He makes 
the pre-flight — checking the gas tanks, manifold 
pressure, oil toiperature, vertical euid horizon- 
tal controls, and tachaneter. The others wait 
while the pilot-conmander holds a hurried con- 
ference with the radio-man to check over the 
call letters for the day — special daily signals 
to the base in case of onergency. 

Radio-man and gunner climb into the tail. 
Pilot, co-pilot, navigator and bonbardier go up 
front. The pilot tates the controls. There is 
a jxjwerful roar, and the plane taxles across the 

Up over the treetops, and over the surf, 6Uid 
each man is at his post, fron the bcaribardler in 
the nose to the gunner in the tall. The inter- 
ccm links them together. Eyes strain in every 

(Continued on Page 29) 













LlSni* (XHu. STANIET K« IKSINSON* /or l^mding a group of 17 hrmborm against 
srtmsy transports in tho Philippinos siiAing ana, hitting another and 
dasiaging an enemy cruiser^ The award was siade posthwsously after he 
failed to return from recent bcsdiing operations. 

M&JGB. U/liaai C4 MylluGFR- for administering first aid to wounded and conse- 
quently saving r<any lives during sn attack by ISO Japanese planes on a 
Philippines air field. Major Beidger is a siedical officer attached to 
the Air Corps. 

CAPS. AiyiN J. MlKrjER - for participating in a bombing attack on a Japanese 
airdrome in the Philippines. Bis plane was twice hit by anti-aircraft 
tire and attacked by 10 Jap fighters. Be maintained his place in 
formation and protected the formation leader’s plane fighting off at- 
tacks for 20 minutes. Captain Mueller landed his plane despite damaged 
controls. It had been hit in store than 100 places. 

JSiMSS (XHOUUiT- /or successfully completing a hazardous mission during 
which he destroyed a 15,500 t<wi Japanese transport and then evacuated 
25 badly needed AAF pilots. The mission was completed under adverse 
weather conditions . 

Ctm, DONAID EEISER- /or extraordinary achievement during an attack on enemy 
shipping resulting in a direct hit on a Japanese cruiser. Be returned 
to his base through an equatorial storm. 

CAFT. R> FORD- /or commanding a B-17 that attacked enemy warships. 

Be insisted on going with his ship although he had malaria. Be flew 
1,500 miles, directed operations and returned safely although near col- 

CAFT. FRED T. CUMMINGS- /or attempting to salvage his plane from a burning 
hanger during an air raid on a Philippines air field on December 8. Be 
succeeded in taxiing the siachine outside the hangar but Japanese dive 
bombers spotted him and amchine gunned him blasting the plane to bits 
and wounding Captain Cusminga in the head and arms. 

CAFE. HEWITT T. WHEIESS- /or fighting off 18 enemy pursuit planes for 25 
minutes and safely returning to his base with a damaged motor. 



STAFF SGfE« JOSEPH L. LOCKHARD- /or voluntarily remaining on^duty in charge 
of an anti-aircraft detector unit on the Island of Oal^, December 7 and 
detecting the approach of unidentified aircraft which proved to be the 
Japanese planes which raided Pearl Harbor. Sergeant Lockhard detected 
the planes at 7:02 a.m. approximately 132 miles off Oahu. After re- 
checking the distance and aximtth Sergeant Lockhard reported to the 
duty officer and furnished him with complete particulars of his find- 
ings. Subsequent investigations have proved conclusively that the 
planes reported by Sergeant Lockhard were the large Japanese air force 
that attacked the Island of Oahu at approxisiately 7:55 a.m. The serv- 
ice of Sergeant Lockhard was also noted in the report of the Roberts 
board investigating the Pearl Harbor attack. Sergeant Lockhard was 
promoted from a private in recognition of his services and is now at- 
tending an officers training school in the United States. 

MASTER SOT. LOUIS SILVA- /or manning a side gun on the leading plane of a 
bomber squadron attacking Japanese shipping. Silva destroyed at least 
three of an attacking Jap pursuit squadron. 


COL. EUQBHE L« EUBANK- /or successfully dispersing and protecting his septadr 
ron's planes during a Japanese raid on a Philippines air base. Col. 
Eubank was previously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for lead- 
ing a flight of B-17s from San Francisco to the Philippines shortly 
before the outbreak of war. 

A G3K0UP CS'’ GUNNERS on one B-17 were awarded Silver Stars for "gallantry in 
action" during which they manned their guns in a badly hit and burning 
B-17, All the gunners were wounded but the mission was successfully 
completed and the damaged plane landed. Another B-17 gunner was award- 
ed the Silver Star for sticking to his post after receiving a shatter- 
ing wound above his left knee. He fought off three attacks after being 
wounded and remained at his post firing until he collapsed from lack of 
blood. Unfortunately due to disrupted cable facilities the nasies of 
these gunners are not yet available, 


LEElir. COL* CAIEB V. HAINES, pilot; Major Curtis Le May, co-pilot ; Capt. 
Carlos CcKhrane, navigator; Master Sgt. Adolph Cattarius, flight engi- 
neer; Tech. Sgt. Richard E. Martin, engineer; and Master Sgt. James E. 
Sand's, radio operator- - for 'heroism and extraordinary achievement in 
successfully pioneering ocean airlanes and amassing extensive inform- 
ation on trans-oceanic flying by landplanes" . These officers and men 
comprised the crew of a B-24 which flew a 26,000 mile survey flight to 
Asia and return, Lieut, Cot --'el Haynes was awarded an Oak Leaf Cluster 
to the Cross having iron tbi- award previously for piloting the B-15 to 
Santiago, Chile and return carrying Red Cross Supplies to earthquake 



Physical Training in the Army Air Forces 

By Maj. Gen. Walter R. Weaver 

Chief, Air Force Technical Training Command 

TF It Is true that an army travels on Its 

■^stomach, it Is Just as true that an air 
force flies and fights on the stamina, coordi- 
natiwi and conpetitive spirit of the men who man 
its planes. This is the fundamental principle 
upon which the United States Army Air Corps 
physical training program is founded. 

It is obvious that it takes more than good 
physical condition to make a ccmhat crewman. 
Intelligence, skill and natioral aptitude are all 
demanded. But it is equally obvious that no caie 
who is not in first-rate physical condition can 
expect to have the endurance, the lightning co- 
ordination and the wlll-to-wln necessary in mod- 
em warfare. 

The latest fighter plane is little better than 
xiseless in the hands of a flyer who falls in tne 
pinch because he doesn’t measure up physically. 
The heroes of our Air Forces in the Pacific war 
zone are the men who are hanging on and on — 
doggedly— in the face of numerically superior 
opposition, and who remain clear-headed and 
alert against the enemy. 

This is the kind of man the Air Forces need, 
and this is the kind of man Air Corps physical 
directors are striving to produce. 

Syston Is Scientific 

Our directors are going about it in a progres- 
sive, scientific way. Soon after first report- 
ing for flight training, each aviation cadet is 
analyzed physically from the standpoint of the 
job he will be called upon to do after his 
training is over. After he is "sized up", exer- 
cises are provided which will correct his defi- 
ciencies and develop his strong points until he 
has achieved maximum physical efficiency for his 
type. These he must perform in a dally class 
period of at least one hour in length. 

The job of the physical training director is 
not easy. He must take young men familiar with 
an unregulated life and prepare them for a 
strictly-regulated military exlstance. He must 
take "soft" bodies and harden them for the 
strain of modem combat flying. He must take 
awkward muscles and develop control and coordi- 

Major General Walter R, Weaver 
nation. Fram all kinds of bEu;l^rounds, fl*an all 
types of environments, men come to Air Corps 
Reception Centers. These men must all be devel- 
oped to meet uniformly high physical standards 
before they are jjermltted to fly for the Army. 
The Air Forces need «md are building a modern, 
progressive physical training program. 

No effort is made to stemdardlze the jiiyslcal 
developoKnt or aptitudes of all Air Forces per- 
sonnel. The fact that there are many different 
types of physiques is recognized. The objective 
of the program is not to try to change these, 
but merely to classify each Individual according 
to his body characteristics, and then condition 
and develop him to the jKjint where his natural 
abilities are permitted to "bloom". 

Tudbllng Is Effective 

It is the aim of the program not oily to build 
up each individual to his maxlmmi physical effi- 
ciency, but also to keep him that way. In order 
to take care of the building-up process, exer- 
cises designed to condltlcm and harden the cadet 
are emphasized during the early part of his 
training. At this point special emphasis is 




placed on timi)llpg, which not only builds mus- 
cles and develops coordination, hut also teaches 
the student how to roll on the ground during a 
rough parachute landing* 

Anotner form of exercise designed to develop 
balance and coordlnatlcai Is a kind of precision 
hop-scotch which must be executed with great 
accuracy and timing on a mat laid out In black 
and white squares. Still another Is the "wand 
drill". In which cadets are taught timing and 
coordination by manipulating wooden staffs In 
rmlson. lAislc Is often added to increase the 
sense of smoothness and relaxation of muscles 
necessary at the controls of an airplane. 

Among the muscles brought Into play most in 
piloting a plane are those of the abdomen, neck 
and back. These all receive special attentlOTi 
during the earlier phases of the Air Corps 
tradnlng program. 

Later, as the cadet becomes conditioned, the 
time devoted to calisthenics and gymnastics Is 
gradually reduced, and Individual and group ath- 
letics substituted. These Include games which 
can be used all through life for keeping in good 
piiyslcal condition. Some of the most comnon of 
these are tennis, handball, sqviash, wrestling, 
swimnlng, badminton, bowling, fencing and vol- 

Before being used each sport Is analyzed 
thoroughly to determine Its demands on nerve 
control. Its Influence on blood pressure and 
respiration, the physical characteristics it 
cultivates and the nuscles It develops before It 
Is Incorporated In the Air Corps program. 

Sports which might seriously Injure the cadet 
and incapacitate him as far as flight training 
Is concerned, such as boxing, football and base- 
ball, are not given. Other games. Including 
softball and golf, are not used to any great ex- 
tent because of their "Inefficient" periods of 

The physical training program Is continuous 
8dl through the Air Corps flying course. It Is 
not limited to any one phase, s\K5h as primary or 
basic, and It does not have to stop and start 
over again every time a student changes schools. 

When a new cadet rejxjrts to a Reception Center 
a physical record Is begun which continues as 
long as he is a flying officer of the Air 
Forces. This record follows him from school to 
school, and even out Into cadbat units. Contin- 
uous tab Is kept on the physical condition of 
all Air Forces flying personnel by means of a 
standard physical efficiency and achievement 
test. This test, given periodically, measures 

each man's physical condition and shows him ex- 
actly where he stands In relation to his own 
highest state of jdiyslcal fitness, and his rel- 
ative status amopg the men of his organization. 

Rating System Being Developed 

The form of the achievement test has not yet 
been crystallized. At present there are a num- 
ber of exercises which are beir^ used with some 
degree of success. These Include a standing 
broad Jimip, a high Jump, a "chinning" exercise 
and a running test where the Individual's time 
in covering distances of 50 and 150 feet Is 
measured. Constant experimentation is going on 
In an effort to weld these many tests Into a 
standard physical rating system. When this is 
accomplished It will be possible to keep a check 
on the fitness of all Air Forces flying i>er- 

So that the beneficial effects of the scientific 
training given to aviation cadets Is not wasted, 
a staff of physical Instructors has been em- 
ployed for the Air Force Coobat Caninand. It Is 
the Job of these men to administer the periodic 
physical fitness test, and to see that flyers 
exercise often enough and wisely enoqgh to keep 
in condition. 

Under this program a physical director has 
been provided for Air Force Cooi)at Command Head- 
quarters, one for each Air Force, and one for 
eeu;h of the larger cadtmt lailts. These men will 
be not so much physical instructors as advisers. 

There is a negative value to the new develop- 
ment program as well as a positive one. This Is 
the ability to predict through physical tests 
who will succeed and who will not succeed in 
pilot training. Experljnentation is still going 
on along these lines, and no definite plan has 
so far been adopted. 

One method, however, has shown a high degree 
of accuracy, in preliminary tests. The plan, 
which was discovered by James L. Livingston, one 
of the Air Corps physical training Assistant 
Directors, is built upon the natural and cross 
coordination necessary in piloting an airplane. 

Cross Co<n'dinatlon Difficult 

Walking with the right arm swinging in con- 
junction with the left leg Is a sample of nat- 
ural coordination. Cross coordination involves 
moving the right arm In unison with the right 
leg and the left arm In coordination with the 
left leg. Such movements do not come natwal to 
the human body and require cwicentratlon or an 
artificially developed skill In order to per- 
form. (Continued on Page 10) 




Basliig Ms research upon the niaiQr natural and 
cross coordinating movements pilots are called 
iqxxi to execute, Mr. Livingston developed three 
groups of exercises to measure pt^lcal aptitude 
for flying. These have been given to a cross- 
section of cadets during a preliminary test 
period — ^mlxed In secretly with the other calis- 
thenics flying students are now required to take 
at Replacement Centers. 

All cadets who could execute these exercises 
correctly by the end of the first class period 
were graded "A". Those who could execute them 
at the end of the second class period were 
graded "B", and those who needed three periods 
were graded "C". All who took more than three 
periods to master the exercises were given a 
grade of "D". Cadets falling In the "D" classi- 
fication, It W6US predicted, would not prove to 
be satisfactory pilot material. In the tests so 
fbr conducted the system has proved to be 88 per- 
cent eiccurate. 

Another exercise test for pre-determlnlng pi- 
lot failures Is the modified Burx>ee test. In 
this exercise the subject throws himself from a 
standing to a horizontal "leaning rest" position 
and then leaps back to his feet again. Normal 
pilot candidates can accon 9 )llsh this feat fran 
15 to 20 times In 30 seconds. Trainers figure 
that candidates who can perform this stunt only 
seven times or less In the prescribed time stand 
a good chance of being eliminated from flying 
school. Tests so far have shown them to be 
right 83 percent of the time. 

If these and other physical aptitude tests 
stand up in subsequent trials throughout pilot 
training centers as convincingly as they have so 
far, they may prove invaluable In helping to 
determine the type of training aviation cadets 
should receive. 

Predictions Made Early 

If this could be done it would save the Air 
Corps a large amount of time and money. One of 
the most attractive features of the physical 
aptitude test is the fact that all predictions 
are made within the first week after the cadet 
reports for training. 

Recognition by the All* Corps of the need for a 
progressive syst«n of physical training for avi- 
ation cadets culminated In Instructions being 
Issued for the present program as far back as 
January, 1011. These Instructions, issued from 
Air Corps headquarters, made a one-hour per day 
physical progreun compulsory for all aviation 
cadets, and provided for at least one physical 
Instructor for each school and training center. 


The selection of personnel to run this vast 
program was begun in February, 1911. Directors 
of physical training for the Amy Air P’orces ana 
Ikilts of the Connand were appointed and placed 
In key coordinating positions in Washington. 
These Included James E. Plxlee, former Director 
of Riyslcal Education and Assistant to the Pres- 
ident, George Washington ttilverslty, appointed 
Physical Training Director for the Army Air 
Forces; and Birch Bayh, former |4iyslcal and ath- 
letic education director of the Washington, D.C. 
City School System, appointed Physical Training 
Director for the Air Force Combat Camnand. In 
addition, each Air Corps flying training center 
arai the Air Corps Technical Training Command 
selected directors to administer programs lo- 

Chose Qualified Personnel 

While the Director of Physical Training for 
the Air Forces was busy preparing a general 
guide for. use In all Air Corps flying schools, 
the physical training directors of each flying 
tralnlrg center were selecting the perscamel who 
would serve as Instructors. No one was even 
considered who did not have a college degree 
with a major in physical education, and at least 
one year's graduate study or three years of 
practical experience. 

Always kept In mind In considering applicants 
was the difference between a purely athletic and 
a physical education background. The Air Corps 
decided at an early stage that no candidate was 
wanted who did not understand that it takes more 
than just muscular development and skill In a 
certain game to make an expert ccmbat crewman. 

After he was hired, but before any work was 
begun, each new instructor was given a six- 
weeks’ training course In which he learned how 
to drill like a cadet, give orders like an offi- 
cer, and generally become orientated to a mili- 
tary environment. 

Then came conferences— days of them— In which 
each man was Invited to contribute Ms Ideas to 
the creation of the most advanced plem possible. 
Conferences were necessary, for these men were 
working In a field virtually wlthcnit precedent. 

Before they met there was no specialized phys- 
ical training program for Air Corps personnel. 
Those Instructloms that did exist were Included 
In the Amy Field Manual on physical education, 
prepared with an eye primarily to the condition- 
ing of soldiers for hand-to>-hand fighting. As a 
result of tMs lack of a specific program, some 

(Continued on Page 51) 


Torpedoes Sprout Wings 

By Lieut. F. «l. Novitski, IJ. S. N. 

/COUPLING of the airplane and the torpedo has 
'^produced caie of modem warfsu*e's most deadly 
Instrunents of destruction. 

The torpedo plane’s victory record in the 
present conflict is impressive — three Italian 
battleships at Tarantoj the Bismarck brought to 
bay so an English cruiser could finally torjjedo 
her after battleships had fruitlessly poured 
heavy caliber shells into her drifting hulkj the 
Repulse and Prince of Wales sunk in a few hours 
by torj)edo planes, and a score of Italian and 
British cruisers and transports sunk or damaged 
in the Mediterranean. And let us not forget 
Pearl Harbor. 

The British aircraft Carrier Illxostrious took 
a three hour pasting from a swarm of Junkers 
dive badgers one afternoon in the Mediterranean. 
Seven 2,000 pound bcmibs hit her flight and han- 
gar decks but she steamed into Malta, stayed 
long enough to svistaln another bombing attack 
and then steamed across the Atlantic for over- 
haul. The aircraft carrier Ark Royal, practi- 
cally a sister ship, took one torpdo in her 
belly and went to the bottom. 

Clearly, the torpedo is this war's prime of- 
fensive weapon of the sea. An unofficial com- 
pilation of naval comnuniques indicates that a 
majority of warships of all nations sunk in the 
y/av have been destroyed by torpedoes. 

What is a torpedo? Why is it so effective? 
How Is it used by planes? 

The modem torpedo is a self-propelled, self- 
controlled underwater missile cairrylng a heavy 
explosive charge. In size, shape and weight it 
is much the same as the heavier aerial bombs. 

It ccxislsts of four main sections, the warhead, 
airflask, afterbody and tail. Once launched, it 
will travel long distances at high speed. It 
will find and hold a pre-set depth. It will 
maintain within a fraction of a degree the 
course upon which it wets launched or it will 
start on that course and then tvirn through a 
pre-determlned angle to add deceptiveness to its 

Hits Weakest Spots 

The torpedo's victims xasually suffer a fatal 
blow because the torpedo hits them where they 
are softest and where the force of the explosion 
is confined — ^below the waterline. No naval ar- 
chitect has yet been able to protect a warship's 
underbody as well as her decks and sides. The 

V. 3. , X ^ 

RAF Beaufort Torpedo Plane 

Bismarck and Prince of Wales were the last word 
in British and German naval design. But when 
torpedoes hit them they went down. 

The warhead is the business end of the torpedo 
and its sinplest major part. It consists of a 
thin reinforced steel or bronze shell loaded 
wltJj as many hundreds of pounds of explosive as 
the power plant will propel. It also contains a 
detonator and a mechanism which renders the 
charge harmless until after the torpedo has run 
a few seconds on its course. 

Behind the warhead is the airflask which car- 
ries a sufficient supply of air to support com- 
bustion. It is made of high alloy steel only 
thick enough to withstand a pressure of 2CX3 at- 
mospheres and the shocks of launchlt^. The ends 
of the airflask are closed with steel bulkheads. 
In the rear end of the bulldiead a small section 
of reduced wall thickness Is set aside to carry 
water and a few pints of fuel, usually alcohol. 

The afterbody ceirrles in it the organs, brains 
and the nervous system of the torpedo. In out- 
ward appearance the afterbody is a tapered steel 
shell decorated with a variety of apertures and 
attachments which are streamlined to its shape. 
Inside an array of pipes twist and turn to find 
their way around shafts, gears, valves and sun- 
dry odd shapes of brass, bronze, steel and mon- 
el. Each has its own important function. 

When a torpedo is launched air is released 
frcmi the airflask to the ccmibustlon pot. Sane 
of the air is diverted to force fuel into the 
same combustion pot while still another stream 
of air strikes a cap on the Igniter, which pro- 




trudes Into the caribustion jx)t, causli^ the Ig- 
niter to hum. The combustion pot thus has 
flame, air and a spray of ftiel and a merry blaze 
ensues. The resultant gaises are led through 
nozzles to two counter-rotatli^ turbines mounted 
on concentric shafts. After Imparting their 
energy to the turbine wheels, the gases pass out 
through the tail Into the sea, maklpg the char- 
acteristic wake of the torpedo. The turbine 
wheels drive two counter-rotating propellers 
which drive the torpedo through the water. 

Simultaneously with this action, a shot of 
high pressure air has spun a small gyroscope 
which thereafter constantly indicates to the 
torpedo its correct course. Any off course wan- 
derings actuate a small air engine which oper- 
ates the vertical rudders of the torpedo. For 
control in the vertical plane there Is a hydro- 
static diaphragm which Indicates the correct 
depth at which the torpedo should run and a pen- 
dulum which prevents too radical changes in 
depth which would result In diving and broach- 
ing. These control another tiny air engine con- 
nected to horizontal rudders. The tall mounts 
the vertical and horizontal stabilizing surfaces 
in addition to the rudders and propellers. 

Such Is the torpedo, certainly one of the most 
Ingenious devices of destruction ever made and 
now vastly more effective through its enployment 
by fast, far ranging planes. 

Originated Here 

The torpedo plane is already 31 years old al- 
though the public became aware of it only in 
1040. Like so many other mediums of attack it 
was conceived and given early developnent in the 
United States, only to be first used effectively 
by another nation. Rear Admiral Bradley A. 
Fiske, U.S.N., is generally credited with being 
the inventor of the torpedo plane. In 1911 he 
succeeded in launching a torpedo from a seaplane 
flying over the Potomac River at the dizzy 
height of 15 feet. Siibsequent developnents both 
here and abroad have progressed to the point 
where torpedoes can now be launched from high 
speed planes at an altitude considerably in ex- 
cess of 15 feet. 

The torpedo plane can be used wherever the 
banber can be used against floating targets, 
and, as already indicated, is vastly more effec- 
tive against such targets than the bonber. How- 
ever, it should be obviovis from the description 
of the torpedo that it is a delicate instrument. 
This fact naturally limits the speed and height 
of drop, which in turn imposes limitations on 
the tactics of the torpedo plane. Torpedoes can 

be loaded on wings, in the bomb bay or siting 
below the fuselage. The cockpit of a torpedo 
plane is equipped with a director for correctly 
aiming the torpedo. 

The torpedo attack must be delivered from mod- 
erately low altitudes at extremely close range 
withoul^iislpg all the speed available in modern 
aircraft. The altitude must not be too low, or 
the splash frcxn the dropped tin fish may fill 
the bent) bay and wreck the plane. On the other 
hand, if the altitude is too great the delicate 
mechanisms of the torpedo may be deranged by the 
drop. Speed must be limited for the same rea- 

Approach Technique 

The range must be close to insure accuracy and 
negate evasion tactics by the ships attacked. 
At the dropping point the torpedo plane must be 
in nearly normal flight position. If the plane 
were in a steep glide or dive the torpedo might 
nose over when it hits the water and run on a 
reverse course. Furthermore, the approach for 
the attack must cover several miles so that 
accurate observations can be taken. The ap- 
proach must be flown under the same conditions 
as the main attack. There can be no long, fast 
swoop from high altitudes, no quick drop or 
speedy getaway. 

It will not take pilots long to realize the 
risk involved in the combination of level flight 
at low altitude and comparatively slow speed 
over many miles of sea in view of the enemy. 
Torpedo plane pilots must have cold £u:curacy and 
a determination to close the range, must be im- 
I»rvious to danger. The torpedo plane presents 
a difficult target for en«iy fighter planes be- 
cause its low altitude makes diving attacks vir- 
tually impossible. If torpedo planes have their 
flanks covered by their own fighter screen they 
are virtually immune frem other plane attacks. 
In breaking away the torpedo plane pilot's chief 
concern is flak fire from the ship he is attack- 
ing. Italian and Japanese pilots seem to prefer 
"hopping the quarterdeck"— opening their throt- 
tles in a speedy dash just over the decks of 
their ship victim. Other pilots prefer a sharp 
breakway turn euxi a speedy scoot just above the 
wave crests or between other ships if a forma- 
tion is being attacked. 

There need be no prescribed form for a torpedo 
plane attack on ships in port. Success depends 
mainly on surprise. For an attack on ships 
underway the customary formation is a wide ech- 

(Continued on Page 46) 



Air Service Command Supplies the World 

By Maj. Gen. Henry J. F. Miller 

Chief ot the Air Service Command 

S TRETCHING across the length and hr adth of 
the continental United States and reaching 
into the overseas possessions of this nation a 
hnge organization is working constantly, day and 
night, to keep Arn^r airplanes ready for action 
wherever they are needed. Membership of the 
organization is made up of thousands of civil- 
ians, men and women from all walks of life, all 
knuckling down to a vitally luportant task under 
the direction of military personnel. Their job 
Is to repair and maintain all Army aircraft, and 
to do all the mechanical and clerical work inci- 
dental to the main task. Their organization is 
the Air Service Conmand of the United States 
Army Air Forces; their slogan, "We Keep *Ein Fly- 

Many of these workers and their officers are 
engaged in the vital, specialized tasks of re- 
pairing damaged airplanes, overhauling and re- 
building aircraft engines, maintaining gauges, 
navigation instruments and radio equipment, all 
of which are important units in the modern Army 
airplanes . 

The large volume of paper work required by the 
extensive operation of the Air Service Ccrameind 
is handled by thousands of civilian office work- 
ers, off ice managers, stenographers, typists, 
auditors, clerks and trained specialists in many 
different classifications — all under the direc- 
tion of military personnel. Much of this work 
is carried on in offices at Wright Field, Day- 
ton, Ohio, and much of it at the various Air De- 
pots. The whole organization of the Air Service 
Comnand is directed from headquarters in Wash- 

Duties of the Air Service Cannand were orig- 
inally discharged by the former Maintenance Ccb>- 
mand, which was a branch of the Materiel Divis- 
ion of the Amy Air Corps. Under Air Force reg- 
iilatlons issued from Washington on October 17, 
1941, (A.A.F. Regulations No. 20-4) the Main- 
tenance Command was inactivated and the Air Ser- 
vice Coimand was established Imnedlately to take 
over the work of repairing and maintaining Army 
aircraft. Under the latest Amy re-organization 
effective on March 9, 1942, the Air Service Com- 
mand was placed on equal footing with seven 
other Conmands. 

The same regulations which announced the or- 
ganization of the Air Service Comnand to super- 
sede the Maintenance Comnand also announced the 
establishment of the First, Second, Third and 
Fourth Air Service Area Cannands and the inclu- 
sion of the already-established 50th Treuisport 
Wing as component p8U*ts of the Air Service Com- 
mand. Each one of the Air Service Area Comnands 
corresponds to one of the Air Force Areas. Each 
one covers approximately one-fourth of the 
United States. Every continental Air Dejx)! arai 
sub-depot is included in one or another of these 
areas. Overseas depots are under the technical 
control of the Air Service Comnand. 

There are now seven continental air depots, 
located in various sections of the United 
States. The addition of new depots frcan time to 
time will greatly increase the strength of the 
Air Service Command. Four new depots are al- 
ready planned. 

Seven Big Depots 

Of the seven continental depots now existing, 
all but three control numerous sub-depots, emd 
these three will be given the control of sub- 
depots to be activated in the future. Forty- 
seven siib-depots now cone under the jurisdiction 
of the existing four continental control depots. 

These four are: the Fairfield Air Depot at 
Patterson Field, Fairfield, Ohio, near Dayton; 
the Middletown Air Depot at Olmsted Field, Mid- 
dletown, Pennsylvania; the San Antonio Air Depot 
at Duncan Field, San Antonio, Texas; the Sacra- 
mento Air Depot at McClellan Field, Sacramento, 

The San Antonio Air Depot now controls 19 siib- 
depots in Texas, Louisiana, Colorado, Oklahoma, 
and Arizona. Fairfield controls 18 sub-depots 
in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Illinois, Mississ- 
ippi, and South Carolina. Nine sub-depots, in 
California, and Nevada are controlled by Sacra- 
mento. The Middletown Air Depot controls one 
siib-depot at Bolling Field, Anacostla, D.C. 

The three continental depots which will bq 
given the control of proposed sub-depots are 
ifcibile at Brookley Field, Stobile, Alabama; Qgden 
at Hill Field, Ogden, Utah; and the Wellston Air 
Depot at Wellston, Georgia. 




It Is obvious that a staggering volume of work 
Is required at headquarters and In the far-flung 
air dejwts and sub-dexx)ts In order that the life 
blood of the Air Forces may be kept flowing. In 
an operation so vitally connected with the effi- 
cient action of war planes and other Army air- 
craft, there are nultltudes of details. Involv- 
ing myriad problems In engineering and mechan- 
ics, supply and transportation, personnel work, 
office management, and routine activity In me- 
chanical and clerical Jobs of almost every de- 
scription. All this detell must be handled ex- 
pertly. And In order that It may be so handled, 
the work must be divided and subdivided and as- 
signed to well qualified specialists. The prin- 
cipal £isslgnments thus made under the General 
Staff of the Air Service Conmand are those han- 
dled by the following offices: Engineering, 
Supply, Training and Operations, Personnel, and 
the 50th Transport Wing. 

Actual maintenance of aircraft, equipment aM 
supplies which are delivered to the Air Corps 
for use In peace or war Is a part of the respon- 
sibility resting upon Staff Engineering for the 
Air Service Conmand. The Staff Engineering Of- 
ficer Is charged also with the formulation of 
plans and iwllcles pertaining to the design and 
operation of engineering staffs of Air Corps 

Specifically, the Staff Engineering Officer 
must supervise — In coordination with the Field 
Service Section and the Assistant Chief of the 
Air Service Conmand — the Issuance of necessary 
Instructions for the correction of major main- 
tenance difficulties encountered In the field. 
Whenever the need arises for the change or Im- 
provement of existing policies applying to en- 
gineering and maintenance procedures, the Staff 
Eilglneerlng Officer must supervise the making of 
such changes and luprovements. In coordination 
with the Inspection Section, Office of the Chief 
of the Air Corps, must coordinate all spec- 
ial engineering projects and make recommend- 
ations on personnel matters concerning military 
and civilian personnel In the engineering act- 
ivities of the Air Service Cammnd. In making 
any reccramendatlon on such personnel matters , he 
works in close coordination with the Assistant 
Chief of Staff— Jtersonnel. 

Depot Engineering Staffs perform maintenance 
work on ISilted States Anqy and National Guard air- 
craft, aircraft engines, accessories, unit ass«&- 
blles and auxiliary equlpnent. 

These duties are carried out by an extensive 
organization of officers and civilian workers. 
The depot Engineering Superintendent Is under the 

direct cannand of a Chief Ehgineerlng Officer 
appointed by the Comnandlng Officer of the depot. 
Several Assistant Engineering Officers make xip 
the military staff of the Chief Engineering Of- 
ficer. Che of these assistants is In charge of 
the Administrative Sectlrai; another. In charge of 
the Inspection Section; still another, In charge 
of the Flight Test Section; and one. In cheurge of 
the Radio Repair Section. 

The civilian steiff of the Engineering Officer 
consists of a general superintendent of aircraft 
shops, a superintendent of aircraft shops, a gen- 
eral foreman of Air Corps shops, principal clerk, 
principal draftsman, and senior stock tracer. 

All sections of the Engineering Staff are div- 
ided into branches, and the breuiches are siib- 
divlded into units, each charged with its own 
specific duties and all welded together Into one 
Intricate organization. 

One job essential for the smooth, efficient 
operation of the Air Service Cannand is the dis- 
tribution of necessary supplied to depots. 
Equipment and materials rangirg from office sup- 
plies to complete airplanes must be furnished 
whenever they are needed. The respionsibility of 
planning the distribution of supplies eind the 
administration of policies and procedure are 
functions of the staff officer In charge of Sup- 
ply. The actual distribution and the storage of 
supplies are handled by the Svpply Branch of the 
Field Service Section. 

Among six main branches of the Field Service 
Secticxi is the Supjply Branch, In charge of the 
actual distribution, storoige and issue of such 
supplies as spare parts and accessories for air- 
planes and aircraft engines, combat equipment 
and armament, miscellaneous aircraft equipment, 
fuel, lubricants, chemicals and p>alnt, machin- 
ery, tools and metals, and many other supplies 
on the jjrocurement list of the Air Corps. 

All instructions, regulations and correspond- 
ence necessary for the pjroper execution of Sup- 
ply activities are coordinated under the super- 
vision of the Chief of the Supply Branch. He is 
in charge of the Investigation of any serious 
difficulties encountered In the discharge of 
supply duties, and he recommends the remedial 
action that may be required. Ife supervises the 
supply activities of the depots, studies estab- 
lished practices and existing methods of Issue 
and storage, with a view toward obtaining the 
maxlmm efficiency of the depx>t. 

Many other details come under the siq)ervlsl(»i 
of the Chief of the Stqply Branch and his assis- 
tants — such work as the maintenance of consoli- 
dated property records of all items and conmod- 




Itles on the storage and issue list of the Air 
Corps, the disposition of any surplus or excess 
Iffoperty in accordance with law and regulations, 
and the acccmpllshment of other work which is 
demanded by the necessity for close cooperation 
between Supply and the rest of the General 

JFleld Service Jjqxyrtant 

Other branches of the Field Service Section 
are charged with the maintenance of Air Corps 
equipment and supplies; assignment of nomen- 
clature to Air Corps articles; classification of 
supplies and equipment for storage and issue; 
initiation of engineering studies for the In- 
vestigation of failures and defects in material 
or equipment, and the preparation of reports, 
required by higher authority, regarding r^nedlal 
actlm necessary. 

The Field Service SectlcKi also prepares tables 
of basic allowances, tables of allowances, 
weight and bulk tables, and similar data; pre- 
pares other- data pertaining to war plans and 
special projects; prepares, stores and Issues 
Technical Orders, instruction books and manuals; 
prepares annual budgets and administers funds 
made available to the Field Service Section; 
designs Air Corps technical buildings 6Uid re- 
views projects for repairs and alterations; 
maintains records of all aircraft, engines and 
equipment, showiig the location and condition of 
the eqxilpment and the flying time of every air- 
plane and engine. 

An extensive organization of main branches and 
units— some 30 branches and units in all — is 
needed to carry out the complete program of the 
Field Service Section. The main branches, in 
addition to Supply, are those in charge of main- 
tenance, publications, comminications , and arm- 

Another Important staff duty of the Air Ser- 
vice Comnand is discharged by its training and 
operations division, the organization which 
trains military and civilian personnel, prepares 
tables of organization for ASC service units, 
sup)ervlses the movement of service troopjs and 
the attachnent of units for tactical operations. 

Every facility Is belig used for the training 
of military and civilian jjersonnel for service 
in overseas depots, continental air depots and 
stib-depots. With large numbers of Air Depot 
Groups being activated for the handling of sec- 
ond echelon maintenance wherever needed, civil- 
ian aviation schools are training military per- 
sonnel in mechanical branches, under contract, 
and civilian specialists are working with Train- 

ing and Operations in compiling instructional 
material and guides for the p)ersonnel of these 
groups . 

Training is givai in both classroom work and 
practical on-the-job experience, under the 
supervision of competent Instructors. The Air 
Service Ccmniand maintains a system of pranotli^ 
all workers who go through the training courses 

Air shipment of supplies and assenblles needed 
by outlying stations are made by the 50th Trans- 
port Wing Ifeadquarters, located at Weight Field. 
Activated in January, 1941, the Wing is respon- 
sible for the scheduling and operation of all 
inter-depot air freight movements . The Wing 
also furnishes transport airplanes and transjKrt 
pilots to function with the training and act- 
ivity of jarachute troops and air-borne infan- 

Most of the inter -depot shipments are made up 
of new engines, propellers, and government-fur- 
nished equipment. In other shipments there are 
overhauled engines and supplies and reparable 
assenblies, transported from outlying stations 
to the repair depots. 

There are nine squadrons in the 50th Transport 
Wing, all assigned to various depots. On the 
basis of miles flown and traffic moved, the 50th 
Transport Wing would rank fifth on the list of 
cramerclal airlines in this country. 

All this effort — the efficient work of Engin- 
eering, Supply, Field Service, Training and 
Operations, Personnel, the 50th Transport Wing, 
and all the offices and units of the Air Service 
Ccnmand — adds up to the achievement of that one 
fundamental objective expressed in the slogan, 
"We Keep 'Em Flying." 

The Importeuice of this objective can not be 
over-«nphasized in the present stnggle. In the 
detailed work and routine of the various sub- 
divisions of the Air Service Ccnnmand the main 
objective must never be forgotten. Every unit, 
every Individual is working together toward the 
achievement of one goal; and all, working to- 
gether, will make a major contribution to win- 
ning the final victory. 

. • • • 

Erik H. Nelson, pioneer Army Air Corps long- 
distance flyer and aircraft fenglne expert, who 
resigned from the Ariiay in 1928 after a decade of 
service, during which he participated in a series 
of trail-blazing long-dlstarwe flights, climaxed 
by the Round the World Flight in 1924, retinried 
to active duty with the Army Air Forces. He was 
commissioned a lieutenant-colonel euxi assigned 
to the Inspection Division,- 



1 %. 

ii a 

•iCS Hf V - — E.j\p 

«>^tltutte J«oteta aftei.^^!**^ **®cently th»f 

Uie wifa« w. ciioaen for «, ianetn * ^ ^ ^yal aij. n* 

‘*®«t th« nicte.Mm« ^ afloat I*®* "'^en a 

^ ®® follow. ®®*^lce pub- 

r 1 

uuM Bors or tm rat: 

I hmv Juat aaen that tha RAF flyers have a 
Ufa-aaving Jacket they call a "Mae Weet,“ becauae it 
buJgaa in all tA« "right placea," Wall, I conaider it a 
awall honour to have each great guy a wrapped up in you, 
know what t mean? 

Yaa, it’ a kind of a nice thought to be flying 
all over with brave men... even if I’m only there by proxy 
in the form of a life^aaving Jacket, or a li fe-aaving 
Jacket in my form, 

t alwaya thought that the beat way to hold a 
man waa in your arma-‘but I gueaa when you’re up in the 
air a plane ia aater. You’ve got to keep everything 
under control. 


Yeah, the Jacket idea ia all right, and I can’t 
imagine anything better than to bring you boya of the RAF 
aoft and happy landinga. But what I’d like to know about 
that life-aaving Jacket is--haa it got dangeroua curvea 
and aoft ahapely ahouldera? 

You've heard of Helen of Troy, the dame with 
tha face that launched a thouaand ahipa. . .aity not a ahape 
that will atop thouaanda of tanka? 

If I do get in the dictionary- -where you aay 
you want to put me--haw will they deacribe me? Aa a warm 
end clinging life-aaving garment worn by aviatora? Or an 
aviator ’a jacket that auppliea the woman' a touch while 
the boya are flying around nighta? How would you de- 
acribe me, boya? 

I’ve been in Who’a Who, and I know what’ a what, 
but it’ ll be the firat time I ever made the dictionary. 

Unwelcome Guests 

They Catch ’Em With Their Fiaps Down 

O NE of the most successful fighter tactics of 
the air war to date has been the pursuit 
ship patrol over enemy honfcer bases . The Ger- 
mans and British have developed this tactic of 
"Intrusion" to a high degree as a night fighter 
operation to attack long range night bombers 
returning to their baises after a foray over 
enemy territory and the Japanese have used It as 
a daylight maneuver to catch Allied heavy, high 
altitude bombers under unfavorable conditions 
durihg the "let down" to their fields. 

When the fighter patrol attacks retiirning 
bombers In the vicinity of their bases the ag- 
gressor has several advantages. The bombers 
isually have an extremely limited amount of fuel 
left after completing their mission and their 
defensive maneuvering is limited accordingly. 
Crews of returning bonbers are usually fatigued 
and not as alert as they approach their base and 
the all Ifl^jortant element of surprise is usually 
found aiding the pursuits. 

At night the element of surprise is even 

greater and the hunting consequently better. In 
addltlm to the boB±)ers shot down by the fight- 
ers* guns, there are often crashes caused by 
destruction of field lights, failure of bond^er 
pilots to lower landing gear during the confus- 
ion of the surprise attack and bombers running 
out of gas during prolonged defensive maneuvers. 

Both the English and the Germans favor a 
single, twin-engined night fighter for the at- 
tack on any given bonber base. The Germans use 
the Messerschmitt 110 and the English the Amer- 
ican-built Havoc or DB-7 (American model A-20 
series.) Both planes carry light bonb loads In 
addition to heavy armament. 

The Havoc is an all metal monoplane powered by 
twin Wrl^t Cyclone engines. It was originally 
built for the American Army Air Forces cut the 
A-20 light attack bonber. The British ordered 
them in quantity durlig the early days of the 
war for the same use and dUbbed them Bostons. 
When the heavy German day boobing attacks were 
shifted to a nocturnal schedule after the Battle 

MARCH-AHllL 1942 



Over Britain, the Boston's were equipped as 
night fighters and called Havocs. 

They carry a crew of three or four and are 
equlpi)ed with heavy armament, light bomb load 
and exhaust screens. For night operations the 
plane is painted dull black. In addition to 
their lose as "intruders" the Havocs have been 
sirecessful In knocking down night bombers over 
Et^land. As the A-20 series they are still used 
by the AAF. 

Patrol German Bases 

Here Is how the Havocs make life miserable for 
German night boofcer crews. A lone Havoc patrols 
over each Germaui bomber base from which night 
attacks are launched against England. They 
cruise around and above the flak range of air 
betse defenses with motors throttled to conserve 
fuel. When German bonbers return to land the 
Havocs open throttles and dive to the attack. 
Fatigue from the flak-filled trip over England 
and surprise frequently cause German pilots to 
land In a hurry with their wheels up or over or 
undershoot, piling up the bomber even If the 
Havoc's guns fall to damage the ship. 

If the German guns his engines and tries to 
run, the Havoc closes the range and engages him 
until he lights out for another field. The 
Havoc then lets him go knowing that another 
Havoc waits over every field the bonfcer can make 
with the limited f\»l left after a round trip to 
England. After several unsuccessful stabs at 
Havoc-infested fields, German bonbers sanetimes 
run out of ftiel and crash In darkness. 

"Just a piece of cake," Is the way one Havoc 
pilot describes the operations. "We shoot at 
everything we can see, frequently getting two or 
three. The Jerries sanetimes get so jvmpy they 
start firing at each other." 

Another pilot reported: 

"When we approached an enemy airdrome In 
France we spotted eight aircraft circling 
around. We joined the circle and ojjened fire on 
one from about 30 yards. We hit his fuselage 
and saw sparks streaking from an engine. We 
gave him four more bursts in the port engine and 
he blew up. We recognized him as a Helnkel 111. 
in the brilliant orange flash Just before he 
disintegrated. The other aircraft dispersed so 
we cllai)ed into a cloud, badbed the airport and 
came home." 

When the possibilities of machine gunning 
eneny planes are exhausted the Havocs drop their 
bonbs on the airport aiming particularly at 
lighting installations. The object Is to keep 
the field dark as long as possible euxi thereby 

prevent the bombers from landing while they ex- 
haust their fuel. 

A sergeant pilot reported on this tyj)e of 

"We had Just about given iq) sighting the Hun. 
There seemed to be no aircraft In the sky. So 
we made a careful run In over the airdrome and 
dropped our bortos from 4,000 feet. 

"Great fires sprang to life below. Our gunner 
was studying them through the lower hatch when, 
looking up, he saw a Nazi bonJjer smack on our 
tail its, outline etched distinctly in the glow 
ft*on the fires below. It was oily 50 yards away 
and he let It have a bubst full in the nose. 
The ftjn returned our fire but his tracers passed 
below our tail. Then he dived and the gunner 
fired straight into his cabin. He crashed di- 
rectly below, exploded and burst Into flames. 
We could see the fires for 50 miles on the way 
home. " 

StaBsh On Ground 

How the German bombers are smashed on the 
ground was described by a member of another 
Havoc crew. 

"Our objective was an airdrome In Holland, 
well back from the coast. We reached it at 
7,000 feet. The ground lights flashed on euid 
two eneny aircraft landed. We were too high to 
attack. The lights went off and we waited. 
Five minutes later the lights came on again emd 
an aircraft took off. Another was well along 
the runway when we came over him. We dropped 
our bombs In his path. His lights slewed up 
perpendicularly into the sky and he burst Into 
flames . " 

A good night's work over enemy territory Il- 
lustrating the versatility of the Havoc as an 
"intruder" is described In the following Pilot's 

"We were assigned to patrol a Nazi alrdrane in 
Holland. We broke out of scattered clouds over 
airdroDie to find the beacon flashing stead- 
ily. At 5,000 feet we saw a red cartridge com- 
ing up and the ground lights and flare path 
Imnediately lit up. When we got a little lower 
we could see the eneiqy aircraft getting reaxly to 
land and others circling to follow him In with 
their navigation lights on. 

"One aircraft landed and taxied to a dispersal 
point before we could reach him. We got onto 
the next one at 500 feet. We could see our 
tracer go Into him fran 50 yards. His lights 
went out and he plunged straight down. While we 
were dealing with him with our forward guns, the 

(Continued on Page 20) 



Making Americans Sky Warriors 

By Maj. Gen. Barton K. Yonnt 

Commanding General, Flying Training Command 

'^BE course of events In Europe and more re- 
oently In the Pacific area has demonstrated 
COTicluslvely that air power Is apt to he the 
deciding factor In modem warfare. This year and 
next will bring on the great crisis. America 
must gadn air supremacy now. The urgency of the 
need is a tremendous challenge to our rapidly 
expanding aircraft industry to strain every 
effort to produce the 60,000 military aircraft 
required by our Army and Navy during 1942. It 
Is no less a challeiige to our Air Forces to pro- 
vide a huge pool of highly trained adraen to man 
these planes, as well as a vast army of tech- 
nlcadly trained maintenance and service crews. 

To meet this challenge the Army Air Forces 
have recently set lip a Flying Training Ccmmuid 
to centralize thq tremendous task of providing 
the flying ijersonnel required for the expanded 
air program — a program superimposed on plans 
already expanded several times at a breath tak- 
ing pace. To take our new warplanes Into the 
air, a constant stream of baribardlers , naviga- 
tors, pilots, and eierlal gunners must also flow 
from our training centers. 

Bottleiecks Are Eliminated 

The Flying Training Command was created to 
bring all of the training centers under me uni- 
fied control, eliminate bottlenecks, speed up 
the program, and add new facilities so that an 
ever enlarging supply of ccmpetent personnel may 
be sent to oin* ccmibat conmands. This must be 
dome with all possible speed In order to make up 
American Air Forces wherever needed in the rap- 
idly expanding world ccxifllct. 

At the present time the Flying Training Com- 
mand is housed on the fifth floor of the liarl- 
tlme Building, Washington, and the place Is hum- 
ming with activity. New sets of figures are 
being worlffid out to step Into line with the 
total flying personnel required to meet the pre- 
sent goal of an Air Forees of a million men and 
with the possibility that this number may even- 
tually reach two million. Figures are being 
coordinated with aircraft procurement schedules 
to ensure the proper proportions of conjbat pi- 
lots for fighter planes, two-engine and four- 

engine bombers, bombardiers, navigators and 
gunners — all to synchronize with the delivery of 
the planes. Plans are being set up for opera- 
tional training In which pilots will receive 
additional training and maribers of combat crews 
will learn to work together as a highly effi- 
cient teams. 

Training courses 6u*e being revised to incliide 
the latest tactical lessons learned the hard way 
In the actual crucible of war In the air, in- 
cluding an Increased emphasis on dive bcmiblng, 
the use of aerial torpedoes and the employment 
of gliders. In cooperation with other divisions 
of the Air Forces, new sites, schools and neces- 
sary facilities are being eurranged which eventu- 
ally will more than double the present program. 

Ehqihasls On Quality 

Despite the xmprecedented Increase in our pi- 
lot training program — ^ft’cm about 500 per year In 
1938 to 30,000 per year In 1942, plus substan- 
tial nucAi rs from England for the RAF and small- 
er groiq36 liom Latin American countries and from 
China— we have kept our emphasis on quality. 
The acid test is combat against enemy air 
forces, and even in the short period since the 
active entrance of the United States Into the 
conflict, American airmen have cone throu^ with 
flying colors, often against overwhelming odos. 
In many cases they have shot down hostile planes 
and reached objectives with their bentos oti the 
very first trip aloft In enemy skies. 

To enlarge the pool of available pilots the 
Wen* Department has asked the Civil Aeronautics 
Administration to concentrate all CAA Pilot 
training In an all-out total war program. First 
priority In the tralnlr^ facilities of the CAA 
Is to be given to the pilot tradnlng of students 
who ceui meet the revised requiranents for ap- 
pointment as Aviation Cadets in the Army Air 
Forces, and who are mentoers of the Air Section 
of the enlisted Reserve Corps. After that the 
flight training is to be limited to students 
who, while imable to meet the requlranents for 
appointment as Aviation Cadets, are otherwise 
qualified to pursue a course of flight training 
looking to the issuance of flying instructors' 




licenses under regulations of the CAA., and who 
undertake In writing to contribute fkiture effort 
In a field of aeronautics adapted to serve the 
national Interest, directly or Indirectly. 

This means that a total of more than 500 CAA 
Pilot Training units In all parts of the coun- 
try are now being definitely haumessed to our 
war effort. It Is expected the CAA elonentary 
flying training will be given to s<nne 46,000 
students this year, and that a large proportion 
of these will be carried on through the second- 
ary stage, with considerable nunfeers taking 
cross-country, Instnraent and Instructor flight 
tralnli^. To aid the constantly enlarging ac- 
tivities of the Air Force Ferrying Comnand, a 
special course will be given to approximately 
1,000 pilots for this Important field. 

Even more striking than the zooming figures 
and activity In the pilot training Is the strong 
eufliasis we are placing cm the other key mmdjers 
of the modem aircrew— the bontoardler and the 
navigator. As recently as 1040 our facilities 
for this type of training were extremely lim- 
ited, but now we are prepared to tcira out these 
specialized flying officers in great mmimrs . 

Need More Crews 

In the same way, we are giving considerably 
more attention to the training of pilots for 
fcxir-englne bombers. Within the past year or 
two the Air Forces' championing of the long- 
range multi-engine heavy bonber has been amply 
vindicated as a strat;-6-^c weapon of the utmost 
value. The newest %'.rslons of our Boeing B-17 
and Consolidate' ^-24, backbone of America's 
"heavy bomber program," already doubled twice 
and recently doubled again, will require an 
increasing flow of pilots and ccnbat crews work- 
ing together as a team, and the Flying Training 
Conmand is giving this a hi^ priority rating in 
Its jjresent schedule. 

American air power Is already beginning to 
Influence the fighting on several fronts in the 
world-wide battle for freedom, and there have 
been many thrilling examples of how effective 
our flyiig training has been and how good our 
idanes are In conqiariscm with the best the eneuQr 
has to offer. Straining every effort, and all 
pulling together, we can look forward to the 
time, not so far off, when the air-flghtlng 
strength of our nation will be such in both 
quality and quantity, that the starred red, 
white and blue wing Insignia of America's air 
might will be a sign of supremacy — a synfcql of 
terror to our enemies 6uid of victory to our- 
selves and our allies. 

Their Flaps Are Down 
(Continued from Page 18) 

rear gunner hit another with the top gun. 
Cllnblng we saw a third plane coming toward us 
and got In several good bursts as he peissed 

"We got some altitude by then and saw another 
below and off to the port. We dived on him and 
gave It to him with our fVont guns. Another was 
JiBt beyond so we continued our dive and sent' 
him down from 600 feet. We had only begun to 
shoot at a sixth when the rear gunner called and 
asked is to lift the nose a bit. We did and he 
fired astern directly into the nose of Ninber 7. 
Nuober 7 went into a vertical dive at 600 feet 
and by the time he crashed we were a good four 
miles past the landing field. 

"During this engagmnent only three enemy alr^ 
craft were seen to land Intact and taxi off. We 
still had our boobs so we cllobed a bit and 
dropped them at the point where the aircraft 
were seen to taxi off. The boobs burst on huts 
and buildings and started quite a fire. We went 
hone without Incident except for a few seconte 
in an enenQr searchlight." 

Another Havoc pilot reported an engagement 
with a Junker 88 over France: 

"Our target was a French alrdrooie frcm which 
the Hun had been sending over bonbers. We 
crossed the Somne aind found the field without 
difficulty. As we clre^bd down the ground 
lights flashed on and we saw a JU 88 gathering 
speed for a takeoff. Eds navigation lights went 
off as soon as he left the gromd but we had him 
well spotted. Wb closed in behind him to a hun- 
dred yards and let him have three good bursts. 

"His port engine and fuselage Immediately 
caught fire and he made a steep diving turn to 
the starboard. Our rear gunner then caught the 
starboard engine and he crashed in flames 200 
yards behind the airdrome boundary fence. 
Climbing to 3,000 feet we could see the German 
explode. Then we drop»ped our bombs and came 
home to breakfast." 

The President has signed a bill granting a 
$150 imlform allowance to officers ccnmlssloned 
below the rank of major on or subsequent to 
Septffliber 26, 1941 and all menbers of the Offi- 
cers Reserve Corps comnlssloned prior to Sept- 
enber 26, 1941 who have been called to active 
duty and have served three months. All reserve 
officers who have previously received a uniform 
allowance will have the amount of that allowance 
deducted from the new $150 allowance. 


IttRCH-AHUL 1942 

The Australian Front 

By Oliver H. Townsend 

■pLIERS and ground crews of the Army Air 
Forces assigned to Australia should feel 
more at home on this "down under" continent than 
in any other foreign country in the world — with 
the possible exception of Canada. 

Big (almost as large as the United States) , 
occidental (95 per cent of its people are of 
British extraction) , progressive (electricity, 
automobiles, large modern cities), Australia 
cadblnes most of the best characteristics of the 
United States and Great Britain. 

The seven million people of Australia are 
friendly and have a free and easy spirit which 
makes them well-liked by Americans, and vice 
versa. Most of them are city-dwellers — over 
half crowd into the six big state capitals of 
Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Perth and 

The standard of living is almost as high as 
that In the United States, and the cost slightly 
lower. The monetary system is British, and is 
based on the pound sterling. A recent ruling 
permits the free use of American money in Aus- 
tralia on a basis of about $4 to the pound. 

Large amounts of American cigarettes are con- 
sumed annually, and millions of feet of American 
mot:'''n picture film are exhibited. U.S. ciga- 
rettes in peacetime ordinarily sell for about 25 
to 28 cents per pack. Recently all stocks of 
cigarettes — along with stocks of tea— were Im- 
pounded for the exclusive use of the armed 
forces . 

Food In Australia is much like it is in this 
country — except for being a bit more on the 
"meaty" side. Vegetables don't play the prcxa- 
inent role on menus that Americans have beccane 
accustcxned to. One of the favorite dishes is 

Australians are very sports conscious. Many 
of their tennis stars and rugby, soccer and 
cricket teams have won International fame. 
Sports heroes have a national reputation which 
exceeds that of movie stars and statesmen. 
There is plenty of room for swlDmliig at the hun- 
dreds of miles of fine beaches which ring the 

Being below the equator, the seasons In Aus- 
tralia are exactly reversed from those in the 
United States. Right now sunmer is ending and 
fall is coming on. Winter begins in June, 
spring In Septaitoer and sunoer in Decenber. 

The best way to get an idea of the climate of 
this antipodes continent is to turn it figura- 
tively up-slde-down and place it in the northern 
part of the western hemisphere in the vicinity 
of the United States. 

When this Is done it Is found that the south- 
eeistern part of the continent, containing the 
big cities and most of the people, falls in the 
neighborhood of Virginia. Perth, biggest city 
on the west coast, is situated oti about the same 
latitude as San Diego, California. Port Darwin, 
^teway to the Orient and only settlement of any 
size on the north coast, falls as far south as 
Nicaragua — and is just as tropical. 

Most Australians cluster in the southeastern 
part of their country, and for a very good rea- 
son. This is "white man's country". Here the 
temperature dips down to top-coat level in the 
winter and, doesn't blow the top out of the 
thermcmeter in the simmertlme. This is rare, 
for Australia is nuch closer to the equator than 
the United States, and snowfall is unknown ex- 
cept on the highest mountain peaks. 

Interior Is Deserted 

"Out west", around Perth, there is another 
section of territory with a white man's climate. 
Here, 1,500 miles across deserted wastelands 
from Adelaide, closest southeastern city, is 
Australia's California, where about a million 
people live. 

The populated regions of Australia are all 
within several hundred miles of the coastline. 




The Interior is little more them one vast desert 
where the traveler can go for hundreds of miles 
without seeing a human settlonent. 

Isolated In the tropical heat of the north 
coast) on a peninsula Juttlpg northward Into the 
Netherlands East Indies, is Port Darwin, mil- 
itary center and one of the chief targets of the 

In normal times Port Darwin Is a sleepy sea- 
port with a population of little more than 
2,000, con^xjsed chiefly of Chinese, Malays, Jap- 
euiese and native blacks. At the beginning of 
the war, however, this population had been In- 
creased by British and Australian defense work- 
ers to about 7,000. 

The accent Is on the Orient in Darwin. Chi- 
nese merchants peddle their wares In native cos- 
tune, and Incense and Oriental music mix with 
American jazz in the waterfront taverns. The 
best comiunlcatlons in peacetime were with Sing- 
apore, Java, Hong Kong and India — not with other 
parts of Australia. 

Darwin Is Tropical 

In appearance Darwin is like an early American 
mining town. The sidewalks are roofed, there 
are few trees, and the ramshackle houses are 
rarely more than one story high. The city It- 
self sits on a 60-foot bluff overlooking one of 
the best harbors In the Pacific. In the bamboo 
forests behind Darwin crocodiles slide through 
muddy rivers, and native aborigines hack out a 
primitive existence. Ifcst of the better homes, 
erected on the outskirts, are built on high 
ironwood stilts to keep out the white ants and 

Only 12 degrees below the equator, Darwin is 
hot. Just before the simmer redns come the tem- 
perature averages 100 degrees and the humidity 
runs between 80 and 90. Tropical white clothing 
Is worn almost exclusively, and the houses are 
little more than large verandas with enclosed 
dressing rooms. 

Darwin is the capital of Australia's Northern 
Territory, a vast expanse of wasteland twice as 
big as Texas — and with a population of but 
slightly more than 10,000. Coamunlcatlons in 
this sparsely-settled region have been poor. 
Darwin has not been connected with other north- 
ern coastal towns by roaxis or railroads. The 
only link with the rest of the continent has 
been a railroad broken by a 620-mile stretch of 
highway, running to Adelaide, on the south 
coast. Isolated by land, Darwin has developed 
into an important air terminal between Aus- 
tralia and Asia. 

Isolated as it is, an invasion force taking 
Darwin still has well over a thousand miles to 
go by boat or across the trackless wastes of the 
interior before it can reach the southeastern 
region — the real prize. 

Center of this southeastern region, and eco- 
nomic and industrial capital of Australia, is 
Sydney. Its population of over a million and a 
quarter people makes it the third city of the 
British Empire — after London and Calcutta. 
Somewhat resenfcllng San FVanclsco in appearance, 
Sydney has probably the finest harbor in the 
world — l6U*ge ^oi^gh to shelter every ship in all 
the world's fleets. Kiown as Australia's Paris, 
Sydney is the entertainment capital of the South 
Pacific, and the political capital of the State 
of New South Wales. 

Second city of Australia is MPlboume, capital 
of the State of Victoria, 500 miles southwest of 
Sydney on the southern coast. Melbourne, with 
over a million people, is the seventh largest 
city in the British Biipire. Other big cities 
are Brisbane, half-way up the eastern coast', and 
capital of Queensland, wlth326,000 people; Adel- 
aide, capital of South Australia, with 322,000 
population; and Perth, capital of Western Aus- 
tralia, with 221,800 f>eople. 


The great distances of the Australian con- 
tinent have been a natural invitation for the 
development of ccomercial aviation. Civil avi- 
ation was first started there by Army pilots 
returning fTom the air fronts of the World War. 
Two of the most famous of these flyers were 
Keith and Ross Smith who flew all the way home 
from Euroije in November, 1919, spending 124 
hours in the air. 

Planes have played an important part in the 
development of Australia. Not only do they pro- 
vide quick service between the big cities, but 
they are also the only connection isolated vil- 
lages of the interior have with the world. 

Aside from being bunqiy, the air over Australia 
is some of the best in the world for flying, be- 
cause of the absence of fog and scarcity of 
heavy cloud formations. With more than 20,000 
miles of airlines, and with more than nine mil- 
lion miles flown annually, Australians are among 
the most airminded pieople in the world. They 
realize the dangers of attack by air, and the 
V6ilues of an aerial defense. "Keeping 'em fly- 
ipg" over Australia is one of the most satisfy- 
ing assignments to which American air and ground 
crews can be assigned. 



Engineers Witb the Army Air Forces 

By Brig. Gen. Stuart G. Godfrey 

Chief of Engineers, Army Air Forces 

TN each campaign of this w*u* the Importance 

■^of SLlrdromes has been freshly d^ixsistrated. 
In the Japanese penetrations of the Rilllpplnes, 
Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, airfields have 
been the first objects of attack and later the 
stepping stones by which Jaxnnese aviation was 
able to give effective sigjport to the advance of 
land and sea forces. 

The German Luftwaffe failed in its att^upt to 
destroy the RAF largely because engineers had 
provided England with a wealth of camouflaged, 
easily repaired and widely dispersed landing 
fields which offered a hopelessly decentralized 
target and enabled the RAF to keep Its fighters 
In the air almost continuously. On the other 
hand, observe what happened to the RAF when It 
lacked airdromes In Greece and Crete. 

Even before these lessons were made clear to 
all the world our Army Air Forces had allotted 
an Important place to avlatlcm engineers — a new 
type of unit consisting of engineer troops spec- 
ially trained and equipped to build and hold 
advanced conbat airdromes In all types of the- 
aters of operations. 

Our Siglneers Active 

As General Arnold recently pointed out, our 
training of "theater of operations" engineer 
troops for combat duty with the Air Forces was 
greatly accelerated during the pre-war period by 
enployment of the aviation engineers In the con- 
structlOTi of huge air bases In Iceland, Green- 
land, Alaska and the Caribbean. These aviation 
engineers "set the teeth In our hanlsphere de- 
fense that will force an enemy to run Into our 
fist Instead of our chin," eiccordlng to General 
Arnold. Meanwhile, the domestic program of adr- 
port constrvictlon proceeded apace under the di- 
rection of the Corps of Ehglneers. 

The bulldlr^ of many new permanent airdromes 
in the United States and Its overseas posses- 
sions a«i beuses Is an Important activity, of the 
Corps of Engineers, acting through Its Division 
and District Br^lneers. In war, however, a dif- 
ferent type of airfield construction mist be 
visualized. This may involve the anergency ex- 
pansion of existing air bases by the provision 
of auxiliary airfields, smaller and better con- 

cealed. Again, It may be pioneer work In s'ome 
new and distant theater. 

In any event, there will he a vital need for 
aiglneer troop units with the Army Air Forces. 
The need has become far more extensive and more 
specialized than in the days of World War I. 
The fwmer small grass plot has been replaced by 
an extensive tract of land, cleared of obstacles 
and with all-weather use faclll.tated In many 
cases by paved runways. For this work, troops 
with special equipment and special tralnli^ are 
needed. Moreover, an air force, like a field 
army or an armored force, tieeds Its own eiigl- 
neers — troops who have traljied with it intimate- 
ly, who speak its language and understand its 

These engineers with an air force must be 
trained and equipped to construct rapidly ad- 
vanced military alrdvomes, or to Improve exist- 
ing ones. They must be skilled in the camou- 
flage of 8d.rfields and the construction of de- 
fensive works. Shey must be organized and pre- 
pared to repair Instantly fields damaged by 
enemy bombing.. Finally, with their trained 
riflemen and raachlne gunners, they must be pre- 
pared to taJoj an active part In the def^ise of 
airdromes . 

The first troop unit formed for special work 
with the Army Air Forces was the 21st Engineer 
Aviation Regiment, organized at Langley Field, 
Va., in June, 1940. 

This unit has been the peirent organization of 
the bulk of existing aviation engineer units. 
The menlfold activities of this regiment have 
Included work of construction cm their own bar- 
racks and grounds, experimental work on runways 
Ijicludlng steel landing mts, and the develop- 
ment of techniques for camouflaging airdromes. 
The regiment has furnished the personnel and 
equipment for two sizable deteichnents to carry 
out important task force missions. 

Since then a score or more of seiwurate avi- 
ation battalions have been or are being acti- 
vated. Many more are planned. 

First Ikilt Formed 

To visualize a military airdrome In war, we 
need to differentiate It sharply from the usual 
commercial airport or permanent peacetime Air 




Corps station. The latter offers a conspicuous 
and vulnerable target to enemy boiribers . By 
great effort it can be rendered less conspic- 
uous. But preferably an air force will operate 
fpan smaller auxiliary f'ields. Such fields lend 
thOTselves better to camouflage. Planes on the 
field, instead of being huddled on a parking 
apron, sire dispersed in pens around the peri- 
phery of the field or in adjacent fields, made 
accessible by a taxi-track. Servicing instal- 
lations are simpler and are also dispersed and 

In connection with such airfields, the tasks 
for aviation engineers may be described as fol- 

Improvement or provision of advanced air- 
dromes, together with all appurtenances such as 
runways, landing strips, shelters, airplane 
parking areas. Internal routes of connunlcatlon, 
water supply, lighting, and other utilities. 

Improvonent or provision of routes of conmunl- 
catlon to such airdromes. 

Provisions for gas-proofing and bonto-prooflng 
essential parts of such Installations. 

Camouflage of advanced alrdrcmes and other Air 
Forces installations. 

Assistance in the anti-mechanized defense of 
advanced airdromes by construction and defense 
of road blocks, and by combat against raids de- 
livered by ground forces . 

Assistance in the defense of advanced air- 
dromes against air attack. 

Maintenance and repair of airdromes, espe- 
cially after damage by enemy bombers. 

Engineers Must Fight 

It is seen that these tasks require that avi- 
ation engineers be both technical specialists 
and combat soldiers. Airports are usually lo- 
cated well behind the front line, and the combat 
flmcticffi will be the exception rather than the 
rule. But in the future, no alfport in a the- 
ater of operations will be entirely secure 
against either a raid by armored forces, or the 
increasing threat of vertical envelopm^t. En- 
gineers, with trained riflemen and machine gun- 
ners, thus constitute an Important element of 
defense. Events overseas have proved that good 
riflemen are particularly valuable in dealing 
with parachute troops, so vulnerable during 
their initial landing. Aviation engineer units 
also have some armored scout cars, both 50 emd 
30 cal. machine guns, and 37 nm. anti-tank guns. 

The aviation engineer regiment consists of a 
regimental headquarters, headquarters and serv- 
ice conpapy, and three battallora!. Since there 

will often be occasion when an entire regiment 
will not be needed in one locality, the bulk of 
units organized to date have been engineer avi- 
ation battalions (separate) . Experience in 
Europe Indicates that to build one ed.rfleld in 
reasonable time, perhaps in six weeks under 
favorable conditions, a unit of the size of a 
battalion is needed. The organization and 
equiproent of the battalion have been carefully 
designed to provide a balanced force capable of 
independent work. 

Equipment Complete 

No pains have been spared to nake the equip>- 
ment for aviation engineer units as complete and 
adequate as possible, without at the same time 
over-burdening the troops. Thus, general-piur- 
pose construction equipment weis preferred to 
more efficient, but specialized machines. EJven 
so, the separate aviation battalion h6is no less 
them 220 pieces of heavy equipment, and 146 
vehicles. This heavy equipment Includes such 
items as diesel tractors with bvilldozers, carry- 
all scrapers, auto-graders, gasoline shovels, 
rollers of several types, concrete mixers, air 
conq)ressors, trencher, well drill, and the like, 
with numerous trucks and trailers. Moreover, 
sets of addltionsLl special equipment — additional 
asphalting and concreting equipment, rock cinish- 
ers, draglines, pumps, floodlights, and the 
like— are provided in storage for use if and 
when needed, as In case of overseas task forces. 

A special unit, known as a headquarters com- 
pany, is provided for assignment to an air force 
to assist in providing for the special englneer- 
Irg and camouflage functions of several engineer 
aviation battalions. Supply functions for the 
Air Forces are provided for by including an en- 
gineer supply platoon with each Air Base Squad- 
ron; this platoon also has a small utility sec- 

A new type unit is the engineer aviation topx>- 
grapjhic caipany, which is designed to work with 
the Air Corps pjhotograpMc and mapping squadrons 
in the field prep>aratlon and reproduction of 
special aeronautical charts and target maps. 

No Peacetime Construction 

It should be borne in mind that avlatiai engi- 
neer units are not Intended for pjeacetlme con- 
struction, and have no role in the maintenance 
of airports in time of peace. This does not 
mean that for training these units can not and 
shoulu not be used on definite construction 
tasks, but it is not Intended that they supplant 




the existing agencies, either for construction 
or maintenance In the zone of the Interior. 
Even In a theater of operations, It Is not con- 
tenplated that all airport construction shall 
necessarily be performed by aviation engineers. 
The latter are Intended primarily for "pioneer" 
work on the more advanced airdromes, where speed 
Is essential and the utilization of exlstlr^ 
facilities or Improvlsatlcm of new ones Is Indi- 
cated. The more permanent base airdromes In 
rear areas, built more deliberately and with 
great refinement, are likely to be the work of 
engineer general service regiments. These 
latter units, given some special equipment and 
training, should be able to Include airport con- 
struction among their many t*»sks. 

Many Engineers Needed 

No definite rule can be given as to the number 
of engineer troops that may be needed with an 
Air Force, though It Is noteworthy that the 
British Expeditionary Force contained no less 
than 60,000 engineers, one-fifth Its total 
strength. The large program of airfield con- 
struction In France was doiibtless largely re- 
sponsible for this high percentage. As Indic- 
ated above, an aviation battalion can construct 
expeditiously one advanced airdrome. It can 
maintain and repair, under favorable conditions, 
perhaps as many as nine. A rough rule for an 
air task force, therefore, would Indicate one 
battalion or equivalent for every new airfield 
desired for Immediate construction, with add- 
itional battalions for the maintenance and ex- 
tension, of existing fields. 

In their Important role of assistance In air- 
drome defense, aviation engineers at an air base 
naturally come under the conmand of the officer 
charged with the defense of the base, and oper- 
ate similarly as In other defensive combat mis- 
sions. Ehglneer troops statlcxied at an airdrome 
with the primary mission of maintaining the 
field in flying ccxidltlon will have ample oppor- 
tunity to strengthen the defensive works — ^pill- 
boxes, emplacements, roadblocks, mine fields, 
and the like. 

The training of aviation engineer units Is 
planned to prepare them for the tasks outlined 
above. The basic training of recruits Is given 
at the Engineer Replacement Training Centers, 
and Is the same well-rounded training that all 
engineer soldiers receive. 

Troop units are not. In general employed In 
the air base construction program being executed 
by District Engineers. But In many cases they 

have undertaken some definite taste In this pro- 
gram, such as the construction of soil cement 
emd asphalt parking aprons and roads. During 
the past few months they have performed emer- 
gency construction work In connection with the 
dispersal and protection of airplanes, by means 
of tajcl- tracks, hard standings, and revetment 
pens. They have assisted In the development of 
steel landing mats, and of the best techniques 
for alrdrcme camouflage. They have constructed 
experimental runways, using various types of 

A major activity of Air Force Engineers and 
their regional assistants has been an engineer- 
ing survey of existing airports and potential 
airport sites, with a view to providing facil- 
ities for the possible concentration of the Air 
Force Contoat Conmand In any desired theater of 
operations In the United States. 

In training for airdrome construction, the ob- 
jective of speed Is constantly sought for. The 
construction of an airport In China, with runway 
designed to take Flying Fortresses, required 
100, (XX) Chinese with hand tools to conq)lete the 
task In 12 weete. A battalion of aviation engi- 
neers, with modem equipment, would under tate to 
cut this time In half. 


I NSPIRED by the simple act of opening a can 
of beer, a compact lightweight lightening 
hole flanging machine has been perfected to re- 
place the previously unwieldy metal dies which 
weighed from 50 to 80 pounds. 

With this discovery, the transporting of heavy 
metal dies Into the field Is said to be unneces- 
sary and the use of machine work for dies no 
longer needed. 

Weighing only two pounds, with an over-all 
length of 12 inches, the machine is especially 
valuable for field operations. It works very 
effectively on lightening holes ranging In size 
from two and one half to six inches. 

The Idea originated with Captain William H. 
Barrett, engineering officer of the 2nd Air De- 
pot Group, Sacramento Air Depot, McClellan 
Field, Calif. It was perfected by Sergeant 
Julius F. Merkel, who In clviliah life was a 
designer with the Sperry Gyroscope Company. 

MUST be commensurate with the inherent 
capabilities of their instruments. 





Polish Pilots Still Scrapping 

By Xlent. Robert B. Hotz 

P tOLlSH pilots are still In the air over 
Survpei^ More than two and a half years 
after their country was compered and their air 
fixnse destroywl hy Ue Oeman luftwaffe, Polish 
alnaei are still lotocklng Nazi planes out of 
Continental skies. 

He Pe^lse nos sear RAF unlforas and fly ships 
of ft'ltlsh and inarican muuifacture . This Is 
the thti4 nolfoni they have worn and the third 
type of rt»lp they have flown against the Ger- 
mns. Sons of tite Poles are aonong the most ex- 
perienced eoBiwt pilots In Europe— veterans of 
three major air oaiq)algn8. Others have only 
recently learned to fly on foreign soil after 
flghtlig In the defeated grotaid armies of Poland 
and France. But all of them are among the most 
efficient, dogged and ruthless pilots arrayed 
against the Axis. 

The Poles* efficiency as conhat pilots comes 
inrlmarlly from, their grim concentration on a 
single purpose— the destruction of German 
and materiel. These Polish pilots hu e lost 
everything hut their lives aiid have tasted bit- 
ter defeat twice but they refhse to stop fight- 
ing. They live only for revenge and are willing 
to go to any to achieve It. This attitude 
plus their natural skill makes them deadly in 

Pole Wants Dessert 

A Polish fighter pilot expressed this attitude 
well In describing his battle with a pair of 
Jimker 88's. 

"I went after the left luoxl machine, forget- 
ting everything else In the world. I thought 
only that I would have the l«Tt hand machine for 
dessert" . 

"They will do anything," said one aAF ob- 
server describing the Poles in the RAF. "The 
Poles have the best squadrons over there. They 
get excited a lot and sometimes land with their 
wheels up but when they fight they really get 
Into It. If they run out of anmn, they often 
ram a German plane and then ball out." 

Other American observers and British officers 
credit the Poles with several innovatlcwis In 
RAF tactics as a result of their daring and dis- 
regard for their own safety. The Poles are gen- 

erally conbeded to be the first to discover that 
the bnge German day bomber fomatlons could be 
scattwed by head-on attacks at the format Ion 
leaders . This tactic was Instruaantal In en- 
abling RAF fighters to break up German daylight 
attacks during the Battle of Britain and reap a 
heavy toll of disorganized stragglmv. 

Solved 109 Problem 

The polee are also credited with solving the 
problae of the new Messerschmltt 100 armor. For 
several days after the new model appeared RAF 
fighters were unable to find a vulnerable spot 
at conventional range althoi^ they were able to 
squirt It with a variety of ammo. The Poles 
closed the range to 50 feet and then let fly 
with all their guns. The 109's siflq>ly disinte- 
grated, showering the pursuing Poles with de- 
bris. Several Poles had to ball out when their 
planes were damaged by the lOO's debris but the 
RAF learned how to eliminate the new models. 

The Polish air force of 1939 consisted of 
about 2,000 planes, more than half of them obso- 
lete. In addition to a variety of old foreign 
models, the Poles had several modem types pro- 
duced In. Polish aircraft factories at Warsaw, 
Lublin, Biala and PodlaskL. These incliided 
about 400 twin engined Los bombers and small 
quantities of the P-7 and P-11 single seater 
pursuits^ the Karas observation plane and ll^t 
bomber mod the speedy Wllk attack boaber. 

The Infant Polish aircraft industry was boost- 
ing and new plants were being planned for the 
Vlstula-San River industrial district when war 
oaae on Sept. 1, 1939. Oie of the first targets 
of the Germeun bombers were the aircraft works 
and fields at Warsaw. The factories and mil- 
itary adrdromes were attacked at 7:30 a.m. on 
Sept. 1 and within two weeks the Polish aircraft 
ind u stry was destroyed and the air force stran- 
gled by the Luftwaffe's bosbs. 

Most of the Polish planes were destroyed on 
the gromd. Lasses In the air were not excess- 
ive despite the heavy odds against attackers of 
Stuka swarms, and big formations of Messer- 
schmltts, Heinkels and Domlers. Polish light 
attack bonibers concentrated on smashing the 
German Panzer fingers stretched far in advance 




of the min 'armies and official German sources 
credit Wilk hcai>er fonnaticms with hold- 
ing up a.<^ored divisions for as long as 24 
hoursTv Palish ! piirsuits were also effective 
while th0y lasi^d. 

But-the Polish air force was unable to exist 
under the pressure of an estimated 2,000 planes 

of all types used by the Germans in this cam- 
paign. Every Polish air field and supply base 
was hanmered incessantly by the Luftwaffe. In 
addition to the destruction of planes on the 
ground, Itolish pilots were faced with the de- 
structiOTi of huge fuel and anmunitlon supplies 
and the deveustatibn of their bases. The effect- 
iveness of the Polish air force was actually 
eliminated principally through destruction of 
its bases and supplies although annihilation in 
the air would have been Inevitable had the bat- 
tle continued. This was evidenced by the romher 
of Polish pilots who flew their planes to France 
and Balkan countries because there were no more 
places for them to set down, refuel and reaum in 

Most of the Polish pilots who escaped to 
FVance and the Balkans joined the French Armee 
de I'Alr in France and Syria. On January 4, 
1940, General Waldlslaw Sikorskl, pr«nler of the 
Polish government in exile, and Guy la Chanhre, 
French air minister, signed a pact recreating 
the Polish air force and officially attaching 
its autonomous units to French forces on the 
Western Front and in the Near East. 

Beputati(xi Por Audacity 

Already the Poles were creating their re- 
putation for audacity. They flew any French 
equipment they could get off the ground. They 
flew against Gernan formaticwis of superior num- 
bers and equipment with a fine disregard for 
fuel, eumminltion, territory and most of the 
other ccnslderaticns of pilots who Intend to re- 
turn both themselvos and their equipment to 
their base after combat. Polish pilots were 
amorg the most frequent casualties from stunting 
at low altitudes • 

After the fall of France most of the remaining 
Poles in the Armee de I’Air escaped to England 
idiere they were Incorporated into the RAF. Num- 
bers of Polish ground soldiers who filtered into 
England were given flight training and attached 
to the Polish BAF squadrons . Many difficulties 
were experienced by the English in training 
Poles.; All of tlie Poles were impatient to get 
another crack' at the Germans and as soon as they 
were clears of their training airdromes they 

would light out for France. Gas for training 
flights had to be rationed to prevent these 

One Polish pilot was towing a target plane at 
a training camp in Scotland during the Battle 
Over Britain when a big German raid was reported 
several hundred miles away. The Polish pilot 
wtis informed by radio of the raid and ordered 
down. Instead of landing he headed in the di- 
rection of the raiders. Ihree RAF pursuits went 
iq) and had to herd the Polish pilot to his base. 
His plane was an old biplane armed with a single 
30 caliber machine gun. 

Action In Libya 

The Poles in training still regard a run over 
the invasion coast, bcxnblng ports euvl machine 
gunning German troops wherever they can find 
them as the best stmt of exercise and RAF train- 
ing officials come to expect it whenever they 
allow Polish trainees to go up with live bcmibs 
and loaded guns. 

The Polish air squadrons with the French in 
Syria flew to Palestine after the Fall of France 
and are now in action with British Imperial 
forces in Libya. 

The Polish RAF squadrons in England are now 
fttlrly evenly divided between pursxilts and bonb- 
ers. They continue to play a lively role in the 
air war over the Continrait and provide an excel- 
lent addition to RAF morale with their cheerful 
perslstaice in contributing to what they regard 
as the inevitable victory over Germany. 

Here are excerpts from Polish fighter and 
bomber pilots' descriptions of actions in which 
they were involved. The fighter pilot had just 
left a hemd of bridge at the call of "Flight 
Scramble" and was at 20,000 feet over the sea 
feeling that troible lay ahead because the night 
before his Polish mechanic had dreamed of his 
aunt in faraway Poland, always an omen. His 
squadron sighted and attacted about 20 Junker 
88 *s protected by a screen of Messerschmltt 

Thiqgs Went Dark \ 

"I looped the loop until thipgs went a little 
dark before my eyes, opened throttle and foiind 
myself on the tail of a damaged JU. This time 
he was close. About 60 yards. I was troubled 
a bit by another JU which fired at me. I saw he 
was a poor marksman so I got my client in my 
sight and gave him a long burst into his engine 
over the fuselage until sparks flew. After a 
manent I saw he weus on fire. He turned slowly 

(Continued on Page 40) 




AAF Hunting Subs 

{Continued from PaHe 3) 
direction. No one talks, a few smoke. The 
radio Is cautiously silent. They settle down to 
monotonous crulstr^g. 

Finally a tanker Is sighted and the plane cir- 
cles several times In challenge. It dlijs lower, 
until the wing tip seems to skim the water, al- 
though the ship is a full 200 feet above the 
crest of the waves. The navigator leans f onward 
and shouts "O.K., she's got It. . .British, but 
damn slow about it." They fly on, close enoqgh 
to the water so parachutes are useless. 

A freighter appears, northbound. They chal- 
lenge, report and continue on. They spot the 
hulk of a tanker, passing close enough to get a 
friendly wave from the patrol ship crew on 
guard. The search goes on. There is little 
talk, only the drone of the motors. 

Then the bombardier's hoarse voice calls on 
the intercan, "off to the right about a mile." 
The landing gear is lowered to reduce sx>eed. 
All eyes are peeled for what might be a peri- 
scope and its betraying wake. The bomb bay 
doors are opened. The bonbardler toys with the 
bomb release. They pass over the spot. Nothing 

The direction is changed. One by one ships 
are discovered, routinely challenged and forgot- 
ten. Then, action at last. From the shore 
comes the message: "SOS. ..Investigate." Direc- 

tion is changed to comply with the position 
given. Throttle open, the plane heads for the 
area. A rescue isn't possible, but they can 
guide ships to the scene, perhaps find the siib. 

They sight something. The pilot changes 
course, heads for the spot. Down there eight 
men can be counted huddled on a raft that is 
bobbing in the choppy sea. The plane circles 
lower until the faces of the men ctin almost be 
seen. One man stands up and points. They head 
in that directloi. In a brief moment they sight 
two dories, one with 14 and the other with 20 
men aboard. Instantly word is flashed to the 
base: Ship submarined — two boats and a raft 

with 42 survivors — position. The navigator 
hands the pilot a slip of paper. .. "position- 

The plane circles back and forth, crewmen 
alert for a camlpg^^ower or periscope, but cai- 
stantly in sight of the survivors. For a half 
hour they fly around. A ship is sighted in the 
distance. The radio-man goes into aotion again 
as details are excharged. The rescue ship picks 
up speed. 

They Jiead for hone still hoping for a crack at 

that sub. Then the pilot and co-pilot stiffen 
up. The bombardier gets orders to open the 
bonb bay; the camera-man is warned. There is a 
speck out there, broadening into a horizontal 
object in the distance. It looks like a ship. 
No, a siibmarlne. But it turns out to be only a 
Navy blimp lying so close to the water that it 
seems to be swlnmlig alog. 

The blimp drops a flare, indicating a sub- 
marine below. The plane is banted sharply. The 
bombardier waits while the pilot lines up the 
plane on the flare and mates the "rim." They 
fly over the flare. The bombs burst. The pilot 
kicks the pleme around in a steep bank as they 
go back to inspect their handiwork. The flare 
is blasted to bits. Splotches of oil trail cm 
the surface for about 150 feet. 

Another flare, and again they dive at it. The 
pilot warns "Hold it or we'll bomb the tail 
right off the bllag)." The bcmibardier grips the 
stick. He plays with the button. . .presses. It 
was a depth charge and they turn just in time to 
see the full spout. Another bomb is dropped, 
another and another, until no more are left. 
The sea is sprinkled with little patches of oil. . 
Then, as they circle the blimp, another Arny 
plane appears out of the North. Two destroyers 
are spied racing to the scene. The destroyers 
zlg zag in. The water leaps high from their 
depth charges. The plane turns away. The crew 
settles back for the trip heme. 


T hree new labor-saving devices of consider- 
able value to the Air Force have been devel- 
oped at Albrook Field, Canal Zone, under the sur- 
pervision of Major W.W. Gross, Air Base Engi- 
neering officer. 

One of the new developnents is a imrtable bal- 
ancing stand, enclosed by a screen to cut off 
drafts. This was developed by Major Gross and 
Technical Sergeant C.A. Pattern. 

Another new device, built by Corporal D.W. 
Henrichs, is a landing gear retracting strut 
packing nut wrench for use on all series Curtiss 
P-36 and P-40 airplanes. The purpose of the 
wrench is to eliminate the removal of the strut 
fron the wing when it is necessary to mate ad- 

The third new development is a combination 
pump, tank and heating unit which performs the 
purpose called for in Technical Order Nunber 00- 
15-9— that of emerslng oil temperature regula- 
tors in hot oil for prevention of corrosion and 
for ranoval of moisture at periods of inspection 
and repair. It was deslgnedbyStaffSgt. Miranda. 



Air Forces Adopt ]\ew Shoulder Patch 


■pISTOlS, sub-machine guns, Iqilves, spikes, 

•^mortars, entrenching tools, field glasses, 
hand grenades, compasses, maps, Verey lights, 
hatchets and rations are all carried by the 
aver^age German paratrooper, according to British 
observers. Many are also equipped with collaps- 
ible bicycles. 

A German paratrooper usually carries a .32 
Luger Pistol automatic magazine of nine car- 
tridges and one spare magazine in the holster as 
well as a tirq?^, but very handy and easily oper- 
ated sub-machine gun with a web magazine C€ise 
holding three magazines of 30 rounds apiece and 
a magazine filler. M^hlne guns and mortars are 
dropped separately eind are collected immedi- 
ately, if fire is not too great, or after dark. 

The sub-machine guns, deadly from 50 to 70 
yards, have practically no stoppages and rattle 
away at a lively pace. Used as rifles with a 
skeleton folding butt extended, they are very 
accurate up to 200 yards. 

Most German paratroopers carry field glasses. 
Many wear knee pads and boots with extra leather 
heels to break the shock of the fall. 

Each has a large, single-b laded, stainless 
knife with a six incti marline spike attached. 
The paratrooper has about six blue pear-shaped 
grenades with screw tops which reportedly have 
not been very effective. Their compasses are 
cheap and inaccurate but each man is provided 
with an excellent map. 

A distinctive shoulder patch has been adopted 
by the Army Air Forces and will be worn by AAF 
personnel everywhere. 

Four colors are featured in the new patch: 
white star with red center, stylized gold wlpgs, 
and a field of ultra marine blue. 

New Air Forces patches will be available in 
quantity as soon as the Service of Supply can 
issue them and will replace unit patches now 
being worn in the AAF. Various units will be 
privileged to wear Distinctive Unit Insignias. 


S EEX3IAL moviig picture equipment soon will be 
automatically scoring aerial bombardment 
practices at all bombardier training schools. 
The present observation crews euid spotting tow- 
ers that are tyipg iq> personnel and equipment a 
hundred or more miles away from training school 
headquarters, will be eliminated. 

This new equipment has been developed by the 
camera unit of Wright Field's Armament Labora- 
tory and already is in use at one bombardier 
training school. By increasing the accuracy of 
spotting bent) impacts, the new movie method will 
assist boni)8u*diers to increase their effective- 

The current method of Judging a bombardier's 
accuracy is to utilize radio conmunication be- 
tween three scoring towers^ and the bombing 
plane; then, the spot of boot) impact is charted 
by "triangulation" observations from the several 
towers, large ground crews and extensive equli)- 
ment must be used to carry out bonbing practices 
under these conditions. 

With the newly developed projection lens, 
screen, projector and a standardized 35 mn. cam- 
era, need for the ground crews is eliminated. 

The bombardier simply sights his target and 
releases his boob; a camera automatically films 
. the action and the bemb Impact in relation to a 
distinctive ground target amd marker (lights at 
night) . Immediately, after the practice, the 
film is processed and, with a specied projector, 
is shown in a scoring viewer that provides means 
for accurately locating the Impact of the bonb 
and measuring within two feet the range, de- 
flection and circular areas directly from the 
scoring grid in the viewer. Results of pjractice 
bombings can be recorded at altitudes of from 
1,000 to 20,000 feet by using various lenses and 
screens . 



I closed my eyes and saw a kaleidoscope of 
visions. Superimposed on these, like the 
flicker of a film, was a regular beat as the 
night rolllhg in from the East chased the sun 
over the Western horizon and then, to the sound 
of returning aircraft, gave way to the sun once 
more. In those few moments I saw the story of 
night bombing as it has appeared to me in the 
last eighteen months, 

I saw the short nights of Sunmer, 1940, fade 
into winter: those fruitless journeys across 

England to France; take off at dusk and land at 
dawn, day after day and regular as clockwork — 
Abbeville, Poix, Auldnoye, Charleville: cross- 

roads, bridges, troop formations eind then cross- 
roaxis again — journeys which were meeint to hold 
up the German drive to Paris. 1 saw also Lofty 
sitting at the wheel, lean, strong and handscmie 
and heard his voice: "I can't see a sausage." 

And the rear gunner, who rarely opened his mouth 
except to eat chocolate: "Are we over Germany?" 

"No." "Well you wouldn't be likely to see a 
sausage . " 

Then France fell emd I experienced my first 
real sight of gunfire. The Happy Valley with 
its countless targets: sometimes Mannheim or 

Frankfurt or Bnden or Kiel, but mostly the Happy 
Valley and always the Zuider Zee as a half-way 
house where we could fly round in peace laitll we 
found a pinpoint. They were easy, those trips. 
The weathef was good and we flew low enoiogh to 
be able to see the ground, for the Flak was 
nothing to worry about— mostly curtains of ex- 
plosive tracer going to 8,000, scxnetlmes 12,000 
feet; red, green, orange and white; a beautiful 
sight, especially if you were two miles away and 
going in the opposite direction. 

One night we were attacking an oil refinery in 
Western Germany. I was bomb aimer at the time 
and could see the target almost as if we were 
flying in daylight. As we were running up, eui 
unusual barrage started to burst under the tall, 
provoking the gunner out of his ciis tomary si- 
Xence: "Ac Ac behind. Captain; you'd better get 
weaving" —a remark which, frcm the subsequent 
aspersions on my character, I gathered the Cap- 
tain heartily endorsed, for it was an except- 
ionally long run up. 

However, at last the target came in the 
sights, and rather thankfully I let go. 1 
leaned forward to see what damage the bombs were 
going to do, but what seemed like ages passed 
and still nothing happened. Eventually the tar- 
get went out of sight, which it oughn't to do, 
so it was obvious something had gone wrong. And 
as I was thinking up something to say to the 
Captain— I had just noticed I had not levelled 
the sight— I saw the bcmbs burst five miles away 
in the middle of a wood, followed by the biggest 
and longest explosion I have ever seen. Ten 
weeks later 1 was reading the Telegraph. There 
was an article by a neutral correspondent de- 
scribing the effect of British raids, and it 
said that on this particular night one of the 
aircraft had apparently missed the refinery, but 
had hit a secret anniiinltion factory concealed in 
a wood some five miles away. 

Then as the nights grew longer, the story be- 
hind the Images began to take shape. The German 
defences began to catch up the early lead which 
the Night Bombers had had, and for the first 
time we began to realize the true value of meth- 
od and organization. Flak and searchlights 
appeared on the Zuider Zee: there were rumours 
of balloons and night fighters : the proficiency 
of German ground crews increased as steadily as 
did the number of their guns, so that evasive 
action over wider areas became an urgent neces- 
sity and radio direction finders suffered in con- 
sequence . 

At the same time, navigation by wireless was 
i>ade more difficult because of enemy interfer- 
ence. And there were cases of crews finding 
themselves over occupied territory when the 
jradlo put thmn over England. As a counter mea- 




sure, our attacls became less stereotyped. Dif- 
ferent routes were chosen to spread the defen- 
ces; bombing heights varied also and people be- 
gan to look on 12,000 feet as not abnormal. 
FXirthermore , crews began to experiment with nu- 
merous tricks to confuse the defences. Some of 
them are still beipg used with success: others 
had to be abandoned rapidly. 

One day we discovered the current German Air 
to Ground signals, one of which — a colour car- 
tridge — ^was addressed to searchlights and said: 
"I am in trouble. Stop everything." On the 
Wednesday one crew tried It out rather diffi- 
dently, they found that the defences closed down 
as if by magic. On Friday the squadron set off 
in high spirits auid fully equipped. Unfortu- 
nately it became evident from the Inmedlate re- 
sults that the Germans had in the meantime 
chaiTged Its meemli^ so that It now read: "I am 
an enenQr aircraft; please fire on me." Crews 
began also to study the methods and difficulties 
of anti-aircraft defence and tried to devise 
means of giving the guns the least possible 
help. Occasionally letters would come round 
fVom Higher Authority with stggestlons or orders 
to the same effect. One of them reccnmended the 
detailing of one aircraft tq fly round the tar- 
get at a low altitude so as to draw all the fire 
while the others bombed in peace— but this ex- 
pedient was never adopted. 

More Damage 

None the less, as the weeks went by, more and 
more aircraft came back damaged. And then sixl- 
denly— as if we were not expecting it — winter 
had set in. First, winds and rain and mud. Mud 
was everywhere: often ankle deep, and with it 
came more and more Night Flying Tests and brief- 
ings and high teas, but fewer and fewer deliv- 
eries of bonbs. Night after night we drove out 
the five odd miles to dispersal, walked out to 
the aircraft (the mud was too thick for the 
'bijses to drive into the field) cllabed in: ran 
ig) the engines, then switched off and waited for 
the van to come round with the signal to carry 
on or break it up. 

It was these periods, when we operated full 
time, that kept us going. Otherwise, they were 
tedious weeks. Searchlights and Ac Ac were get- 
ting worse month by month, but it was the weath- 
er on return to base and the cold that gave most 
trouble. One night the gavge showed -t0° Cen- 
tigrade. The perspex cracked, the Second Pilot 
collapsed in the front turret, looking Just like 
a snow man. In some mysterious fashion, an inch 
of solid ice appeared on the navigation table. 
Mannheim was the target. We arrived on our es- 

timated time of arrival at 15,000 feet, flound- 
ering through the tops of the clouds, and began 
to come down. At 12,000 feet the port engine 
cut, and at 10,000 the starboard began to cough 
and fire intermittently. We came out of cloud 
at 6,000 6md the engines began to pick up. But 
there vas a blinding snowstorm and visibility 
was nil, so we flew back vinder the clouds to 

Fighters Best Defence 

With the New Year/ came the most serious de- 
fence the Germans lAd yet produced — fighters. 
Previously, no one had taken the possibility 
feriously. But now more and more crews came 
back with stories of encounters and shadowings. 
Aircraft would be trailed sometimes for upwards 
of em hour, without a shot being fired. On 
other occasions, attacks would develop out of 
the blue and without warning. 

A Squadron Leader in a Whitley was siaidenly 
attacked by a Messerschnltt . It was a 110 and 
came almost head on, its first burst putting one 
engine out and making the turrets unserviceable. 
The interconm. went dead and all the pilot could 
do W 61 S to keep in the air. The ifesserschmitt 
seemed to know this, for he flew round in small 
circles, shooting as he pleased. But the Whit- 
ley was tough: so was the Squadron Leader. 
After a few minutes the German knocked his main- 
plane off on the Whitley's tail, and the Whitley 
managed to limp home. 

The fighters, following the lead of the ground 
defences, resorted to all manner of tricks. 
They lit themselves up to act as decoys: they 
trailed lights behind them, and they fixed 
seeu’chllghts on their noses. This latter device 
was too much for the rear gunner: he broke si- 
lence for the third time and said: "Two search- 
lights taking off away to port. Captain." But 
in all fairness he was not the only one. An- 
other gunner reported searchlights following him 
out to sea. 

Yes, it is true these fighters came as a men- 
ace when they first appeared. But it was not 
long before the bcmbers had the upper hand once 
more. As the weeks went by, the toll of German 
night fighters rose higher and higher. It was 
with the vision of this and of countless of 
these fighters hesitating to attack and, when 
they did, breaking away at the first sight of 
return fire, that I woke up, wondering perhaps 
to what dizzy heights the eternal battle between 
ground defence and Night Bombers would reach by 
this time pext year. 

— From the Royal Air Force Journal 



Fighting Fiiipinos of the Air 

By Maj. Falk Harmel 

pOR leading his squadron of native airmen In 
a successful engagement against Japanese in- 
vaders and personally shooting down three enemy 
planes, a little Filipino flyer named Captain 
Jesus Villamor late in December was awarded the 
Distinguished Flying Cross. 

Again in February this Kelly Field graduate, 
weighing 116 pounds and standing only five feet 
four Inches, was cited in a communique of Gen- 
eral MacArthvir, this time as the recipient of 
the Oak leaf Cluster for repeated acts of extra- 
ordinary heroism. 

The conmunique told how Captain Villamor met a 
formation of Japanese fighters while on a photo- 
graphic mission over Cavite province escorted by 
several P-40s. The ensuing conbat was described 
as one of the most spectacular of the Rillipplne 

Despite the fact that he was flying a slow bi- 
plane trainer. Captain Villamor managed to elude 
the Japs and land his plane. His escorting ca&- 
rades began a series of thrilling dogfights. 
All six Jap planes came to grief. Four were Im- 
mediately shot down. The fifth was crippled, 
landed on an air field near Pilar and was rid- 
dled by artillery fire fron American and Fili- 
pino troops . The sixth Jap ship fell out of 
control and crashed in the mountains of Bataan. 

Although still in its infancy when the Japan- 
ese onslaught came, the Philippine Air Force has 
played a vital role in the Far Eastern weir. 

Only six years ago the Air Forces News Letter 
reported that one-third of the Filipino air 
force was rendered Inactive when a student pilot 
cracked up a Stearman Trainer. Fortunately, the 
student pilot was only slightly injured and the 

ship was repairable, allowing the Filipino Air 
Force to regain its full strength of three 

Air Arm Organized 

Two years before, in April 1934, the initial 
steps had been taken to organize the Riilipplne 
Army Air Corps. Major General B.J. Valdez, ap- 
pointed Chief of the Philippine Constabulary, 
adopted a number of measures aimed at the com- 
plete rehabilitation of this organization, chief 
among them being the creation of an air arm. 

General Valdez, Deputy Chief of Staff of the 
Hilllppine Army, delivered an address at the 
graduation exercises of the ninth class of the 
Philippine Army Flying School. Briefly out- 
lining the history of this school, he said: 

"I believed then, as I do now, that a well- 
organized air force constitutes not only an ef- 
ficient mode of protection against foreign ag- 
gression, but also a valuable adjunct in the 
maintenance of peace and order." 

In the spring of 1937, on the occasion of the 
visit to Mexico and the United States of the 
n"esident of the Hiilipplne Conmonwealth, Afemuel 
L. Quezon, acccanpanied by General MacArthur and 
General Valdez, the latter made an unofficial 
inspection of Kelly Field, Texeis, and evinced 
great pleasure over again meeting one of his 
countrymen. Flying Cadet Villamor, then a stu- 
dent at the Advanced Flying School. 

Captain Villamor 's heroic exploits against the 
Japs is another testimonial to the efficient In- 
structlcHi methods at the Army Air Corps Tralnliig 
Center. The young Filipino, son of a justice of 
the Philippine Supreme Court and a graduate of 
the Philippine Military Academy at Baguio, was 




detailed by the Philippine Goverranent to undergo 
flying instruction at the Air Corps Training 
Center, and reported there in Jtine, 1936. Dur- 
ing his primary and basic phases of instruction 
at Randolph Field and his advanced instruction 
at Kelly Field, he made excellent progress. At 
Randolph Field his average in ground school sub- 
jects was 85 per cent and at Kelly Field it was 
92.56 per cent. At both schools his flying rat- 
ing was "B", indicating "Very Satisfactory" 
progress. He graduated on June 9, 1937, mean- 
while being conmissioned a third lieutenant in 
the Philippine Constabulary. 

Having specialized in Pursuit Aviation at 
Kelly Field, he was for several mcHiths on tempo- 
rary duty with the First Pursuit Group at Sel- 
fridge Field, Mich. He was then detailed to 
take the course in Aerial Fhotcgraphy at the Air 
Corps Technical School at Lowry Field, Denver, 
Colo. Here the young Filipino airman continued 
his fine scholastic record, and when he grad- 
uated in August, 1938, with the rating of "Ex- 
cellent", the following notation appeared on his 
record card: "An above average student. He 
displayed great interest in all phases of the 
photographic course. He showed extraordinary 
manual dexterity in processing negatives, 
prints, laying of mosaics, etc. He will make an 
excellent photographilc officer." When he left 
Lowry Field to return to his native country he 
had accumulated a total flying time of 475 

Difficulties Met 

As with a great number of new enterprises, the 
early career of the aviation arm of the Philip- 
pine Army was beset with many difficulties and 
disappointments . No qualified officer of the 
Philippine Constabulary being available to dir- 
ect the organization of this newly authorized 
unit, the task was delegated to Captain Russell 
L. Mayghan, Air Corps, then Aviation Adviser to 
the Governor General of the Philippines, and 
well known in aviation circles as the pilot who 
barely wcai out in a race against the sun when he 
flew an Army pursuit plane from the east to the 
west coast in the daylight hours of June 23, 
1924. Captain (now Colonel) Maugl:an did not re- 
main long on the Philippine assignment. He was 
nearipg his fifth year in the Fhlllppines — three 
more than the normal tour of duty, when in Feb- 
ruary, 1935, Captain Ivan L. Proctor took over 
the job. The latter had scarcely started on 
this assignment when he became ill and soon af- 
ter died, following ein operation. Other misfor- 
tunes followed. 

Captain Jesus A, Villamor 

Finally, through the valuable cooperation of 
General Douglas MacArtluir, Military Adviser to 
the Philippine Commonwealth, the services of 
Lieut. Wiliiam L. Ijee, Air Corps, were obtained. 
This husky young officer took over in June, 
1985, and brought new life and impetus to the 
Filipino air unit. Assisted by Lieut. Hugh A. 
Parker, he drew up flying rules and regulations 
and carefully selected flying students. Air- 
planes were purchased, and the most premising 
young officers of the Philippine Army were de- 
tailed to take the course at the Army Air Corps 
Training Center. Carefully selected enlisted 
men were sent to the Air Corps Technical School 
at Chanute Field, 111., to receive Instruction 
in aircraft mechanics and other trades allied to 
aviation. (Continued on Page 38) 



Gliders Play Important Role in A AW War Plans 

By Lewin B. Barringer 
Ast« aifect®!*, Aip Forces Program 

I N July 13th last the Air Corps accepted de- 
livery of its first glider, a two-place, 
all-metal Schwelzer. This historic event took 
place at the Warren Eaton Soaring Eacilities, on 
Harris Hill near Elmira, N. Y. dvirlng the 12th 
annual National Soarliig Contest. Its inportance 
was «nphasized hy the presence of Major General 
H. H. Arnold, Chief of the Army Air Force who 
made a flight In this ship piloted hy ^5ajo^ FhefJ 
R. Dent, Jr., first Air Force officer qualified 
as a glider pilot. 

In the five months that have elapsed since 
then much has been done in this new branch of 
our aerial forces. Before going into it, let us 
stop a moment and analyze our reasons for in- 
cluding motorless heavier-than-air aircraft in 
our flying equipment. Military gliders as de- 
veloped so far have two basic uses. First Is 
the air transport of men, equipment arxi supplies 
from one location to another. Second is the 
surprise attack of enemy positions by air -borne 
shock troops . 

The Germans have given us ample proof of the 
value of both of these uses. Gliders were 
first used successfully by them for attack dur- 
ing the invasion of Belgium in 1940. It now 
seems reasonable to suppose that this was 
Hitler's so-called "Secret Weapon" as troops 
landed in gliders were Instrumental in capturlpg 

key forts and bridges. It was not until the air 
invasion of Crete in May, however, that world 
attention was focused on this new weapon which 
was Iiere first used in mirribers. Since then we 
have lieard of the Germsjis usiig gliders against 
the Rxjsslans on the shores of the Black Sea and 
currently against the British in Lybia. The 
last mentioned is the first report we have had 
of the use of gliders for transporting supplies. 

Til consideriig the reasons for using gliders 
for transport we coiib at once to the fundamental 
truth that you ca,n tow more tiian you can lift. 
This is the basic econorol.c reason for the xjse of 
locCTuotives plus cars, truclis plus trailers and 
tigs plus barges In. siirfacs transportation. To 
put It simply, in tte pre.sent stage of advance- 
ment of s.eriai transport we are carrying our 
passengers B.rtl liVelght In tte ''locomotive." The 
fli’st reason, then, for usirg transport gliders 
Is economit, . This .1 rail; d lately becomes obvious 
when we consid.e:r tlmi the two engines of a 
transport nlane toivirg th.ree large gilders is 
doing a job no?^ bg eight ergJnes. Added 
to this is tte fact tlmt tls cost of tte gliders 
will he very considerably less than that of the 
transport planes ttey will replace. A3. though it 
Is still too early to know wtet ttey will exactly 
he, it has been estimated that the overall 
equipment costs for trefisporti g by air a body 




of men, such as a battalion, by transpttrt planes 
and gliders will perhaps be only half that of 
dolpg the -job with tramsport plaites alone. 

When used for surprise attack the glider can 
be a formidable weapon. Towed in numbers at 
night these ships can be released at high alti- 
tude many miles frcm their objective. They then 
glide rapidly down unseen and unheard, and land 
close to the objective in the fihst faint light 
of dawn. Out of each jum^ a complete ccmibat 
team siich as a machine gun squad, fully equipped 
and ready for action. 

German Types 

The German gliders used in Crete were of 10-12 
place capacity. They were high wlrig, cabin mon- 
oplanes with wipg span of 80 feet and fuselage 
length of 50 feet. The semi-cantilever wings, 
braced by a single strut on eawih side, were of 
wood construction; the fuselage, of welded steel 
tiibing. The entire ship was fabric covered. 
Aj 5 )arently a two-wheeled landing gear was used 
for takeoff and then dropped in flight, the 
landing being made on the wooden skid. Those of 
us who in recent years, have seen Germeui sail- 
planes competing at our National Soaring Con- 
tests at Elmira are familiar with this operation 
on a smaller scale. It was triel^, to say the 
least. If the pilot dropped his Wheels too low, 
they were apt to bounce up and damage the bottom 
of the fuselage. If dropped too high, there was 
danger of their bouncing into and injuring crew 
madDers or being smashed on impact. 

Performance of these big German transport 
gliders is interesting. One to three of them 
were towed behind a single Junkers JO-52 at a 
speed between 100 and 120 mph. After release 
they probably glided, at a most efficient L/D 
ratio, at about 70 mph. Levell^ off at about 
50, they were landed at 35-40 mph. on beaches, 
roads, and in small fields. 

Secret of a pilot's ability to land a large, 
heavily loaded glider in a small field is a ccm- 
btnatlon of flaps and spoilers to give accurate 
control of glide path and speed. Added to this 
there is the characteristic of a glider in stop- 
ping very quickly, without danger of nosing 
over, when the stick is pushed full forward af- 
ter landing. I once brought a single seater 
sailplane with 62-feet span to a dead stop in 40 
feet after a landing made at over 60 mph. in a 
small field. 

Since the Air Force began actively to initi- 
ate a glider program five months ago, real prog- 
ress has been made in the procurement of equip- 

ment and the training of pilots. In the former 
category the Materiel Divlslcwi created a Glider 
liiit in its Experimental Engineering Section at 
Wright Field. This organlzatlcm has carried on 
the development of several designs of 8 and 15 
place gliders. The Navy is building 12 and 24- 
place gliders to be used by the Marine Corps. 
Construction of the Amy ships is well under way 
and the first static test and flight test trans- 
port gliders have been delivered. 

A program of flight testing with the small 
two-place training gliders has also been going 
c»i at Wright Field for some months. Some of the 
items tested have been types, sizes and lengths 
of tcwllnes, various combinations for multiple 
towing, interconmunication between gliders and 
towplane and so on. 

The most interesting experiment made recently 
was the picking iq> of a glider, resting station- 
ary on the ground, by an airplane passing over- 
head at close to 100 mph. The basic device that 
made this experiment successful was a winch 
drum, equipped with a brake, in the airplane. 
This drun reeled out sufficient line to ease the 
acceleration of the glider. Once in the air and 
up to towing speed the glider was reeled in to 
the proper towing Interval by a small electric 
motor driving the winch. The Inportance of this 
development is that it may solve the problem of 
launching a train of transjort gliders. It will 
ccnceivably be possible to pick up several glid- 
ers out of a field too small for the safe take- 
off of the airplane alone. 

Tests At Wright Field 

At Wright Field for these tests are several 
Schwelzer shoulder-wing training gliders, Frank- 
fort hlgh-wlng trainers, a German "Mlnlmoa" 
shoulder-wing, high performance sailplane, and a 
Polish "Orlik" sailplane of similar design. The 
two latter ships are used chiefly for analysis 
of design and construction. An 0-49 has been 
used for towing and has proven to be an ideal 
towplane for the training gliders. 

Training of Air Force pilots who will act as 
Instructors, supervisors, and test pilots in the 
expanded program, has been carried on by the El- 
mira Area Soaring Corporation at Elmira, N. Y. 
and the Frankfort-Lewis School of Soaring at 
Joliet, Illinois. Only one class of six offi- 
cers were trained at Joliet as the volume of 
training necessary was then not yet large enough 
to justify two schools. 

Marine Corps pilots have been trained at 
Joliet. The Air Corps tradnlng was discontinued 
at Elmira due to winter weather ccxxUtlcHns . It 



is proceeding at an expanding pace) at the 
Twenty-Nine Palms Air Acad&ny located at Twenty- 
Nine Palms in the California desert. 

The primary training course lasts four weeks. 
The 30 hours of flight training given Includes 
auto, auto-pulley, winch and airplane towing. 
Several hours of double towing (two gliders be- 
hind one towplauie) give the pilots practice in 
towed formation flying. Enough soaring flight 
Is done to make the pilots thoroughly proficient 
in handling the gliders and to instill in tl%m 
real enthusiasm for this type of flying. This 
last consideration has already proven valuable. 
After all, it is logical that a man's interest 
in and initiative for any activity will be c<wi- 
slderably increased if he gets a real kick out 
of it. A pilot has to be either singularly 
lacking in imagination or painfully blase not to 
gpt a whale of a kick out of soaring flight. 

Planning Advanced School 

Tentative ftiture plans call for the establish- 
ment of an advanced school for glider training. 
Here graduates of the primary courses will re- 
ceive Instruction in flying the large, troop- 
carrying gliders. Their background of flying 
the training gliders will then stand them in 
good stead, but these big ships will feel quite 
different. With their great size, weight, 
higher wing loadings, etc., these gliders will 
certainly not be sailplanes in any sense of the 
word. In fact, as one engineer stated the other 
day, they really should not be considered as 
gliders, but as transport airplanes with remote 
power plants. 

Much thought has been given to the piloting 
background and experience necessary for pilots 
of the transport gliders. Due to the considera- 
tion of the size of these ships and the fact 
that they will be towed in formation at night, 
thought that a pilot should have at least the 
minimum airplane tralnljqg of the Air Corps pri- 
mary schools or CFT course before entering a 
glider school. 

Second To None 

At the closing banquet of the 12th annual Na- 
tional Soaring Contest at Elmira, N. Y. last 
July, General Arnold said that we would have a 
glider force second to none. World events since 
then have shown his wisdom in adding this new 
type of aircraft to our Air Force. The prog- 
ress we have made so far makes ub confident that 
his statement will ccmie true in the not-too- 
dlstant future. 


Detroit "assenbly line system" has been in- 
stalled at Gunter Field, Ala., to speed up 
aircraft lnsi)ectlons and to train enlisted men 
to be skilled mechanics. 

Hangars are divided into eight equal parts, 
each part being called a station. Four stations 
in each half of the hapgar constitute a line. A 
sub-station or wash rack located outside of the 
hangar forms the beglming of each line. 

An airplane sent to the Maintenance Hangar is 
taken first to the sub-station for a general 
check-up which Includes oil pump drainage, 
screen cleaning, gas tank inspection, and engine 
spraying and cleaning. All discrepancies are 
noted on a blank form by the Hanger Inspector 
and the plane is moved to Statlcn One. 

Wheels, landing gear, brakes, tail wheel, in- 
struments, skin, structure, cockpit, propeller, 
and thrust beeu*lngs are Inspected at this sta- 
tion. Station Two checks cabl^, ignition sys- 
tem, flight controls, hydraulic s^^tem, values, 
electrical system, and f\iel and oil systons. At 
Station Three the propeller is painted and re- 
stenclled, the radio Installed, and the plane 
vacuum cleaned. All discrepancies found by the 
Technical Inspectors are corrected at Station 
Four, the plane is recowled and prefll^ted, axid 
then returned to its Squadron. 

At the Maintenance Hangar Office a ctmiplete 
record is kept of the time on each airplane on 
the field. This record shows such data as air- 
plane field number, serial number, time on the 
plane, engine model, serial number and time, 
propeller time, last depot inspection rexwrt, 
time towards a 50 or 100 hour Inspection and 
whether the plane is or is not in conmlsslon. 
By means of this record, the Officer in Charge 
determines which airplanes are to be called in 
for either a 50 or 100 hour Inspection. 

The Post Engineering Officer and his assis- 
tants are in charge of the Maintenance Hapgar, 
and the Hangar Chief, the Hangar Inspector, and 
the line Chief are non-ccnmissloned officers. 

The War Department has instructed civilians 
not to call Interceptor Command Headquarters 
for information about reports of pending air 
raids. This restriction has been instituted be- 
cause of the necessity for keeping all agencies 
of the Interceptor Conmeuids free to repel at- 
tacks. ttider War Department instructions. In- 
terceptor Ccmmanders have the sole responsibility 
for ordering all air defense measures. 




Filipino Air Force 
(Continued from Page 34) 

At General MacArthur's request, the War De- 
partment approved a one-year extension of Lieut. 
Lee's tour of duty. In the following year an- 
other request was made for a one-year extension 
of duty for the yoimg Chief of the Philippine 
Army Air Corps because of his "outstanding fit- 
ness for the duties he Is performing and his In- 
timate experience with the Philippine Army." 
This was denied on the grounds that additional 
flying Instructors at tl» U. S. Army Air Corps 
Training Center was urgently needed. 

Lieut. Parker, during his service as flying 
Instructor at the Hilllpplne Army Flying School, 
flew over 1,000 hours. Before he returned to 
the States In November, 1937, he was presented 
the Distinguished Service Star of the Philip- 
pines by President Quezon, with the following 

"For outstanding service to the Conmonwealth 
of the Philippines In a position of major res- 
ponsibility, there Is hereby presented to First 
Lieutenant Hugh A. Parker, Air Corps, United 
States Army, the Distinguished Service Star of 
the Philippines. As Plans and Training Officer 
of the Air Corps Training Center, Philippine 
Army, and Individual Instructor of flying ca- 
dets, his services have been characterized by 
unusual efficiency and professional skill, un- 
flagging enthusiasm, and outstanding results. 
His work has required Incessant devotion to 
duty, a readiness and capacity to c<m 5 )rehend the 
particular requirements of Filipino students, 
arai an ability to adjust technical Instruction 
so as to overcome imususd difficulties. His ac- 
complishment and examples have been an Inspira- 
tion to every member of the Air Corps of the 
Philippine Amy and a source of satlsfeictlon to 
the Chief of the Air Corps, the Chief of Staff, 
the Military Adviser, and the Conmonwealth Gov- 

Work Continued 

The work so brilliantly started by Lleuts . Lee 
and Barker was carried on with no less success- 
ful results by Captains Alden R. Crawford, Mark 
K. I«wls and Lieut. Charles H. Anderson, as- 
sisted by an able staff of Hilllpplne Army Of- 
ficers. Captain Crawford was the Acting Chief 
of the Bureau of Aeronautics; Captain Lewis, 
Acting Chief of the Philippine Army Air Corps; 
and Lieut. Anderson, Operations Officer and 
Chief Flying Instructor of the Hilllpplne Amy. 

Limited by the number of airplanes and flying 

Instructors, only three classes of 25 students 
each were conducted annually at the Philippine 
Army Flying School. Usually, about forty per 
cent of these students completed the course. 
The first cleuss was graduated on October 30, 
1937, and the commencement exercises were an 
outstanding event. The guest of honor. Presi- 
dent Quezon, delivered the principal address. 
Ranking U. S. Army officers present were Gen- 
erals MacArthur, Luclxis R. Holbrook, John H. 
Hughes and Evan H. Humphrey. High ranking of- 
ficers of the Philippine Amy were also pres- 
ent. It was at this Ibnctlon that Lieut. Parker 
received his decoration fTcm the Hilllpplne Com- 

Captain Crawford left the Islands In December, 
1939; Captain Lewis In July, 1939, and Lieut. 
Anderson In the spring of 1940. The latter was 
decorated with the Distinguished Service Star of 
the Hilllpplne CoomonweeuLth. 

Cited By MacArthur 

Approving the request of Captain Lewis to at- 
tend the Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell 
Field, Ala., General MacArthur stated: "Captain 
Lewis is on duty with the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment, acting as Chief of the Philippine Air 
Corps, in which capacity he has shown great ab- 
ility. Ife has successfully furthered the deve- 
lopment of the Philippine Army Flying School, 
has perfected plans for and Is directing the ex- 
pansion of the Air Corps and has exhibited 
marked qualities of Initiative, leadership and 
judgnent." A most promising career In the Air 
Corps for Captain Lewis ended whmi he crashed at 
Biggs Field, El Paso, Texas, on December 9, 

From the latest Informatlwi available, a mes- 
sage from General MacArthur, sent last Novmnber, 
Lieut. Colonel Charles Backes, Air Corps, has 
been Acting Chief of the Phlllxjplne Army Air 
Corps for more than two years. At that time he 
had already served four years in the Hilllpplnes 
and his tour had been extended another year, but 
It was proposed to order him back to the United 
States for a period of four months for reasons 
of health and In order to permit him to visit 
Air Corps Installations and familiarize himself 
with current developm^ts. 

The properly EQUIPPED and MANNED bom'- 
bardment airplane is a PRECISION instru- 



Biirii^dale - Xever A Dull Monu^iit 

By Lif^uf. John If. C^lioafwooil 

Barkwdale Field, La. 


N o other air field has experienced more com- 
pletely than Barksdale Field, La., the rap- 
idly changing j^iases of activity that have been 
part of the growth and development of the Army 
Air Forces. 

Pursuit base, GHQ Wipg Headquarters, Air Force 
Conbat Cemnand base, advanced Pilot School, Bod- 
bardler School, Navigation School and Third Air 
Force base — Barksdale has been all of these. 

From an obsepre beginning with about 10 in- 
structors and as many airplanes, 12 schools have 
developed out of Barksdale, each school equipped 
with experienced Instructors. Staff schools 
within the Southeast, Gulf Coast, and West Coast 
Air Corps Training Centers have all received 
personnel from Barksdale. 

Barksdale's varied career began in 1932 when 
it was established as the hcaoe of the 20th Pur- 
suit Group. In 1935 the Third Attack Group was 
added and the field became the headquarters of 
the Third Wing of the new GHQ Air Force. This 
lasted until October, 1940, when the Air Corps 
recognized Barksdale's value to the expanding 
training program and made it a Specialized Fly- 
ing School. 

On February 6, 1^2, when the Barksdale school 
was moved to another location, the field re- 
turned to the Cenfcat Conmand, where it remained 
until the Command was abolished by the Air 
Forces reorganization which went into effect 
March 9. Barksdale is now one of the most im- 
portant bases of the Third Air Force. 

Jkich of Barksdale's most interesting history 
was crowded into the years when it was an ad- 
vanced Specialized Flying School. This school 
was incorporated into the Southeast Air Corps 
Training Center and comprised not one but four 
schools in its original operaticmal plan. These 
schools were Advanced Flying School (TE) (Pi- 
lots) , Advanced Flying School CEE) (Bombardier) , 
Advanced Flying School (TE) (Navigation) , and 
the Advanced Flying School (SE) (Pilots) . A 
brief resume of the functioning of the various 
schools follows. 

Advanced Flying School (TE) (Navigation) 

First of the four schools to receive students 
was the Navigation School. The first class, SE 
41-A, w£is received in November, 1940. In its 

eight months course, this school graduated 52 
navigators. At the beginning, very few air- 
planes were available, and those on hand were 
the obsolescent B-10 and B-12 types and sane 
B-18 types. In the later stages, however, 
Beechcraft AT-7's were made available in suffi- 
cient nunbers ard training was Improved. During 
all but the last few weeks of training, flying 
Instructors served as pilots for navigation mis- 
sions in addition to their other duties. 

Advanced Flying School (SE) (Pilots) 

Two classes of single-engine pilots were re- 
ceived while the school was located at Barksdale 
Field. They received training on AT-6, AT-12, 
P-36 and P-35 types. One class of 37 was grad- 
uated while the remaining students, instructor 
personnel and the varioiis line squadrons were 
transferred with the school to Craig Field, 
Selma, Ala., when that school was activated. 

Advanced Flying School (TE) (Bombardier) 

The Bonbardier School, second of its kind to 
be activated, was patterned somewhat after tne 
school then operating at Lowry Field, Denver, 
Colo. The two onjor differences were the nec- 
essity for operating on bombing ranges located 
very near the landing area of Barksdale Field 
and the necessity for utilizing the same equip- 
ment and pilots that were employed by the Two- 
Engine School. The first difficulty was solved 
by using single traffic pattern and the second 
by training two-engine pilots and bombardier 
students together. Ttils last was done by usipg 
student pilots for the Two-Engine Pilots School 
as co-pilots on bcnbliig missions, while students 
of the Bonbardier School were receiving train- 
ing. later, hcxrever, pilots were specifically 
assigned to duty with the Ba±>ardier School. 

Advanced Flying School (TE) (Pilots) 

last to leave Barksdale Field was the Advanced 
Flying School. (EE) (Pilots) . In one year this 
school graduated several hundred two-engine pi- 
lots. Some of these graduates were salt to tem- 
porary duty with the Air Corps Ferrying Conmand 
and have since been assigned to duty with the 
Air Force Conbat Conmand. Some others have been 
retained as Instructors with the various traln- 




lug centers. The remainder were sent to bom- 
bardment units and the Air Force Conbat Conraand. 
Instruction was begun with B-10, B-12, and a few 
B-18 type airplanes but later the school fur- 
nished AT-7, AT-8 and the Lockheed-Hudson types. 

At the time these schools were founded, very 
little had be«i done In the field of specialized 
student training since the four-section plan of 
operation was discontinued. New operational 
plans had to be formulated. New ground school 
curricula had to be written. Men not qualified 
In specific phases of Instruction had to be 
trained. New squadrons had to be formed and 
trained to maintain the equipment to be used. 

Plans ol' operation of each school were worked 
out Individually by school staffs. Some degree 
of flexibility was allowed so that schedules 
would not conflict with other training. As soon 
as schools were operating smoothly the training 
of key personnel or cadres for other schools was 

The problem of Ground School curricula was a 
major one, due to the fact that many courses 
taught were completely new. Instructors were 
assigned the various sinbjects for the multiple 
purpose of making detailed studies of all data 
available, Inxjorporatlng these texts, and then 
conducting classes. Slnv:e there were no special 
Ground School Instructors available, these 
duties were fulfilled by flying^, Instructors, 
bombardier Instructors, and navigator Instruc- 
tors during their time on the ground. In many 
cases It was necessary to exchange Instructors 
between schools when these Instructors were 
qualified In highly technical subjects given by 
two or more schools. 

Coordination between flying and ground In- 
structions was obtained by a system of half- 
days. In the Two-Qglne Pilots School, for ex- 
an^le, the Icwer cljiss was assigned a period for 
flying and a period for ground school while the 
upper half was assigned the reverse. Similar 
systems were enployed by other schools. 

In order to Insure proper maintenance for 24- 
hour-a-day flylig schedules, several new squad- 
rons were activated. These men were specifi- 
cally trained for malntalnlrg the type of air- 
craft used In the schools to which they were as- 
signed. This system proved very efficient. The 
average percentage of airplanes of all types In 
comnlsslon dally was approximately 70 per cent 
durlig this period. 

Fran the beginning at the Specialized Flying 
School 12 Individual schools have sprung Into 
being, and now, some of these have begun to sib- 
dlvlde . 

Poles Still Flrintl 

(Continuer! from Page 28) 
as though In oil and want down Into the sea. 

"Then 1 saw a machine that had been damaged 
and was smoking and another tearing away for all 
he was worth. I went after him and approached 
him from the rear and above, pressed the button 
and something began banging Into my fuselage 
from below. It was as If a bucket of hot water 
had been poured down my neck. 1 doi't remember 
breaking off to the right. I managed to look 
euid see If my legs were still whole and then 
four flashed by me. 1 don’t know which of 
then hit me but 1 was mad with all four of than. 
Without warning my machine suddenly caught 

The Polish pilot was knocked vnconsclous try- 
ing to bail out andwhoihe came to he was burning 
In his spinning ship. He finally kicked his way 
out and balled out but was sever ly burned about 
the face and spent weeks In a hospital. He ccxi- 
cludes: "Now I'm flying again." 

The Polish bonber pilot flew a Wellington to 
bomb Essen in the German Ruhr valley. His 
squadron reached their target, bonbed it from 
low altitude and then headed for home in the 
light of the fires they set. 

Ran J«to Flak 

"Shortly after leaving the target we ran Into 
a storm of flak. It was so close we could hear 
the bursts plainly over the engine roar. Our 
Wellii^ started to bounce violently. We went 
Into violent Jinking (weaving and zig zag tac- 
tics) and cllnbed and dived as fast as possible 
to throw the bunmers off. But It was no good. 
We counted 12 salvos of fron 20 to 30 rounds 
apiece. Things got rapidly worse until we could 
hardly control at all. Ailerons had no effect, 
the rudder almost none, except that the airplane 
respoxxled exactly In reverse. We side slipped 
from one side to andther and things looked bad. 
Finally we got her on an even keel although we 
were still weaving. 

"When we reached the Ekigllsh coast I suggested 
that the crew leave the building. The crew said 
If I was going to stay that was good enopgh for 
them so they stayed, getting hack Into the tail. 
We found our base. Came In to land, but when I 
put the flaps down they only went part way. 
Just as we touched the ground there was a ter- 
rific cracking noise. The staurboard wing went, 
ripping down all the fuel lines Into the engine. 
We made it though and nobody was hurt." 



Man in the Stratosphere 

By Col. David I¥. W. Grant 

Air Surgeon, Army Air Forces 

TT is an accepted principle that the most Im* 

■^portant Instnment In an airplane Is the pi- 
lot. Not only must great care go Into his selec- 
tion and In training him as an engineer but It 
Is equally lH5)ortant that he keep abreast with 
the most recent advances in aviation physiology 
and medicine. This must be done If he Is to 
qtmllfy for flying to the great heights and at 
the high speeds of which the most recent air- 
craft are capable. 

From the himian point of view the principal 
hazards of high altitude flight may be listed as 

(1) Deficiency of oxygen 

(2) Decrease In atmospheric pressure re- 
sulting In 

(a) Expansion of gases In the alimentary 

(b) Escape of gaseous nitrogen In the 
form of bubbles within the tissues 

(3) Increase in atmospheric pressure re- 
quiring admission of air to the sinuses 
and middle ear 

(4) High acceleration: 

(a) Intermittent - contributing in some 
cases to alr-slckness 

(b) Continuous - contributing in some 
cases to blacking out 

(5) Cold 

(6) Pear 

(7) Fatigue 

The deficiency of oxygen, to which anyone Is 
subject who goes to high altitudes without an 
oxygen supply, was the earliest recognized haz- 
ard of hl^ altitudes. In the World War the ca- 
pacity to endure anoxia was rated as one of the 
essential features of selection of flight per- 
sonnel. While it remains an In^Kjrtant charac- 
teristic It Is no longer recognized as the sole 
limiting factor for perscxmel In high altitude 
flight. Present oxygen equipment. If properly 
used. Insures a fully adequate oxygen supply ex- 
cept under the most extrane conditions, and it 
Is no« realized that the jobs of the pilot and 
of his crew present other hazards that are at 
least as critical as his oxygen supply. 

One of the principal purposes of the Air Corps 
indoctrination program now getting underway Is 
to di^nonstrate to the young pilot or crew meidjer 
that his mental llmctlonlng falls below par when 
he goes to 15,000 feet without oxygen, that he 
Is likely to faint if he goes above 20,000 feet 
without oxygen and that when he goes above 

40.000 feet, even with pure oxygen, he Is In a 
precarious state. For an adequate oxygen uptake 
the lungs require, even with pure oxygen, a den- 
sity of more than one-fifth that of air at 
ground level. This critical limit Is passed at 

39.000 feet and from there on the hazard of 
anoxia Increases rapidly. A man is In as great 
danger at 42,000 feet breathing pure oxygen as 
at 18,000 feet breathing atmospheric air. It Is 
difficult to convince young pilots of this truth 
except by actual demonstration In a chamber. 
They forget the fallacy of the old tradition 
that if a man lifts and carries a growing calf 
each day he will eventually be able to lift and 
ceu’ry the adult bull. It is equally certain 
that, on the one hand, a day will come when he 
cannot lift the young bull as It Is on the other 
hand that, even when breathing pure oxygen, he 
will lose consciousness as the eiltitude is in- 
creased much above 40,000 feet. 

Special Ifentlon 

Those features of oxygen equipment and Its use 
deserving special menticm In this general survey 

(l) The Insidious effects of oxygen lack. 
The brain Is affected first — resulting In loss of 
Judgjnent, unwarranted self-confidence, loss of 
alertness, sleepiness and possible loss of con- 
sciousness. A man may go through this entire 
cycle and return to the ground without having 
realized his precarious state. Those who accom- 
plish successful conbats above 20,000 feet with- 
out oxygen are apt to boast of their accomplish- 
ment and so to encourage such foolhardiness In 
others. Those who fall In attempting to repeat 
the performance don't live to tell the tale. 
The moral Is — depend on the altimeter, not on 
your symptoms, to determine when oxygen Is to be 
used. A reasonable, conservative rule regarding 




oxygen usage is that given in T.O. No. 03-50A-1 
as follows: "Except in urgent, unforeseen emer- 
gencies, all personnel will use oxygen at all 
times while peu’ticipatlpg in flight above 15,000 
teet. Oxygen will also be used when remaining 
at an ailtitude below 15,000 feet but in excess 
of 12,000 feet for periods of two hours or long- 
er duration and when participating in flights 
below 12,000 feet but at or in excess of 10,000 
feet for periods of six hours or longer dura- 
tion" . 

(2) The relation of cold to oxygen use. Oxy- 
gen lack aggravates the effects of cold and fa- 
vors frost-bite. Also, once a man has become 
cold his oxygen requirement is Increased because 
of shivering. Oxygen shoiild be used as liberal- 
ly as the supply permits when cold begins to 

(3) The relation of work to oxygen use. Work 
is acccHnplished by oxidation of body fuels and 
in anergencles a gunner or other crew menfcer may 
require for short periods four or five times as 
much oxygen as usvml. The present oxygen equip- 
ment renders such work hazardous unless the oxy- 
gen regulator is opened to capacity. Even then 
there may be an oxygen deficiency above 30,000 
feet. Above 35,000 feet work should not be at- 
tempted except in extreme emergencies. 

(4) The question is frequently raised, "Does 
breathing pure oxygen have harmful effects?" 
The answer for personnel of the Air Forces is, 
"No". Extensive experimentation and observation 
have erased all doubts as to the harmful effects 
of oxygen. 

(5) Another common question is, "Does expo- 
sure to oxygen lack from service flying have 
permanent harmftil effects?" The answer again is 
in the negative, provided that accidents due to 
inefficiency while anoxic do not occur. Oxygen 
lack sufficiently severe and .prolonged to result 
in brain damage might be encountered by flight 
personnel only in rare onergency provided T.O. 
No. 03-50A-1 is followed. As the first evidence 
OTi this question we have the records of the his- 
toric flight made in 1875 by three French bal- 
loonists. They reached 28,800 feet without oxy- 
gen equipment. Two died, presumably of oxygen 
lack, while the third, Tlssandier, survived 
without apparent harm. 

Recent direct experimentation on animals and 
accumulated observations on men substantiate 
this point. 

(6) A quotation from a German manual for fly- 
ing personnel is to the point — "The efficient 
use of the oxygen apparatus insures mental supe- 
riority over the enmijy". 

The second hazard listed above is the effect 
of decreasing pressure. The body contains air 
partly trapped within it, in the ear, in the si- 
nuses, in the alimentary canal. As the pressure 
decreases during ascent to high altitudes these 
gases expand and unless they escape they cause 
pain. Escape through the Eustachian tubes of 
the ear and from the sinuses causes no difficul- 
ty in the healthy man in ascent. 

Expansion of geises in the stcHnach and intes- 
tines is one of the ccmmonest of discomforts. 
Body movements that favor the passing of this 
gas are usually effective. Foods known by ex- 
perience to be gas-forming should be avoided. 
The discomfort of e3cpanding gas is aggravated by 
the fact that such gas bubbles will expand much 
more in the body, where they are surroimded by 
wet tissues, than dry gas in a balloon. Where- 
as, dry gas will expand to five times its volume 
at 39,000 feet, gas in the presence of excess 
water will expand to about eight times its ini- 
tial volume. 

Decreasing the pressure on the body not only 
affects gas bubbles already present in the body 
but it permits the free nitrogen in body fluids 
to escape frran solution and form bubbles. This 
nitrogen is present becaiise the entire body is 
in equilibrium with atmospheric nitrogen at 
ground level. When the pressure decreases as 
one ascends this nitrogen tends to escape. The 
bubbles thus formed rarely cause trouble at 

25.000 feet. At 30,000 feet some subjects have 
trouble after two or three hours. At 35,000 
feet some have trouble after one hour and at 

40.000 feet trouble may come within 15 minutes. 
However, many youpg men can "ttike" four hours at 

35.000 feet or one hour at 40,000 feet. 

These "troubles" may take the form of Joint 
pain, of throat irritation or of itching skln»- 
Joint pains may be mild and disappear or they 
may become severe enoqgh to caiise a virtual pa- 
ralysis of the menijer affected or even fainting. 
Throat j^alns and itching skin, once developed, 
are almost certain to grow worse as Judged by 
chamber tests. 

One Cure 

Hiere is only one cure and that is descent un- 
til the pain is alleviated or disappears. Usu- 
ally the man recovers entirely before he is 
half-way down to ground level. 

Laboratory experiments Indicate that exercise 
for one-half hour while breathing oxygen gives 
considerable protection agednst this hazard. It 
ronains to determine the usefulness of this pro- 
cedure under practical conditions. 

On descent from high altitudes air must re- 




enter the middle ear and the bony sinuses. 
Clearing the ears by swallowing, by blowing the 
nose, etc. Is a technique nearly all can learn 
)»ith practice. Except In emergencies, flights 
to high altitudes should not be attempted when 
one has a cold. Stiibborn Infections of the ear 
or sinuses may result. 

Clearing the ears does not necessarily grow 
more difficult with Increasing rates of descent. 
If a man has no difficulty in clearing his ears 
ccanlng down at 5,000 feet per minute he can 
probably do as well at 25,000 feet per minute. 

High accelerative forces whether of the inter- 
mittent type, as In rough air, or of the more 
sustained type, as In pull-outs, and other ma- 
neuvers, constitute caie of the acute hazards to 
which flight personnel Is siibjected. The first 
form Is of less concern to the pilot than to his 
crew. While the pilot either overcomes air — 
sickness or quits, the members of his crew may 
continue to experience it. This seems to be 
particularly true of the tall gunner where rid- 
ing Is royghest. Fortunately air-sickness rare- 
ly if ever has permanently ill-effects. Unfor- 
tunately there is no assured preventative nor 
cem we escape the fact that a gunner in the pro- 
cess of vomiting Is for the time being out of 

The effects of high siistained accelerative 
forces as In pull-outs, have been described in a 
recent Technical Order, together with the ac- 
cepted method for Increasing one's tolerance of 
"G". This need not be repeated here, other than 
to refer to the figure, showing the crouching 
posture that has been taught the German pilots 
for some years. This posture is believed to In- 
crease one's tolerance by about 1 "G". 

Cold Is A Hazard 

The hazard of cold is not merely the pain ex- 
perienced and the danger of frost-bite. The 
principal handicap is the reduced level of bodi- 
ly flmctlcns, both mental and physical. Fingers 
are numbed £ind operations are clumsily carried 
out, if they can be carried out at all. The 
physical misery dulls one's awareness of other 
dangers. The oxygen system must supply more 
oxygen and may freeze in the process of doing 
so. Added clothing greatly Interferes with the 
bodily movements requisite for routine opera- 
tions, and also renders more difficult parachute 
escape. Finally goggles and windows become 
frosted; in order to clear the windows it may be 
necessary to open them and thus lower the tem- 
perature even more. 

Protection against the hazard of cold is an 

engineering problon that is on the way to solu- 
tion. Clothing should be loose-fitting and dry. 
Rapid ascents in the tropics are more difficult 
than in temperate zones because, if adequate 
protective clothing is donned before the flight, 
the wearer may be soaked with perspiration be- 
fore he leaves the ground. Electrically heated 
suits seem better adapted to tropical and tem- 
perate zones than to the arctic zone. If the 
wearer of such a suit must bail out, he cannot 
long survive arctic cold. 

As emphasized before, the use of oxygen helps 
to protect against cold. Hot drinks during 
flight also help some. Alcohol makes one feel 
better because it dilates skin capillaries and 
favors transfer of body heat to the skin. The 
resulting temporary sensation of warmth may have 
disastrous resiilts since it is accomplished by 
lowering "body tenqperature. Alcohol also tends 
to inhibit shivering and so to increase still 
fiu'ther the danger of continued exposure to 
cold. Alcohol should be looked upon as a re- 
storative for the man who has been rescued from 
cold. It should not be made available to the 
man who is expected to undergo a long exposure 
to cold. 

No Escape FVcm Fear 

The hazard from which there can be no escape 
is fear. Fear may arise from any one of the 
hazards previously mentioned or from a conbina- 
tion of them. 

It is the job of the flight surgeon, responsi- 
ble for selectiOTi of aviation cadets, to elimi- 
nate those most likely' to be eliminated because 
of chronic fear, but the fear hazard is a mental 
state frran which none of us is wholly protected. 
Repeated exposure to all the other stresses en- 
tailed in flight may be well endured in the ab- 
sence of any strong element of fear. It is this 
psychological factor of pronounced fear that 
seems chiefly responsible for the cumulative fa- 
tigue occasionally experienced by war-time pi- 

In sunmary it may be said that the hazards en- 
countered by flying personnel are now well re- 
cognized through recent advances in aviation 
medicine and relatively efficient means have 
been discovered and developed for meeting them. 
This has been possible through the team work of 
engineers, flight surgeons, physiologists, psy- 
chologists, and other scientific groups. The 
effectiveness of these contributions, however, 
finally depends on the cooperation of the air 




Torpedoes Get Win^s 
(Continued from Page 12) 
elon with ample space between planes to allow 
for a breakway turn in either direction once the 
torpedo is dropped. The wide spacing has the 
added advantagie of stringing out the targets and 
diluting the defenders' fire. The attack is 
generally delivered from forward of the beam so 
that ships present their largest target bulk and 
at the same time add a vector of their own speed 
to that of the torpedo thus cutting down the 
time avalledile for the ship to dodge. 

Oodble Attack 

Another form of attack that can be extronely 
effective, provided that it is made in force, is 
one delivered from a semi-circle of planes 
spread across the bow and to both beams of the 
eneoy ship. The torpedoes then speed in from 
all angles so that avoiding th^ is almost an 
Inqxisslble task. The quintessence of success, 
however, in a torpedo plane attack is a double 
attack in which two flights approach from both 
port and starboard bows spaced ninety d^rees or 
more apart and perfectly synchronized to arrive 
at the target about a minute apart. The Torpedo 
has more speed than its targets but can some- 
times be avoided by a quick-thinking skipper who 
will generally swing his ship to a course op- 
posite and parallel to the course of the tor- 
j)edo. In so doing he presents the least pos- 
sible target bulk and is in a position to dodge 
the torpedo by a slight touch of the helm. 

But if the ship being attacked swings parallel 
to the first torpedo attack he is in no posltl<» 
to dodge the second attack delivered from the 
opposite bow. The second batch of torpedoes 
approach him at right angles to his course to 
idilch he is pinned by the approach of the first 
batch. Whichever way he turns he finds himself 
in a sea full of TOT anxious to fulfill its pur- 

A big help to any torpedo plane attack but of 
particular benefit to the echelon attack from 
forward of the beam, is a smoke screen laid down 
close to the ship to be attacked. The attacking 
planes can then come in behind the screen rising 
occasionally above it for observation, burst 
through the screen, drop and hightail for pro- 
tection. Of cowse the question arises "Who 
will bell the cat?" for a smoker is a prime tar- 
get, although he does have the advantage of 
speed and a high rate of change of be8u*lng. A 
smoke screen is also a fine barrage target for 
flak fire and pilots may comt on heavy fire at 
the screen. 


A new device called an Oximeter is being used 
as a "watch dog" in high altitude chamber 
tests. Through an Illuminated "ear-ring," the 
Oximeter provides Instant readings without de- 
laying the experiments. 

Previous to the development of the Oximeter, 
the amount- of oxygen in the bloodstream of a man 
in the altitude chanber was recorded by securing 
a sample of the subject's blood by means of a 
needle and syringe. Operated outside of the 
altltxide chamber, the Oximeter does away with 
this laborious process and permits the tests to 
continue without interruptions. 

The ear unit of the Oximeter is clamped on the 
lobe of the subject's ear so that the light fPom 
the lamp shines throngh the lobe into a |dioto- 
cell on the other side. Ihe Oximeter capital- 
izes on the fact that the blood changes as its 
oxygen content changes. Normally satiirated it 
is bright red, but as more oxygen is lost it 
shades off to deep purple. Rjrple passes less 
Hg^ t than red, so any change in the oxygen con- 
tent of the blood alters the intensity of the 
light lAilch shines through the ear lobe. 

The Oximeter was originated by Dr. Glenn A. 
Millikan, consultant and lecturer in blo-physlcs 
at the liilversity of Pennsylvania. 


A l^al aid clinic — believed to be the first 
of its kind at any U.S. Amy post— was in- 
augurated at Lowry Field, Denver, Col., to pro- 
vide enlisted personnel with necessary legal 

Hie clinic offers legal advice to Army person- 
nel and secures competent l^al aid for thmn in 
matters of family relationship, guardianship, 
homes and personal possessions, wages and other 
Incoae, Insteillment purchases, taxes and other 
debts, wills and insurance policies, welfare 
laws and civil service, accidents, and rights 
under the Soldiers and Sailors Relief Act. 

If the case warrants, a mmiber of the Denver 
Bar Association is called in for help. Then, if 
an attorney is needed, the assoclatlcai supplies 
its services free of charge to enlisted men. 
The Amy is assuming no responsibility for any 
of the cases handled. 

To reduce average bombing errors by ON& 
HALF is equivalent to multiplying the effect- 
iveness of a bombardment force by FOUR, 



W AR is movirig up Into the higher levels, and 
the see-saw between high flying bombing 
planes, high er flyipg fighters to knock them out 
of the sky, then new techniques to get the bonb- 
ers up even higher, goes on at a flirious pace. 
Put differently, every new offensive weapon 
brlpgs an almost Inmedlate reaction in the field 
of defense. 

For some years science, recently prodded by 
Mars in no uncertain terms, has been attempting 
to jmepare both men and machines to fly into the 
siJsstratosphere, which extends from 5 to 8 miles 
(or more) above the earth's surface. At the 
outbreak of this war a high ranking British of- 
ficial stated that the nation which first per- 
fected superbontoers for stratosphere operations 
would win. Later in this article we shall see 
what is being done along this line by ourselves, 
as well as by the British and the Germans. 

It should be realized, however, that owing to 
weather conditions, particularly over continent- 
al Europe, there will still be plenty of bombing 
in the 10,000 to 25,000 altitude range, as well 
as dive bombing and the fast low flying bariDlng 
tactics as developed, for example by the British 
using modified Hurricane lie fighters and the 
Russians with new heavily armored bomber-fighters. 
These activities are not within the scope of this 

Difficulties Involved 

First of all, then, let us look at some of 
the technical difficulties involved in getting 
planes and pilots to fly "upstairs." 

The first job is to get the bonbei; and its 
load up there. This has been made possible by 
such engineering gadgets as supercharged en- 
gines, constant-speed propellers, and high-lift 
wlrgs. The theory of the supercharger is fairly 
simple. The gasoline in an airplane engine 
bums oxygen fran the air. The higher the alti- 
tude the less oxygen there is in the air, there- 
fore the higher the engine goes the less effi- 
cient it is. Engines, at higher altitudes, be- 
come short-winded, like the traveler climbing 
Pike's Peak. 

Take, for example, a Pratt & Whitney Twin 
Wasp, which develops 1,200 h.p. for take-off. 

At 20,000 feet, without supercharglig, it would 
be turning up hardly more than 500 h.p. and at 
25,000 just over 250 h.p. Not so good if speed 
is to be maintained. However, with the super- 
charger, extra air is pumped into the carburet- 
or, and that does the trick. 

Turbo-Supercharger Ingenious 

The built-in blower type of supercharger is 
iBually operated in two gears, going Into "high" 
as the higher altitudes are reached. A recent 
development in which this country appears to 
have a jump on the rest of the world is the 
turbo-supercharger. With this ingenious device, 
the engine's exhaust gases 8u*e utilized by di- 
recting them throngh a small turbine coD 5 )ressor. 
This rotates a blower which sends the "thick- 
ened" air on to the carburetor. 

On the occasion of the Wright Lecture at the 
Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, Decenber 
17, 1941, the Collier Tr<^y for the year's out- 
standing contribution to aeronautical science 
was jointly awarded to Dr. Sanford A. Moss, of 
the General Electric Research Laboratories, in- 
ventor of the turbo-supercharger, and to the 
U. S. Army Air Corps for practical application 
of the device to high altitude flight. 

Another problem is to get the propeller to 
take larger bites of air at the higher alti- 
tudes. This means that the blades must be able 
to turn in the hiib to allow change of pitch — low 
pitch to allow the heavy bombing plane to get 
off the ground, and high pitch in the substrato- 
sphere to secure bigger bites of the rarefied 
atmosphere . 

These eufe mechanical solutions to the problem. 
Another angle brings us into aerodynamics. It 
takes a lot of lifting surface to get a fully 
loaded B-17 (around 25 tons) up to 35,000 feet. 
One reason why foreign heavy bonbers have been 
slow, and therefore highly vulnerable to fast 
well-armed fighting planes, is that to produce 
sufficient lift the wings have Imd to be large, 
and that means plenty of drag. This problem is 
beiig tackled by foreign research organizations, 
and one excellent solution in this country has 
been found in the Davis wing, with its sensa- 




tlonally high lift-drag ratio. The xise of this 
airfoil on oxir B-24 Consolidated heavy hraober 
(Liberator to the British) has spelled outstand- 
ing performance for this ship. 

The Hunan Element 

So much for the Machine. How about the pilot 
and the other metdiers of the conbat crew? It Is 
generally agreed that most pilots and flight- 
crew personnel can function normally up to 
around 15,000 feet for a short period. Beyond 
this level oxygen deficiency begins to produce 
certain dangerous symptoms — such as an unusual 
buoyancy or possibly Irritability, loss of neno- 
ry, lack of judgment, delay in reaction, etc. 
Hence oxygen masks are a prime essential, or 
better still — as they provide the answer to the 
Intense cold as well as the lack of oxygen — ^pres- 
surized cabins, of which more presently. The 
latest types of oxygen masks Include — besides the 
oxygen tiibes — radio microphones, special cold- 
resistant lining and doiible-lens goggles to pre- 
vent fogging and frost formation around the pi- 
lot's eyes throngh the air leeds. It may be re- 
called that this happened to ifeijor Schroeder In 
1920 In one of history's most remarkable 
flights, when a world's altitude record of 
33,113 feet was achieved. 

Another headache for the hlgji flyer Is aeroon- 
bollsm, an ailment somewhat similar to the 
"bends" sea-dlvefs experience arfter rising to 
the surface of the water too quickly. This Is 
caused, not by oxygen or lack of It, but by ni- 
trogen. At altitudes above 30,000 feet man's 
blood, organs and tissues give off their nitro- 
gen In the form of biibbles. This trouble Is 
more apt to affect pilots of fighter or Inter- 
ceptor plaiies because of the very rapid rate of 
climb of this type of ship. 

In consultation with the Mayo Clinic, an In- 
teresting experiment was performed last spring. 
MUo Burcham, Lockheed test pilot, during the 
altitude tests of the‘'twln-er^lned P-38 Inter- 
ceptor, "air conditioned" himself before step- 
ping Into the plane. Donning an oxygen mask he 
rapidly pedaled a gymnasium-type bicycle for 
half an hour. This worked off enongh of the ni- 
trogen bubbles, but he had to cong)lete his high 
altitude test flight In the P-38 breathlr^ pure 
oxygen, but no air, which contains nitrogen. 
The proof of the pudding — ^no aero^ollsm. 

This, of course, is only a partial solution to 
the prdblm, as such procedure would not be pos- 
sible In the case of high flylig defense opera- 
tions, owing to lack of time. The case for 


pressurized cabins was stated by Dr. Carl 
Schnldt, of the ttilverslty of Pennsylvania, at a 
recent meeting of the Institute of the Aeronau- 
tical Sciences. He warned that as regards 
speed, rate of climb and celling, the perform- 
ance of military aircraft already available to 
the contending air armies Is more than their hu- 
man occupants can fully utilize unless sj)eclal 
measures are taken to congiensate for some of the 
physiological strains. 

Dr. Schmidt said that "the closest approach 
now available to a solutlcmi of these problems Is 
the closed-cabin airplane In which the air or 
oxygen Is ccmpressed sufficiently to prevent any 
oxygei>-lack, and aviators' "bends", and also 
heated sufficiently to minimize the deleterious 
effects of cold. . . .But blackouts, due to cen- 
trlfqgal force, which is brought to play when- 
ever the direction of a rapidly movli^ plane is 
suddenly changed, remain an unsolved problem." 

D. W. Tomlinson, Vice President In charge of 
Engineering, of Trsuiscontlnental and Western 
Air, Inc., Is more faailliar with high altitude 
flying than any other man in the world. He 
anticipates that before the end of World War II 
stratobonbers cajmble of 24 hours' continuoxis 
flight may be showering enemy territory with 
bombs fron altitudes seven or eight miles above 
the earth. He says "Up Is as high as we can 
make It. The sky has no limit." 

For a co»q)le of decades after World War I not 
much was done In the way of substratosphere 
flight from a military point of view. In Novem- 
ber 1931, the Ninety-fourth Pursuit Squadron, 
Army Air Corps, made aviation history with a 
cross-country flight at an altitude of 20,000 
feet from Selfridge Field, Michigan, to Bolling 
Field, Washington, D. C. In which all pilots 
used liquid oxygen. This was a forerunner of 
the modern high altitude coobat flyli^ which to- 
day Is playing such a vital role in the fate of 

XC-35 A Pioneer 

The first use of pressurized cabins for exper- 
imental flight above 30,000 feet came a few 
years later with the specially fitted Arn^ Air 
Corps Lockheed XC-35 transport. It was In this 
plane that ift*. Tomlinson did much of his pioneer 
work "upstairs," in preparation for the Boeing 
Stratollner — a coumerclal adaptation of the Air 
Corps B-17 Flying Fortress — with pressurized 
cabins for transccxitlnental jMsserger flights at 
20,000 feet, atmospheric pressure being maln- 

(Continued on Page 50) 


"DEHIND the story of sensational performance 
■^at high altitixie Is a long process of low 
temperature testlpg In which materials and work- 
ing parts of the airplane are scientifically 
punished In cold chambers before they are used 
In a warplane designed to operate In the murder- 
ous cold and low pressures of the stratosphere. 

Present progress In the conquest of the bleak 
upper regions would be fatally retarded if the 
Army Air Forces did not have cold chantoers with 
very special types of refrigeration at Wright 
Field, Dayton, Ohio, but depended solely upon 
high altitude flight testing. 

Air Corps turbo-superchargers, engines, fuel 
systems, instruments, guns, oxygen masks and 
regulators, cameras and hydraulic systems func- 
tion at greater altitude today than is relished 
by enemy air forces. 

The cold chamber, as a contributing factor, 
was first enlisted in Air Corps research and de- 
velopment at McCook Field in 1922 ; 20 are in use 
at Wright Field today. 

Temperature Changes Cause Troi4)le 

Airplanes of the Army Air Forces are engi- 
neered for the temperature extremes which will 
be encountered in operations frcm either tropi- 
cal or arctic beises. The stratosphere, where 
temperature stabilizes at a median -67° C., and 
where the next mission may lead, is not many 
minutes' flight above any airdrome, wherever lo- 

Radical changes irt temperature can produce 
malfunctioning. Two of the most comnon changes 
caused by cold are lubrication troubles and un- 
equal contractions of dissimilar materials. 
Gyro instrviment oil, for instance, turns to cup 
grease at -50° C. Tolerances of working parts 
are often wrecked by the contraction-expansion 
difference in materials. Some plastics and syn- 
thetic rubbers turn brittle. Paints and plat- 
ings may crack and peel off. 

The cold chambers in which these troublesome 
failures are isolated and remedied vary in de- 
sign and capacity. For prolonged tests of large 
equipment, and when test engineers work inside, 
refrigeration of large chanters is obtained with 
carbon dioxide gas, ammonia or freon, a non- 

toxic gas. Smaller chambers, chilled by a fan 
blowing over a charge of dry- ice, have proved 
satisfactory for the quick testipg of many small 
articles . 

To secure basic data, the Materials Laboratory 
at Wright Field has for many years used a cold 
chamber with a capacity of 800 cubic feet which 
can maintain a temperature of -40° C. for three 
or four months without difficulty. 

Air Corps engineers and those in industry are 
supplied with handbook data based on low temper- 
ature tests — for hardness, fatigue, impact, ten- 
sion and torsion strengths — of the metals, al- 
loys, plastics, rubber, lubricants and other ma- 
terials VBed in the manufacturing of planes. 

When asked how it feels to be exposed to -40° 
for four or five hours at a stretch, a veteran 
testipg engineer said that no undue discomfort 
is felt, unless you have poor circulation — if 
your heavy boots, suit, helmet, gloves and face 
mask fit with the proper looseness; if you keep 
busy moving around; and if you don't take the 
heavy garments off after you come out until all 
feeling of cold has gone. 

FunctlOTial cold testing of equipment, prior to 
the crucial high altitude flight testing, is 
conducted in cold chambers of the experimental 
laboratory in which the developnent project is 

In the Power Plant laboratory, a big refriger- 
ation bunker supplies the chilled air for air- 
craft engines being tested under altitude condi- 
tions, and services a good-sized cold chamber 
which has been vised through the years in such 
projects as: checking methods of de-icing car- 
buretion systems; eliminating types of leakproof 
fuel teinks and hose which grew brittle in cold; 
comparative tests of oils and warm-up periods; 
priming techniques; development of engine 
starters, of remote fuel pump drives, accessory 
power plants; eind other similar projects. 

Eqvilpment lab Uses Chantier 

The Equipment Laboratory is a heavy user of 
cold chambers due to the large number of pro- 
jects distributed in its several units. 

In the instrument and navigation unit alone 




several are iised to check the changes made to 
preserve accuracy In higher altitudes of Instru- 
ments with delicate springs, dla^diragns, gaskets 
and turbines. No less exaictlng are the low tem- 
perature tests of electrical systems and the 
equipment developed hy that unit. 

For physiological and* chemical studies, the 
Aero Medical Research liiit has a new low-pres- 
sure, low-temperatm*e chamber In which -55° C. 
can be maintained. Exclusive of the air-lock. 
It can comfortably acccnmodate six men. As an 
aid to the advancement of aviation medicine, 
this unique chajdber Is Ideal for measuring phy- 
sical reactions to exposure In cold and low 
pressvire simultaneously, for observing physio- 
logical changes In flight personnel while using 
oxygen, and for studies of fatigue and aero- 
embolism; and the effect of altitude on the 
sick, wounded, and on chemicals and medicines 
during transport by plane have been Investi- 

In the vital tests of oxygen siqjplles, masks 
and regulators In conjuncticxi with development 
of new equipment, cold chanbers are used to de- 
termine service life, fheezlrg characteristics, 
the maxlmun allowable molstvire ccwitent for oxy- 
gen, the efficiency of oxygen driers, and the 
operatlcm of respiratory valves at low tempera- 

Clothlpg Gets "Winterized" 

All new types of heavy flying equljxnent are 
siibjected to cold chanber tests by the Parachute 
Unit, Including gloves, boots, suits, helmets, 
as well as sleeping bags and electrically heated 

(At Ladd Field, Alaska, winterizing programs 
take advantage In winter of an outside tempera- 
ture tiiat frequently drops to -65° F. New types 
of fuel-serviclpg trucks, tractors, snow plows, 
crawler-wheel trailers, and various large main- 
tenance and salvaging articles are subjected to 
every kind of cold test.) 

So that guns will function wherever the air- 
plane goes, the Armament laboratory attacks Its 
low temperature problmns of lubrication, of tol- 
erances and prevention of condensation. In a 
cold chanber. hydraulically operated units, and 
gun chargers, valves, breechblocks, bcmbslghts 
and accessories need to ftmctlcn without freez- 
ing, Jamnlng or failure. 

To bring aerial photography to Its present 
performance at high altitudes, cold chambers 
were used by the Photographic laboratory to weed 
out some camera motors, shutters, film and lens 
which functioned well In Intermediate altitudes 
but not in the stratosphere. 


War Climbs 
(Continued from Page 48) 
talned at about the 8,000 foot level. 

After the Luftwaffe's failure to clear the 
R. A. F. from the skies by mass daylight bonbir^ 
raids in August and Septenber 1940 they began 
comirg over In small groups at much higher lev- 
els. One airplane used In this way was an adap- 
tation of the itesserschmltt Me-110 twin-epglne 
convoy fighter as a light bcober with an effec- 
tive celling of over 30,000 feet. The Spitfire 
Mark I and Hurricane Mark I fighters, which, 
with their higher speed and heavier fire-power, 
did such deveistatlng work in the mid-altitude 
range of 12,000 to 20,000 feet, lost a great 
deal of their effectiveness at the 30,000 foot 
level. Later models Increased the celling and 
the race for higher altitudes in the fighter 
class was in full swing. 

The latest Messerschmltt single engine 
fighter, the Me-109F, is reported to have a 
celling of over 38,000 feet, with the Spitfire 
Mark V and Hurricane Mark III and the newer 
Typhoon (by the makers of the Hurricane) In the 
same general vicinity or higher. The Materiel 
Division at Wright Field has been attacking the 
problems of high altitude flying from many 
angles, and in the fighter plane class has a 
ship which should hold its own with the best of 
than — the Reptibllc P-43 with turbo-supercharger, 
now in production and in operation by our Conbat 
Ccmnand. A leirger, much more p»owerful advanced 
version, the P-47B, is well along, and has been 
announced as going into large scale production 
within a few months. 

Boobers "Up Biere" Too 

In the bombardment field the Air Corp)s has 
pioneered with the long range 4-englne Boeing. 
This airplane has carried strategic bombing 
(three to four tons of badbs to objectives over 
1,500 miles away) to the substratosphere levels 
above 35,000 feet. As the Fortress Mark I, the 
R. A. F. Bonber Command has been enthusiastic 
about its performance and is looking forward to 
the newer models, the B-17E's, now coming Into 
production. The newest British heavy duty 
bombers, the 4-engine Short Stirling and 
Handley-Page Halifax, while in the same league 
as our B-17 eis to range and bcmb load, defin- 
itely do not have as high a celling, and this is 
also true of the German 4-engine Focke-Wulf 
Kurier . 

Victory usually goes to the plane "on top" and 
American research and engineering skill may be 
counted on to "Keep 'an flying higher." 



Physical Training 
(Continued from Page 10) 
schools had been giving no physical training 
whatever, and others substituted drill and un- 
controlled mass calisthenics for a progressive 
Individual program. 

The conferences were extremely productive. 
The first accomplishment was a deteririlnation of 
objectives. This was done by making a study of 
the various specialized types of Jobs the Army 
Air Forces are called upon to do. Men who are 
going to be pilots need a different type of 
jiiyslcal training from those who are going to be 
ground technicians. To date there have been two 
general programs set up: one for flyers and <w»e 

for technicians. As time goes on a more com- 
plete breakdown will probably be made. 

Much of what is the present Air Corps phys- 
ical training program was developed at the 
Southeast Training Center under the direction of 
Ernest B. Smith. Mr. Staith, former Professor of 
Physical Education at Alburn University, Ala- 
bama, was the first jbysical director to be em- 
ployed by the Air Forces. He hired a staff, 
held conferences and formulated many of the 
ideas which now serve as a basis for the entire 

Oice the first complete program had been de- 
vised and put into operation in the Southeast 
Center, the other flying training centers soon 
followed siilt. Many of the ideas advanced in 
these other training centers have proved to be 
improvements over the original program, and in 
many Instances have been incorporated in it. 
Coordinating efforts between flying training 
centers have so far been very successful, and 
the best of what has been developed in each sec- 
tion is being welded into an increasingly more 
uniform program that is getting superb results. 

Coordinated though it is, the program is not 
run ft- cm Washington. Each flying training cen- 
ter— -Southeast , Gulf Coast, West Coast — as well 
as the Technical Tralnlpg Ccnmand, Is responsible 
for its own system. Directives and instructions 
are issued from training center headquarters, 
and Instructors are hired there. 

Heading the program at the Gulf Coast Training 
Center is H.L. Berridge, former physical educ- 
ation instructor at the University of Texas. 
The West Coast program is being run by Douglas 
Dashlell, director of physical education at the 
University of Nevada, and the Air Corps Tech- 
nical Training Comnand chief Instructor is J.B. 
Miller, Director of Hiysical Education and Ath- 
letics at the Iftilverslty of Tulsa. 

At the present time the Air Corps has a field 
staff of approximately 350 physical instructors 
and directors. This staff is responsible for 
the pl^lcal conditioning of all Air Corps cadets 
in a daily program leisting at least one hour. 

When the Air Forces expand, a much larger 
staff of physical Instructors is envisioned. At 
this stage we will have accomplished a program, 
that should have been established in the period 
inmedlately following the World War. The exper- 
iences of the last war plainly indicated the 
needs for a program such as we are now carrying 

In concrete results the efforts made by the 
men who have developed the Air Corps physical 
training program as it exists today have been 
very encouraging. Since the program was put 
Into effect the nunfcer of cadets eliminated from 
pilot training in test classes has been reduced 
nine per cent, the average height has been in- 
creased .227 inches, and the average weight has 
increased 4.8 pounds. It is Impossible to de- 
termine whether these Improvements are due en- 
tirely to the establishment of the physical 
training program, but it is safe to assume that 
the program is at least partly responsible. 

For many years our enemies in this war have 
recognized the value of physical training in 
preparation for aerial ccnibat. Set against this 
in the present ccxifllct is the fact that, pri- 
marily, our manpower is at least physically 
equal if not superior to that of our enemies. 

Our task then is to press, in a cooperatively 
short time, a program of air crew and ground 
crew physical training that will Increase the 
Importance of this factor, thus constituting a 
mighty contribution to oior war effort. We have 
made a good beginning. And, JiKlglng from the 
results obtained so far, the program, in the 
end, will have more than Justified its under- 

To meet an increasing demand for meteorologists 
in the Amy Air Forces, training in that subject 
is being offered to a limited number of young 
men, not below 20 nor more than 26 years of age, 
who are in their senior year at a recognized 
college emd who have satisfactorily completed 
thorough courses in higher mathematics. Univer- 
sities designated as training centers for ac- 
cepted students 8u*e the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.; California In- 
stitute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.; New York 
University; Chicago University and University of 
California, Los Argeles. 




Col. Harold Lee George 

l^rig. Gen. Harold H. George, former conmand- 
-^ing general of the Philippines Air Force, 
and Col. Harold L. George, Chief of the Air War 
Plans Division, Air Staff, are often confused. 
Such was the case in the News Letter when Gen- 
eral George was inadvertently described as a 
heavy bombardment specialist. 

General George is a veteran pursuit pilot, 
having won the Distinguished Service Cross in 
World War I for attacking a formation of four 
German Fokkers, destroying two and driving the 
others back to their own territory. He was re- 
cently promoted to brigadier general for "gal- 
lantry in action" with General MacArthur's 
forces in the Philippines. Colonel George is a 
veteran of heavy bombardment, having conmanded 
the famous Second Bombardment Group at Langley 
Field and participated in the B-17 flights to 
South America. He was awarded the Distinguished 
Flying Cross for his work in these pioneer long 
distance flights with four -engined equlpnent. 

The Georges are not related althoygh they were 
born within a year of each other. General 
George is a native of Lockport, N.Y. Colonel 

Brig. Gen. Harold H. George 

George was born in Somerville, Mass. General 
George took flight training with the Air Corps 
in 1917 after four years service in the Infan- 
try. Colonel George came to the Air Corps in 
the same year after brief service in the Cav- 
alry. Both served overseas during the World 
War, General George with the 185th and 139th 
Aero squadrons and Colonel George with the 163rd 
Day Bombardment Group. Both are graduates of 
the Comnand and General Staff school and have 
commanded tactical units of the old GHQ air 
force. General George commajided the 24th and 
33rd Pursuit Squadrons, the 7th Observation 
Sqtjadron and the 8th and 31st Pursuit Groups. 

In addition to the Second Bont.ardment Group, 
Colonel George has cormiarxied the 72nd and 96th 
Bombardment Squadrons and served as a bombard- 
ment and tactics instructor at the Air Corps 
Tactical School. 

When Gen. Douglas MacArthur left the Philip- 
pines early in March, Gen. H.H. George was one 
of tlie staff officers who accompanleii )iim to his 
new post of Allied Conmander in Australia. 





3 6351 

MAY 1942 



VOL. 25 MAY, 1942 NO. 3 


A saga of the South Pacific 1 


The Director of Flying Safety tells why — By Col. S.R. Harris 3 


last month's Air Forces heroes 9 


How the photo Interpreter operates — By Thomas 0. Milius 11 


News from the field In a new department 15 


Recreation for the Air Forces — 5y Lt. Col. R.C. Jones 17 


An artist's impressions — By Capt. Rayrnwid Creekmore. ......... .18 


Soviet crash tactics described . .20 


Recent technical developments in the Air Forces 22 


Record holder explains its value — By Arthur H. Starnes 23 


Another front for the AAf’ — By Oliver H. Townsend 25 


Rlckeribacker and Hunter tour U.S. bases — By Maj. Falk Harmel 27 

Technical and Art Director— James T. Rauls 

front cover 

The airplane pictured on the front cover is the North American B-25. Famous 
for participating in General Royce’ s Australian based raid on Jap forces 
in the Philippines, this type of plane was also "blamed” by 
the Japanese for making the war’s first raid on Tokyo, 



these are being lost- -not in enemy lands but in the quiet 



greater one. 






forces know of IT! 




The Odds Be Damned 

A Saga of the South Pacific 

By Lieut. Robert B. Hotz 

I T was weird and ruthless war over the 
Indies . Native tom-toms blended with air 
raid sirens. Idyllic tropical harbors suddenly 
sprouted mushrocms of flame and steel under the 
Impact of bombs from six miles above. There 
were long hours of cruising over steaming 
jungles, jig-saw patterned islands, sandy beaches 
and watery wastes. There were long hours patch- 
ing, gassing and arming ships under the pitiless 
glare of the sun and the flame-spitting snouts 
of Zero fighters. Long missions wrapped in the 
softness of tropical moailight. Brief hours of 
sleep snatched under wings of grounded ships and 
meals of bananas, coconuts, chocolate and stale 

It was a backyard war. One minute you were 
over Jap fields giving them hell eind then you 
were back hc«ne to find that the Zeros and 
Mltsubishis had blasted your hangars and shot up 
your half-cooked lunch. It was a savage war 
with 6in active Fifth Colimn, faked signals and 
insignia. Everybody who "hit the silk" was a 
special t€irget for Jap machine guns. 

It was an epic war against heavy odds in which 
a handful of AAF heavy bcMfcers took on the Jap 
Air Force, Army and Navy in a battle the Japs 
will never forget. 

Heavy bombers fought the main actions over the 
Southwest Pacific. Most of them were Bl7 Ds 
and Es with a sprinkling of B-24s . All of them 
flew fron the bases in the United States to the 
Pacific battlefront, scxne before and some after 
the outbreak of war. 

Levin Blasts Haruna 

They bleisted Jap landing parties And convoys 
all the way from Legaspi and Apparri in the 

Hiillppines to Bali and Java in the Indies. One 
of them piloted by Capt. Colin Kelly gave the 
American people their first boost in morale when 
it carried Corporal Meyer Levin over the Haruna 
200 miles off northern Luzon and allowed Bom- 
bardier Levin to lay his only three eggs ob- 
liquely across the battleship from 23,500 feet 
and sink her. The banbers slowed the pace of 
the Jap drive southward and when they were 
pushed from their bases they made long night 
flights over lost territory to evacuate Air 
Force personnel from under the noses of the 

Some of those men who fought, flew and serv- 
iced that handful of AAF heavy bcanbers are now 
back in this country to teach the lessons they 
learned over the Indies. From them come details 
of the air saga of Southwest Riciflc. 

There was that moonlit night off Java when a 
Icme B-17 searched for a Jap convoy. As Capt. 
H.C. Snelser, pilot, describes it: 

"We were cruising over the sea at about 4,000 
feet when tracer bullets suddenly danced all 
around our plane. I ducked into seme clouds and 
climbed to about 15,000. We broke ihto the 
clear at about 3 a.m. and there below was the 
most perfect target I have ever seen — a Jap 
convoy of 30 ships escorted by four warships all 
silhouetted in the moonlight. 

"They were lined up two abreast and hardly a 
ship's length apart. They were steaming di- 
rectly into the moonlight so they couldn't see 
us coming up behind than. I de-synchronized the 
engines and Lieut. Marion L. Wheeler, the 
bontiardier, gave me directions for beginning our 
target run. We came over them and Wheeler 

MAY 1942 



planted eight 6(K) pourd boriljs smaok in the mid- 
dle of the column of ships. I ctxmted six shif« 
slnklrg before we left. With a few more 17s wc' 
could have wiped out tiie wisole convoy in tw(i 
minutes . 

"After we got back to Java three Australians 
flew some ancient crates tliat looked like the 
old Keystone bombers over the convoy at 500 feet 
and SEink some more ships. When they landed they 
looked at all the bullet holes in their ships, 
laughed like hell, h£td another drink of whiskey 
and made another run over the convoy." 

Nine For Wheeler 

Lieut. Wheeler, Capt. Smelser's bombardier, 
s£mk a total of nine Jap ships in the Indies 
from his perch in the nose of the B-17. In 
addition to the six in the convoy, he bracketed 
a heavy cruiser from 15,000 feet off Bali and 
destroyed two transports in Macassar Straits 
from 27,000 feet. Capt. Smelser calls him "the 
best bombardier in the Pacific" . 

Bombardiers, navigators and gunners were the 
unsung heroes of the Philippines and Indies 
battles. After playing second fiddle to pilots 
in peace-time practice they came into their own 
in the battles above the Indies as equal part- 
ners in the aerial conbat team. 

Bombardiers played a fvirt, Uuilar ! y impcirt ant 
role Iri the destruct.ior: of .lap ivava,.; powi'r. Ii. 
addition t.o Lieut. Wheeler aiKi Lorj). l.*'vin. 
Lleute , Cecil Gregg and Ralyiii Stone atKi Sere,! . 
William Burke compiled exceptional iy accuratt- 
bembing records under fire. Lieut.. Gregg, in 
tile lead plane making a heavy raid on the iiarbor 
of Davao, bracketed a Jap heavy cruiser with 
four 600 pound bombs from 30,000 feet. Sergt. 
Burke in the nose of a Flying Fortress piloted 
by Capt. William Bohnaker got another cruiser 
from about the same altitude. Four other Jap 
ships were destroyed by bombardiers in that 
raid. Lieut. Gregg also sank another cruiser 
during the battle of Macassar Straits and sev- 
eral transports off Bali. 

Captain Wheless 

The successful fight of a single B-17 against 
18 Zero fighters over Luzon is the aerial 
gunners' epic. The lone survivor of Clark 
Field, this B-17 was on its way to attack Jap 
leinding parties at Legaspi when Jap Zeros made 
(Continued on Page 36) 

Captain Eugene Vinson, recent ly returned from 
the Far East, demonstrates Jap Zero fighter 
tactics to a group of Key Field pilots. 

MAY 1942 

Accidents Must Stop 

By Col. S. R. Harris 

Oirector of Flying Safety 


A smashed up Army bomber In a midwestem cow 
peisture Is more of a victory for the Jap- 
anese than a Flying Fortress brought down In 
ccmbat over Burma. 

Losses of planes and perscwmel by accident are 
always worse than losses In battle. A bad 
accident means one less plane and cme less pilot 
or ccmbat crew to carry the fight to the enaiy. 
When the nearest Zero fighter Is some 4,000 
miles away frcm the accident. It means that this 
country has lost one of the most valuable cogs 
In Its war machinery without a bullet being 
fired or a bonb being dropped In return. 

Accidents will happen despite all of our pre- 
cautions. We must accept that. But a crackup 
resulting from carelessness or cockiness Is 
certainly an Inglorious end for the pilot who 
has received the best flight training the world 
has to offer, and from whom so much is expected 
In this war. This type of crackup Is anything 
but fair to members of the crew who have worked 
so hard to qualify for their jobs. It Is rank 
Injustice to the ground men and factory workers 
and designers who labored to place the plane In 
the hands of the pilot. 

Accident Rate Grows 

Yet, Air Forces pilots continue to crack up 
airplanes at a rate which Is causing serious 
concern. This year the rate of accidents to 
every 1,000 hours flown by military aircraft has 
Increased sxijstantlally. 

Such destruction of life and equipment cannot 
and will not be tolerated. This useless wastage 
can and must be stojjped. 

An analysis of airplane accident reports shows 
that 80 per cent of all accidents Involving 
military aircraft are the result of some human 
failure. This means they are preventable. This 
means they can be stojjped by constant vigilance, 
by the exercise of conmon sense aiKi the observ- 
ance of the fundemental rules of safe flying. 

No airplane Is so "hot" It can't be safely 
flown if handled properly. 

The number of accidents attributed to errors 
of personnel is increasing at a rate out of 
proportion to the increase in airplanes and 
pilots . 

Accidents attributable to materiel failure 

remain at a ccmparatlvely constant rate. Every 
effort Is being made through research, design 
Improvements, and constant surveillance of 
equipment to further reduce these accidents . 

Up To Airmen 

Reduction of the personnel type of accident Is 
strictly up to the men who fly the planes and 
the men In caanand. 

Accidents can be reduced, but only with the 
cooperation of everyone — Commanding Offi- 
cers as well as the greenest Aviation Cadets. 

In recognition of the vital importance of 
accident prevention. General Arnold has set up a 
new Directorate of Flylpg Safety as an Independ- 
ent unit In the Headquarters Army Air Forces. 
It is the job of this agency to see, through 
directives, publicity, close supervision and 
disciplinary action, that accidents are reduced. 
The Directorate has set as its goal a 25 per 
cent reduction in aircraft accidents during the 
next 12 months, and is ready to take drastic 
action to achieve It. 

To carry out the program set up by the Direc- 
torate, 20 Regional Safety Officers will go out 
into the field to inspect and report upon local 
efforts to cut down the nuntoer of aujcldents. 

These officers will work directly under the 
Commanding General of the Air Forces. It will 
be up to them to maintain close personal contact 
with each Air Force unit within their region, 
and to Investigate and report to Headquarters on 
preictices, systems, and. In fact, on everything 
affecting flying safety. They will also make 
special studies of the causes of accidents and 
reconmend preventative measures. Directives 
will be prepared and published from Headquarters 
on the basis of their findings. 

Investigations Still Used 

The use of the new Regional Safety Officer 
systan will in no way affect the existing method 
of Invest jgatlig and reporting accidents, liider 
this system the Comnandlng Officers of all Air 
Forces stations appoint an Aircraft Investiga- 
tion Ccnmlttee, composed of three madDers, whose 
duty Is to Investigate accidents, determine 
their cause, and to make recommendations upon 
(Continued on Page 6) 

MAY 1942 







iMe Mupid (lAOiftP ■ ’ 


T he cartoons reproduced on these pages are 
ajnong a set of 12 which will shortly appear 
as colored posters on walls and bulletin boards 
throughout the Air Forces. These posters are 
"brain child" of Captain Willard Van D, Brown, 
of Wheeler Field, Hawaii. The original drawings 
were the work of Mr. Jack EWing, Wheeler Field 
Fire Chief. They were redrawn for use as 
posters by an Air Forces artist. 

Before Flight Safety had come to the front as 
a vital Air Forces program and before the direc- 
torate of Flight Safety had been established. 
Captain Brown was pondering what he calls "an 
original approach to the problem of pointing out 
and en 5 )haslzing to our flying cadets and junior 
officer trainees the most consistently re-oc- 
curing mistakes which they make in primary, 
basic and advemced flying schools, and continue 
to make after reporting for duty as rated 
pilots . " 

Captain Brown knew what he was talking about. 
He had graduated from Randolph Field in 1932 and 
in 10 years he had been through the mill . He had 
observed, and according to his own reports, had 
experienced those mistakes in flight. 

Captain Brown had seen a few of the Flight 
Safety posters published by the Royal Air Force, 
but was more interested in showing cause and 
effect in typical American fashion. His ponder- 
ing resulted in catching the slang and doggerel 

of the Air Forces and of using it with illus- 
trated cartoons to tell a vitally serious story 
with a semi-hunorouB touch. 

The three posters reproduced here are good 
examples of the entire .set. Others tell of 
"iwihappy twerps" who forgot about checking their 
landing gear, neglected to switch to a full tank 
of gas, forgot the old axiom: 

The truest tale a pilot learns, that's known 
from pole to pole: 

"A ship is never landed 'til its wheels have 
ceased to roll". 

Of his project. Captain Brown is deadly seri- 
ous, and expresses the hope that if the posters 
can prevent the loss of a single airplane their 
purpose will have been achieved. 

The Director of Flying Safety, whose own re- 
port on the accident prevention campaign appears 
on other pages of this issue, has expressed the 
hope that Captain Brown's efforts will stimulate 
others in the Air Forces along similar lines. 
One of the needs at present is a similar poster 
set directed toward accident prevention among 
ground cr^s and maintenance men. 

The News Letter is prepared to devote space 
each issue to the Flight Safety program and 
welccmes articles and art work on this subject 
originating in the field. Full consideration 
will be given every such ccntrlbutlon. 

• • 

MAY 1942 



Accidents Must Stop 

(Continued from Page 3) 

which to base corrective action. One of these 
conmlttees goes to the scene of every accident, 
makes Its Investigations there, and submits Its 
report to headquarters. ' 

The questions the committee tries to answer 
are: What caused the accident? How did It 
occur? How can accidents such as this one be 
prevented? Statements of witnesses, a close 
study of the wreckage and the circumstances of 
the accident, and the pilot’s personal, official 
and medical history form the basis of the 
report. Sabotage Is always considered as a 
possibility until definitely ruled out by the 

When finished, the report is sent to Wash- 
ington where It Is reviewed and siibjected to 
critical analysis. The Information taken frcm 
it is broken down under 80 headings and tabu- 
lated with other data In the form of charts, 
graphs and tables. The reconmendatlons of the 
Investigating Comnittee are also carefully con- 
sidered, and corrective action is taken In the 
form of directives and suggestions to opera- 
tional units, engineers, training Instructors 
and recruiting officers. 

Educational Campaign 

In addition to continuing this report system 
and setting up the Regional Safety organization, 
the Directorate of Flying Safety will also con^ 
duct an Intensive educational and publicity 
campaign. This will be designed to acquaint 
pilots with some of the more common forms of 
accidents, to suggest preventative measures and 
to warn them to keep on guard against the care- 
lessness that Inevitably leads to eujcldents. 

Included in the campaign will be articles, 
posters, radio prograums, motion pictures, pho- 
tographs and every other kind of Informational 
device capable of impressing upon Air Forces 
personnel the necessity of teeping a constauit 
vigil that preventable aircraft accidents do not 
occur. The Directorate is deadly serious in its 
effort to cut down these accidents, and proposes 
to use every weapon in its power to achieve its 

Experience has always been the direct crlte- 
tion of safety in flying. A pilot through long 
years of flying builds up a fund of knowledge 
upon which he draws automatically in eui emer- 

Up until two years ago ’.ve had, in the main, an 
experienced Air Force. It was a small, highly 

trained, closely knit group. It was an organ- 
ization which had been built up slowly over a 
period of years. Its operations were understood 
by practically all of its personnel, and it was 
supervised by a small nudjer of officers of lorig 

Problems Of Growth 

With the declaration of emergency, overnight 
there was placed upon the shoulders of this 
small group of experienced officers the tremen- 
dous problem of building an Air Force second to 
none. This meant procurlig more airplanes than 
had ever before existed, of obtaining pilots to 
fly them, crews to man them and mechanics to 
maintain them. On top of this was the problem 
of organizing this vast mass into efficient can- 
bat units capable of carrying the fight to the 

In one year and nine months the number of 
military airplane pilots increased 315 per cent, 
the ramber of students learning to fly Increased 
1,000 per cent, the nunber of military airplanes 
increased over 4D0 per cent and the number of 
hours flown 800 per cent. 

Under an expansion program such eis this it 
was only natural that a large number of experi- 
enced personnel had to be taken from the flying 
line and placed in planning, tralnlpg and admin- 
istrative posltlcms. As a result the ratio of 
experienced to inexperienced pilots dropped 
abruptly — frcm one to three to ehout one to six. 
Since then, a continuously increasing dilution 
has been in progress, until today the ratio of 
experienced to inexperienced personnel in the 
flying activities of the Air Forces is about one 
to 50. This is expected to drop still lower, 
to one to 150, by the end of the fiscal year 

Iftider present conditions it is no longer pos- 
sible to closely supervise the newly-graduated 
pilot, to build up his experience step by step 
under ideal conditions, or to substitute close 
supervision by old-timers for his lack of 
experience. Today another substitute must be 
used. It is instruction, and the efficient use 
by pilots of the accumulated experience of the 
Air Forces throughout the years, as expressed in 
directives, posters and other media utilized to 
dissanlnate sai*ety informat loi. 

Some of the best outlines of what to avoid in 
flying are contained in the reports of Inves- 
tigating Conmlttees submitted from the field. A 
study of these shows that 56 per cent of all 
accidents occur in landing and 10 more per cent 


MAY 1942 


In taxiing. These above all others can be 
prevented by the use of ccnmon sense, and by the 
ability of the pilot to stay "on his toes". 

These same reports also reveal that a great 
mnfcer of accidents could have been prev«ited on 
the ground before take-off — ^by pilots simply 
taking the time to get the "feel" of any new or 
different ship they are going to fly. Ninety- 
nine per cent of this getting acquainted process 
can be done on the ground, the rest should be 
dene up about 10,000 feet before any tactical or 
cross-coimtry flying is done with a new type. 

A few of the more obvious lessons to be 
learned from past accident experiences of Air 
Forces personnel are the following: (l) Get 

thoroughly eicqualnted with your airplane so you 
will instinctively go for the right controls in 
case of CTiergency, (2) Don't be foolish, cocky, 
or careless, (3) Don't let your mind wander, but 
concentrate on flying your airplane, and 
(4) Don't disobey instructions and directives. 

Flyers who hedge-hop into high tension wires, 
crane in with the landing gear up, fly into 
thunder heads and collide with other planes do 
not belong in an air force faced with the 
serious job of conducting a life and death 
struggle with the Luftwaffe and the Japanese. 

This is war. Our purpose is to win it. But 
we can't win it with airplanes that are strewn 
in pieces over the countryside, and with pilots 
who crack up before they even see a Jap simply 
because they are too careless, too cocky or too 
disobedient to observe the ftindamental rules of 
flying saTety. 

We need the cooperation of every officer and 
man in the Army Air Forces to put this program 
across. Without it we must fall. With it we 
can reduce our accident rate much more than the 
25 per cent set as our goal . The builders , the 
maintenance men and many others are doing their 
job to get the planes flying, its the pilot's 
job to keep 'em there. 

• • 

Safety is Possible 

M CHE than a year of accident-free operations 
imder pre-war and war conditions which re- 
quired flying in all kinds of weather has been 
completed by pursuit squadrons under the cramand 
of Captain Mervin L. McNiclde, Army Air Forces, 
according to War Department records. 

Captain McNickle was In command of the 39th 
Pursuit Sqijajdron of the 35th Pursuit Group from 
January 15, 1941 to January 25, 1942, and has 
been In cotanarKi of the 307th Pursuit Squadron of 


the 31st Rjrsuit Group from February 1, 1942, to 

During the period in which they were under his 
conmand, these two squadrons have craspleted 
2,393,745 miles of flying without a casualty. 

The record is regarded as the more remarktible 
in view of the arduous service performed by the 
squadrons during these many months. The 39th 
Squadron mode its record of perfect siifety iiider 
Captain McNickle 's conmand while engaged in the 
Louislam maneuvers, the 1st Interceptor Conmand 
Exercises, the 3rd Interceptor Conmand Exer- 
cises, the North Carolina maneuvers, several 
demondtrations including exercises at Fort 
Belvoir, Va., and war-time service in the 
Pacific Coast theater of operations. 

— ^ 


EVENGE will be sweet for Tom You Quon. 

His wife and three sons were killed by fire 
from Japanese warships while attempting to 
escape from Hong Kong. His country hag been 
ravaged by Jap troops. And he himself has a few 
accounts to square as a result of two years' ex- 
perience battling the Japs as a member of the 
Chinese Air Force. New Quon is in the U.S. Army 
Air Forces, stationed at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo. , waiting for his opportunity to help his 
adopted Uncle Sam. 

In 1932, Quon, who left China at 14, took a 
course at the Alford Flying School, LeGrange, 
111. By 1937, when the Chinese war began, he 
had 200 flying hours to his credit and returned 
to China for active duty. There he was assigned 
to pursuit squadrons and flew several makes of 
American planes. 

"At that time," Quon said, "we were fighting 
the Japs at Kwangsl Province near Canton. I got 
a good deal of coiribat experience, even though we 
often fought against terrific odds, since the 
Japs had 50 planes to our one. I was never 
wounded, although two of my planes were destroy- 
ed and I had to bail out. We didn't have any 
flyir^ conveniences, either. We had no radio 
and we had to determine our course by land- 

Quon's qualifications are now being studied 
for disposition. One possibility is that he may 
be assigned to the Air Corps Ferrying Command 
because he ferried Russian planes frran Moscow to 
China during one period of his Chinese Air Force 



Dispatches iron the war fronts bring a steadily growing list of Army Air 
Forces Heroes, and while the editors of the News Letter hope to print 
each month in this space the names of all those who have been decorated 
for outstanding achievesient in action, the pace of combat activity makes 
it extremely difficult to present complete reports. The Sews Letter's 
Honor Koll will always include complete coverage of all Air Forces cita* 
tions made or confirmed by the Adjutant General's Office in Washington. 
Last month's Air Forces citations featured these names, although 
the individual action was not always described in cable dispatches, 

BRIG. GEN. HAROLD H. GEORGE, who was killed April 30th in a plane crash, was 
posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Medal--" for exceptionally 
meritorious service to the government in a post of great responsibility. 
General George served as Chief of Staff, Far Eastern Air Force, as 
Conmanding Officer, Fifth Interceptor Command, and from Dec, 21, 1941, 
to March 11, 1942, commanded all Air Forces troops in the Philippine 
Islands, In this capacity, he had full responsibility for all Air 
Forces operations in the defense of the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor and 
the other fortified islands at the entrances of Manila Bay, He had 
brilliant strategical and tactical concepts, and under continual attacks 
by hostile aviation in greatly superior numbers, demonstrated outstand- 
ing capacity for command, operating weak forces in such manner as to 
fulfill the urgent needs of the command and to strike the enemy effec- 
tively when opportunity offered. His personal courage and unceasing 
devotion to duty, his ingenuity in improvising when normal means were 
lacking, and his inspiring leadership in the execution of seemingly 
impossible tasks kept his force intact and effective in spite of all 
enemy efforts and contributed immeasurably to the defensive effort of 
the entire command", 


BRIG. GEN. RALPH ROYCE-chie/ of staff of the American Army Air Forces 
in Australia- -“ for heroism and extraordinary achievement: in aerial 
flight against an armed enemy”, Gen, Royce lead a 4,000 mile flight of 
three B-17 bombers and ten B-25 bombers in a daring raid on shipping, 
airfields, and other installations at four Japanese-held points in the 
Philippine Islands on April 13 and 14, .4s a result of the raid, the 

bombers sank four enemy ships, probably sank another, hit an additional 
airfields and troop concentrations. For this same achievement, the 
Distinguished Service Cross was also awarded to LT. COL. JOHN HUBERT 
DAVIS, squadron leader of the B-25s, and CAPT. FRANK P. BOSTROM, 
pilot of one of the B-17s who saved himself and his crew despite 
destruction of his plane. 



MAJOR DAVID GIBBS— for extraordinary heroism in action in the Philippines 
and Dutch East Indies. (No details available, ) 

CAPr. RAY COX and CAPE. FRED CRIMMINS- for entering burning hangars on 
Clark Field during the first Japanese attack on the Philippines, calmly 
starting the engines of many planes and taxiing them to safety. (Due 
to an error in the cables, Capt. Crimmins was listed in the March-April 
SENS LETTER under the name of Ciasmings.^ 

LIEUT. RUSSELL M. CHURCH-(' f*oa f/iumous^- for conducting an attack on 25 
airplanes parked on a hostile airfield in the Philippines in the face 
of heavy anti-aircraft fire. Although his plane had been set on fire, 
he dived more than a half mile to release his bombs with marked effect, 
and died in his crashing airplane. 

LIEUT. CARL P. GIES— for extraordinary achievement during an attack on 
Del Carmen Field, P.I, With complete disregard for the personal risk 
involved, he engaged 20 hostile craft and brought dornn one enemy plane, 
and later upon rejoining a companion airplane , was attacked by three 
enemy fighters . His furious attack sent one raider crashing and 
dispersed the two remaining enemy planes. 

LIEUT. JOSE P. GOZAR— for heroically fighting off Japanese planes over 
Zablan Field, P.I, When his guns Jammed he continued the attack by 
attempting to ram an enemy plane. By his display of courage and leader- 
ship and after a series of such maneuvers he forced the enemy to flee 
without further attacks against the airdrome. 

LIEUr. RANDALL KEATOR-for outstanding achievement in attacking three 
enemy planes and bringing down the first hostile plane destroyed in 
air combat in the Philippines. He was joined by other American aircraft 
and in the ensuing combat two more enemy planes were shot down. While 
returning to Clark Field, he pursued an enemy plane and engaged it 
until it plunged in flames. (Lieut. Keator was erroneously listed as 
Randall Preator in the February NEWS LETTER.) 

LIEUT. JOSEPH LAFIEUR-for extraordinary achievement in action in the 
Philippines. (Details unknown.) 

LIEUT. GRANT MAHOfCY-for volunteering for an extremely dangerous aerial 
reconnaissance mission over Luzon in early December. He secured vital 
information needed for a subsequent successful bombing attack. Next 
day, upon returning from a bombing mission near Legaspi , in which he 
destroyed an enemy flying boat, he displayed exceptional courage in 
landing his airplane with bombs dangerously hanging from their racks 
in preference to bailing out. 

SERGT . ANTHONY HOLUB-for his display of personal heroism and devotion 

to duty. When a heavy aerial bombardment began on Clark Field, he 

ran to his airplane and returned the machine gun fire of attacking 

planes from the top turret guns of his craft. After his ammunition 

was exhausted, he ran through heavy strafing fire to a nearby damaged 

plane, removed as many ammunition cans as he could carry and returned 

to his guns, defending his aircraft from serious damage, . _ 

(Continued on Page 33) 



MAY 1942 

Before - Camouflaged Airdrome - After 

Swivel Chair Bombardier 

lly Thomas O. Miliiis 

Photo Interpretation t’nit, A-2 

W roTTHER you read Shakespeare or the comics, 
you know about camouflage — the fallen log 
that gets up and nmis away carrying a rifle, the 
haystack that skips over the brook and up the 
opposite bank in high gear. 

Camouflage was old stuff when Birnam Wood went 
to Dunslnane in Shakespeare's sneak attack on 

The aerial camera has put old-fashl(xied camou- 
flage on the spot. Sleight-of-hand concealment 
has been forced into new techniques for de- 
ceiving the bombardier up above and the behlnd- 
the-lines observer who wasn't there — the photo 
Interpreter . 

Whether flying at high altitudes beyond anti- 
aircraft range or hedge-hopping, at 3 00 miles an 
hour, the bcmbardier still has his troubles in 
spotting any highly camouflaged target in time 
to bomb It accurately. In fact, flyers often 
find it difficult to locate their own highly 
camouflaged bases when returning from a mission; 
in some cases they have to be "talked in." 

“Secret Weapon” 

Hie plioto-interpreter has been this war's 
secret weapon on the anti-camouflage front. 
Furnish him with clear photographs and he will 

analyze the pictured landscape in detail, clear- 
ing up at his leisure all the mysteries that 
escaped the above- the-spot observer. 

The photo Interpreter is the swivel chair 
bombardier. Like the armchair general, he never 
misses. A reconnaissance pilot speeds over his 
target on the lookout for enemy interceptors, 
flak, his predetermined course and altitude. A 
photo interpreter, back at base headquarters, 
studies the still, flat surface of a pair of 
aerial reconnaissance photographs under the 
stereoscope, and sees the colorful landscape in 
a kaleidoscopic pattern of gray tones before 

The stereoscope gives the photo- Interpreter a 
third-dimensional view. This compact device of 
magnifying lenses, adapted from Grandma's parlor 
stereopticon, in the hands of the photo inter- 
preter becomes as tidy a lethal weapon as the 
Garand rifle. With it he can locate not only 
the camouflaged target, biit make a reasonable 
conjecture as to the next enemy move. He can 
Identify tiie number and typies of aircraft, for 
exajnple, and read all the vital statistics of an 
enemy area from the picture. 

The primary objective for the photo inter- 
preter, as for all other participants in total 

MAY 1912 



air war. Is the enemy airfield. Now that the 
sky Is a front line trench, the vulnerability of 
the airfield to attack — both by bonbtng and by 
aerial photographic reconnaissance — has assigned 
camouflage to extra heavy guard duty around such 
vital areas. 

The value of camouflage for known airfields is 
to pjuzzle the bcmfcardler, delaying his recog- 
nition of his teirget for the split second that 
may determine success or failure of the mission. 
For new and secret installations or airfields, 
the aim is to conceal them as long as pxjsslble 
from jjhotographic reconnaissance and interpre- 
tation. Thus, delay may be caused in the rec- 
ognition of new buildings, new runways, unac- 
customed activities, preparations for a cam- 
paign, or extension of the size and strength of 
known fields. 

The photo interpreter has three camouflage 
nuts to crack— concealment, disguise and decoys. 

The best way to keep an interpreter from 
drawing the right conclusion about what goes on 
at £in airfield is to keep him from seeing any- 
thing. To this end, the enemy will adopt the 
most rudimentary form of concealment — Just plain 
hiding. The pilot will p)ark his aircraft under 
trees out of sl^t, in tents covered with foli- 
age, or under elaborate structures of netting. 
Supplies are similarly kept under cover, in 
every sense of the word. 

Tricks Of The Trade 

Another device for keeping installations out 
of sight is simply to bury them. This is often 
a means for protecting fuel stores and pjersonnel 
shelters. Their presence may be revealed to the 
photo interpreter, however, by small mounds of 
earth which are given a startling third dimen- 
sion of stereo vision, or by truck tracks or 
footpaths leading to the movmds. This type of 
concealment may nevertheless be very difficult 
to spot unless located during construction. By 
comparative pjhotographs , the photo interpreter 
may find a clue in the personnel activity or in 
the aircraft habitually parked near the sus- 
pected areas. 

Instead of hiding the installations, it is 
possible for the enemy to copy sane of nature's 
woodcraft tricks and make the whole field blend 
with the landscape — not enough to conceal it, 
but enough to delay recognition on the pert of 
the bombardier. This protective coloration 
technique takes a tip from animals that wear 
vertical stripes to harmonize with the tall 
jungle grass they live in, or those dappled with 

spots like the patches of light and shade in 
their forest lairs. 

The camouflaged airfield will have an outline 
to conform with the pattern of the landscape — a 
straight and decided outline in an area of geo- 
metric farm piatterns, an irregular and indef- 
inite outline in a region of unbroken, unfenced 
wooded areas. Installations are sited so as to 
take advantage of natural cover such eis woods 
and contours of the ground; aircraft may be 
parked in gapjs cut in hedges so that their wlpgs 
will carry on the line of the hedge. Sites are 
avoided if they have geographic cues, such as 
lakes, river forks, monuments, or other lauid- 
marks that may help a bombardier quickly iden- 
tify the location. The installations are toied 
down by darkening roofs, runways, and taxi ways 
with paint or cinders or sane other medium which 
will make them photograph the same tone as the 
surroundlrg area. Disruptive painting, however, 
if done inadequately, is worse than useless, 
both for runways and buildings. 

Disguise Is Best 

Airfields located in mixed open and wooded 
areas, with natural avenues of approach, are 
easier to blend into the existing landscape 
pattern. The wooded areas are therefore espe- 
cially subject to the photo interpreter's sus- 
plclai as is any unaccountable traffic hlgh:- 
ways. In either heavily wooded areas or flat 
opjen country, blending would be less successflil 
for concealmait than other devices. 

The type of camouflage that poses the most 
difficult problem for the photo interpreter is 
disguise. The suspicious elements may be 
plainly seen, but how can he tell whether they 
are what they seon? The answer is found through 
judgment rather than through direct recognition. 

The photo interpreter may find that furrows, 
canals, hedges, fences and other apparent ob- 
structions are merely painted on an airfield to 
make it seem to be unvisable. (on one field the 
German Air Force painted a lake) . Roads, ave- 
nues of trees, orchards, and regular patterns of 
subdividing farm fields are painted across the 
airfield as a usual practice. This artificially 
projects the pattern of the landscape upx)n the 
field. Each Installation of the airfield may 
have its own disguise, appropriate to its size 
and situation, in keeping with the surrounding 
countryside. The hangar may look like a barn, 
with an adjoining orchard painted beside it. 
Personnel huts may masquerade as cottages with 
garden patches, arranged along their apjpr opr late 
village streets, like the layout used at Dekooy. 


MAY 1942 


Another sector of the field may he planned to 
resemble a churchyard. (The German Air Force 
does not limit Itself to any standard type of 
structure, but follows the policy of using the 
obvious but Innocent- looking structures char- 
acteristic of the area) . Every building big 
enough to be useful should, in such excessively 
innocent areas, be suspect. 

Fooling The Shadow 

Another element of disguise is the technique 
of altering the shadow jjattern and the apparent 
outline of an installation. On German airfields, 
netting and built-up camouflage structures are 
extensively used to cast an irregular shadow 
pattern and disguise a building's outline. The 
interpreter can circumvent these wiles with the 
aid of stereo vision's third dimension, looking 
for the contours of the structure within the 
pattern rather than the general shape. 

A neat Na^i stunt for camouflaging an airfield 
is to duplicate all installations in a decoy 
field, to draw enemy fire, and with no other 
operational use. When night bombing is the 
threat, a mock airfield is set up sane distance 
from the actual field. The shape of the runway 
is duplicated and treated so that it gives off a 
faint glow, or at least is discernible at night. 
The type of decoy field designed for protection 
against day bonibing is generally set up nearer 
the real field, complete with runways, taxi 
tracks, dispersal areas, dunniy aircraft, and in 
sane cases even the field markers. 

On these dunmy fields the photo interpreter's 
close scrutiny uncovers a conspicuous lack of 
the usual airfield activity and of minor instal- 
lations. His responsibility, whenever he 
observes an apparent duplication of airfields, 
is to detennlne which is the decoy, so that the 
bontoardier will be on guard against this decep- 

The Stereoscope 

To circumvent these devious aims of camou- 
flage, the photo interpreter has only one basic 
tool — the stereo vision made possible by the 
stereoscope, which gives him depth perception. 
The stereoscojje projects the flat surface of the 
pair of aerial photographs into third-dimen- 
sional relief. What had appeared to be a flat 
rectangle on the picture, when viewed by stereo 
turns out to be the domed roof of a camouflaged 
hangar. This third-dimensional relief enables 
him to determine if the pattern that suggests 
trees is merely paint on a disguised runway or 

actually trees standing out in full relief and 
casting shadows. By stereo he may recogilze the 
true nature of what appears as a dark irregular 
shadow pattern on the photograph: it becomes 

the rectangular roof of a camouflaged aircraft 
shelter in a disguising clunp of shrubbery. 

As an aid to rapid analysis, the photo inter- 
preter must develop a sense of texture and depth 
perception. Tlie texture alone may be the tlp)- 
off to a camouflaged field — an airfield must of 
necessity be firm and hsird. A pattern of paint- 
ed fields stretching across it, even though 
blending in color with surrounding farm areas, 
will show by their hard surface that they are 
not bearing a crop. A sensitive perception of 
depth — that is, relief, or irregularity in 
contour — will help him penetrate the disguise 
that depends on outline rather than height. 

There are a half-dozen or so touchstones which 
serve as clues to the penetration of camouflage, 
such as roads, taxi tracks, runways, earth 
scarred from excavations, mounds of heaped-up 
earth. A methodical procedure for the photo 
interpreter, in inspecting photographs for 
camouflaged airfields, could be worked out sone- 
what along the likes of the following steps. 


First, to spot an airfield on a reconnaissance 
strip of a suspected area, quickly scan the 
pictures for stretches of level ground or fields 
without obstruction, or with the least obstruc- 
tions — large enovgh for landing aircraft. 

Second, having eliminated all except photo- 
graphs of relatively clear stretches, (which are 
level and large enough) , inspect these for 
possible hangars and runways — the largest ele- 
ments of an airfield, and the most difficult to 
conceal. Any building big enough to house or 
hide an installation should be open to suspi- 
cion. Pay attention to straight stretches of 
usable road and long stretches of well drained 
turf that might serve the purpose of a runway. 

Third, watch for an area in which the texture 
is definitely flat and bald, in contrast to the 
velvety fields of growing crops. The flatness 
may indicate the camouflaged landing field, 
scratched ard. packed down with use. 

Fourth, watch for slight deviations fron the 
pattern of the landscapje. Fields with outlines 
that are too geonetrlcal, too regular, or too 
big may be merely painted across the airfield. 
Roads that are too straight, clean, and sharply 
defined may be painted dummies; roads actimlly 
(Continued on Page 31) 

MAY 1942 



This will introduce Cross Country , a new 
and informal section of this magazine which 
each month will feature local news bits. A 
lot depends on you. We would like to get 
our local news right from the horse’s mouth: 
so send in your contributions , including 
snapshots and photographs with a human in- 
terest touch. Address your contributions 
direct to the Editor. AIR FORCES NEWS LET- 
TER, Public Relations Division, AAF , Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

The Edi tor 

W HAT family Is "most represented" in the 
Service? The Jenkins family of Verbena, 
Ala., has seven sons on active duty with the 
armed forces. Two are in the Air Forces: 
Charles, a master sergeant at Duncan Field, and 
Robert, a staff sergeant at Efelln Field, Fla. 
The Army Ground Forces and Navy claim the 

others The Watkins family of Weishington, 

D.C. also can claim seven. Col. Dudley Watkins 
is on active duty at the Air Force Proving 
Ground at %lln Field, Fla. and six sons are in 
service. Lt. John C.A. Watkins, former editor 
of the AIR FORCES NEWS LETTER. Is now a student 
flying-officer at Tuscaloosa; Jack, also a 
lieutenant, has been at Hlckam Field since before 
Dec. 7; two others are in the RAF; another is 
with the Army engineers in Iceland, and the 
youngest, soon to be cannissioned a lieutenant, 
is in the senior ROTC brigade at the University 

of Michigan Aviation Cadet Van W. Jones of 

Kelly's Advanced Flying School has a brother Ted 
in the Marines, Richard in the Army, Robert in 
the Navy. .... .Mothers with JTour or more sons in 
the armed forces are entitled to receive the 
SriDlCT of Honor, a gold medal which bears a star 
for each son represented. Information concern- 
ing mothers who can qualify should be sent to 
the Einblem of Honor Association, 60 East 42nd 

Street, New York, N.Y One of the first 

mothers to be honored was Mrs . Dora Cooper of 
Samson, Ala. , who received the Bnblem frcm Maj . 
Gen. George E. Stratemeyer, Commanding the 
Southeast Air Force Training Center, in a 
special ceremony at which four of her five sons 
in military service were present. The fifth is 

in Basra, Iraq, with the U.S. Military Mission. 

Godman Field wants pictures for its 
Squadron history book of any and all offi- 
cers and men who have served at one time or 
another in the 15th Observation Squadron. 
When sending pictures, please give full 
name, date of service with this organiza- 
tion, and rank at that time. Pictures 
should be sent to the Public Relations offi- 
cer, 15th Observat ion Squadron, Godman 
Field, Fort Knox, Kentucky. 

"Get 'Em There, Get 'Em Back" is the new 
slogan of the Navigation School at Turner Field, 
Ga. . . . . . .Althongh he has been flyli^ since 1921, 

Col. Warner B. Gates, Commanding Officer at 
Lawson Field, meuie his first flight in a com- 
mercial airplane recently when he flew to San 
Antonio on a Ferrying Command mission. .... .The 

Amy's first parachutist chaplain is Raymond S. 
Hall of Ft. Benning, Ga. After a week of talk- 
ing to the men he applied for permission to take 
the five-week training course. He found it 
rough going but now is a qualified chutist and 
looks forward to each Jump. The men's reaction 
to his jumping? "It increased attendance at 
chapel", Chaplain Hall rejtorts. 

The President has nominated Col. Claire L. 
Chennault, commander of the American Volunteer 

Group in China, to be a brigadier general 

Every time Sgt. Thomas Snow picks \ip the phone 
on his desk in headquarters at Camp Blanding, 
Fla., he has to say, "Special Services Section, 

Sgt. Snow speaking" Pvt. David Sackson, 

former conductor of the Charleston Symphony 
Orchestra, and a member of the New York Phil- 
harmonic and NBC Symphony Orchestras and the 
Coolidge and Gordon string quartets, recently 
finished washing sjjuds, cleaned up, rushed over 
frcm K.P. duty to the Service Club, and brought 
down the house at Keesler Field, Miss, with a 
Bach violin recital. 

Two new service medals, the American De- 
fense Service Medal, first to be awarded by 

MAY 1942 



the Army since the World War Victory Medal, 
and the Good Conduct Medal for enlisted men 
have been ordered established by the Pres- 
ident. The first will be awarded to all 
U.S. military personnel for honorable 
service of 12 months or longer between Sept. 
1939 and December 7, 1941. The Good Conduct 
medal is authorized for award to those 
enlisted men who on or after June 28, 1941, 
honorably completed three years of active 
Federal military service and who are recom- 
mended for the award by their Commanding 
Officers for exemplary behavior, efficiency 
and fidelity. 

Harold Gatty, who flew around the world 
with the late Wiley Post in 1931 is now on 
duty with the U.S. Army Air Forces in Aus- 
tralia Major Warren Eaton, inventor of 

the radio compass, is now at Wright Field. 

Hls former co-workers In a plant at Aliquippa, 
Pa., recently sent Pvt. Ray Reed of Geiger 
Field, Wash., a 10,000 word letter on a strip of 

X»per 6 Inches wide, 40 feet long Friends 

In Bethlehem, Pa., sent Pvt. Raymond Kindt of 
Mather Field, Cal., a letter 14 Inches wide and 

9 feet lopg More than half the newest class 

of navigation cadets at Kelly Field's Navigation 
School, the largest In the AAF, have had no 
previous flying experience. They entered the 
school direct from civilian life or other Arvay 

branches Gunter Field, Ala., tells of the 

civilian, invited to visit the field, who wrote: 
"Maybe I could arrange to fly at Gunter Field if 

you have a landing field" Herbert C. 

Klynstra, who has toured the country with a 
nationally known circus as a clown, is now at 
Kelly Field. He has also been a carpenter, 
acrobat, truck driver, salesman, shipping clerk, 
and farm hand. 

The Navy has been given full command over all 
anti-siibmarlne activities on both coasts, and 
Army air units have been allocated to the Naval 

Conmanders of Sea Frontiers An Airborne 

Command has been created in the Army Ground 
Forces, with headquarters at Fort Bragg, N.C. 
Several glider units from the AAF will be made 
available for special training under the Air- 
borne Conmand Great Britain has formed an 

Army Air Corps bringing all air-borne troops 
under one imit. Previously all planes belonged 
to the RAF, but now the Army will have a flying 
force of its own for closer cooperation with 

ground units Pilots on conmercial airplanes 

now broadcast all weather information in special 

code Lt. Col. Lester J. Maitland, just 

returned from the fighting fronts in the Phil- 
ippines and Australia, and the first man ever to 
fly from the West Coast to Hawaii, has been 
named Assistant Conmandant of Gunter Field. 

Soldiers at Logan Field, Colo., have dis- 
covered a law making i t punishable to shoot 
buffalo out of the Ft. Logan barracks win- 
dows ..... .The first group of the AAF’ s Fly- 
ing Sergeants have been graduated as mil- 
itary pilots from the Gulf Coast Air Force 
Training Center. Pilot training for en- 
listed men was begun last fall and upon com- 
pletion of training the students are ap- 
pointed Staff Sergeant Pilots with pay of 

$108 per month while on flight duty A 

Flying Sergeants' Club has been organized at 
Maxwell Field, Ala., and plans are being 
made to expand it into a national organ- 
ization West Point cadets who take 

special training for the Air Forces will be 
graduated with their wings instead of de- 
voting several months after graduation to 
special training, 

Filipinos in the U.S. have been made eligible 
for enrollment eis flying ctuiets in the Army Air 
Forces, and Secretary Stimson has waived cit- 
izenship regulatlOTis in their behalf Brig. 

Gen. William 0. Butler is the newly appointed 
Conmanding General of the Eleventh Air Force. 
Gen. Butler came to Alaska from Wright Field.... 
The Southeast Air Force Training Center esti- 
mates that 500 American Anqy fighter pilots who 
otherwise would have been eliminated have been 
"saved for the service" through the new phys- 
ical training program Maj . Gen. Follett 

Bradley has been appointed Conmanding General of 
the First Air Force, and Brig. Gen. John K. 
Cannc*i is the new Ccomander of the First Inter- 
ceptor Conmand The Air Force Basic Flying 

School at Moffett Field, Cal., has been trans- 
ferred to Chico, Cal. 

Applicants are needed for training at the new 
Glider Pilot Training School at Twenty-nine 
Palms, Cal. At present only enlisted men with 
two months' service are eligible. To qualify, 
an applicant must either be (1) a power plane 
pilot, graduate of a CAA primary or secondary 
course; or (2) a glider pilot who can produce 
certified evidence of at least 30 hours' glider 
time or have piloted at least 200 glider 
flights ..... 


MAY 1942 

Morale Builders 

By Lieut. Col. R. C. Jones 

Air Forces Morale Officer 

S PECIAL service agencies are being set up In 
all CGoniancis of the Air Forces to enlarge 
upon recreational, physical fitness and general 
welfare activities for all units down to and 
Including squadrcais . 

The efforts of these agencies will be directed 
toward Improving the physical condition of all 
officers and men, and toward building up the 
morale and "esprit de corjDS" of Air Force units. 

The agencies will work under the general 
supervision of the War Department Special 
Service Branch, headed by Gen. Frederick H. 
Osborn. This Branch Is constantly studying the 
factors that Influence the effectiveness of 
military units and aids field conmanders In 
their task of building up morale In their organ- 
izations. Activities of the Air Force special 
service agencies will also be coordinated by the 
Director of Personnel. 


As often as practicable. Air Force special 
service officers will have physical education 
and recreation training qualifications. All 
group special services officers will be espe- 
cially qualified for these activities. One non- 
conmlssloned officer "special services assist- 
ant" Is authorized for each squadron. These men 
will be selected for their leadership and per- 
sonal qualifications. They will assist their 
ccnmanders and the group special services offi- 
cer In dlrectlr^ squadron physical conditioning 
exercises, mass games, sport, recreational 
activities, entertainments, and In bolstering 
the general welfare. 

Enlisted men with coaching, teaching, recre- 
ational, athletic or similar experience will be 
eligible for these non-ccnmlssloned assignments. 
They may also aspire to the physical training 
course, AAF Officer Candidate School, If they 
have a college degree In physical education or 
comparable training, plus experience In the 
physical fitness field. Upon graduation, they 
will be consnlssloned Second Lleuteneuits and 
assigned to duty, either as special services 
officers throughout the AAF, or as physical 
training Instructors for aviation or technical 
training stixients . 

Special services activities In the AAF are an 
outgrowth of the former A. and R. or Morale 
officer's responsibilities. Developnent and 
maintenance of satisfactory morale Is a natural 
by-product of the program. Although the word 
"morale" has been abused and misunderstood In 
many quarters. It pertains to a highly Important 
feature of mllltery life and efficiency. 

"The Old Fight” 

General George C. Marshall recently said, 
"Najwlecn evaluated morale over material as three 
to one. I believe that recent experiences 
Indicate a re-estlmate of these values — the odds 
being nearer to five to one, or possibly even 
ten to one, in some Instances, In favor of the 
psychological feictor . " 

"The old fight" has been laiyghed at for belpg 
childishly dramatic, but It Is nevertheless true 
that training alone wcai’t win a war If It Isn't 
backed up by a high degree of morale. Call It 
what you will — esprit de corps, high spirits, or 
a cheerful, resolute state of mind — It all adds 
up to the same thing. All work and no play not 
CTily makes Jack a dull soldier, but It also may 
cause the breakdown of the most highly trained 

Play will not be the only activity under the 
AAF special services program. In addition to 
the rigorous physical fitness and athletics 
program being developed by a ccmmlttee of the 
nation's leading experts, there are educational 
opportunities offered to ambitious soldiers, and 
advice upon Insurance matters, personal finan- 
ces, dependents and other similar problems. 


Special services officers assigned to AAF 
units will have such varied duties as prcsnotlon 
of athletic contests, direction of calisthenics 
and mass games, procurement of motion picture 
service, organization of amateur theatricals, 
development of libraries, production of radio 
programs, promotion of crafts and hobby groups, 
activation of musical organizations, and 
stimulation of recreational opportunities In 
nearby civilian communities. In short, they 
(Continued on Page 34) 

MAY 1942 



Sketches made 

■"“WS’S5'‘ '-iMBbS 

^ ‘p 

tWise Wi I 


j§ zi 

iS^ iJr- 

^ j ■* ■*’-ir’ / 

i=|, , ■ 

Capt. Raymond € 

%.„-li '' II, 



oiling Field, D. €. 
cmore, AAF Artist 

Crash Teehniqu^^ 

Russian Ramming Downs Axis Pianes 

O NE of the specialties of Russian airmen In 
their battle against the Gemen air force Is 
the tactic of ramming enenQr planes. The sacri- 
fice of a dying pilot in a damaged plane by a 
deliberate collision with his foe Is a relic of 
the First World War but the Russians have de- 
veloped raamlng as a definite tactic from which 
both pilot and plane may escape undamaged. 

.Ramnlpg was develojjed by the Russian airmen 
after they observed that frequently German 
multi-motored bonbers escaped after belrg hard 
hit and seriously damaged by Russian pursuits. 
Often the pursuit pilot scored heavily, kUllrg 
part of the bonber’s crew and disabling cne or 
more motors. However, these attacks usually ex- 
hausted the pursuit's limited aranunltlon supply, 
permitting the boober to limp back behind Its 
own lines. Ranmlng is designed to destroy these 
crippled planes. It takes a ccanblnatlom of 
skillful piloting and utilization of the crippl- 
ed victim's lack of maneuverability to execute a 
successful ranmlng operatlcm with a minimum of 
damage to the atteicklng pilot and plane. More 
often the attacking plane is damaged and the pi- 
lot balls out. 

Three Methods 

Soviet flyers employ three types of ramming 
accordlrg to Major N. Denisov in a recent USSR 
Embassy bulletin. The most dangerous is the di- 
rect blow. Hitting the enemy plane with a part 
of a Russian plane and clipping control surfaices 
by slight propeller contact are also used. The 
latter method calls for the greatest skill aixi 
offers the best chance of survival. 

Major Denisov points out that the propeller 
clipping method calls for an approach fr<xn the 
rear with the attacking plane's speed adjusted 
to that of the enany. As soon as slight cwitact 
is felt the attacker must drop away to avoid 
crashing with the enen^ plane as it falls. If 
the ramning flyer is too slow he may easily be- 
come entangled with the stricken plane and 
dragged dcwn with it. 

American Air Forces observers abroad report 
numerous examples of the Russians' ramming tac- 
tics and there are accounts available from 
Soviet flyers who have ranmed German bcnbers and 
made successful landings. Here is the account 

given by Junior Lieutenant V. Talalildiln who was 
awarded the order of Hero of the Soviet Union 
for his exploits: 

On the night of August 6, 1941, when fascist 
bombers made one of their attempts to break 
throng to Moscow, I was ordered to take off In 
my fighter and patrol the approaches to the 
city. I socKi spotted a Heinkel 111 at an alti- 
tude of about 15,000 feet. Swooping down I 
managed to get on Its tall and attacked. 

Russian Describes Attack 

"With one of my first biu’sts I put the bonb- 
er's right engine out of conmlsslon. The plane 
banked sharply and set Its course for hcxne, 
steadily losing altitude. I continued to attack 
the enemy and gave him about six bursts follow- 
ing him down to about 7,500 feet when my am- 
munition gave out. What was I to do? I could 
have followed the bonber farther but that would 
have been useless. With only one epgine It 
cculd still fly quite a distance and perhaps es- 
cape. There was only one thing to do— ram the 

"I decided to chop off his tail with my pro- 
peller and opened my throttle. Only about 30 
feet now separated the two planes . I could 
clearly see the armor plating on the bcxnbers 
belly as I approached frcao behind and below. 

"At that moment the enemy opened fire with a 
heavy machine gun. A searing pain tore through 
ny right hand. Immediately I gave my plane the 
gun and the whole machine, not just the pro- 
peller, struck the barber. There was a terri- 
fying crash. My fighter turned upside down. I 
unfastened ny belt and drew up my feet, crawled 
to the opening and threw myself overboard. For 
2,400 feet I fell like a stone not oprenlng ny 
parachute. Only after I heard the roar of ny 
plane to one side did I pull the ripcord. I 
landed In a small lake and made my way to 
shore . " 

Landed Plane Safely 

Pilot Mlldmlev of the Soviet Fleet Air Service 
was credited with ranmlng a Heinkel 126 In one 
of the first appearances of this new German alr- 
(Continued on Page 29) 


MAY 1942 

M CHRIS Field, Charlotte, N.C., has supple- 
mented its supply of expensive wrecking 
trucks, used for lifting and transporting 
wrecked planes, with an inexpensive substitute. 
The new device is a portable hoist which can 
easily handle an 8,000 pound plane when attached 
to a truck having a winch in front. 

The hoist costs less than $200 to manufacture 
and is easily constructed. It consists of a 
tripod of irc*i pipes which eire attacl^ to the 
truck bvmper . A cable runs from a cylinder at 
the base of the tripod up through a pulley 
attached to the top. 

This type of construction has been tried be- 
fore, but the strain has always proved too great 
for the front springs amd axle. This problem 
was solved by adding a small wheel to support 
the bmper, thus absorbing the strain. 

The new hoist was developed by Major James' H. 
Reed, Jr., Commanding Officer of the Morris 
Field SiJb-depot. Major Heed first nnde a model 
in the base haiigar and tested it in miniature to 
prove its effectiveness . Several full-scale 
hoists are now in use at the base. 

Major Reed was recently cotmnended for his 
li^enulty by engineering officers at several 
other Air Forces Depots, who have begiwi to con- 
struct hoists of their own. 


T he Army Air Forces will soon have several 
thousand electrically-heated flying suits, 
designed to keep aviators comfortable at 60 
degrees below zero. 

Many pounds lighter than the sheepskin suits 
they will replace, the new suits are not nearly 
so bulky. Pilots therefore will have more room 
for manipulating instruments, controls and au’ma- 
ment. The temperature of the suits will be 
autonatically controlled to adjust to changes in 
the temperature of tlie air. 

The suit is the result of experiments con- 
ducted at Patterson Field during the past win- 
ter, and of a test flight to Alaska. Tests were 
directed by Frank G. Mans on, equipment engineer 

at Wright Field. General Electric Co. will 
manufacture the outfits. 


N orth American has developed a new steel 
alloy that can take the place of alimlnun in 
airplane construction. Use of the new alloy 
eliminates the necessity of rivets, since spot 
welding can be used. It is estimated the total 
weight of planes using the new material will be 
UvcreaseO no more than three percent that of al- 
imlmin planes. Under the new process approxi- 
mately 1,250 pounds of alumlnun alloy should be 
saved per plane. 


A new de-icing appeu*atus has been developed in 
Great Britain. It is for use on aircraft 
having adjustable pitch propellers, and provides 
Imiwoved, controlled delivery of the de-icing 
fluid at required times. 

The new device consists of a prop-nose spinner 
having dotile walls that provide a container for 
the de-icer fluid. The outlet of the container 
is normally closed by a valve spring, being 
opened by adjusting the pitch angle of the pro- 
peller blade. 

Propeller pitch is controlled frcan the cock- 
pit, the arrangement being such that when ice is 
f(KTnlng the pilot can open the outlet valve of 
the fluid COTitalner by adjusting the pitch angle 
of the prop frcm "maximum cruising" throiigh an 
angle of about five degrees. The valve plunger 
then uncovers the outlet port and the de-icing, 
fluid under pressure is sprayed through holes 
over the prop blade:.? and other parts of the 


T he British Royal Observer Corps has been 
conducting experiments with the sovind of 
airplanes, and has uncovered sane useful facts. 
A few of the more interesting are as follows: 

MAY 1942 



Unless the plane under watch by the observer 
passes very near, the sound seems to come from 
seme distance behind it. 

Wind affects the volume and Intercity of the 
sound of airplane motors, but not the pitch. 

A plane sounds louder behind a cloud than in 
the open sky. Determination of the exact posi- 
tion under such circumstances, however, is 
difficult because the sound may be reflected 
from one cloud to another. 

On a hot day sound travels feister than on a 
cold day, and on a damp day It travels faster 
and farther than on a dry day. Planes may 
therefore be heard most plainly on a warm, misty 
evening, or when there is a haze or the barom- 
eter is low. With a dry east wind in winter it 
is often difficult to hear a plane even two 
miles away. 

The sound of a plane can be heard quite 
clearly in a stone, iron, thin wood or sand- 
bagged enclosure; but grass, asbestos boards, 
etc. are bad conductors. 

An approaching plane has a higher note than a 
receding one. The pitch of this note changes 
according to the distance of the plane from the 
observer. The pitch of high-flying planes 
changes slower than low-flying planes, even 
though they au’e flying more rapidly. 


A nother step toward the more efficient 
training of AAF pilots took place recently 
at Duncan Field when Captain A.F. Constable 
Invented an apparatus to measure the coordi- 
nation and potential flying ability of aviation 

The machine utilizes the rudder and stick of a 
regular airplane. Confronting the man to be 
examined is a panel with three series of lights — 
red and greai. Each time a red light flashes on 
the cadet must use his instrunents to line up a 
green light with the red. The time required to 
accomplish a prescribed number of matchings. 
Captain Constable says, will prove an accurate 
measure of the cadet's muscular coordlnatlcxi and 
piloting skill. 

The machines are now being manufactured and 
are being sent to a number of cadet reception 
centers all over the United States. Captain 
Cwistable has been given the job of supervising 
the ccranercial producticai. 

Jr> the picture below Capt . Constable demon- 
strates his device for Lt , Col, I.W,.Ott and Mr, 
R.J, Van Horn of the Duncan Field Engineering 
Depar tmen t , 



The Delayed Jump 

By Arthur H. Starnes 

A two year Investigation of free-fall delayed- 
opening parachute jumps conducted with the 
assistance and observation of two eminent med- 
ical authorities, has convinced me that airmen 
who must jump from airplanes — and this applies 
especially to ccxnbat air crews — should not open 
their parachutes until they have fallen to 
dense, safe air close to the earth. Close is an 
indefinite word, but it is my opinion that 
chutes can be opened safely as low as 1,500 feet 
above the ground by persons who never have 
jimped before. 

The investigation, which delved into the field 
of physiology and the experience a long-delayed 
parachute opening has upon the airman's mind 
indicate that such a use of parachutes can be 
made with a high degree of safety. Furthermore, 
these jumps can be made with what I understand 
is standard equipment for all army airmen — 
whether they fly at great heights or at alti- 
tudes below 10,000 feet. In particular I was 
Interested in problems Involving jumps from 
heights between 35,000 and 30,000 feet. The 
same conclusions apply for these jumps — except 
that the reasons for delaying the canopy opening 
are more convincing than for jumps from lower 


Specifically the following reasons for making 
delayed jumps eu’e found to be valid: 

1. Delaying opening of the parachute de- 
creases the likelihood of an airman being struck 
by a falling pleuie or its jjarts. 

2. Delaying opening when jumping fran a high 
speed airplane will permit the body to slow down 
to a safe rate of speed and prevent injury for 
the airman due to the opening shock; it will 
also prevent damage to the canopy and harness . 

3. Enemy flyers who are known to practice 
machine gunning of airmen found floating help- 
lessly in parachutes cannot fire on airmen who 
make free falls. The outline of a falling body 
merges into the pattern of the earth below 
making it almost impossible to keep track of a 
man who makes a delayed opening drop. 

4. By delaying the opening one can jump from 
high altitudes and not become numbingly chilled 
by low temperatures. A chilled, clumsy body 
taking a landing shock is more apt to receive 
Injury than an agile one. 

Arthur H. Starnes, just before his historic 
experimental delayed jump from 30,000 feet. 

5. The oxygen factor is an Important one on 
the side of delayed jumps from high altitudes. 
If parac'hutes were opened at heights above 
20,000 feet and bottled oxygen was not available 
a pilot might die from anoxia. If a delayed 
junp is made he will fall in a matter of seconds 
into air that is life-sustaining. 

Purely as qualifying information I may say 
that I have made 51 delayed jtnqs, and more than 
300 total parachute jumps . I have made free 
falls that range frc»n 2,500 to 9,000 feet when 

MAY 1942 



leaving airplanes up to heights of 10,000 feet. 

% longest free fall was 29,300 feet made last 
fall when I jumped from a corrected height of 
30,800 feet. For the record the corrected air- 
speed at that height was 165 miles an hour. 
Indicated outside air temperature was in the 
neighborhood of 46 degrees Fahrenheit below 
zero. Weather biireau reports (radio sonde) that 
morning indicated 48 degrees below at 31,000 
feet. Ground temperature was 64 degrees. 

The time of that fall was 116.5 seconds. The 
average rate of falling speed approximated 170 
miles an hour. The peak was 230 miles an hour 
at 26,000 which decelerated to 130 miles an hour 
when the chute opened at 1,500 feet above the 
ground or 2,100 feet sea level. Speeds varied 
considerably with body position in the fall. 

I used an oxygen mask, goggles and a ball-out 
bottle for jumps above 10,000 feet. These are, 

I understand, beipg made standard equipment in 
the Army Forces . In low temperatures gog- 
gles are essential to prevent injury to the 


The conclusions which I believe should be _ 
emphasized to all airmen in connection with 
these experiments follow: 

A. Preparation. 

1. It is not necessary to practice free fall 
in order to take advantage of it in time of ne- 

2. Standard equipment for airmen is all that 
is required. (In making my studies I carried 85 
pounds of instruments,, and my total weight was 
285 3/4 pounds. Even so, the long jump was ac- 
complished without injury.) 

3. Proper adjustment of parachute harness 
cannot be too strongly stressed. Improper ad- 
justment may result in injury when the chute 
opens. The rider strap, or main suspension 
loop, which forms about the hips should be so 
adjusted that when one stands erect this strap 
fits tightly just below the cheeks of the but- 
tocks. The harness should be snugly fitted. 
One test is that if properly adjusted the har- 
ness makes it uncomfortable to stand erect. It 
is comfortable, however, when seated. 

4. Airmen should be instructed that no loss 
of consciousness occurs during a free fall even 
of sustained duration. 

5. The heart beat rate is not significantly 
effected, nor is the breathing apparatus. In 
other words, during a free fall, an airman can 
breathe, shout and talk. 

6. The Eustachian tubes should be opened dur- 
ing the fall. Ear drums can be opened easily by 


a lower jaw action as if one were yawning; or by 
opening the mouth wide and hollowing out, or 
jjushlng back the upp)er part of the throat in a 
fixed position. All these are adaptable to 
speeds of descent in free falls. 

B. Jumping. 

1. Jumps should, when p>ossible, be made head 
first from an airplane. 

2. Airmen should remenber that if jjarachutes 
are opened at speeds in excess of 150 miles an 
hour Injury is almost certain. If time for de- 
celeration is available the speed of fall will 
decrease to 120-135 miles an hour. 

3. The airman need not be concerned with body 
pxeltion in relation to the earth's surface dur- 
ing fall or at the time of ripping the para- 
chute. Of seven known types of body movement 
during free fall only one type is likely to 
cause fouling of a properly p>acked chute. This 
is somersaultipg with the legs drawn up against 
the belly. This can happen only when the airman 
knowingly, and with great effort holds the legs 
in place. Releasing the legs changes this som- 
ersaulting motion. 

4. A definite warning is available for airmen 
to announce the approaching of the earth's sur- 
face during free falls. This warning commences 
to occur at approximately 3,000 feet. It con- 
sists of a feeling that the speed of fall has 
suddenly increased. It is accanp... led by the 
visual Indication of a spreading of the earth's 
surface and a sj)eed of rise in the horizon line. 
The closer to the earth the fall is continued 
the more definite the warning. 

5. The gravity pull during the fall is low. 
The twisting and turning effect is for the most 
p)art comfortable; much more so than acrobatics 
even in a light, low-powered airplane. Air 
pressures are felt but are not uncomfortable. 

6. It is not necessary to stiffen the body or 
prepare for the chute opening shock. Relaxation 
is desirable but a stiffening of the body mus- 
cles does not matter one way or the other. 

C. Opening the Parachute. 

1. If the parachute is released while the 
body is spinning the shroud lines will beccme 
twisted. The chute will open nevertheless, and 
within a few seconds the body will slowly turn 
and unwind the twists. 

.2. At the time of the opening of the para- 
chute after a free fall — after the body has 
reached terminal velocity — there is a black-out. 
It canes without warning, pain or reaction. It 
lasts for from one to three seconds only, and 
(Continued on Page 30) 

MAY 1942 


By Oliver H. Townsend 

B ig, ancient, mysterloiis, crowded — that is 
India. Air Forces personnel sent there to 
fight the Jap will find it one of the most "dif- 
ferent" places in the world. 

Shaped like a huge pear, India begins high in 
the mountainous regions of central Asia and 
stretches 2,000 miles southward, splitting the 
northern part of the Indian Ocean into the 
Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. As large as 
that part of the United States which lies east 
of the Rocky Moimtains, it is vastly different. 
Sacred bulls wander unmolested throughout the 
land, colorful bazaars line the crowded city 
streets, and fakirs, yogis and other religious 
mystics practice their weird rites in the gar- 
dens of great-doned mosques and temples. 

Nation Of Contrasts 

India is a nation of contrasts. It claims as 
citizens some of the richest people in the 
world — and many of the poorest. It has scsne of 
the most beautiful palaces in the world — and 
some of the worst hovels. From the nicely- 

turned green of the wealthiest Maharaja's polo 
field to the squalor of the poorest "Untouch- 
able's" tenement, the contrasts are teenly felt 
in India's day to day existence. 

The climate of this great x^enlnsula, like its 
other characteristics, also varies from one 
extreme to the other. Most of the country is 
low, flat and hot, esxieclally in the southeast. 
But toward the north as the land rises up to 
meet the lofty peaks of the Himalayas the tem- 
perature sinks in Inverse proportion to the 
altitude. Highest point in the Himalayas — eind 
in the world — is Mount Everest, rising to the 
Flyipg Fortress height of almost 30,000 feet. 

Most of south and central India is one vast 
plain with a hot season that chases white res- 
idents to the cool heights of the northern moun- 
tains during at least part of every year. The 
heat extends as far north as Delhi, the capital, 
on the northern plain. During this season, 
which begins in March, the government packs up 

MAY 1942 



and moves to cool Simla, 7,000 feet high In the 
southern foothills of the Himalayas. The rainy 
season, lasting from June through October, 
brings relief from the heat to most of India. 
Cool weather usually prevails from November to 

Americans will not find the average Indian 
town to be especially enticing. Sewage, drain- 
age and sanitary facilities are something that 
have yet to be "sold" to most of India. Many of 
the smaller towns lack transportation facil- 
ities, and it is usually necessary to sleep 
under mosquito netting in order to avoid the 
insects, which in some sectors are not killed 
because of the reincarnation beliefs of the 
natives . 

A nuAier of the big cities, however, have been 
at least partly modernized. In these it is pos- 
sible to ride in streetcars and taxicabs, see 
electric signs, buy occidental food and American 
cigarettes, and generally feel more "at heme". 
Many Indians in the larger cities and on the 
excellent railroads understand and speak the 
Fhgllsh language. 

Plenty To Do 

There are many interesting things to do and 
see in India during free time. The Taj Mahal at 
Agras, one of the seven wonders of the world, 
has been a tourist mecca for decades. So has 
Bernath, the Hindu holy city, where thousands of 
people go each year to weush their sins away in 
the sacred waters of the Ganges — or to die on 
its banks in order to giiarantee their souls a 
place in heaven. 

Among things to buy in India are braissware, 
ebcMiy miniatures, kashmir shawls and tapestries. 
These can all be obtained very reasonably pro- 
vided the visitor isn't averse to the ancient 
and honorable art of dickering. 

The monetary system of India is based on the 
rupee — ^worth about 30(!^ in American money. Money 
is linlform throughout the whole country, emd is 
composed of both coins and paper currency. 
"Small change" consists chiefly of annas — each 
(Mie worth about one-sixteenth of a rupee. 

One of the most progressive features of India 
is its railway syst^, which provides good serv- 
ice between most populated areas. On these 
railroads there are three cleisses of travel: 
first, second and third. Second class is almost 
as good as first and costs much less, and for 
this reason is very popular with foreign visi- 
tors. The trains themselves are unlike the 
trains in this country in that they are divided 
into ccmpletely separate compartments, each one 


opening directly on the outside. There are no 
aisles running from car to car, or even between 
compartments, which are completely Isolated 
while the train is in motion. 

Roads generally are poor, although there are 
a ramfcer of automobiles in the centers of pop- 
ulation. It is virtually Impossible, however, 
to travel from one side of the country to the 
other by auto. This explains in part why the 
railroad system has been developed to its pre- 
sent degree of excellence, and why most travel 
is done by train. 

The fact that India has been a British colony 
for so many years heis made the English language 
fairly common among railroad people, merchants 
and hotel clerks. In most cities and travel 
centers it is not possible to go long without 
coning across someone who can speak or at least 
understand English. 

The native food is very much unlike American 
food — with strange names and stranger tastes and 
smells. But most railroad stations, hotels and 
big cities have restaurants which serve western 
dishes at varying prices and varying degrees of 

Just as "different" as their country are the 
Indian people. 

Crowded into India's ancient provinces are 
almost three times as many people as there are 
in the United States. This makes it the second 
largest populated country in the world, with 
well over one-half the people of the British 

India has 16 cities of more than 200,000 pop- 
ulation, the two largest being Calcutta and Bcbh 
bay. Calcutta, with over a million and a half 
people. Is the second largest city in the Brit- 
ish Empire. Other great cities are Madras, 
Hyderabad, Delhi and Lahore. On the great plain 
outside of the ancient city of Delhi is New 
Delhi, India's modern capital. New Delhi is the 
home of the government and nothing else. It is 
a "made-to-order" capital, with miles of great 
gardens and boulevards . . These make it the most 
beautiful, clean and modern city in all India. 
Hub of New Delhi's spoked boulevards is the 
British Viceroy's House, a magnificent palace 
surrounded by government buildings and gardens, 
and with a 177-foot copjjer dome which can be 
seen for miles. 

Enjoying a civilization that was old when 
Columbus set sail for America, the people of 
India present a very confusing picture to the 
average occidental. They are canposed of more 
than 45 races who speak over 200 different lan- 
( Continued on Page 31) 

MAY 19« 

World War ahH the Cadets 

Ity Maj. Falk llarmel 

General Frank O’D. Hunter, at the controls of a P-40, and Col. E.V. Rickenhacker 
(in civilian clothes) are greeted by pilots of Harding Field during their recent 
tour of Armry Air Forces Fields, Col. L.L. Koontz , Commtanding Officer of the field, 
is at right. 

T WO American aces of World War I — Brig. 

Gen. Frank O'D. Hunter and Col. "Eddie" 
Riclenbacker — have just ccs^pleted a 15,000 mile 
nati«i-wlde tour of Air Forces stations during 
which they told Amy airmen how they did it in 
191B, and how "we can do it again" in 1942. 

Upon his return to New York, Colonel Rlc ken- 
backer, who won fame ais America's outstanding 
World War aerial hero, was officially commended 
on the success of the trip by Lieut. Gen. Heru"y 
H. Arnold, Cowmanding General of the Air Forces. 

Speaking at Mltchel Field, where the tour 
ended. Colonel Rickenhacker stated that "man for 
man and plane for plane. Uncle Sam has the 
greatest aerial fighting machine in the world 
today." He predicted a long war, and added that 
we will need at least 300,000 pilots to achieve 
victory — 100,000 as instructors and 200,000 as 
codbat pilots in all parts of the world. 

He asserted that the men of the Air Forces are 
as "full of fire and spirit today as the Minute 
Men of Concord were," and told them they will be 
flying planes "that are the last word in per- 

fornmnee and armament. No force in the world 
can lick you. " 

Rickenhacker Cautions 

Cautioning against over-confidence, he said, 
"1 am not underestimating our enemies and their 
equipment. Never underestimate your enemies. 
But, on the other hand, let's not get a frame of 
mind that he is the top dog." 

The heroic exploits of both Colonel Ricken- 
backer and General Hunter In World War I helped 
them make a profound hn)ression upon young Air 
Forces pilots now undergoing training. Both 
have held extremely narrow escapes, and on more 
them one occasion have been almost on speaking 
terms with the Grim Reaper. 

In one of Colcxiel Rickenhacker 's nimerous com- 
bats over the front lines in France, a bullet 
passed through the fuselage of his plane less 
them three inches back of his heeid. Time after 
time he came back to his home airdrome from 
patrol with numerous bullet holes through his 
airpleme. Anotlier close call was his remarkable 

MAY m2 



recovery frcm the severe Injuries he received 
in the crash of an airliner on February 28, 
19il, near Atlanta, Ga., which exacted a toll of 
seven killed and nine Injured. 

It is not a matter of general knowledge that 
Colonel Rickeribacker achieved his 25 victories 
despite the fact that sickness deprived him of 
more than three month's service at the front. 
Shortly after May 30, 1918, when he downed his 
fifth victim, the one entitling him to the 
unofficial designation of "Ace", he was ordered 
to a hospital in Paris to recover from a fever 
which for a time threatened to put him out of 
the war altogether. 

He had hardly recovered when he heard that the 
First Pursuit Group was about to be supplied 
with the new French Spads to replace the old 
Nieuports. Thereafter he stuck close to the 
Spad depot In Paris until the first of these new 
airplanes was ready for the American flyers. 
Seizing It when the mechanics pronounced it fit, 
he flew it to its new airdrcme early in July. 
He weis made flight leader of his squadron, the 
94th, and carried out his customary patrols for 
a few days caily to be bested once more by fever. 
It was not until September 14 that he was 
credited with his sixth victory. During two 
weeks in September, Rickenbacker got six more 
en«^y planes and 13 In October. 

Most of his victories were achieved at alti- 
tudes of about three miles. He was accustomed 
to going out on early morning patrols when the 
cold is very intense. Even so, he put in more 
flying time over enemy lines than any of the 
pilots under him. He w£is a great believer in 
the efficacy of surprise attacks, and in launch- 
ing these he took eidvantage of the protection 
afforded by the blinding glare of the sun, the 
shelter of clouds, and moments of inattention on 
the part of his quarry. 

Awarded Croix de Guerre 

It was due to these precautionary methods that 
he achieved more victories than any other 
American pilot, £uid remained alive to tell of 
them. His first victory on April 29, 1918, 
resulted in his being awarded the Croix de 
Guerre with palm by the French. During this 
encounter his machine gun jainned and he had to 
repair it himself, immediately returning to 
attack his adversary. The Distinguished Service 
Cross was awarded him after his fifth victory, 
and to this decoration were subsequently added 
nine oak leaves . 

General Hunter also received many decorations 

for his outstanding exploits of World War I. 
During his activities over the front lines in 
France, he was outntmfcered by the enemy in every 
conA)at in which he w*is credited with shooting 
down one or more of his adversaries. In his 
first victory during a patrol flight he attacked 
two biplanes, destroyed one and forced the other 
to seek a healthier climate. In his next en- 
counter, accompanied by one other plane, an 
attack was made on a patrol of six enemy planes. 
General Hunter destroyed one of th«n, and with 
the aid of his compeuilcsi forced the others to 
retire within their (wm lines. 

On another occasion, when he was leading a 
patrol of three, the American airmen attacked a 
formation of eight planes. In the dog-fight 
which ensued, four of the enemy bit the dust, 
and General Hunter accounted for two of th^. 

ifost Exciting Moment 

Perhaps his most exciting mcanent came when, 
while separated fran his patrol, he observed an 
allied patrol of seven Breguets hard pressed by 
an enemy formation of ten Fokkers. He attacked 
two of the enemy that were harassing a single 
Breguet £ind destroyed one. Meanwhile, five of 
the enemy appjroached and concentrated their fire 
upon him. Undaunted by their superiority, he 
attacked and brought down his second plane of 
the day. By this time he had been awarded the 
Distinguished Service Cross with three oak 
leaves. He received his fourth leaf for his 
ei^th victory. In this action he encountered 
alone an enemy formation of six monoplace 
planes. He immediately attacked and destroyed 
one of the enemy and forced the others to dis- 
perse In confusion. 

General Hunter, now with the Eighth Air Force 
at Savannah, Ga., also had his share of "narrow 
squeaks" in x>eace as well as war. Once he was 
wounded in the foreheaui during aerial combat, 
but managed to return to his home airdrcme. In 
peacetime he became a third degree member of the 
mythical Caterpillar Cliib. His first recourse 
to the silk occurred on March 20, while flight- 
testing an experimental pursuit plane at McCook 
Field, Ohio. During a series of acrobatics the 
entire adjustable stabilizer broke away fran the 
fuselage and control of the plane was lost 

Injured In Crash 

Sane eighteen months before this Initiation. 
General Hunter was returning to Selfridge Field, 
Mich., fran Mitchel Field, N.Y., where he had 
(Continued on Page 32) 


MAY 1942 


Russian Raminin^ 

(Continued from Page 20) 
craft on the Russian front. Mildmlev dived on 
the bcnber after exhausting his anmunltlon. His 
propeller ripped the Helnkel’s stabilizer and 
rudder. A flying piece of wreckage struck 
Mildmlev on the shoulder but he meumged to bring 
his plane down safely. The Heinkel crashed and 

Pilot Vinogradov did his ranmlng in the old- 
fashioned way. Fighting a single Nazi bomber 
over a vulnerable Russian target he exhausted 
his aninunition without getting a decisive hit. 
Meanwhile a bullet punctured his gas tank and 
his ship burst into flanes. Vinogradov hurtled 
into the Nazi bcmiber and both planes were des- 

Another Soviet pilot who rammed and lived to 
tell about it is Alexandrovich Kiselev. He es- 
caped with only a scratch on his cheek after 
balling out. His plane was lost. 

"It didn't come off very well," said Kiselev 
descrlblr^ his ramnlpg. "I am sure it is possi- 
ble to ram an enemy ship without losing one's 
own machine. I was a bit excited and I suppose 
that is why I muffed the Job. 

"My aninunlticxi ran out. The enemy had hit my 
oil tank and radiator and my engine weis just a- 
bout giving its last gasp. I didn't want to let 
him get away so I went at him frcxn below to get 
at his tall with my propeller. It was possible 
to calculate the movement so as to clip him with 
the tips of my propeller. But a stream of oil 
messed up my windshield and I couldn't see very 

"Just as I was approaching him the suction of 
the air whirls caused by the Neizi plane swept my 
machine upwards. I got mad then and rammed him 
from above dicing into his left side. I knock- 
ed my face against my stick. If I had figured 
it out jroperly that wouldn't have happened. 

"The enemy plane disappeared. My own plane 
went into a spin. I tried to pull out but it 
was no use. I took my f^et off the controls, 
stuck my head outside and was knocked back into 
niy seat by the air blast. I pushed off with one 
foot, counted to eight, ripped and floated 
down •" 

Lieutenant Katrlch of the Soviet Air Force re- 
lates another r aiming incident: 

At about 10:00 a. m. I was told that an enemy 
plane had been sighted heading for Moscow. I 
took off at once and soon spotted a vapor trail 
at about 18,000 feet. The enenQi was above and 
ahead of me. I put oti my oxygen mask and picked 

up altitude. I drew up to within 300 feet of 
the Nazi plane. I sprayed him from stem to 
stern. It was CHily then that the Nazi crew no- 
ticed me. The cabin gunner returned fire. I 
gave them another icaig burst until I saw flames 
streaking from their port engine. After the 
third attack my anmunltlon gave out and their 
tall gunner was silent . The left engine was 
burning but the plane continued to fly. The pi- 
lot was apparently counting on my fuel supply 
being exhausted. It was then I decided to ram 

Thought Of Ramming 

"I had thought a lot about ramming. Tte first 
reports of ramming by our flyers interested me 
but in nxjst of them the planes had been lost. I 
thcught it would be possible to ram without sac- 
rificing one's own plane and here was a chance 
to test my theory. 

"I approached the bcmber frcm the left of its 
stem and aimed my nose at its tail, calculating 
my attack so as to clip its stabilizer and 
rudders with the tips of my propellers. Hfy cal- 
culations proved correct. There was a slight 
jolt. I throttled back and banked. When I came 
out of the turn I saw the enemy gliding sharply 
downwards. I glided after it. The Nazi pilot 
made several attempts to level off. By gunning 
his motor he managed to fly level for a few se- 
conds before dropping off again. He finally 
lost control and dove into the ground. The ship 
burned. I landed at my home airdrome. My plane 
was undamaged except for a dent in my propeller 
which caused heaAiy vibrations." 

One of the most spectacular instances of rami- 
mlng which throws an interesting sidelight on the 
ccmbat psychology of Russian airmen was told by 
eyewitnesses at the airdrome over which the 
battle occurred. Sergeant-ifeij or Nikolai Totmln 
took to the air as his hone field was attacked 
by eight Ju-88 dive bombers escorted by a pair 
of Me- 109 fighters. Totmin set one bomber's 
jxirt engine afire with his first burst but Was 
attacked by the Me fighters before he could 
finish the bomiber. Totmin banked sharply to 
battle the fighters. One Me followed the bomb- 
ers but the other stayed to take on the Russian. 

Totmin and his Nazi opponent went into a tight 
circle trying to turn inside each other. The 
Naizi went into a quick cllmh and Totmin followed 
him. The Nazi then turned to attack and Totmin 
banked sharply to bring his plane hurtling head- 
on at the Nazi. Both planes sped toward oach 
other but at the last manent before collision 
the Nazi heeled his plane over. At that instant 

MAY 1942 



Totmln banked in the opposite direction and 
drove his plane into the Nazis wliTg. 

Totmln's plane sta^ered under the shock and 
both planes spun earthward. Totaln twice tried 
vwisuccessfUlly to ball out but the air pressure 
forced him back into the cockpit. The third 
time he got out but he was only 120 feet from 
the ground and his chute didn’t have time to 
open. He fell not far frem the wreckage of the 
plane he had raaand. 

The Delayed Jump 

(Continued from Fate 24) 
there are no notlcedsle ill effects. 

D. Final dement and alighting. 

1. So-called slipping or guiding of the 
standard round type of parachute should not be 
attempted. Airmen should chiefly be concerned 
with damping oscillation as quickly as possible 
and centering themselves under the silk canopy. 
Danplng swings beneath the chute is accomplished 
exactly as the damping of swings in a child’s 
rope <*• chain lawn swing. 

2. Every effort should be made to turn the 
body — ^by gripping the riser straps and giving 
the canopy short twists to turn it in the air — 
so that the airman is facing In the direction of 
drift upon making contact with the ground. It 
also is highly desirable to reach upward, grip 
tlie riser straps or shroud lines and pull up as 
much as possible with the arms at the Instant of 
alighting, thus reducing the landing shock. 

Color photography is being used to detect 
Installations in camouflaged areas. Enemy air 
fields, and other important bases which are 
carefully disguised and remain hidden in black- 
and-white reconnaissance photographs, stick out 
like the well-known sore thumb when they are 
reproduced in good color photographs. It is 
practically impossible for camofleurs to repro- 
duce the natural colors with such faithfulness 
that the counterfeit will not be exposed by the 
color picture. 

• • 

The Rip Chord, post publication at McChord 
Field, Wash., is participating in the "Don't 
Talk" offensive on the hc«ne front with a series 
of articles and cartoons urging the men at the 
field not to divulge military Information. 

Every issue of the paper contains warnings 
that fifth columlsts are carrying on subversive 
activities which should be fought with a policy 
of strict silence. 


» IE to the expansion of the Army Air Forces 
Weather Service, there are opportiwkties in 
this organization for properly qualified en- 
listed persomel. 

A high school education, with a bacliground of 
mathematics and physics, is essential. In ex- 
ceptional cas es , a basic loioaledge of mathe- 
matics will satisfy these reqjulreaents . The 
Weather Officer at each station Is csfxspered to 
determine the ability of the candidate with an 
I.Q. test and an Investigation into his mathe- 
matical qualifications. If accepted, the can- 
didate is placed in training for duty as a 
Weather Observer and goes through three months 
of tralnlpg, either at the Weather Observers 
School, Chanute Field, 111., or at «ie of the 
various stations throughout the Air Forces. 
Upon completlcn of this training, he is rated as 
an observer and is eligible for promotion. 

A field training of from 1 to 6 months fol- 
lows, whereupon the candidate is eligible to 
take entrance examinations for the Weather Fore- 
caster’s Course. This course lasts 6 months and 
the graduate is rated as a Forecaster. He is 
then sent to a field for duty and, provided his 
military record is satisfactory, he is ratfed as 
a Staff Sergeant and he receives flylhg pay. 

Interested personnel may apply to the Weather 
Officer at their local stations for assignment 
with the Weather Service. 

The RAF has a one-arm fighter pilot — 22 year 
old Flight Ileut. J.A.F. MacLaughlan. In confcat 
over Malta last March he heid his arm shot off. 
While convalescing in Africa he obtained per- 
mission to fly with an artificial arm. By the 
time he reached Britain a medical board passed 
him as fit for operational duty. 

• • 

T he two boys who took the old time Stinson 
plane "Ole Miss" aloft and kept it there for 
more than a month in 1935 are now "keeping 'em 
aloft" over the southwest Pacific for the Army 
Air Forces. 

They are Capt. A1 and First Lt. Fred Key, 
brothers who at one time set a heavler-than-alr 
endurance record by flying for 653 hours and 34 
minutes over their home town of Meridian, Miss- 
Issljjpi in a low powered Stinson monoplane. 

The Key brothers in the Pacific are flying 
Flying Fortresses over Jap troops, ships and 
bases, for only 8 to 10 hours at a time — ^which 
is a cinch to them. They have dubbed their 
planes the "Ole Miss II" and the "Ole Miss III". 

MAY 104? 




(Continued from Page 26) 

guages, practice scores of religions, and divide 
thanselves Into 2,400 conpletely segrated castes 
and tribes. 

Most Indians— 240,000,000 In all— are Hindus. 
This still leaves room for about 80,000,000 
Mohanmedans (more than In any other country) , 
12,000,000 Buddhists and several million each of 
Christians, Slldis, Jains, Zoroastrlans and wor- 
shipers of local tribal gods. 

During the course of Its more than 5,000 years 
of history the Hindu religion has produced the 
roost clearly-defined caste system. There are 
four of these: Breihmans (priests, government 
officials and educators) ; Kshatrl (warriors) ; 
Valsh (business), and Shudre or "Untouchables'* 
(laborers and beggars) . These are subdivided 
Into innumerable cleisslflcatlons, each with Its 
own set of codes and restrictions. 

Much of the Internal turmoil of India has not 
been due to this great Intermixture of reli- 
gions, but also to the fact that the country Is 
divided Into two sets of governments: the na- 
tive states and the British provinces. Althoygh 
by far the most people are located In the 11 
British provinces, there are still enough left 
outside (63 million) to support a large nuidber 
of sml-autononous Maharajas. These, although 
they have pledged allegiance to the King of 
El^gland and pay an annual tribute to his author- 
ity, retain a large amount of local control. 

Rich Prize 

The biggest of the native states Is Hyderabad, 
half again as large as England. It Is ruled by 
a Moslem "Nizam" famovis as "the richest man In 
the world". The ruler of Hyderabad, like the 
rulers of the other native states, maintains a 
private army, levies taxes, and accepts the 
feudal oath of fealty fran his subjects. The 
British government exercises authority only In 
matters of conmunlcatlon, currency and collec- 
tion of customs, and occasionally In ceises of 
flagrant misrule can demand a ruler's abdica- 

The British provinces have provincial govern- 
ments resp«islble to the Governor-General at New 
Delhi. They constitute by far the greatest 
area of India, and contain most of the people, 
big cities and vital coastal areas. 

India throughout all history has been one of 
the richest prizes In all the world. Its vast 
reservoirs of labor. Its great untouched natural 
resources and Its productive soil have been the 

foundation of many of history's great Empires. 
Right now the Jap wants them badly as a founda- 
tion for his own empire. Lying In his path are 
the Eastern "gateways" to India: Calcutta, 
Madras and the tropical Island of Ceylon. Air 
power more than emythipg else will Influence the 
outcome of the battle for these gateways, and 
for the rich hinterlands beyond. 

Swivel Chair Bombardier 

(Continued from Page 13) 

In use will have blurred outlines. Baths, truck 
tracks, and diggings Isolated from routine 
activities; roads or paths without any appeu’ent 
logical destination — these may Indicate camou- 
flaged Installations. Earth that has been tam- 
pered with, either excavated or scraped, shows 
some activity disrupting the area; It Is usually 
quite apparent to the photo Interpreter as 
either lighter or darker than the solid earth. 

•Any installation larger than would be normal for 
local uses may be a hangar In disguise. Any 
disruption of the local pattern of land use, 
such as Irrigated land apparently allowed to go 
dry, canals without treifflc, or orchard country 
without trees, may Indicate that the land has 
been turned Into an airfield. A meteil roof In a 
thatched-roof district may be the tip-off to a 
new and alien structure serving as an airfield 

In all, the i)hoto Interpreter should be sus- 
picious of these varlatlOTis In the typical land- 
scape pattern: (l) any deviation In tcaie from 
the general color of the ground pattern; (2) any 
unusual shape of field or type of building; 

(3) any unnatural texture of ground surface or 
communications line. 

Fifth, look su-ound the edges and corners of 
fields for possible parked aircraft, with spe- 
cial attention to the edges of stands of woods 
and to hedges in which aircraft-parking bays 
might be cut. 

At the first sign of a clue the photo inter- 
preter must pounce on the suspicious loose end 
and unravel It. The success or failure of a 
mission often hapgs in the balance during the 

• • 

A new course includiiig fabric work has been 
started in Vancouver for wanen interested in 
aviation. The class is preceded by elementary 
ground school training. A course is also being 
given In parachute packing. The classes have 
been organized by outstanding Canadian women 

MAY 1942 




A soldier unnecessarily worried about his wife 
or family, the Army has long realized, is 
not the best soldier. In this war, the newly 
organized Army Snergency Relief intends to see 
to it that today's Army can go into battle se- 
cure in the knowledge that those left behind 
will be cared for in «nerg«icies. 

The Army Air Forces have established a branch 
of this organizaticwi and sections will be formed 
in each air base for the local administration of 
this «nergency relief program. Under the pro- 
vlsiais of Arny Emergency Relief, all meabers of 
the Army on active duty have equal rights to 
necessary assistance throughout the present 
emergency. Rank or service will not influence 
the amount of aid granted to Army personnel or 
to their dependents. 

Of jjrlmary concern to the relief organlzaticm 
are those cases arising from casualties caused 
by combat or accidents, hardships cauised by • 
sudden change of station of units or individ- 
uals, and other emergency financial stress. 
Financial aid will be given by A.E.R. on the 
basis of actual need. It may be given as an 
outright grant, or in proper cases, as a loan. 
No interest will be charged on loans and re- 
payment by Installment is authorized. Food, 
fuel, medical and dental care, hospitalization, 
assistance in securing pensions, compensation, 
insurance and allotments may also be given when 
the need arises. 

Application Procedure 

Each officer and enlisted man should acquaint 
his dependents with the purpose of Army Ekner- 
gency Relief and with the fact that they can 
obtain emergency aid through the nearest Red 
Cross chapter or at the nearest Army post. 
ApplicatiOTi for aid should be made to the near- 
est A.E.R. branch or direct to Army Einergency 
Relief, War Department, Washington, D.C. Each 
local branch will Investigate the cases and the 
final determination of the need for aid will 
rest with the cannandlng officer of each base. 

This assistance offered to Amy personnel will 
not be a substitute for Red Cross activities, 
but will supplanent in certain special cases the 
aid given by the Red Cross. Funds will be 
raised through individual memberships, both 
civilian and military, proceeds from exhibi- 
tions, athletic events, entertainments. Army 
motion-picture showings at posts, gifts, dona- 
tions, and other contributions. A large dona- 
tion from the Red Cross will provide for the 

initial operation of the relief orga ni zation. 

Mr. Robert Lovett, Assistant Secretary of War 
for Air, is president of the Army Air Forces 
branch of Army Emergency Relief, with head- 
quarters in Tanporary "T" Building, Washington, 
D.C. Other officers include Mrs. Henry H. 
Arnold, vice-president; Major TOn. H. Garrison, 
secretary and executive manager; and Mr. Robert 
Fleming , treasurer . 

World War Aces 

(Continued from Page 28) 
participated in a flying carnival. He ran into 
snowstorms and fog while over the Alleghenies. 
When he ascended above the clouds his motor 
began to miss and then quit altogether. En- 
deavoring a 90 degree turn to land in an open 
space, the airplane went into a spin and in the 
crash which followed his back was severely 

General Hunter's second degree inltlaticKi was 
a real thriller. On March 5, 1926, shortly 
ad'ter joining an early mornlrig formatiwi flight 
and while at an altitude of about 800 feet, a 
disintegrated piston caused the breakage of the 
gasoline line, spraying the volatile fluid over 
the engine and cowling. The plane was Imnedi- 
ately transformed into a mass of fl6unes, and 
General Hunter bailed out in. nothing flat. His 
peu’achute did not fail and he landed on the ice 
of Lake St. Clair, some 500 feet from where the 
flaming plane heid crashed through 18 Inches of 
ice. He made his way back to headquarters minus 
his mustache almost before anyone except the 
pilots in the formation knew anything about his 
exciting axlventure. 

Perhaps his narrowest escape occurred during 
his third initiation on "Friday, the 13th" of 
January, 1933. He was then stationed at March 
Field, Calif., and had proceeded to Wright 
Field, Ohio, to serve on a board of officers to 
pass on a new type of pursuit plane for the Air 
Corps. Flying as observer cn a flight test with 
the late Captain Hugh'M. Elmendorf at the con- 
trols, the new plane went into a spin from 
11,000 feet and never straightened out. General 
Hunter jun?3ed from about 150 feet and struck the 
ground before his parachute was completely open. 
He spent nine months at Walter Reed Hospital 
before he returned to duty status. 

• • 

A squadron of P-40s being operated in Russia 
by Russian pilots reports it has shot down 19 
German aircraft while only losing four planes of 
its own. 


MAY 1942 


The Honor Role 

(Continued from Page 10) 

PVT. ROBERT J. ENDRES-for completely dis- 
regarding his own safety hy running to a nearby 
abandoned truck on Clark Field, and despite the 
rain of aerial machine gim fire and bursting 
bombs, proceeding about the airfield collecting 
the wounded who were lying in the open. Filling 
the vehicle with casualties, he proceeded to the 
station hospital, unloaded the wounded and 
returned to the field. Seven such hazardous 
round trips saved many of the wounded from 
fYrther mutilation and death. 

PVT. JOSEPH McELROY-for unusual heroism dis- 
played while on duty at Clark Field. Instead of 
seeking shelter from an aerial bombardment of 
his airfield, he ran to his machine gun position 
In his grounded airplane and shot down one en«i?y 
plane and forced two others to withdraw. 

PVT. GREELEY B. WILLIAMS- (Posthumous) —for 
defending his aircraft and opening fire on the 
enemy during an attack on Clark Field. He 
successfully and courageously maintained his 
position behind his gun until killed by a burst 
of fire from a hostile machine gun. 

For bravery In action In the Philippines and 
Dutch East Indies: 

IT. COL. LESTER J. TACY (Also Purple Heart 
award), Capt. John Daugherty, Lleuts. Francis 
Cappellettl, Lawrence Gardner, Cecil Gregg, 
Arthur Hoffman, Douglas Kellar, Malcolm A. 
Moore, Melvin McKenzie, E. J, Nossum, Robert 
Perry, William Ralllpg, Robert J. Rogers, Austin 
Stitt, John M. Thacker, and Jdm J. Webster. 

Also Sergts. Max Baca, Clyde Anderson, John 
Flemlrig, Edward Hargrove, James Hortzel, Russell 
Hufftaan, R. p. Legault, Victor Lorber, Donald 
Miller, Wilbur McClellan, John Norvell, Howard 
Randall, William Sage, David Semple, John Sowa, 
Charles Shelllto, Bernard Stroheckler, and C. W. 
Thrasher; Corpl. Frauik A. Have, and Pvts. I. E. 
Barran, Wilbur E. Brown, J. M. Henderson, John 
Makela, Kenneth park, John A. Real, Paul A. 
Relmer, and Edwin Schaffner. 


Wounded In action In the Philippines and the 
Dutch East Indies: 

MAJOR HAROID E. DUNGAN, Lleuts. Francis Mc- 
Glverln, and Harry Schrelber; Sergts. Michael 
Blben, R. D. Brown, John Cootee, Walter Kolbus, 
W. E. Manners, Rex Matson, and W. L. Olford; 
Corpls. Wlllleim A. Williams, Elmer Connor, and 
Frank A. Harvey; Pvts. Robert Chopping, E. 
Jumla, Arvld Negdahl, Edward Olsen, and Edwin 


For action In the Philippines and the Dutch 
East Indies: 

IT. COL. EMMETT O'DOOJELL, Major Cecil Caibs, 
Capt. Jack Adams, Capt. William J. Bohnaker, 
Capt. Harry B. Galusha, Capt. Donald Kelser (Al- 
so awarded the D.S.C. and the Silver Star), 
Capt. Colin P. Kelly, Jr., (Posthumous award. 
Also D.S.C.) , Capt. Frank Kurtz, (Three-time 
winner of the D.F.C., also holds Silver Star), 
Capt. Clarence McPherson, Capt. Robert North- 
cutt, Capt. William Patrick McIntyre, Jr., Capt. 
Elmer L. Parsel, Capt. George Schaetzel, Capt. 
Edward C. Teats, Lieut. Kenneth Casper, Lieut. 
Paul Lindsay, Lieut. Philip Mathewson, Lieut. 
Carey Obryan, Lieut. Harl Pease, Jr., Lieut. 
Julius B. Simmers, Jr., Lieut. Earl R. Tash, and 
lleut. Elliott Vandevanter, Jr. 

The following officers and enlisted men were 
awarded the D.F.C. for extraordinary achievement 
In a flight of bombers from Honolulu to the 
Philippines In the latter part of 1941. Each of 
the filers, the citations read, "displayed 
skillful airmanship and accurate knowledge of 
the highly technical details In the successful 
execution of the flight, which each phase of 
this flight was accomplished indicated a high 
quality of navigation. This outstanding 
achievement reflects the highest credit on the 
military forces of the United States." 

IT. COL. ERNEST MOORE, Major Gordon A. Blake, 
Major William P. Fisher, Major Alva L. Harvey, 

MAY 1942 



Capt. Donald. P. Flickliiger, Lieuts. Joe M. Bean, 
Richard T. Carlisle, Robert S. Cllnkscales, 
Stanley Cottage, Henry Dittman, Carl E. Epper- 
son, James P. Ferrey, Morris N. Friedman, (Also 
Silver Star), Henry C. Godman, Eddie W. Hayman 
(Silver Star) , Curtis J. Holdrldge, Francis K. 
McAllister (Posthumous. Also Silver Star), 
Guilford R. Montgomery, Donald D. Robins, Weldon 
H. Smith, (Silver Star) Paul R. Tarbutton, 
Frances R. Thompson, Ernest C. Wade, Robert F. 
Wasson, and John B. Wright. 

Also Sergts. George H. Brandes (Silver Star), 
Glover L. Burke, Jr. (Silver Star), Janies L. 
Cannon (Posthumous. Sliver Star), John F. 
Carter, John F. Clark, William J. Delehanty 
(posthumous), Edwin J. Dobberpfuhl, William S. 
Fooght, John M. Geckeler (Silver Star), Joseph 
A. Glardlna, Clyal M. Gilbert, William J. 
GrlfTln, George A. Heard (Purple Heart) , Stanley 

C. Jackola, Coley L. James, Clevis 0. Jones 
(Silver Star) , Thomas E . Keahey, Lester Kramer 
(Silver Star), Joseph C. Laza, Robert G. Mc- 
Intyre, Norman P. Michelson, Edward T. Oliver, 
Walter Partridge, Roland F. Provost (Silver 
Star and Purple Heart), Armando G, Ramirez, 
Arthur L. Richardson, Fred D. Secrest (Purple 
Heart) , Vincenzo Spanzlano (Silver Star) , Roger 
W. Stephens, John A. Wallach, Herbert E. Wiest, 
and Perry W. Whitley. Corpls . William F. John- 
son, Meyer levin, Conrad R. Payne (Silver Star) , 
and Pvts . Robert E. Altman, Junior Brooks 
(Silver Star), Lincoln H. Dapron, John. W. 
Kennedy, William A. Knortz, John J. Labreche, 
Willard L. Money, JohnA. Resl, James E. Schoen, 
and Homer L. Vincent. 

For risking their lives in rescuing a marooned 
Air Corps ofYicer on an ice floe In Alaska, the 

D. F.C. has been awarded to Lieut. Eugene T. 
Yarborough and Lieut. Frank L. O'Brien, Jr. 

The Chrysler Corporation is building a 
$100,000,000 plant at Chicago, 111., to manu- 
factiare 12 cylinder air-cooled Wright engines. 

• '• 

A new device by which aerial torpedoes, bcmtos 
and shells can steer themselves to a target 
under their own power has been patented at Great 
Britain. Launched by a catapult, the- new shell 
is really a tiny pilotless airplane, complete 
with engine, propeller and gyros tatic control. 
When over the target, the device sheds its wings 
and drops — according to the inventor — right on 
the objective. 

Morale Builders 

(Continued from Page 17 ) 

Will make available to every man in the AAF the 
conprehensive program being developed by the War 
Department Special Service Branch and the 
Special Services Section of the AAF Director of 

The Anny Motion Picture Service, an agency of 
the Special Service Section, operates the larg- 
est single chain of theatres in the United 
States. The latest Hollywood pictures are shown 
at the same time they are released in civilian 
theatres. It is the function of the special 
services officer to complete arrangements with 
the Army Motion Picture Service to provide for 
exhibition of the motion pictures at each base. 

Units on overseas assignments are being sup- 
plied with selected current films. Prior to 
departure, units receive sound and projection 
equipnent for 16 mm films as well eis supplies 
and repair parts. Enough films are Issued for 
either eight or twelve weeks, depending upon the 
requirements in each case. At certain tropical 
bases, open air programs will be organized 
wherever the climate is suitable for outdoor 
showings . 

Capra Directing 

In addition to arranging for the showing of 
"civilian" movies, Special Service will produce 
their own news and documentary films dealing 
with the background of the war and pointing out 
the hazards faced by the United States. This 
function is under the direction of Major Freuik 
Capra, former Hollywood director, now on duty in 
Washington. The first series of pictures will 
be finished soon and will be shown cxily to mil- 
itary perscxmel. 

Through the cooperation of Camp Show, Inc- 
corporated, traveling shows with professional 
talent are "playing" at certain bases. Twelve 
such shows are now oi>eratlng on a major circuit 
and fourteen shows on a minor circuit of the 
smaller camps. Under the direction of the 
Hollywood Screen Victory Committee, a "talent 
pool" has been organized. Stars who are "be- 
bween pictures" or who have free time are belpg 
assigned by the pool to play convenient dates 
and supplement the regular camp units as added 
attractions. In addition, popular bands emd 
concert artists are contributing their services. 
A similar Broadway talent pool uses "name stars" 
who are available. 

Provisions have been made to take theatrical 
units outside of the United States to various 
outposts within safe flying distance. One group 
(Continued on Page 37 ) 


MAY 1942 

^ War by Moonlight 

RAF ^^Fly-By-Xight” Brings Down Jerry 

Of the 33 enemy raiders destroyed last night 
it is now established that four were brought 
down by A, A, guns. The remaining 29 fell to the 
guns of the R.A.F. night-fighter pilots. . . . 
our night- fighting forces took full advantage 
of the brilliant moonlight . (Air Ministry 

T ry to Imagine the moonlight sky, with a 
white background of snow nearly six miles 
below. Somewhere near the centre of a toy town 
a tiny flare is burning. Several en«ny bontoers 
have come over, but only one fire has gained a 
hold. After all the excitement of my two ccan- 
bats, 1 caul still see that amazing picture of 
London clearly In my mind. 

It was Indeed the kind of night that we fly- 
by-nl^ts pray for. I had been up about three- 
quarters of an hour before I found an enenQr air- 
craft. I had searched all round the sky when I 
suddenly saw him ahead of me . I pulled the 
boost control to get the highest possible speed 
and catch him up. I felt my Hurricane vibrate 
all over as she responded and gave her maximum 
power . I manoeuvred Into position where I could 
see the enemy clearly with the least chance of 
his seeing me. As I caught him up I recognised 
him — a Dornier "flying pencil" . Before I 
spotted him I had been almost petrified with the 
cold. I was beginning to wonder if I should 
ever be able to feel my hands, feet or limbs 
again. But the excitement warmed me up. 

Big Moment Came 

He was now neeurly within range and was cllui)- 
Ing to 30,000 feet. I knew the big mcmient had 
come. I daren’t take my eyes off him, but just 
to make sure that everything was all right I 
took a frantic glance round the "office" and 
MAY 1912 

checked everything. Then I begsui to close In on 
the Dornier and found I was travelling nucn too 
fast. I throttled back and slowed up Just In 
time. We were frighteningly close. Then I 
swung up, took aim, and fired my eight guns. 
Almost at once I saw little flashes of fire 
dancing al<mg the fuselage and centre section. 
Hy bullets had found their mark. 

I closed in again, when suddenly the bomber 
reared up in front of me. It was all I could do 
to avoid crashing into him. I heaved at the 
controls to jjrevent a collision, and In doing so 
lost sight of him. I wOTdered if he was playing 
pussy and Intending to Jink away, codb yp on the 
other side and take a crack at me, or whether he 
was hard hit. The next moment I saw him going 
down below me with a smoke trail pouring out. 

I felt a bit disappointed, because it looked 
as if ny first shots had not been as effective 
as they appeared. Again I pulled the boost 
control and went down after him as fast as I 
knew how. I dived from 30,000 to 3,000 feet at 
such a speed that the bottcKn panel of the air- 
craft enacted, and as my ears were not vised to 
svich sudden changes of pressure I nearly lost 
the use of one of the drums. But there was no 
time to think of these things. I had to get 
that benber. Then as I came nearer I saw he was 
on fire. Little flames were flickering around 
his fuselage and wings. Just as I closed in 
again he Jinked away in a steep cllablng turn. 
When he got to the top of his cllnb I was almost 
on him. I took sight very carefully and gave 
the button a quick squeeze. Once more I saw 
little dancing lights on his fuselage, but 
almost Instantaneously they were swallowed in a 
burst of flames. I saw him twist gently earth- 
(Continued on Page 38) 



The Odds Be Damned 

(Continued from Page 2) 
an Interception. Capt. Hewitt T. Wheless kept 
his plane on course and made a r\m over the 
targets while the gunners fought off the Zeros 
and the bombardier planted his bombs cm six 
transports. By this time Wheless 's plane weis 
the target of 18 Zeros blasting with cannon and 
machine guns. For 75 miles the B-17 gunners 
stood off the Zeros, shooting down six while 
bits of B-17 flew around their ears. Private 
Kllllm, the radio operator manning one waist 
gun, was killed by a burst frcan a Zero. Ser- 
geant Brown was shot through the wrist while 
manning the other waist gun. When Kllllm was 
killed Brown manned both guns alternately and 
shot down five Zeros . Other meniiers of Capt . 
Wheless' crew Included 1st Lleuts. Raymond G. 
Tebored, co-pllot, and William Meenaugh, navi- 
gator; Sgt. Schelotte, bombardier, Sgt. Gootee, 
engineer and Corp. Williams, gunner. 

The battle ended when all plauies exhausted 
their aamunltlon. Then the astonished Japs flew 
close formation with the Fortress and peered 
Into the cockpit to see what was still keeping 
It In the air. 

After the Japs departed Capt. Wheless flew the 
plane 400 miles to his base with all but four 
control cables shot away, two engines dead, the 
front wheels flattened, the tall wheel demol- 
ished and a leaking gas tank. Of the crew, one 
was killed, three badly wounded euid all grazed 
by Jap cannon shell fragnents. 

B-17 gunners accounted for more than one third 
of all attacking Jap pursuits over the Indies 
and stirred the Tokyo radio to announce: "The 

American B-17E Is a four engined pursuit plane 
used for all purposes and proved to be very 
effective" . 

To meet the changing tactics of Jap fighter 
pilots B-17 gunners shifted their armament 
constantly, strapping guns with improvised 
mounts In new eind unorthodox positions to sm*- 
prlse the attackers. Tall gunners In the Es 
took a heavy toll of Jap pilots who hadn't heard 
about the "stinger" and attacked from the rear. 

Navigators Role 

Navigators played an Important role In the 
long and accurate aerial thrusts against the 
Japs and the nocturnal evacuation of airmen from 
the captured Philippines. Ueut. Fred Rowan, Jr. 
navigated the Flying Fortress piloted by Capt. 
James Connally on a long and difficult mission 
through tropical storms. Jap ships were bombed 
and simk and stranded Air Force personnel 

rescued during this mission. Rowan's job was 
particularly Important in the location of secret 
Philippines bases at which the B-17 refueled. 
When the navigator brought the ship In the vi- 
cinity of the target he acted eis fire control 
officer and directed the work of the gixmers in 
actual combat. 

Chief opposition to the heavy bcmibers came 
from Zero fighters. Airmen back from the Indies 
and Australia report that the Zero looks like an 
AT-6 with a sllnmer fuselage. They are reported 
to be fast and maneuverable with a fast rate of 
cllub. Armament ranges from six machine guns to 
four machine gims and two cannon firing explo- 
sive shells. They are not armored and appear to 
be much lighter than most pursuits. 

Japs Smart 

Air Force men who have foiight the Japs report 
that their formation flying and tactics are 
excellent. The Japs are quick to ferret out 
weaknesses In their opposition and then attempt 
to press home their advantage with numerical 
superiority. Jap fighter pilots are reported to 
be extremely aggressive, but no fanatical "sui- 
cide" attacks have been observed by our airmen. 
In bailing out conbat crews use a delayed para- 
chute opening to plummet out of Jap fighter 
range since machine gunning of dangling para- 
chutists became a standard Jap tactic. 

However, despite the famed Zero fighter and 
overwhelming numerical superiority, most of the 
Jap pilot's successes have been scored on the 
ground. They are expert ground strafers, using 
Incendiary bullets and fragmentation bombs in 
low diving attacks preceded by bcmber attacks 
from higher altitudes. Early morning hours, 
during meals and dusk are their favorite times 
for airdrome strafing. Filter patrols spotted 
Army bombers coming In to refuel and re-arm and 
then strafed thmn tm the ground with too much 
success. Natives co-operating with the Jlips 
often made camouflaging ineffective. 

Capt. Algene Key told of the Fifth Colum- 
nists' work In Java: 

"One morning in Java I led a formation of 
three planes Into the air and our crew noticed 
three puffs of smoke nearby. Three more planes 
took off and three more puffs of smoke went up. 
We flew over the spot where the smoke was rising 
and bombed It with good effect." 

A flight of pursuits with U.S. markings 
circled an American base In Borneo. They called 
the control tower in perfect English 6uid re- 
ceived permission to land. As they came In they 
sprayed the field with incendiary bullets. 


MAY 19^2 


dropped light boni)s mi the hangars, shot up the 
field again and departed. 

Yankee Ingenui ty 

Some of the tricks work the other way. The 
late Brig. Gen. Harold H. George, for instance, 
Inmdbilized a field full of Jap bcMfcers on Luzon 
with nothing more than a field radio. 

"Just after we lost our last plane mi Bataan", 
the general related, "the Japs established a 
heavy bomber base 20 miles from our lines. I 
knew they always listened to our field mes- 
sages so the minute I heard the Japs had 

cone down, I sent my wireless sergeant to one 
end of our drome with a field radio and told him 
to send six P-40s inanediately to attack Jap 
bonbers at their advance base. He protested 
that one of the ships had engine trouble. I 
said 'Okay, then send them five'. Of course we 
had none. 

"Inmediately after the Japs intercepted the 
message, they ordered their heavy bon±iers to 
take off without bomb loads. We kept up this 
variation for four days running before the Japs 
caught on. On the fourth day we had a couple 
P-40s sufflcently repaired to fly and we caught 
their bociDers flatfooted in the midst of loading 
on the ground. They had decided they wouldn't 
be fooled anymore." 

Morale Builders 

(Continued from Page 34) 
of motion picture stars has already entertained 
troops in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Antigua, Santa 
Lucia, Trinidad, British Guiana, St. Croix and 
St. Thomas. This is being continued whenever 
existing conditions permit. 

Libraries are being established in AAF sta- 
tions and even in squadron dayrocxns. They are 
stocked with books ranging in Interest from 
li§ht fiction to Important technical subjects. 
Traveling libraries, made up of small collec- 
tions of new books, are regularly transferred 
from one small station to another in all corps 
areas. Every overseas unit talffis its own col- 
lection of books, provided by the special serv- 
ices section, ccwisisting of one hundred paper 
bound volumes. Eteadlng material mi the various 
transports is also provided. ArrangMnents are 
being made to supply overseas imits with current 
magazines and newspapers. 

"A singing army is a fighting army", and 
music is reco^izfed as an Important element in 
practically eVery phase of Army life. Swing 
bands furnish jazz for dances aixi social func- 

tions. Regimental bands provide the musical 
setting for parades, ceremonial functions and 
concerts. Pit bareis play for amateur theatri- 
cals. Morale is never low when there's music in 
the air, so Special Service provides song books 
and encourages the organizing of barber shop 
quartets, choirs, and choruses for both formal 
and informal singing. 

ArnMig the most Important functions of Special 
Service is the organization of sports activ- 
ities. Complete athletic equipnent is being 
provided for thirty-five different kinds of 
sporting activity, ranging from Indoor games to 
mass demonstrations. There is a systematic 
effort to develop Intrawnural activities as well as 
inter-post, inter-camp and inter-station con- 
tests. CMnpetltlon with civilian organizations 
is also encouraged. 

Radio activities have not been overlooked. 
The Red, White and Blue network has over 300 
stations dedicated to spreading good will in the 
service. Programs consisting entirely of 
enlisted talent are organized and broadcast over 
conveniently located stations. A plan similar 
to Camp Shows, Inc., has been organized to have 
network radio programs originate at the various 

A weekly tabloid size periodical called 
"l!ank", written by and for enlisted men, will be 
published for certain overseas forces. The 
first issue is expected shortly. 

Special Service is directing the correspond- 
ence courses offered by the Army Institute at 
Madison, Wls. Complete information concerning 
the details are available at the Special Service 
office at each AAF unit. 


But no matter what the camp itself may offer, 
enlisted men Inevitably want to ^t off the post 
in their leisure hours. In this regard. Special 
Service cooperates with the U.S.O. and other 
civilian organizations to provide adequate 
recreational facilities in conmunities near the 

Special services officers accompany units 
assigned to duty overseas and continue the 
performance of the function wherever jxjssible. 
Detachments leaving for overseeis duty are pro- 
vided with a combination radio-phonograph, 
conplete athletic kits and sports equipment. 

Ikider current war CMiditiMis, the Red Cross is 
the only non-military organi^tion permitted in 
the confcat ZMie. The ftaictions formerly carried 
on by the Salvation Army, the Y.M.C.A., the 
K. of C. and other civilian agencies are assumed 
by Special Service. 

MAY 1942 



Fly by Ni^ht 
(Continued from Page 55) 
wards and there was a spurt of fire as he 
touched the earth. He blew up and set a copse 

I circled down to see If. any of the crew had 
got out, and then I suddenly remembered the 
London balloon barrage, so I cllnbed up and set 
course for home. 

I had time now to think about the action. My 
windscreen was covered with oil, which made fly- 
ing uncomfortable, and I had a nasty feeling 
that I might have lost bits of my aircraft. 
Anyway I soon landed, reported what had hap- 
pened, had some refreshment and then up In the 
air (Mice more, southward ho! for London. 

Soon after I was at 17,000 feet. It's a bit 
warmer there than at 30,000. I slowed down and 
searched the sky. The next thing I knew, a 
Beinkel was sitting right on my tall. I was 
certain he had seen me, and wondered how long he 
had been trailing me. I opened my throttle, got 
round on his tall and crept up. When I was 
about 400 yards away he opened fire — and missed 
me. I checked my gadgets, then I closed up and 
snaked about so as to give him as difficult a 
target as possible. I got into a firing posi- 
tion, gave a quick burst of my guns and broke 

I came up again, and It looked as if my shot 
had had no effect. Before I could fire a second 
time, I saw his tracer bullets whizzing past me. 

I fired back and I knew at once that I had 
struck home. I saw a parachute open xip on the' 
port wing. One of the crew was bailing out. He 
was quickly followed by another. The rovind 
white dcmes of the parachutes looked lovely In 
the mo<willght. 

It was obvious now that the pilot would never 
get his aircraft home, and I, for my part, 
wanted this second machine to a "certainty" and 
not a "probable". So I have another quick burst 
of my guns. Then to fool him I attacked from 
different angles. There was no doubt now that 
he was going down. White smoke was coming frcm 
one engine, but he was not yet on fire. I 
delivered seven more attacks, spending all my 
ammunition. Both his engines smoked as he got 
lower and lower. I followed him down a long way 
and as he flew over a dark patch of water I lost 
sight of him. 

But I knew he had come down, and where he had 
come down — it was all confirmed later — and I 
returned to my base ready to tackle another one. 

But they told me all the Jerries had gone home. 
"Not all", I said, "two of them are here for 
keeps" . 

--From RAF broadcast “We Speak From the Air" 

Alaskan ^^Kashim’’ 

Here is an inside view of the new "Kash- 
im”, built by the men of Air Base Head- 
quarters, Fort Richardson, Alaska. “Kashim” 
is the Eskimo word for a “Clubhouse for Men" 
to which women are admitted by invitation 
only. Taking the recreation problem in 
their own hands, the 685 men of Fort 
Richardson , working in their spare time, 
felled the trees, hewed the logs and built 
the entire building according to their own 
design. It contains a huge fireplace for 
barbecues , a bandstand and one of the most 
elaborate sandwich bars in Alaska. 

A gun camera has been developed to train 
pilots in the use of machine guns and aerial 
canncn. In mock "dog fights" the pilots "shoot" 
their gun cameras and the resultant photographs 
show where hits would have been made If real 
ammunition had been used. 


MAY 1942 

This is the tale of the Gremlins 
Told hy the P, R. U: 

The incredible tale of the Gremlins 
But believe me, you slobs, it’s true. 

When you’re seven miles up in the heavens 
(That’s a hell of a lonely spot) 

And it’s a fifty decrees below zero 
Which isn’t exactly hot. 

When you’re frozen blue like your Spitfire 
And you’re scared a Hurricane pink 
When you’re thousands of miles from nowhere 
And there’s nothing below but drink. 

It’s then that you will see the Gremlins 
Green and Gamboge and Gold 
Male and female and neuter 
Gremlins both young and old. 

It’s no good trying to dodge them 

The lessons you learnt on the Link 

Won’ t help you evade a Gremlin 

Though you boost and you dive and you jink. 

White ones will wiggle your wingtips 
Male ones will muddle your maps 
Green ones will guzzle your Glycol 
Females will flutter your flaps. 

Pink ones will perch on your perspex 
And dance pirhouet tes on your prop 
There’s a spherical middle-aged Gremlin 
Who’ll spin on your stick like a top. 

They’ 11 freeze up your camera shutters 
They’ 11 bite through your aileron wires 
They’ll bend and they’ll break and they’ll batter 
They’ll insert toasting forks in your tyres. 

That is the tale of the Gremlins 
Told by the P. R. U. 

(P)retty (R)uddy (U)nlikely to many 
But fact, none the less, to the few. 

--RAF Coastal Command 

■..■ \<-.:.-y' ■ '■ ■ V 



^•5 . ■ 

Army paratroops in maneuvers 

W.-tt& &.cl. 




KNOW: nobody knows, we struck in a mass attack, as planned. 






J»m» H. Dootittt* 

Brii»di»r Otitmemt, 0%S. Armr 


WJtB. EaJ, 










VOL. 25 JUNE, 1942 NO. 4 


THE FERRYING COMMAND -- By Brig. Gen, Harold L. George 3 


FLY TO TOKYO- -ALL EXPENSES PAID -- By Oliver H. Townsend .... 9 

AIRDROMES IN WARTIME -- By Lt. Col. Rudolph E. Smyser 11 


YOUR SAFETY JOB -- By Maj . W.R. Weber 14 


THEY LOOK FOR TROUBLE -- By Lieut. Robert B. Hotz 16 

SWEEPS OVER FRANCE -- By Flight Lieut. Brendan Finucane 21 


CHANUTE'S FAVORITE SON -- By Maj. M.F. Ranney 26 

MAXIMUM AIRCRAFT SPEED -- By Lieut. Perry J. Ritchie 28 





Technical and Art Director— James T. Rauls 

Vomen in uniform are making an unofficial but striking appearance in the Air Forces. 
Although not ordered by headquarters , commanding officers at several airfields are re- 
quiring uniforms for women clerical workers (all civilians) in the interests of in- 
creased efficiency and esprit de corps. Typical of these ’“uniformed gir Is” is Miss 
Kathleen Nelson, secretary to the Post Surgeon at the Air Forces Gunnery School at 
Tyndall Field, Fla. In the cover picture. Miss Nelson is shown wearing a uniform of 
“Air Force" blue and a cap bear ing the insignia of the branch to which she is assigned . 


Life Magasine , inside front cover, p.ll, 22; Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Co., p.l5; Lock- 
heed Aircraft Corp. , p.l6; Boeing Aircraft Co., p.29; and V.S, Army Air Forces photos. 


T ire WAR'S first raid on 
Japan was a hedge-hopping 
raid, l^fore and after the bombs 
were released. Air Forces flyers 
skimmed along as low as 10 feet 
from the ground to make sure 
that Jap fighters and anti-air- 
craft guns didn't interfere with 
the business at hand. One of 
the B-25s actually flew under a 
power line, just missing a pole, 
and dipped its wings under the 
branch of a tree. Some of the 
planes breezed so low over the 

water that propeller blasts 
kicked up waves; wings were 
raised to avoid the masts of 
fishing boats. Japanese boys 
threw stones at bombers zipping 
low over one of the beaches. As 
they approached their djjectives, 
crew members were able to detect 
the facial expressions of the 
natives and watch the Japanese 
wave up at them, some waving 
handkerchiefs, apparently ignor- 
ant of what was going on. After 
the bombs had fallen, the natives 
again raised their arms to the 
bombers— but only to shake their 

A PRIVATE at Foster Field, 
Tex., with a week-end leave 
coming up wanted nothing more 
than to visit his home in 
Chicago, His buddies on the 
ground line rose to the oc- 
casion. We've arranged for 
you to fly home in a Type C-3 
trainer, they told him, and he 
jubilantly prepared tor the 
trip. Nat until he was ready 
to board the plane did they 
explain that a Type C-3 is a 
Link Trainer, 

AS A RESULT of the Japanese 
raid. General Doolittle has re- 
ceived letters from hundreds of 
grade school youngsters volun- 
teering their services to the Air 
Forces. "Dear General," scrib- 
bled an eight year old from St. 
Louis, "if you'll drive by and 
pick me up I'm ready to go right 
now. I'll fight the little Japs 
while you fight the big ones." 
The boy received an autographed 
picture of the General and his 
advice to stay in school and get 
an education "so when we want 
you you'll be ready." 

SIGN OVER the bar in the 
officers’ club at San Juan, 
Puerto Rico; ”No liquor served 
to lieutenant colonels between 
the ages of 18 and 21 unless 
accompanied by parents,” 

fied man for Aviation Cadet 
appointment at any time. Such 
men must not only be recom- 
mended, should they apply: they 
must be encouraged to apply. 
Where an enlisted applicant for 
Aviation Cadet appointment is 
disqualified therefor, he will 
be informed of the opportunities 
and advantages of the Army Air 
Forces Officers Candidate 
Sc hool . '' 

OFFICERS back from combat 
duty in the Far East warn 
against underestimating the Jap 
pilot , whom they describe as a 
well trained, clever flyer. His 
pursuit technique is rated as ex- 
cellent. In bombing attacks he 
and his companions usually stick 
together like glue, often re- 
maining in formation even after 
their ships have caught fire. 
His aggressiveness is linked 
closely to numerical superiority; 
the Jap is cautious when the 
fight is on even terms. He 
plans an attack carefully and 
executes it to the letter, al- 
though in some instances his 
failure to improvise has proved 
costly. He invariably refuses 
to close with B-17 gunners — and 
for good reason. 

AT A WESTERN field, so the 
story goes, a Cadet circled his 
AT-6A for a landing. “O.K.? ,” he 
queried, “Not quite,” replied 
Control Tower, “not until you 
lower your landing gear,” But 
the Cadet was silent, “Lower 
your gear! Lower your gear! ” 
Control Tower was by now 
mildly upset. Still no answer. 
And the Cadet came in, landed 
on an empty belly, messy, but 
safe, 'How do you explain 
landing gear up after repeated 
warnings? demanded the 
Operations Officer, “how do 
you explain your refusal to 
answer Control Tower?” “Sir,” 
mumbled the Cadet, “it was the 
fault of that buzzer in my 
ship. I never heard Control 
Tower. That buzzer got louder 
the more I eased back on the 
throttle. It was so noisy I 
couldn’t pick up a thing on my 
radio.” ^ \ 

GENERAL ARNOLD has directed 
that all qualified enlisted men 
of the Air Forces be given the 
opportunity to train as Aviation 
Cadets. "Elach unit and activ- 
ity. "he states, "must be pre- 
pared to lose any highly quali- 

ALL WED are ready to stamp 
themselves as incurable Dodos 
might consider the case of 
Lieut. Travis Hoover. Back in 
1939, as he neared the end of 
his primary flight instruction 
at Lindbergh Field, Calif., 
Lieut. Hoover jotted down such 
serious words as these: "After 

d)out 11 hours of dual, it seems 
as if my progress has reached a 

JUNE 1942 



standstill, and I am very con- 
cerned. Will I be 'woshed out' 
if I don't snap out of it pretty 
soon? Why can't I master the 
one thing I want to do more than 
anything else — ^be able to fly 
and fly well for Uncle Sam." A 
glance at the Honor Roll list on 
page seven shows that Lieut. 
Hoover has just been awarded the 
Distinguished Service Cross for 
piloting one of the B-25s that 
staged the war's first raid on 

who bowbed and torpedoed the 
Jap fleet off Midway Island 
were asked how it felt to 
plunge into combat for the 
first time. Some of the 
answers: “You don’ t get 

thrilled , exactly; you have 
tq concentrate too much on 

what you've got to do 

Scared? I suppose so, at 
first, but I got mad right 

away I forget how I felt; 

with the target below and 
the Zeros alongside there 

really isn’t time to feel 

It just felt good, that’s all; 
we’d been waiting for this,” 

ONLY FOUR Americans hold 
internationol Golden ”C" soaring 
certificates, highest soaring 
recognition granted, and three 
of them are with the Air Forces. 
Major Lewin B. Barringer is on 
duty at headquarters as a glider 
specialist; 2nd Lieut. Chester 
Decker is with the Glider Unit 
at Wright Field, and John Rc^in- 
son is a civilian instructor at 
the Twenty-Nine Palms (Calif.) 
glider school. The fourth 
Golden "C" holder, Robert M. 
Stanley, is chief test pilot at 
Bell Aircraft Corp. 

by the way, is one of the fast- 
est moving activities in the 
Air Forces. Some recent de- 
velopments: Prior flight ex- 
perience is no longer necessary 
to qualify for glider pilot 
training, which has been made 

are First Lieutenants Herbert 
Licht, a former landscape 
archi tec t , and Sam Ri t tenhouse , 
a former civil engineer . These 
two boss a sweating group in 
clearing fields, cutting down 
trees, razing stumps, and 
ovailedile to all officers, en- building and hauling dummy 
listed men and civilians between planes-all in a day’s work at 
the ages of 18 and 36 who can camouflage course. Re- 

meet physical and mental re- ceiving instructions from 
quirements.... Selected graduates and Rittenhouse are 

of the glider schools will be lieutenant colonels, majors 
appointed second lieutenants, captains, and the teachers 

others will be given staff *beir superior officers 

sergeant ratings with flight partiality. What’s more, 

pay. and all graduates will be ^be ranking officers take it 
authorized to wear glider pilot ^^^e it. or pretend they 

wings insignia. 

ON A RECENT night training 
flight Aviation Cadet William 
Waters found himself over a 
small Carolina town wi th his 
gas supply almost exhausted. 
He recalled how another Cadet 
in a similar spot had dipped 
and circled over a small town 
until he aroused citizens, who 
quickly drove their cars to a 
local airfield and flooded it 
with their headlights for the 
forced landing. So Cadet 
Waters circled and dipped. 
Finally he saw headlights 
shining on a nearby field. 
Waters came in— .-and ground 
looped smack in the middle of 
a freshly plowed cornfield. 
The natives, it seems, hadn’t 
stopped to light up a landing 
field, Theyhad merely applied 
their car brakes out of curi- 
osity to get a better view of 
what was going on up above. 

THE THIRD Air Force is due 
for most of the action in summer 
maneuvers; from July 26 to 
August 16 and from August 31 to 
September 20 in the Carol inas. 
from August 31 to September 20 
in Louisiana, and from October 5 
to 25 in Tennessee. The First 
Air Force will be at the Carolina 
maneuvers from Octdjer 5 to 25. 

Belvoir, Va. , where the Engi- 
neer Board is training officers 
in the gentle art of camou- 
flage, find themselves in a 
rather enviable spot. They 

AIR FORCES personnel who 
participate in submarine sink- 
ings will get the Air Medal. 
The boys on off-shore patrol 
know that sub hunting is tough. 
It is estimated, for instance, 
that in two out of three 
cases a submarine will sight a 
plane and dive before the plane 
sights the sub. Also, that a 
submarine on surface during day- 
light con submarge approximately 
25 seconds after spying a plane. 

NOTES: "V Mail" — letters 
photographed on special film, 
flown to America and reproduced 
for delivery here — has been made 
available to all personnel of 
our armed forces in the British 
Isles, so we hear. It is re- 
ported that a ton of letters can 
be recorded on negatives weigh- 
ing only 25 pounds ... .The aver- 
age soldier in field uniform, 
according to the War Department 
physical training manual, should 
be able to run 100 yards in 13 
seconds, high jump four feet, 
broad jump 13 feet 6 inches and 
do 25 push-ups from the ground 
. . . .Corporal Franklin Leve of 
Maxwell Field won a national 
contest to find an American name 
for the armored divisions. His 
prize winner: "Armoraiders". . . 
At last count , 78 band units had 
been formed within the Air 

— The Edi tor 


JUNE I9<2 

The Ferrying Command 

By Brig. Gen. Harold L. George 

Commanding General, Air Forces Ferrying Command 

T he present war differs from all previous 
conflicts in its truly global character and 
the pre-eminence of air power. Operations of 
the opposing forces embrace the six continents, 
four oceans and seven seas in their daily com- 
muniques. Despite the magnitude of the forces 
involved on land and sea, air power has emerged 
as the key to victory. 

In a war of this character, battle lines are 
stretched around the world. Here at home, we 
are building up the arsenal of Democracy to 
supply them. The link between is the ^vital ser- 
vice of supply. And as operations on the 
battlefronts hove been speeded up by the rising 
factor of air power, the service of supply must 
take to the air to keep pace. 

The Air Forces Ferrying Gjmmand functions to 
translate factory production into combat air 
units along the ever shifting theatres of oper- 
ation. We might describe the Command as on aer- 
ial service of supply. 

December 7 left the Command with the responsi- 
bility of delivering all military aircraft to be 
produced under the President's program of 60,000 
planes in 1942, 125,000 in 1943. Since that 
date the Command has plunged headlong into other 
vital aspects of war--aerial delivery of equip- 
ment and personnel. 

In accomplishing its huge job truly prodigi,ous 
feats of daring and skill are being performed by 
^ the Ferrying Command. New routes have been 
blazed above the Arctic Circle and below the 
Ecjuator. With few detailed maps and haphazard 
weather information, planes have been flown 
around the world 

A globe circling series of bases have hod to 
be estdslished and a special network of communi- 
cations set up to provide the daily information 
without which regular operations could not be 
maintained. Equipment ranging from blankets and 
strawberry jam to prefcd>ricated houses had to be 
brought in by ship and plane. With native Icdior 
to which modern construction methods meant no- 
thing, landing fields had to be enlarged and 
runways extended. 

The War Department has announced that our pi- 
lots recently evacuated more than 4,000 persons 
from Burma. The Command also played on impor- 
tant role in the Battle of the Philippines. 
Even after the fall of Bataan our planes mode 
two hazardous trips to the Philippines. On the 
first trip 25 persons were evacuated. On the 
second, just before Corrigedor fell, 30 evacuees 
were flown out on a plane carrying a total of 37 
men, packed in like sardines. The navigator 

practically hod to stand on three of the passen- 
gers to take his fixes. 

Not long ago the Command was notified that 
several thousand pounds of essential military 
supplies were needed as soon as possible at a 
base in eastern Australia. Two days and 14 
hours after these supplies were made ovailcdsle 
to us on the coast, we had them delivered in 
Australia. During this flight the crew spent 
only seven hours on the ground, all for servic- 
ing. Meals and snatches of sleep were caught in 

When a badly needed military hospital burned 
to the ground in a remote section of Alaska, the 
Command was notified. Thirty- six hours later a 
24-bed emergency hospital was set up and in op- 
eration with materials and supplies ferried by 
the Command. 

Pilots and crews have experienced difficulties 
of all kinds and descriptions--ice in the Arc- 
tic. storms and St. Elmo's fire that burned 
holes in wings and fuselage in the South Atlan- 
tic, Japanese planes in the Far East. 

The exploits of our airmen breathe life into 
the formalized phrases of official citations 
made for "extraordinary achievement", and give 
new meaning to the stereotyped wording; "not 
only reflects credit upon himself, but upon his 
organization, all of the Army Air Forces ond his 
country as well." 

Landing at a foreign airport surrounded by 
barrage balloons with the ceiling zero is such 
an exploit. Flying at 22,000 feet over a cloud 
bank for hours until the oxygen supply was 
nearly exhausted is another. Bringing in a 
plane safely over a northern route after on en- 
counter with a cold bank that within a few min- 
utes deposited more than a ton of ice on the 
wings is a third. 

There is the crew of a plane which took off 
from Java during the early days of the war to 
bring out the ground crews of a bomber squadron 
withdrawn from the Philippines. With enough 
gasoline for only 2,000 miles, the plane suc- 
cessfully completed an 1,800 mile flight at 
night through hostile territory, changing course 
five times with only the stars as a guide, so 
that the slightest miscalculation would hove 
meant failure, with death or capture by the en- 
emy their probable fate. The thrill that ran 
through the crew can only be imagined as their 
signal for a landing was answered by a flare 
from the utter blackness below. But the ground 
crews so badly needed in Java were brought out 

JUNE I9<2 



"according to plan”. 

At one base in Africa, the crew brought in a 
four-motored plane without any advance communi- 
cation with a field because the radio station 
was closed and the operator was away attending a 

Establishment of our foreign routes raised 
many new problems, all complicated by the factor 
of distance. Sanitation in many places simply 
did not exist. Anti-toxins merely helped in the 
battle of prevention. The whole question of 
food for such diverse climates as those of 
Greenland and mid-Africa, India and Qiina hod to 
be examined. Seeds are now being sent out to 
detachments in far-off places so our men will 
hove the familiar taste of home-grown carrots, 
lima beans, onions and pumpkins to assuage home- 
sickness as well as hiuiger. Frostbite and mos- 
quitoes ore only two of the myriad enemies it is 
necessary to guard against in order to keep the 
officers and men maintaining our bases in the 
health and spirits vital to continuous opera- 
tions. Refrigerators, radios, phonographs, 
basdsall. badminton and other athletic equipment 
have been enlisted in the cause. 

Some of these difficulties are on the lighter 
side. Ferrying one type of pursuit ship means 
limiting baggage to a toothbrush and razor. 
With crews constantly on the move, laundry still 
is a chronic problem. There is the case of the 
pilot whose fiancee spent almost three weeks 
waiting at the airport before he could stop 
long enough to get a marriage license and have 
the ceremony performed. 

Yet, while daily problems were being solved, 
an eye had to be kept to the future when the 
full stream of production would be flowing over 
the airlanes to American squadrons and to our 
allies' forces everywhere. 

Without the aid of existing commercial com- 
panies in a score or more fields, this gigantic 
task could not have been successfully accom- 
plished. Airlines, oil companies, manufacturers 
and scores of individuals volimteered their ser- 
vices. They are still helping to perform vital 
functions in a setup that already has exceeded 
in scope the operations of all the civil air- 
lines in the United States combined, and that in 
the near future will surpass those of the entire 

Miraculous as some of the accomplishments of 
the Ferrying Command hove seemed in the past, 
more miracles must be performed in. the future 
before the war in the air can be won. There can 
be no resting on laurels, no pausing for breath 
until we deliver the bomber that levels the lost 
Axis base to the ground. 

Fortunately for us, the Ferrying Command had 
the benefit of a relatively natural growth, al- 
though the nature of its work has mode pioneer- 
ing the rule rather than the exception. Created 
in Jxme, 1941. by direction of President Roose- 
velt to speed up aircraft deliveries to the 
British under the Lease-Lend Act. its task was 
later extended by international developments to 
include deliveries to such other Lease-Lend ben- 

eficiaries as the Union of Socialist Soviet Re- 
publics, the Netherlands East Indies, China and 
other South American countries. 

Starting with an original complement of two 
officers and one civilian secretary, the Ferry- 
ing Command has grown within 10 crowded months 
into an organization of several thousand offi- 
cers, enlisted men and civilian employees. From 
the beginning, questions arose for which pre- 
cedent could furnish no answer because there 
were no precedents. 

The organization which has been evolved to 
carry out President Roosevelt's program follows 
traditional lines in many respects, yet allows 
for infinite variations. It consists in broad 
outline of a headquarters, and a Domestic and a 
Foreign Wing. The Domestic Wing ferries all 
military aircraft from factories to points with- 
in the continental limits of the United States. 
At the East and West Coasts, planes consigned to 
foreign nations are turned over to the Foreign 
Wing, which flies them across to fronts in the 
Near and Far East, Australia and the U.S.S.R. I 
well remember the time when our thinking was 
confined to Hemisphere defense. Today we speak 
of countries as a few years ago we spoke of 
states, speak of oceans and seas as once we 
talked of rivers and bays. 

A natural by-product of this vast organization 
is the training program, only recently insti- 
tuted, to keep our pilot strength onple for the 
task of ferrying thousands of airplanes a month, 
varying in size from the small ‘‘grasshopper" 
craft used for artillery spotting and ground 
liaison to the huge Consolidated B-24s and 
Boeing Flying Fortresses. 

Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, almost all 
our pilots were military flyers. The sudden de- 
mand for their services with combat units led to 
employment of civilian pilots on civil service 
status. Plans call for eventually militarizing^ 
the entire service by commissioning these civil- 
ians as soon as they can qualify. The Domestic 
Wing already has set up officer candidate 
courses at control centers throughout the coun- 
try to give intensive training designed to fit 
these civilian ferry pilots for commissions in 
accordance with their age and experience. These 
courses are conducted during the 90-day civil 
service appointment so that ferrying operations 
are interrupted only for a short period and by 
small groups at each sector. 

The whole Ferrying G^mmond estcdslishment. as a 
matter of fact, has a training as well as an 
operational function. Pilots with lesser 
amounts of flying time start out on smaller 
types of planes, progress to the faster and 
heavier types. After undergoing training at our 
4-engine school pilots may be transferred to the 
Foreign Wing, where they fly bigger, faster 
craft on longer missions. From the Foreign 
Wing, they are ovailcd>le for transfer to combat 
units, where their experience and training is 
invaluable for long range bomber flights. To 
develop pilots and crews for the announced pro- 


JUNE 1942 


gram of 500 heavy bombers a month will challenge 
our best efforts. 

Conduct of operations on the present unpre- 
cedented scale has offered a new experience in 
organization. Since the Ferrying Command takes 
every military plane from the end of the assem- 
bly lime, a sensitive finger must be kept on the 
pulse of production to eliminate any delays 
there. From our control centers, pilots and 
crews are sent to the factory to take over each 
plane accepted by the Materiel Command inspector 
and fly it to a particular destination. I^ir 
progress is plotted almost hourly along the 
route so that information is available imme- 
diately as to the location, route and condition 
of any plane at any time. When a plane is deli- 
vered, the crews are returned by air to their 
home control point or to another factory to re- 
peat the process and keep the stream of produc- 

tion flowing smoothly. 

The Ferrying Command looks to the future with 
confidence. Ahead lies a task that a few years 
ago would have appeared insurmountcdile. 'Yet we 
are now delivering more planes each month than 
the Army Air Corps possessed a few years ago. 
At home the feeling that we are responsible in 
however small measure for the successful accom- 
plishment of some war task should inspire us to 
greater efforts. On the battlefront, a sense of 
representing home and country, the millions of 
individuals making up this great nation, nerves 
our crews to fight the overwhelming loneliness 
of vast ocean or desert wastes, and steels the 
pilot, navigator, radioman, gunner and bombar- 
dier when the enemy is sighted. In this recip- 
rocity of spirit will be forged the attainment 
of our common goal, “Winning the War". 

Ferrying Ccmmand pilots inspect their open air dormitory at an African base. 
Nets are stretched over the beds tor protection against insects. The sur- 
roundings may be primitive but the beds, springs and matresses are the 
finest from the U.S.A, 


JUNE 1942 



MA4.CCN. Lewis BRC..eTON 



Brig. General James H. Doolittle "For conapicuoua laaderahip above and beyond the 

call of duty, involving peraonal valor and intrepidity at an extreme hazard to 
life. With the apparent certainty of being forced to land in enemy territory 
or to periah at sea, Gen. Doolittle organized aa well aa led the air raid on 
Japan April 18, 1943. " 


For participation in the Tokyo raid on April 18, 1942: 

Me jora 

John A. Hilger 


Charles R. Greening David M. Jones Edward J. York 

George Barr 
Thadd H, Blanton 
William M. Bower 
Clayton J. Campbell 
Robert S. Clever 
Richard E. Cole 
Horace E. Crouch 
Dean Davenport 
Robert G. Emmens 
William G. Farrow 
William N. Fitzhugh 
Robert M. Gray 


Thoma s C. Griffin 
Dean E. Hallmark 
Nolan A. Herndon 
Robert L. Hite 
Everett W. Holstrom 
Travis Hoover 
Richard O. Joyce 
Frank A. Kappeler 
Richard A. Knobloch 
Ted W. Lawson 
J.H. Macia 
Jack E. Manch 

Robert J. Meder 
Richard E. Miller 
Charles L. McClure 
Harry C. McCool 
E. E. McElroy 
Eugene McGur 1 
Chase J. Neilson 
Charles J. Ozuk 
James M. Parker, Jr. 
Henry A. Potter 
William R. Pound, Jr. 
Kenneth E. Reddy 

Howard A. Sessler 
Jack A. Sims 
Donald G. Smit^ 

J. Royden Stork 
Denver N.. True love 
Harold F. Watson 
Lucian N. Youngblood 
Thomas R. White 
Rodney R. Wilder 
Carl N. Wildner 
Griffith P. Williams 

Technical Sergeanta 

Waldo J. Bither Eldred V. Scott 

Edwin B. Bain 
William L. Birch 


Fred A. Braemer 
Omer A, Duquette 


Jacob Eierman 
Edwin W. Horton, Jr. 

P. J. Leonard 
Douglas V. Radney 


Wayne M. Bissell Aden E. Joiles Joseph W. Manske 
Robert C. Bourgeois Theodore H. Laban Edward J. Saylor 
Melvin J. Gardner George E. Larkin, Jr. Harold A. Spatz 


Jacob DeShazer Leland D. Faktor Bert M. Jordan 

William J. Dieter Donald E. Fitzmaurice David M. Pohl 

Robert J. Stephens 
Adam R. Williams 

David J. Thatcher 

JUNE 1942 




Major Jack N. Donohew Heroism while pilot ing a plane near Kalama» Ifas/i. 

Major Louis T. Reichers (Pilot) 

Capt . J.V. Chapman, Jr. (Co*pilot) 

Lt . J.A. Hutchins, Jr. (Posthumous ) - 
Master Sergt. C.G. Green 
Master Sergt. J.G. Moran 
Tech. Sergt. Francis G, Denary 

Harr iman niaaion 


to Moscow, 

Capt • 

James J. Connally 

.Lead pilot of a flight of Flying Fortreaaes on boaibing mission 
to Jolo, on Jan, 19 , 

Capt. Richard T. Right 

Lt. Kenneth L* Akins 

Lt. C.T. Allen (1st Navigator) 

Lt, John G. Moe (Navigator) 

Tech, Sergt. J.M. Cooper 

Tech. Sergt. H, Smith (2nd Engineer 

Staff Sergt. Errol W. Wynkoop 

Hazardous and technically difficult round trip flight from 
Bolling Field to the A^ether lands Bast Indies on an urgent and 
vital mission. Crew subjected to bombing raid at Palembang, 
Java, and later encountered a severe electrical storm during 
vhicli the ship was struck by lightning and burned in several 
places . 

Major J.H. Rothrock (Co-pilot) 
Capt. David B. L^ancaster, Jr. 
Capt. J.B. Montgomery 
Capt. William N. Vickers, Jr. 

Lt. Theodore J. Boselli 

Lt . Edson £. Kester 

Lt. F.B. Rang 

Lt, Elbert D. Reynolds 

Master Sergt. J.H. Walsh 

Tech. Sergt. Charles M. Kincheloe 

Tech. Sergt. Horace T. Peck 

Staff Sergt. R.J, Barrett, Jr. 

Sergt. Edward Schrempf 

Corp. Clyde W. Nowlin 

Initial flights to the United Kingdom, opening North Atlantic 
routes for the Air Force Ferrying Command , Summer, 1941, 

Lt. William B. Compton 
Lt. Cecil L. Faulkner 
Lt . Walter K. Heitzman 
Lt. Thomas C. Mustain 

Master Sergt. S.L. Jennings ^ Performed hazardous photographic mission over Japanese terri- 

Sergt. Benjamin Clifton tory, 

Corp. Jerome G. parsons 
Pvt. 1st Class J.A, Capute 
Pvt, Robert Johns 

Lt. C.W. Van Eeuwan (Posthuiaous ) 

Lt. J.J. Orr (Posthumous) (Co- 
pilot ) 

Pvt. 1st Class J.W. Gallik 

(Posthumous) (Radio Operator) 

Pvt. 1st Class E.A, Onufrowicz 

(Posthumous) (Aerial Engineer 

Aviation Cadet Earl W. Ray 

(Posthumous) (Navigator) 

Lt. Col. Caleb V. Haynes 

Oe liberately sacr if iced thesmelves by diving their d isahled 
plane into a gravel pit, exploding its full load of boaibm , 
rather than risk killing civilians in an attempt to land on a 
street or a vacant lot in a residential area. Took off from 
Mitchel Field, N,Y, , Jan, 1, 1942, 

2nd Oak Leaf Cluster ••Flight to Britain 

Major Donald Reiser Led Flying Fortresses across the Bay of Bengal to convert 

the docks of Rangoon into flaming wreckage, in spite of violent 
anti-aircraft and fighter opposition, and returned without a 

Capt. J.B. Montgomery.. Co-pilot, round-the-world flight, September , 1941. 

(Continued on Page 20) 


JUNE 1942 

Fly to Tokyo— All Expenses Paid 

BY Oliver H. TowKsend 

Heatl^aarters, AAF 

(This is the third in a series of articles 

describing countries officers and men of the 

Air Forces will visit in large numbers be- 
fore the end of the war . - -The Editor) 

*/^ CME to beautiful, hospitable Japan** is 
v^on invitation Japanese travel agencies hove 
been bandying thoughtlessly d^out for years. 

Doolittle finally did it. 

With a party of 79 officers and men. Brig. 
General James H. Doolittle last month conducted 
a quick tour of Japan*s chief industrial cen- 
ters. Members of the party all report they had 
a wonderful time. 

Although the famous Japanese hospitality was 
somewhat lacking when the Doolittle party ar- 
rived. the Tokyo radio has announced repeatedly 
that the Japs are *‘so sorry** they couldn*t give 
him a much warmer reception. In all fairness to 
the hosts, it must be admitted that, once they 
knew the General had arrived, they tried their 
best to get him to stop over permanently. Mem- 
bers of the Jap air force are still brooding be- 
cause they allowed him to "rush off**. 

After all. General Doolittle and his party did 
drop in somewhat unexpectedly. Perhaps that is 
why the Japanese hospitality was lacking. But 
he was simply following the precedent set by the 
Japs at Pearl Harbor— and he did leave calling 

All in all, the Doolittle junket was so suc- 
cessful that a new invitation, which has stolen 
the show from the Jap travel agencies, has been 
issued by the Air Forces, 

A Better Offer 

"Fly to Tokyo— All Expenses Paid*' is the Air 
Forces offer, and it* s a much more attractive 
one than any the Japs hove made. 

In response to this cordial invitation, thous- 
ands of Air Forces officers and men are thinking 
about making the trip to Tokyo, This being the 
case, it seems you all ought to know something 
about Japan: what preparations to make, how to 
get along with the natives, a little geography— 
that sort of thing. 

To begin with, much of the success of your 
trip will depend on the plans you make before 
departure. General Doolittle and his party 
planned carefully. We suspect that his exact 
itinerary was laid out long before he left. 
This careful planning allowed him to visit every 
city on his list, and to devote particular at- 
tention to many points of special interest. 

General Doolittlte proved that although the 
Japanese Islands are somewhat isolated from the 
United States and its foreign bases, they are 

still accessible if you make a stopover in 
friendly Shangri-La. 

Americans who hove made the flight to Japan 
all agree that the trip from Shangri-La to Tokyo 
shoi^Jdn't be missed. On the way you pass dir- 
ectly over the Rising Sun. Note the sun care- 
fully os you fly over — it appears to be setting 
rather than rising. This phenomenon is puzzling 
Japanese scientists increasingly as time goes 

Japan looms off the east coast of Asia like an 
imdernourished barnacle on the hull of the Queen 
Mary. Although you may not be able to see them 
all in one trip, the Japanese Islands extend for 
2.000 miles up and down the Asiatic coastline. 
If strung along the eastern coast of the U. S. , 
the Jap Islands and Formosa would stretch from 
Cuba north to Ldarodor, Tokyo would fall in the 
vicinity of Norfolk, Va. Laid end to end, Jcqxm 
reaches and reaches until honorcd>le knuckles get 
cracked , 

Bombardier' s Paradise 

Fortunately for the American traveler, most of 
the important points are concentrated in a 300- 
mile plain stretching from Tokyo south to Osaka 
on the Pacific side of the central island of 
Honshu. Crowded into this area are most of 
Japan's 70 million people, all of its greatest 
cities, and most of its agricultural and indus- 
trial wealth. You simply must not miss this 
part of Japan — especially if you are a bom- 

The Doolittle party, despite a split-second 
schedule, covered most of the important points 
in this area. These included the Navy Yard 
south of Tokyo, where a new cruiser and a new 
battleship were given special attention; the 
Mitsubishi aircraft factory near Nagoya: a “tank 
farm” near Osaka; dock-yards at Kc^e and Yoka- 
hama; and a number of steel works, oil refin- 
eries. armament plants and ammunition dumps. 

Many tourist sights such as the Imperial Pal- 
ace were ignored completely. Americans hope 
that the hospitable Japanese will not feel hurt 
because Doolittle left no presents for the Em- 
peror. If they consider this to be a violation 
of their highly valued protocol, this oversight 
can be mode up for in subsequent trips. 

A good share of the Doolittle visit was con- 
ducted just above the tree- tops, offering a de- 
lightfxil view. One of the most interesting phe- 
nomena encountered was the terrain, especially 
over industrial and military areas, which looked 
much different to rear gunners than to bombar- 
diers. Often ships and factories that were 

JUNE 1942 



plainly visible to the bombardiers had changed 
drastically by the time they came into the rear 
gunner’s view. 

Travelers to Japan should keep their radios 
tuned in- -especially if they understand Japan- 
ese. Nippon's radio announcers will take a 
great interest in your arrival and quite prob- 
ably become very excited about it. This may 
puzzle you somewhat, in that the Japanese us- 
ually pride themselves on their equanimity. But 
at least it will flatter your ego. 

As you leave central Japan, as the snow-capped 
purple majesty of Mount Fujiyama fades into the 
distance, let your eye stray to the south. 
There, over the horizon stretch the islands of 
Shikoku Olid Kyushu, two of Japan's five largest 
islands, Kyushu, home of the ancient port of 
Nagasaki, is more than just the place where “the 
men chew tobaccy and the women wicky wacky woo*'. 
It is also the second most important industrial 
area of Japan, and the place where most of its 
coal and iron is mined. It, like Tokyo, 
shouldn't be missed. 

North from the central Jap island of Honshu 
lie Hokkaido and Sakhalin, and a number of 
smaller islands. Although you may not notice 
them all in your first few trips, there are over 
500 islands in the Japanese archipelago, some as 
large as Great Britain, others smaller than Man- 
hattan. Even so, their total area is no larger 
than the state of Montana--and three-fourths of 
that is covered by non-arable mountains. 

This drives the people down onto the plains 
and mokes big cities there--Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, 
Nagoya, and Kobe. Tokyo at the last count was 
almost as populous as New York, Osaka practi- 
cally as big as Chicago. Tokyo's seaport, Yoko- 
hama, had almost a million people. 

The Japanese people are fanatically proud of 
their military history. They have never been 
invaded. (Note to printer: stand by for pos- 
sible change) . Kublia Khan, conqueror of all 
Asia in the 13th century, tried it twice and 
failed. The rest of the world has never been 
given the chance- -yet. Commodore Perry, how- 
ever. did some "negotiating'' under American na- 
val guns in Jap waters in 1853 and 1854. 

Before the E)oolittle visit, the most specta- 
cular debacle in Japanese history was the earth- 
quake of 1923, which hit the Tokyo-Osoka area. 
Less careful than Doolittle, the earthquake des- 
troyed thousands of homes, temples, and build- 
ings and wiped out a large percentage of Japan- 
ese. In spite of this the Jap has retained his 
sense of humor. Admiral Yamamoto, for instance, 
recently announced he would dictate peace terms 
in the White House. 

All in all, there is nothing like a trip to 
Japan to help one's disposition in these troub- 
lous times. After your first visit you will 
long for the day when you can return to these 
beautiful little jewels of the Pacific, bringing 
with you thousands of your friends, and shower- 
ing the hospitable Japanese with tons and tons 
of special tokens of our esteem. 



Pendleton , Oregon, where Doolittle’ s raiders trained, celebrates 
the bombing of Tokyo by "their boys" 

JUNE 1942 


^ “ diaperaed" P-40 , well-hidden from enemy view 

Airdromes in Wartime 

By Lieut. €ol. Rudolph E. Smy$4er 

Aviation Engineers 


T he present war has demonstrated the military be built for maximum efficiency for either peace 
inadequacy of most peace-time airfields. or war, but not for both. 

Modern wars are not begun with the exchange of There are many different types of airfields 
polite declaration of intentions; instead, with- but once the landing and take-off area is pro- 
out exception, the aggressor nation has com- vided they are differentiated solely by the 
menced hostilities by a staggering attack on degree and the amount of ser/icing. maintenance, 
the air installations of its victim. supply and administrative facilities provided. 

Although this formula has been repeated sev- For- military use, the following definitions 
eral times without variation, the results hove apply: 

been uniformly successful. There is no evidence Airdrome: A landing field at which military 
that any of the victims learned except through facilities for shelter, supply and repair of 
their own bitter experience that airdromes can aircraft hove been provided. This is the ge- 

JUNE 194:^ 



neric term for all military airfields. 

i4ir Base: A command which comprises the 
installation and facilities required by and pro- 
vided for the operation, maintenance, repair and 
supply of a specific Air Force. In its strict 
sense, the term Air Base can be applied only to 
an area. However, most existing military air- 
fields in the United States are now called Air 
Bases because it is contemplated that, under 
operational use, they will provide supply and 
repair facilities for a large number of units 
concentrated in the vicinity on auxiliary air- 
iromes . 

Auxiliary Airdromes: An airfield located 
within an Air Base operated as an annex. It 
does not have all servicing, supply and repair 
facilities sufficient for its operation. This 
type of airfield is also called a satellite 
field . 

Satellite Field: This term is of foreign 
derivation, and is applied to an occupied air- 
drome which is not completely equipped with the 
servicing, supply and repair facilities suffi- 
cient for its unaided operation. This type of 
airfield is identical in concept with an aux- 
iliary airdrome. 

Alternate Airdrome: An airfield availed) le for 
the use of military units in lieu of the air- 
drome to which assigned. 

Advanced Landing Field: An area of land near 
the general front available for the take-off and 
landing of aircraft. Minimum facilities for 
servicing only are available. Permanent occu- 
pancy by aircraft is not contemplated. 

Staging Field: A landing and take-off area 
with minimum servicing, supply and shelter pro- 
vided for the temporary occupancy of military 
aircraft during the course of movement from one 
airdrome to another. 

Dispersed Airdromes: An airdrome in which the 
facilities for supply and repair of aircraft and 
shelter have been spread out and removed so far 
as possible from the immediate presence of the 
landing and take-off area. 

Dispersal Parking Area: Areas of land in the 
vicinity of an airdrome not suited for landing 
and take-off of aircraft, which are used for the 
parking of aircraft. Dispersal parking areas 
*ay, or may not be contiguous with the normal 
landing and take-off areas, but are connected 
thereto by taxi tracks suitable for the use of 
any aircraft which may be parked in the dis- 
persal parking area. 

Field Airdrome: An airdrome, generally in the 
Theater of Operations, which is built for war- 
time use only. Construction at field airdromes 
is temporary, and the minimum consistent with 
military necessity, thus differentiating field 
airdromes from airdromes built during p>eace for 
permanent occupjancy. 

Too often, an airdrome is unsuited before it 
is ever built. Selection of the site in peace- 
time is frequently based on political expediency 
combined with economic necessity; the fundamen- 
tal requirement for war time suitability is put 

aside. Proper site selection is of course a 
compromise and adjustment between military 
necessity on one hand and flying requirements on 
the other. 

Requirements Flexible 

Fortunately, the military requirements are 
reasonably flexible, as it is more often neces- 
sary to locate an airdrome in a given area 
rather than in an exact location. Not only 
should sufficient land be available for the re- 
quisite landing and take-off area, but addi- 
tional space must be available for the proper 
locating of technical installations, and for the 
parking of aircraft. It should be accepted as 
axiomatic that except when undergoing repairs, 
aircraft on the ground will be in dispersed lo- 
cations. Airdromes are a logical target for the 
hostile air force, so every possible effort 
must be made to make the target inconspicuous 
and unr emune r at ive . 

Careful consideration should be given to the 
requirements of camouflage and dispersion. 
Sites should not be chosen which are easily 
found by relation to some prominent object which 
is clearly visible from the air. For example, 
placing on airdrome in the bend of a river would 
render camouflaging inoperative, as the river 
bend will always be visible from the air. The 
presence of woods, trees and hedges in the area 
are a great asset from the ca.mouflage point of 
view, as these can later be reproduced on the 
completed airdrome by camouflage methods. In 
addition, they afford cover for dispersed air- 
craft, buildings, bomb dumps, gasoline storage 
and other elements. 

The first requirement of an airdrome is an 
adequate landing and take-off area. This may 
vary from a level grass strip to an elaborate 
system of hard surface runways. Where soil and 
climatic conditions permit the growth and main- 
tenance of firm turf surfaces, it may be pos- 
sible to prepare a grass surfaced landing area 
from which light and limited traffic can operate 
during any season of the year, thus avoiding the 
necessity of preparing some form of hard sur- 
faced landing area. 

Advantages of Turf 

The principal advantages of the turf field are 
that it can provide a runway facing into the 
wind at all times, and that it is more easily 
camouflaged since its surface approximates more 
closely that of the surrounding country. Gen- 
erally speaking, all-over turf fields are par- 
ticularly suited for training centers or even 
operational airdromes used exclusively by pur- 
suit and light observation aircraft. Under the 
strain of heavy traffic, turf is likely to be- 
come rutted, especially if exposed to alternate 
freezing and thawing. Because of the mud which 
is inevitable during the wet season, maintenance 

(Continued on Page 34) 


JUNE 1912 

"It is fitting and proper to die for one’s country." 


A partial list of officers and men of the Army Air Forces officially reported 
to have died in the service of their country since December 7, 1941. 

Major Generals 
Herbert A. Dargue 

Master Sergeants 
Dave Jacobson 


George Ricker 

First Sergeants 
Wallace R. Martin 

Ma jors 

Austin A. Straubel Chauncey B. Whitney 

Capta ins 

Eugene D, Cadontseff John L. Du Frane» Jr. 

Colin P. Kelly James Gordon Leavitt 


Glen M. Alder 
William A. Anderson 
Arthur Alfred Amron 
Thomas Francis Almon 
William T. Biggers 
Walter C. Boyle 
Jerry Orville Brez'ina 
James C. Barhdm 
Homer Charles Burns 
William A., Cocke V 
Jack W. Clark 
Robert E. Crouch 
Woodrow Wilson Christian 
Hans C. Christiansen 
Leonard William Carter 
William C. Daniel, III 
Willard Thurman Degolyer 
James R. Davidson, III 
John Joseph Doherty,. Jr. 
Frederick J. Dittman 
John L. Dains 
John.R. Van De Lester 
John Pershing Robbins 
Elias Turner, Jr. 

Maurice M. Miller 
Arthur Edward Gary 
George H, Olson 
Lonnie B. Wimberley 
William R. Schick 
Harry A, Sealey 
Foy Roberson, Jr. 

Samuel H. Marett 
Karl F, Leabo 
William E. Luetzow 
E.D, Hoffman 
John E. Loehrke 
Louis A. Johnson 

Paul Willard Anthony 
Marshall Judson Anderson 
Isadore Alfred 
N.W. Browne 
Willis W. Burney 
Glenn Harold Boes 
Donald Paul Baker 
Hal Browne, Jr. 

William Perry Brady 
Wilbur Camp - 
Richard W, ..(^ase 
Ray Lawrence Cox 
Nathaniel Thomas Cornell 
Robert Devere Clark 
L.W.E. Duvall 
Roy L. Drew 

Arthur Ferdinand Davies 
Carl E. Danner, Jr. 
George Clark Denter 
Kenneth P. Donahue 
James Thomas Drake 
Dennis Joseph Dowling 
William S. Walker, Jr. 
John G, Kelso 
John A. Hutchins, Jr. 
Charles J, Young 
James W. Riddell 
Forrest M. Hobrecht 
William L. Northern, Jr, 
Lycurgus W. Johnson 
Claude A. Knight 
George R. Matthews 
T.M. Richards 
James E. Snyder 
R.A. Saner 
Robert T. Hanson 
Roy Robertson 

Technical Sergeants 

Srank St. E. Posey 

Raymond E. Powell 

Joseph Ambrose 

Howell H. Harris 


ff Sergeants 

Doyle Kimmey 

John H, Mann 

John A. Price 

Joseph C. Herbert 

Paul B. Free 

Elwood R. Gummerson 

James M. Barksdale 

Edward J. Burns 


James H. Derthick 

Lionel L. Lowe 

George F. Loritz 

Everett A, Pond 

Russell V. Cornford 

Stanley A. Donin 


Edward F. Heard 

Kenneth 0. Whitaker 

Mack Sweeney 

John Jurcsak 

Paul H. Duncan 

Gerald Duma is 

Arthur E. Karlinger 

^ , Cecil R. Hamman 

Donald F, Meagher 

, Antonio Tafoya 

Privates First Class' 

Ralph S. Smith 

Jerome J, Szematowicz 

Robert R. Shat tuck 

William T. Rhodes 

Willard C. Orr 

Thomas F, Philipsky 

William W, Merithew 

Horace A. Messam. 

Harrell K. Mattox 

William E. McAbe^ 

Robert R. Kelley 

James A. Horner 

William E. Hasenfuss 

Clarence E. Hoyt 

Melvin J. Dodson 

James £. Gossard, Jr. 

Eugene B. Denson 

William Coyne, Jr, 


Alfred Hays 

John J, Horan 

Robert L. Hull 

Robert H. Gooding 

Leo E.A. Gagne 

Lyle 0. Edwards 

Stuart H. Fiander 

Willard E. Fairchild 

Jack H, Feldman 

Russell C. Defenbaugh 

Robert C, Duff, Jr, 

Malachy Cashen 

Dean W. Cebert 

Robert S. Brown 

Arthur F. Boyle 

William J. Brownlee 

Brooks J. Brubaker, 

Jr. Gordon R, Bennett, Jr 

Robert G, Allen 

Garland C. Anderson 

Leland V, Beasley 

Otto E. Wellman 

Karl Santschi 

Edward E. VanDyke 

JUNE 1942 

Your Safety Job 

ByMaJ. W. R. Weber 

GMcf, Accident Prevention Division 
Directorate of Flying Safety 

G EMERAL Arnold has called upon each meaber 
of the Army Air Forces to do all in his 
power to aid the acident prevention program of 
the Directorate of Flying Safety. 

What con you do to help? 

First of all, you can cooperate with the 10 
special field safety officers who will represent 
the Directorate throughout the United States. 

These safety officers — all experts — hove been 
given the job of preventing airplane accidents. 
They will make special investigations and in- 
spections. and will study the accident pre- 
vention devices used at individual fields. Most 
important of all. they will take every step 
necessary to see that all officers and men of 
the Air Forces know the rules of flying safety. 

Help your safety officer. Q>operate with him. 
Learn the safety rules and practice them. Es- 
pecially learn how to eliminate landing, taxiing 
and take-off accidents. There is no possible 
excuse for these. 

A booklet soon to be published will describe 
the narrow escapes Air Forces flyers have had 
and how to avoid them. Many of you have demon- 

strated a fine spirit of cooperation by contri- 
buting your own experiences to this booklet. 
Typical of the episc^es described is the follow- 
ing, submitted by Lieut. Clay Tice, Jr.. France 
Field, Canal Zone; 

*We were on a shadow-gunnery mission making 
passes at the shadow of a two-ship element which 
was flying at an altitude of 500 feet. 1 
started my dive at 1,000 feet and at cd>out 100 
yards from the target opened fire. I released 
the trigger after firing a burst of approximate- 
ly 5 rounds but one of my guns continu^ firing. 
As there was another ship ahead and cd>ove me 
making his cross-over, I realised that following 
the pattern would endanger him. Glancing down 
in the cockpit I reached for the hydraulic 
button that controlled the malfunctioning gun 
and placed it in the lock-back position. It was 
but a split second before I had accomplished 
this but as I looked up again I was almost down 
in the water. I reacted without thinking and 
come back on the stick but my propeller hit the 
water throwing spray up over the cockpit. There 
was no damage done to the plane, but diving into 
the water at over 200 mph isn't something to 
look forward to. If I had kept my head in the 
cockpit an instant longer I would hove crashed; 
but if I had known definitely where the gun 
control was located I would never have had such 
a narrow escape." 


JUNE 1942 

AAF Planes Torpedo Japs 

O FF Midway Island the Jap Navy early this month ran smack into a new weapon of Army 
air power- -and came off second best. 

The new weapon was the Army’s Martin B-26, equipped with a special torpedo carrying and 
release mechanism. Sweeping deck- hi gh over the Jap fleet at lightning speeds the B-26s 
used the new device to send their explosive fish crashing into the hulls of carriers and 
warships . Together with Army B-17s and Navy carrier-based planes they sent the Japs 
limping home. 

Sweeping out of the clouds in the picture at top is a B-26 medium bomber similar to 
those used to blast the Jap Navy with torpedoes. Below an Air Forces officer inspects 
the new torpedo release mechanism which made it all possible. 

They Look For Trouble 

By Lieut. Robert B. Hotz 

Headquarters, A A F 


Lockheed Test Pilot Milo Burcham climbs out of 
a P-38 after checking it in the stratosphere 
prior to delivery to the Army Air Forces. 

Civilian pilots like Burcham work for all Air 
Forces contractors. It’s their job to take 
airplanes aloft and look for all types of trouble 
before the planes are delivered to combat pilots. 

T he sun beats down on the runways at the 
great Lockheed Air Terminal at Burbank, 
Calif. Scores of war-painted Hudsons, Venturas 
and P-38s are scattered over the field. A 
dusty station wagon bounces across the airport 
dropping a pair of casually dressed civilians 
before each of a long row of Hudsons and 
Venturas. The civilians buckle on chutes. 
Engines sputter, then roar. Twin engined bomb- 
ers waddle across the grass toward the end of 
the runway. Lockheed test pilots are going to 
work . 

These Lockheed pilots are an oddly assorted 
crew with only two things in common- -a long 
and colorful record in the air and a love of 
the work they do. 

There is Jimmy Mattern, who flew solo from 
New York to Siberia in 1933 and was lost for 
14 days in the Arctic after a forced landing; 
Jim Allison, who fought in Spain and China; 
Lewis (Swede) Parker, who was a music student 
at Harvard when he learned to fly and who now 
mixes bronco-busting with his test piloting; 
Milo Burcham, famous in the barnstorming days 
for his one-wheel landings and upside down fly- 
ing; several “old” KLM and French army pilots; 
the former legal counsel for Lockheed who 
learned to fly and left his law practice to 
become a test pilot; ex-butchers, ranchers and 
bartenders who learned to fly in the twenties 
and were forced into other occupations during 
the depression and returned to flying in the 
pre-war boom. All of them are veterans of more 
than 2,000 hours and 60 of the staff of 75 have 
more than 5,000 hours. 

They are typical of the crews of factory test 
pilots seen lounging around the operations 
office of every big aircraft plant. The work 
they do is typical of that done by factory test 
pilots wherever planes for the Army Air Forces 
are made. 

When an Air Force pilot gets a plane to fly 
he can be sure that there have been comp>etent 
hands on the controls before him. In addition 
to the test flights by factory pilots, every 
AAF plane is given a final check by an Air 
Force acceptance pilot. Unless it is perfect 
in every detail it is not accepted. However, 
with a good crew of factory test pilots the 
work of an acceptance pilot is not too tough. 
The bulk of the job of seeing that AAF planes 
are fit to fly is done by the factory testers. 

Lockheed test pilots like to talk about how 
simple their jobs are. And if you watched them 
play rummy in the pilot house awaiting call, 
flew with them while they checked a few "squawks" 
on a Hudson or rode along while they ferried a 
Ventura 40 miles to Long Beach, you might think 
they were right. But big Swede Parker and 
dapper Milo Burcham could tell you some scalp 
tingling tales of their experimental testing 


JUNE 1912 


of the original P-38 and there is a dusty set 
of maps in the pilot house drawer labelled 
“Ralph Virden". Virden was killed last year 
while testing an early P-38 and his name be- 
longs on the airmen's honor roll in type as 
large as those of the pilots lost over Luson 
and Java. 

Another unsung hero of this routine battle 
for control of the blue is Marshal Headle. 
former chief test pilot of the Lockheed crew. 
Headle was the first man to fly the P-38 and 
became extremely interested in the effect on 
pilots of flying at the P-38's terrific ceil- 
ing. He used himself as a guinea pig in high 
altitude pressure chamber experiments. One 
day while trying to see how little oxygen a 
pilot could live on at well over 35,000 feet 
he became confused from lack of oxygen and cut 
off his oxygen supply instead of increasing 
it. The only alternative to certain death from 
oxygen starvation was for the engineers to 
increase the pressure in the chamber to that 
of sea level as fast as possible. It meant 
that Marshal Headle went through the effect 
of falling from thot height to sea level in 
eight seconds. He may never fly again. 

That is the kind of thing that happens when 
these test pilots push out along the fringes 
of the unknown. It is a dangerous and impor- 
tant part of their work but the bulk of their 
job is a bit more prosaic. It consists of put- 
ting planes fresh from the assembly line through 
routine checks, carefully noting and recording 
all irregularities in the “squawk book". Then 
on succeeding flights each squowk is checked 
until it has been eliminated and the plane is 
ready for delivery to the Air Forces. 

In the days before the Ferrying Command, 
Lockheed had its own ferrying service and test 
pilots saw a good bit of the world delivering 
planes. Elmer McLeod, now chief test pilot, 
flew around the world delivering two Lockheed 
12s to the Rajah of Jodphur. He lived in orien- 
tal splendor with the Rajah for two months while 
teaching him to fly. Other Lockheed pilots de- 
livered Hudsons to South Africa and the Middle 
Ekist via the South Atlantic and the Burbank- 
Montreal run functioned with the regularity of 
a commercial airline. But now a 40 mile hop to 
the Ferrying Command Base at Long Beach or an 
occasional trip to Dallas is their only cross 
country diversion. 

Most of their time is spent wheeling the 
twin-engined Hudsons and Venturas over the 
ridges and valleys around Burbank and streak- 
ing P-38s up to their ceiling. Occasionally 
they give diners in the glass enclosed airport 
restaurant an infantryman's view of a P-38 in 
action by swooping down on the restaurant and 
pulling up in a terrific climb. 

A test pilot making the first check on a 
Hudson or Ventura has a big green book in which 
he and the co-pilot record the performance of 
the ship. Before he takes it over, mechanics 
and inspectors give the ship a final check and 

run-up. Then pilot and co-pilot make their own 
pre-flight inspection. 

Once in the air the test continues in rou- 
tine fashion. Test pilots don't “wring out" 
the ship in a test of this kind. All of the 
wing-pulling-off and slow rolling are confined 
to the original models. Once the design and 
construction has been proved in the experimental 
tests, production models are static tested for 
maximum strain on the ground so there is no 
need for test pilots to try to twist them out 
of shape . 

The flight test starts out with a full power 
take-off and a rated power climb. Cowl flops, 
oil scoops, RFM, fuel pressure, oil pressure and 
temperature, head temperature and manifold pres- 
sure are all recorded for both motors. The 
landing gear is lowered and raised in flight. 
Flaps are tested. Bomb doors are opened and 
closed and a short run is made on each gas tank 
to test the fuel feed system. De-icers are set 
to work and the plane is flown on the Sperry 
automatic pilot on four different courses. Trim 
tcd>s are checked, props feathered and unfeath- 
ered. Heaters and ventilators are checked and 
the cockpit inspected for air leaks. A pair of 
360 degree turns are made in each direction and 
all instruments are checked. Props are used in 
low and high pitch and the landing gear warning 
horn is given a workout. 

The book full of data is turned in with all 
irregularities noted. The next pilot who 
handles the ship after the mechanics have worked 
on the squawks will check off those remedied. 
The ship is flown until all squawks have been 
eliminated. Then it is ready for an AAF ac- 
ceptance f 1 ight . 

Most Hudsons average two hours of test flying; 
P-38s and Venturas usually get about three 
hours. With a pilot and co-pilot in the 
"office” of a Hudson or Ventura, keeping up the 
data book isn't too much trouble. But with a 
single pilot squeezed into a P-38 trying to fly 
fine of the fastest ships in the world with one 
hand, while reading instruments, gauges and 
keeping in touch with the operations office by 
radio and recording squawks with the other, con- 
siderable dexterity is required. 

The routine on P-38 testing is slightly dif- 
ferent and the initial checking is broken up 
into two flights. On the first flight the 
rigging, flying characteristics, props, flops, 
landing gear and radio are checked. The cock- 
pit and instrument checks are done during the 
second flight. P-38s are also put through a 
special test at high altitude. 

From 50 to 60 flights a day are made by the 
Lockheed test pilot staff of 75 and it takes a 
veteran to hold down one of these jobs. Yet, 
all of them still go to instrument and naviga- 
tions school in the old Spanish ranch house on 
the edge of the airport. They put in regular 
hours on the Link and every once in a while they 
shoot a few instrument approaches to Montreal 
just for old times sake. 

JUNE 1942 



( ircHiiu] .Tcw .ivi’.iori'i - ,it 
h.i'O soircwiiiTc "liown 
uiiuor ' prcpai '.ni; to lo.ij 
a I’ 10 tiyhtLT. 

GUATEMALA ,ibove>. A covey ot B-17’^ winj; through a 
mountain pa^.s on patrol Junes in protection of the Americas anj 
the vital Panama The planes are attached to the Caribbean 
Defense Command 

BURMA .below AVG "Flying Tigers' 
besiJc one ol iheir .~hark-tootheJ P 4d's ,il an 

vanci airiiew 




HONOLULU atove). AAF thei s exhibit the namc-pLitc of their 
B-26- all that was worth salvaging after they brought it hack from 
the air-sea battle for MiJway. 

AUSTRALIA below . Bomber Pilot R. B. Proiity gives final in- 
structions to his flight companion, a white parrot. 

AFRICA above . A native lends 
color to tlie ra-Jio station at one ot the 
Ferrving t ommand's airfields deep in 
the Dark Continc nt. 

i-i j 

INDIA belt . Ferrying (bominand 
pilots ,ue siiown tiliing out their reports 
alter delivering supplies and equipment 


The Honor Roll 

(Continued from Page 8) 

Lt . Theodore J. Boselli Harr iamn miaaion to Russia. 

Master Scrgt. Adolph Cattarius Flight to Britain, summer, 1941. 

Master Sergt« Joseph H. Walsh Harriman miaaion to Russia. 

Tech. Scrgt. Charles M. Kinche loe . . . . Four trana •At lant ic ferrying flights. 

Staff Sergt. R.J. Barrett, Jr Extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial 

flight as 1st Radio Operat or on an urgent and vital miaaion 
from Bolling Field to Nether lands East Indies. 

Staff Sergt. Elvin P. Wescott Harr ioian mission to Russia. 


Maj. General Lewis Brereton 
Lt . Nelson P. Davis (Co-pilot) 

Lt , Bruno Deltissier (Boaibard ie r ) 

Lt . Raymond W. Giannini (Navigator) ■ 
Lt . Paul J. Long (Co-pilot) 

Lt . Delmar J. Rogers (pilot) 

Lt- M.J. Svovode (Navigator ) 

Staff Sergt. E.E. Lindley(Bombardier ) 

Part ic ipat ion 

in an attack on 

the Andaman 

Is lands . 

April 2. 

Lt, Gene L. Bound Outs landing action during aerial engagement ovpr Bali, Feb, 7. 

Lt . Robert L. Ferry.,. . . . .Aferitorious achievement in the performance of an aerial flight 

against the armed enemy. 

Lt . G.A. Whiteman (Posthumous) Ga 1 lantry after his plane had been shot down Dec, 7, in the 

Japanese attack on Oahu, Hawaii. 

Staff Sergt. Charles A. Fay 

Initiative, presence of mind , coolness under fire and determined 


Major Norman H. Llewellyn 
(posthumous ) 

Capt . Elmer Felix Parsel 
(posthumous ) 

Lt . James V. Cunningham 

Lt . G. Harkness (posthumous) 

Lt . Duke Paul (posthumous) 

Lt , R.B. Sprang (Posthumous) 
Sergt, Howard A. Bennett 
Sergt. R. Gregor (Posthumous) 
Corp. R.F. Sampson 
Corp. Clifford C. Ventriss 

Pvt. O.B. Knox (Posthumous) 

Pvt. J.C. Paounoff (posthumous > 
Pvt. John N. Richards 
Pvt. Willie T. Stokes 
(Posthumous ) 

Pvt, Leonard York 


JUNE 19H2 

Sweeps Over France 

By Flight Lieut. Brendan ^^Paddy’’ Finueane 

Boyal Air Force 

The author, leader of a famous Australian fighter squadron, late in 
May shot down his 32nd German plane over France, A few months earlier 
he had celebrated his 21st birthday by bagging his 21st enemy aircraft. 
Flight Lieut, Finueane’ s 32nd was a new Focke-Wolf 190. It brought his 
score even with that of the South African pilot. Wing Commander A.G, 
Malan, now officially listed as missing, who had the highest score in 
Britain’s Fighter Coessand, 

I hove beiea on about 50 sweeps . and aost of 
my victories have been gained over France. 
I’ve got my bag because I’ve been blessed with a 
pair of good eyes, and hove learned to shoot 
straight. I’ve not been shot down- -touch wood-- 
emd I’ve only once been badly shot up (I hope 
that doesn’t sound Irish). And for all that 
I’ve got a lot to thank the pilots in ay sec- 
tion. They are Australians I’ve never aet 
a more loyal or gamer crowd of cbag>s. They've 
saved ay bacon aony a time when I’ve been at- 
tacked from behind while concentrating on a 
Messerschaitt in front of ae. and they’ve 
followed ae through thick and thin. On the 
ground they’re the cheeriest friends a fellow 
could hove. I’a sure that Australia oust be a 
grand country if it’s anything like it’s pilots, 
and after tte war I’a going to see it. No, not 
flying, or foraing. I like a job with figures — 
ocxiountancy or auditing. 

Perhaps that doesn't sound nuch like a fighter 
pilot. But pilots are perfectly normal people. 

Before going off on a trip I usually h^e a 
feeling in ay belly, but once I’a in ay aircraft 
everything is fine. The brain is working fast, 
emd if the eneay is aet it seeas to work like a 
clockwork motor. Accepting that, rejecting 
that, sizing up this, and reneB>ering that. You 
don’t have time to feel anything. But your 
nerves may be on edge--not from fear, but from 
exciteaent and the intensity of the mental 

I have cone bock froa a sweep to find ay shirt 
and tunic wet through with perspiration. 

Our chaps sometimes find that they can’t 
sleep. What happens is this. You come back 
from a show and find it very hard to reaenber 
what happened. Maybe you have a clear impres- 
sion of three or four incidents, which stand out 
like illuminated lantern slides in the mind’s 
eye, Perh<q)S a picture of two Me. 109's belting 
down on your tail from out of the sun and al- 
ready within firing range. Perhaps another 
picture of your cannon shells striking at the 
belly of an Me. and the aircraft spraying debris 
around. But for the life of you, you can’t re- 
member what you did. 

Later, when you have turned in and sleep is 
stealing over you, some tiny link in the for- 
gotten chain of events comes back. Instantly 
you ore fully awake, and then the whole story of 
the operation pieces itself together and you lie 
there, sleep driven away, re-living the combat. 

c<»gratulating yourself for this thing, blaming 
yourself for that. 

The reason for this is siaply that everything 
happens so quickly in the air that you crowd a 
tremendous amount of thinking, action and emo- 
tion into a very short space of tiae, and you 
suffer afterwards froa aental indigestion. 

The other week I was feeling a little jaded. 
Then ay seven days’ leave come round, and I went 
back bursting with energy. On ay first flight 
after getting back I shot down three Me . ’ s 
in one engagement, and the next day bagged 
two more. That shows the value of a little rest. 

The toKstical side of the gome is quite fas- 
cinating. You get to learn, for instance, how 
to fly so that all the tiae you have a view be- 
hind you as well os in front. The first neces- 
sity in coid>at is to see the other chop before 
he sees you, or at least before he gets the tac- 
tical advantage of you. The second is to hit 
him when you fire. You mightn't have a second 

After a dog- fight your section gets split, and 
you Bust get together again, or tack on to 
others. The straggler is easy meat for a bunch 
of Jerries. Luckily, the chaps in my flight 
keep with ae very well, and we owe a lot to it. 
On one occasion recently I sow on Me. dive on to 
one of ay flight. As I went in after him, 
another Me. tailed in behind to attack me, but 
one of my flight went in after hia. Soon half 
a dozen of us were flying at 400 mph in line 
astern, everybody, except the leader, firing at 
the chap in front of him. 

I got my Hun just as my nearest pal got the 
Hun on my tail, and we were then three Spitfires 
in the lead. When we turned to face the other 
Me.’s we found that several others had joined 
in. but as we faced them they turned and fled. 

The nearest I’ve been to being shot down was 
when another pilot and I attacked a Ju. 88. The 
bomber went down to sea level so that we could 
only attack from above, in face of the fire of 
the Ju.’s rear guns. We put that Ju. into the 
sea all right, but I had to struggle home with 
my aircraft riddled with bullets and the under- 
carriage shot owoy. 

I force-landed without the undercarriage, and 
was none the worse for it. But it wasn’t very 
nice at the time. 

Well, as I said just now. one day I’m planning 
to go to Australia- -and audit books. 

JUNE 19^2 


Gassing up Barksdale 

Confessions of a Veteran Pilot 

By Captain W. V. Brown 

Wheeze FleM, BawaU 

I went to Remdolph and Kelly Fields ten years 
ago. as a Flying Cadet. Ve had a nighty 
fine class of boys. 208 started I believe, and 
83 were graduated/ Alnost all of the fellows 
were out of college a year, had worked at de- 
pression jobs, and decided that flying held a 
vastly more impressive future. Besides. Ran- 
dolph Field had just recently been constructed 
as a magnificent new training center, and we 
were all anxious to take a crack at flying at 
this beautiful field. 

We turned out some good men, too. To mention 
a few: Copt. Bierne Lay. Jr., whose **I Wanted 

Wings" and other stories hove made their nark 
among the real yarns of flying lore; Jack 
Strickler, who is designing speedy ships for 
pursuit pilots; several officers who must 
remain anonymous who are working night and day 
to provide better planes by constant testing 
at Wright Field; scores of crack airline pi- 
lots. who are also now ferrying military air- 
planes for the Allies to all corners of the 
globe; and the remainder, without exception I 
^lieve. occi^ied with Service flying. 

Our training together provided a bond which 
is closer than any fraternity could ever hope 
to attain. We lived, slept, talked, ate, drai^. 
and practiced flying as a closely knit unit 
for one whole year, with the result that we 
came as close to being 83 brothers with a com- 
mon purpose as it is possible for unrelated 
men to be . That is why I like to hear of the 
present day feats of men from my class, and 
why I look bock fondly on their exploits of 
the past. 

Classic Boner 

I recall a classwxte at Randolph Field who 
pulled the clossic boner of many another unsung 
pilot. He wos making a practice landing during 
his basic training stage into a comparatively 
small strange field, when he saw that he wos 
rapidly running out of field while still roll- 
ing on the ground at a fast clip. The fence 
ahead became a prominent landmark on the imme- 
diate horismi. An experienced pilot would hove 
opened his throttle and gone around again for 
another atteiig>t, but not this lad. He figured 
he could ”Wioa, Nellie!" and pull up short; 
so he practically stood on his brakes and 
promptly flipped over on his bock. 

He was flying a biplane trainer, compar- 
atively large and sturdy, and when the dust 
cleared and he had oriented himself, he could 
see that his ship was resting comfortably on 
its upper wing with the fuselage well above 
and parallel to the ground, he himself gasing 
back down the field upon which he had just 

tried to land, with his normal vision somewhat 
distorted, since he was hanging upside down 
in his seat, with only his tautly stretched 
safety belt accomplishing his defiance of 

Thoughtfully considering the safety of his 
airplane and mindful of the fire hazard, as he 
hung slothlike in his cockpit, he carefully 
cut off his ignition and all other electrical 
switches, closed his fuel selector valve, and 
after deciding that he was unhurt and ready to 
leave the ship in good order, he released his 
safety belt with a flip of the catch and immed- 
iately fell on his head to the ground four 
feet below, knocking himself out and spraining 
his neck to such an extent that his recovery 
required a three weeks tour in the hospital. 

It Stayed Dedicated 

A dedication ceremony I shall never forget 
was that of a newly completed stagehouse at 
an auxiliary field near Randolph. By way of 
explanation, a stagehouse is generally a small 
wowien building for the comfort and convenience 
of instructors who are watching the practice 
landing performances of their solo students, 
and provides also a meeting place for other 
students who are awaiting their turns to fly 
and be judged. The house always has ample 
pluid}ing accommodations, though sometimes of 
a rustic nature, depending on the locality. 
This particular house was situated nearly in 
the center of a large practice field, with a 
commodious and conspicuous adjacent building 
devoted to the installation of sanitary facil- 

On this particular morning I was watching 
my instructor's other student moking practice 
landings over o hurdle, trying to pick up a few 
pointers on how and what not to do when I had 
my own turn with the ship, when out of the sky 
from the west came a large formation of Keystone 
bombers, the big luad>ering biplanes flown in 
the Bombardment section at Kelly Field in those 
days for the training of bomber pilots. They 
swept majestically in a wide circle several 
times around the field, then swung into line 
and passed in review in close formation directly 
over our heads, cbout one hundred feet up. 

When just above us, a rain of paper rolls 
descended upon us from the rear cockpit of 
each airplane, with quite a few direct hits 
being scored upon the stagehouse. I later 
learned that the Kelly instructors had decided 
that an edifice of this nature had never before 
been properly christened, so they utilized a 
real graduation review practice formation 

JUNE 1942 



flight for the execution of their ceremony. 
Doggone practical too, considering the nature 
of -the bombardment missiles. 

While we're dealing in indelible experiences, 
here's another feat which will always stick in 
my memory. The incident occurred some years 
ago in the fall, October to be exact. My 
friend., whom we'll call Homer, then stationed 
at a field in the northwestern United Stotes, 
was on an altitude mission in a two-place <^ser- 
vation airplane when he happened to glance at 
the instrvunent panel clock and sow thot it was 
lunch time. He had completed his mission, so 
he lazily half-rolled and headed for the ground. 
A few seconds afterwards, the ailerons started 
to flutter violently, the ship trembled and 
shook, and with a snapping jolt, both ailerons 
suddenly peeled off and let go. 

The plane immediately went into a tight spiral 
almost like a spin, which no amount of counter 
control with the stick and rudder would remedy. 
Homer ordered his enlisted passenger to bail 
out. and watched him as he struggled out of 
the rear cockpit and dived off its edge. With 
the change of weight distribution occasioned 
by this action, the ship began to slow up its 
spiral a bit, and finally by his working of 
the throttle and the controls in various com- 
binations, the ship came out of the spiral and 
righted itself. With a little careful exper- 
imenting he found that he could partially con- 
trol the wings by skidding the ship with the 
rudder, that is, he could lift a wing by apply- 
ing a bit of opposite rudder. So with rudder 
and elevator controls only, he decided to try 
to land the airplane and possibly save it. 

He attempted to call the control tower at 
the field to notify its personnel of his plight 
in order to have the crash truck standing by 
ready for his landing, but found that his radio 
had been put out of commission by the severe 
vibration of losing his ailerons. So with 
plenty of altitude in which to maneuver the 
controls and maintain a fairly even keel, he 
wrote a note on a piece of paper from the ship's 
log. took off his leather jacket, stuffed the 
note in the pocket, and then flew over the field 
at a safe altitude and tossed the jacket over- 
board in front of a hangar. He then climbed 
back up to await results, but he could see his 
untouched jacket lying on the ground and not a 
soul in sight. After a few more moments he 
decided to try again. This time he took off 
his shirt, 'wrote the same note, buttoned it in 
the pocket, and sent the shirt overboard to 
join the jacket. 

As I have said, the month was October, it 
was lunch time, the locale was northwestern 
United States. This particular combination 
rendered it exactly the right time for baseball 
fans to listen to a radio broadcast of the 
World Series ball game being played at that 
hour back east in New York. Especially during 
the lunch hour all personnel on the ground had 
their ears glued to their radio sets. Con- 

sequently Homer's shirt, like the jacket, re- 
ceived absolutely no attention whatsoever. 

Finally in desperation Homer took off his 
pants, wrote a third note and placed this one 
in a pocket, and now shirtless and pantless 
he flew as low over the hangar line as he dared 
and tossed over his trousers. This last time 
someone heard the motor in time to run out of 
the hangar and see the pants floating down, 
retrieved them, and in short order had the 
crash truck and other personnel prepared for 
the possible crackup. However, Homer was such 
a good pilot that he brought the plane in for 
a nearly perfect landing, with rudder and 
elevators alone, sans ailerons, into a small 
tree-bordered field, without putting so much 
as a scratch on either wingtip. But he had 
to remain in the cockpit until someone remem- 
bered to bring him his clothes. 

yo Dull Moment 

Some few years ago the Army was ordered to 
take over the flying of the air mail, in the 
dead of winter. I know a pilot who was flying 
the run between Cheyenne and Omaha, in an open 
cockpit ship one cold February morning. When 
about 125 miles from his half-way point. North 
Platte, Nebraska, he noticed that his fuel 
pressure gauge had suddenly dropped to zero. 
Having just changed to a full tank of gas, he 
thought that the tank selector valve was not 
set properly, readjusted it. and worked the 
wobble pump a few times. (Incidentally, the 
wobble pump is merely a manually operated fuel 
pump to bring gasoline pressure to the car- 
buretor until the motor driven pump operates.) 
The fuel pressure remained up only so long as 
the wobble pump was operated. The truth then 
dawned on the pilot. His motor driven fuel 
pump had broken. Rather than land at some 
emergency field with a full load of mail behind, 
he decided to try to fly on in to North Platte, 
so for some fifty minutes he held the stick in 
one hand and worked the wobble pump with the 
other, alternating hands when the pumping grew 

Upon arrival over North Platte he saw the kind 
of a landing he would hove to make. The airport 
at that time was shaped like a slice of pie, 
the wedge pointing west, with a highway, fence, 
and the inevitcd>le high tension power line along 
the north edge, and the Platte River forming 
the southern boundary with its embankment. The 
one hangar was situated at the point of the 
wedge, and the arc of the slice was rough with 
sand dunes. A thirty mile wind was blowing 
from due south, which made for only one choice: 
that is to land across the narrow slice, over 
the high tension lines toward the river. 

After carefully circling several times in 
search of the best spot on the field, and having 
gone over mentally the things he would have 
to do practically simultaneously while landing, 
the pilot started his final approach for a 
landing. Keeping the wobble pump going with 
one hand and holding the stick between his 


JUNE 1942 


knees, he rolled back the stabilizer and rolled 
down the flaps with the other hand, using his 
left elbow to jab at the throttle to retard 
it when necessary, while steering the rudder 
conventionally with his feet. When just short 
of the ground, he slapped the throttle shut, 
grabbed the stick with his right hand from 
between his knees, and kept pumping the wobble 
pump with his left. Luckily he timed his 
actions correctly, for he landed according to 
intention and rolled to a stop safely, and 
well short of the river bank. 

If anyone ever spent a busier sixty seconds 
I should like to know about it; for I was that 
pilot . 

Omaha Express 

Then there was the example of straight think- 
ing which overcame an emergency with hands 
down honors. However, I would not recommend 
the practice for habitual usage, since it is 
definitely non-habit forming: 

On a night flight out of Chicago the weather 
had gone suddenly sour, a blizzard set in, 
drowning out all radio beam signals, and the 
snow cut visibility to a radius of from cockpit 
to wing- tip lights (and they looked fuzzy) ; so 
there was nothing left for the pilot to do 
except keep flying, or else. He kept his course 
and maintained a safe altitude for more than 
an hour, after which it stopped snowing, but 
he was still flying on instruments in the solid 
overcast. Estimating his position by elapsed 
flying time and with his radio still useless 
because of static, he cautiously eased down 
to what he thought was a safe minimum altitude 
to try to get a glimpse of a break-through or 
hole in the clouds. No luck. Finally, he went 
as low as he possibly dared and still retain 
a safety margin, and after a while began to 
fly through open space and scuds, with the 
solid ceiling a few feet over his head. 

His original destination was Omaha, west and 
just a bit south of Chicago. He had tried to 
keep his course as nearly correct as possible, 
but he had no way of telling what his drift hod 
been, whether he was north or south of his pro- 
per track, or excrctly how far he was from Omaha. 
In short, he was lost, which provided the neces- 
sity that mothered his inventive genius. 

He noted the first lights he came to, a small 
town, and tried to find the main road running 
in an east-west direction. With better vis- 
ibility but still a low ceiling he noticed 
another town off to one side of his course, a 
larger one which upon investigation proved to 
hove a highway running in the desired direction. 
He followed it by the lights of the few cars 
traveling at that time of night, and came to 
another town. Feeling that he was at least 
parelleling his intended course, he was follow- 
ing the road along when he happened to glance 
down at a car over which he had just passed. 
It was a passenger bus. with a lighted sign 
above its front windshield. He cautiously 
circled and flew low over the bus, getting a 

fleeting glimpse of "QIAHA*' on the sign as he 
flashed past. 

Taking a figurative hitch in his fuel belt, 
he lessened his throttle to minimum for safe 
flying speed, leaned the mixture control as 
economically as the engine would take without 
loss of power, and literally circled the bus 
into Omaha. 

I later asked him what he would hove done hod 
he run out of gas. 

“I had figured my gas consumption closely" 
he said, "and would have kept the last ten gal- 
lons for one of two choices. The first, a 
trial parachute flare to see if there was 
sufficient open space to try a landing with 
wing lights, and if not, to climb to sufficient 
altitude into the overcast, cut my ignition, 
set the stabilizer for a glide, and bail out, 
without fear of total destruction of my mail 
cargo or injury to myself." 

Pretty smart thinking all the way through, 
don't you agree? If not, try it yourself some 
bitter cold night, without benefit of armchair, 
pipe, lounging robe and slippers! 


Up! Up! My lads, the moon is fair, 

We*ve work to do in upper air. 

Cargo, tonight, as you must know. 

Is T. N. T. for Tokyo. 

Avenge Pearl Harbor and Bataan? 

Hell Yes! We’ll do that - every man. 

And, time is near when we will sow 
Our righteous wrath on Tokyo. 

We’ll comb the land, the clouds, the seas 
Until we find the Japanese. 

And when we do we’ 11 fix them so 
They’ 11 not return to Tokyo. 

So gather. Eagles, in your might, 

A battle brood that’s fit to fight. 
Equipped with men and planes to go. 

We’ 11 blast Hell out of Tokyo. 

N. R. Cooper, 

Lt. Col., Air Corps. 

JUNE 1942 


Chanate’s Favorite Sm 

By Ma|. HI. F. Raaaey 

€Iluui«te FleM, III. 

D own through the years Anerica's soldier 
has provided inspiration for story, poem 
and song. But no less imposing is his con- 
tribution to the pictorial arts, whose vast 
galleries reveal him in a multitude of artistic 
styles . 

Each of America's wars has produced not only 
styles and idioms of artistic expression, but 
often definite characters. These, in time, 
hove become associated definitely with that 
war . 

World War I gave us such well- remembered 
characterizations as the “Dere Mdoel** series. 
Ahern's "Balmy Benny" and Bruce Bairnsfather's 
"Ole Bill". The Spanish-American and Civil 
Wars produced their particular charocters. 
Even the present doy cartoon conception of 
"Uncle Sam" dates bock to the Mexicon War. 

It is not unusual, then, that this war should 
produce its crop of characters destined to join 
the parade. 

At Cbonute Field such a charocter has t<dwn 

rank with the thousands of soldiers undergoing 
technical training there. His name is "Reggie". 
He is the brainchild of Sergeant William T. 
Lent, staff artist assigned to the Chanute 
Field public relations department. 

As to pedigree. "Reggie" has obsolutely none. 
He did not come in a dream, nor creep out of 
the mists of imagination. He just popped up 
one day before Artist Lent's drawing board in 
the public relations off ice- -a real flesh-and- 
blocd soldier, with an elfish cost in his eye 
and a hair-trigger smile. He had a way that 
was pleasing a^ a good personality. 

Alert Sergecmt Lent recognized in t^s soldier 
something that typified all the soldiers at 
Chanute Field. Lrat's pen reqpidly traced lines 
on his drowing hoord; the sketch took form-- 
and in o minote or two. there was a character! 

Sergeant Lent stylized his mew character, 
ond without altering him physically from his 
real-life prototype, developed a personality 
which had individuality, yet esbodied certain 

Sergeant Lent, upper left, and some glimpses from the life 
and aviation career, of his brainchild ‘'Reggie" 

26 ■ JUNE 19^2 


collective traits of all the men around him. 

Such a depiction is not easy. But Sergeant 
Lent — Private Lent in those days--was a skilled 
illustrator who came to the Army with a well- 
rounded background in the field of art. He hod 
left a position in the art department of one 
of the country s largest firms and came to 
Chanute Field where his talents were put to 
work in the public relations department. 

"Reggie* made his debut officially as a 
cartoon character June 6, 1941, in Wings, the 
Chanute Field post newspaper. He offered some- 
thing different in soldier art. Unlike most 
cartoon strips. Lent used no "blurbs" and the 
pictorial story depended entirely on action 
for its continuity. 

Under Lent’s guidance "Reggie" was a person- 
cd)le fellow whose antics were designed to bring 
a laugh and at the same time carry a moral. 
Often the moral was secondary to the laugh- -but 
the two were usually there together. 

Thus, "Reggie" in a sense became a "propa- 
gandist"--at least an instrument to put ideas 
across in a pleasing way without preaching dsout 
it. Truth is, he has been detailed to countless 
such assignments, putting forth a message in 
one way or another, and serving up a smile at 
the some time. 

And how do the soldier readers who follow 
"Reggie's" adventures like him? 

Some time ago a poll was taken and "Reggie" 
proved himself 100 percent popular. When 
Artist Lent was released from service Oct- 
ober 16, 1941, because of his age, "Reggie" 
dropped from the pages of Wings and the pleas 
were so numerous that Lent threatened to con- 
tinue the feature after his return to civil 
life. However, Lent re-enlisted last January 9 
and "Reggie" promptly returned to his former 
place in Wings, 

Most creatures of the imagination lack real- 
ism. Not so with "Reggie". Lent spends hours 
observing the men around him and the product 
of these observations asserts itself in the 
shape of "Reggie's" next strip. The remarked) le 
fact is that "Reggie" was patterned after one 
typical soldier, but reflects the character- 
istics of many different ones. 

When Lent returned to duty in January interest 
in Aviation Cadet training was at a high pitch, 
and "Reggie" was launched on a new career as 
an Aviation Cadet, which series is currently 
appearing in Wings , keeping the advantages of 
this field of training constantly before post 
personnel . 

The "Reggie" strip has attracted wide attention 
and from time to time has been reproduced in 
numerous newspapers, magazines and other na- 
tional publications. Presently it is appearing 
through a courtesy arrangement in Texacts , post 
newspaper at Sheppard Field. 

In its broader aspects, the "Reggie" cartoon 
has hod a material effect on morale at Chanute 
Field: not alone in the particular sense that 
he has provided amusement through his humorous 

antics, but more through the fact that he has 
been a source of inspiration. It was in a 
large measure because of interest in "Reggie" 
that Chanute Field soldiers staged on art exhi- 
bition between August 16 and September 9 last 

Actually there were many soldiers who had 
artistic exility. Seeing "Reggie" as a product 
of their own post, made them eager to have a 
go at drawing, painting and photography. 

The Chanute Field exposition, one of, if not 
the first of its kind in the Army, brought 
together many men of mutual interest. The 
event was widely publicized and interest outside 
Chanute Field was equally ardent. Supported 
by the post newspaper and civilian newspapers 
in the area, thousands of soldiers and civilians 
viewed the exhibit, which was climaxed when a 
committee of prominent artists judged the win- 

In the ranks of American soldiery today there 
are doubtless many other budding masters. The 
barracks room scene— the shadowed hangar--the 
study of a single face — these and many more 
rise up from the soldier’s canvas to present 
a story no words con tell. All combine to make 
a picture-history that will live. 

• • 

R escuing SS ship-wrecked sailors is all 
in the day’s work for the crew of a big 
Sunderland flying boat of the RAF Coastal Com- 

One day while making a routine patrol flight 
the captain of the flying boat spotted three 
life-boat loads of men floating aimlessly down 
below. Landing, he piled the whole bunch — 56 
of them — into his ship and brought them home. 
He had to taxi for five miles over the sea be- 
fore he could get his plane in the air. 

The rescued men were the survivors of a U-Boat 
attack on a British merchantman 200 miles off 
the coast of Britain. They had been adrift 
for 16 hours. 

S PECIAL instruction in military camouflage 
for Air Forces officers will be started 
shortly at the Engineer School. Fort Belvoir, 
Va. and at the Aviation Engineer School, March 
Field. Calif. 

The first class, held at Fort Belvoir, will 
be for 70 officers- -50 from the Air Forces and 
20 from the Ground Forces. The course will 
consist of two weeks’ intensive training, in- 
cluding concealment of airdromes, dispersal 
and concealment of aircraft, and the use of 
photographs in camouflage interpretation. The 
course will also include the carrying out of 
actual camouflage projects in the field. 

The purpose of the course will be to extend 
a knowledge of camouflage throughout the Air 
Forces and to provide every squadron with of- 
ficers trained in the use of camouflage in 
combat operations. 

• • 

JUNE 1942 


B ack in 1930 it would hove seemed logical to 
predict that by 1940 the moxifflum speed for 
aircraft would be about 575 mph, since from 
1920 to 1930 the speed increase was about 19 
miles per hour per year. But it is now 1942 
and the maximum speed record is approximately 
100 mph less than would have been predicted 
in 1930. 

This question immediately arises. Why 
does the curve flatten out, indicating that 
higher speeds are getting harder and harder 
to attain? 

There are a good many reasons for this. 
Among the most important are: the "compress- 

ibility effect" on the propeller and airplane; 
power plant design; want of more maneuver- 
ability; increas^ armament; cost; and last 
but by no means least, the physiological aspect. 

The factors affecting the speed of an air- 
plane are horse power, propeller efficiency, 
drag, wing characteristics and weight. Also, 
after attaining a speed of about 350 mph an 
entirely new factor comes up which has to do 
with the approach to the speed of sound. After 
passing this speed (350 mph) the effect of 
compressibility of the air becomes noticeable, 
and the compressibility effects become worse 
as the speed increases. 

Whenever the velocity of the air around any 
part of the airplane equals the speed of sound, 
a so-called shock wove is formed. This causes 
on entirely new type of air flow. When this 
compressibility shock wove forms, a consider- 
able amount of energy is lost as heat and the 
drag jumps up. At the same time, the lift 
decreases so that a greater angle of attack is 
required, thus leading to a further increase 
in drag. All of these factors are included 
in a high speed equation, and a very simple 
high-speed curve may be plotted as shown in 
the graph. A little explanation of this curve 
will enable anyone to approximate the high 
speed of almost any airplane. 

Three things must be known about the air- 
plane; weight, wing area, and horse power. 
These three quantities are easily obtoinoble 
because of their basic importance in the air- 
plane design. From these quantities the wing 
loading and thrust horse power loading can be 
found by use of the following equation: 


Wing Loading = Weight (Pounds) 

Wing Area (Square Feet) 

Thrust Horse Power Loading = Weight (Pounds) 

Horse Power x .85 

Starting with the wing loading at “A", going 
horizontally to the line that corresponds to the 
shape of the airplane being considered, which 
gives point “B”, go vertically from “B" to the 
curve that corresponds to the thrust horse 
power loading which gives us point ”C" and 
going horizontally back to the left side of 
chart to point "D" which is the maximum air- 
plane velocity in mph. 

It is noticed from the graph that it is almost 
impossible to get a speed over 575 mph even 
with an airplane that is super-clean, having 
a 60 lb. per sq. ft. wing loading and a thrust 
horse power loading of one lb. per horse power. 

(Maximum speeds referred to in this article apply 
only to hor ixontal flight. Aircraft speeds in excess 
of 600 mph have been made in free falls. As a matter 
of interest , this theory of maximum speed was advanced 
by Prof. Baldwin at the Univera ity of California as 
far back as 1926. --Ed.) 


JUNE 1942 


6 fortress . . . 

Toughest of All 

O IS; of the Most effective weapons in the 
Army Air Forces* arsenal is the Boeing B-17 
Flying Fortress. General Arnold has described 
it as "the guts and backbone of our oerial of- 
fensive'*. Under the shadow of its wings, death 
and destruction have descended on Jog>s, Germans 
and Itolions from Luzon to Libya and from Ham- 
burg to Hanoi. 

The Flying Fortresses now ranging the air 
fronts of this global war ore the result of more 
than eight years effort by the workers and en- 
gineers of the Boeing Aircraft Co. and the pi- 
lots and engineers of the Army Air Forces. The 
history of this ship has been as stormy as it 
has been significant. 

Our air force has always sought to extend the 
range of its striking power. By 1934 the Martin 
B-10 bomber had point^ the way toward develop- 
ment of high speed, multi-engined monoplane 
bonbers with an internally braced wing. We en- 
tered the four engine field with a design con- 
test which was won by Boeing. The Boeing design 
called for a four engine monoplane with a 150 
foot wingspreod, heavy defensive armament and a 
weight of 35 tons. The Air Forces ordered an 
experimental model, the XB-15, to be built for 
the Boeing design and announced another competi- 
tion for flying models of multi-engined bombers. 

To enter this contest Boeing hatched a smaller 
design from its }(B-1S plans, added construction 
features of its highly successful commercial 
transport — the Model 247 — and produced the four- 
engined Boeing Model 293. Design of the 299 was 
begun in August, 1934, and 11 months later the 
plane was successfully test flown at Seattle. 

This $600,000 experiment weighed 16 tons 
against the projected 35 of the XB-15 and had a 
wing span of 104 feet. It hod a slim, highly 
tcgiered fuselage marked by gun esplocement blis- 
ters. Its four engines were set in the leading 
edge of its single wiitg; bomb load, defensive 
armament, speed and range surpassed those of all 
previous boiibers. 

Just a year after its design was begun, the 
299 was flown from Seattle to Wright Field 
(2,000 miles) by Boeing Test Pilot Lee Towers in 
nine hours for an overage of 226 miles per 
hour— an unofficial non-stop speed-distance re- 
cord. . At Wright Field the 299 was entered as 
the KB- 17 in coig>etition with twin engined mo- 
dels and flown by both Boeing and Air Corps per- 
sonnel. Before the tests were completed the big 
ship crasted after taking off with locked con- 
trols . 

On the basis of its performance the Air Forces 
ordered 13 YB-17s for service testing in the 
field and an extra model to be broken ip in sta- 
tic testing at Wright Field. The first YB-17 
was delivered in Jontjary, 1937, and all were in 
service by midsummer. 

Few planes have been given such arduous ser- 
vice tests as those first Flying Fortresses. It 





JUNE 1942 



was this batch of Fortresses, flown by the men 
of the Second Bombardment Group at Langley 
Field, that were to make aviation history and 
lay the foundations for the development of heavy 
bombardment. The records of the first ferrying 
flights to deliver new Fortresses from Seattle 
to Langley include the names of some of the men 
who later flew these planes to fame--Maj. Gen. 
Robert Olds, Brig. Gen. Harold Lee George, Col. 

C. V. Haynes, Lieut. Col. Alva Harvey, Major W. 

D. Old and others who now wear decorations won 
by the exploits in the big B-17s. Among the 
crewmen were Copt. Adolph Cattarius and Lieut. 
James Sands who rose to their present ranks from 
sergeants as a result of their work on four- 
engined bombers. 

With their YB-17s the pilots and crews of the 
Second Bombardment Group smashed records with 
great regularity. They flew the Fortresses 
higher, faster and farther with heavier loads 
than any other military plane and they pointed 
out the path of heavy bombardment development in 
spectacular fashion. 

General Olds led a flight of six Fortresses 
from Langley Field to Buenos Aires in February 
of 1938 and in November 1939 led another flight 
of Fortresses to Rio de Janeiro. The Buenos 
Aires flight won the Mackay trophy for the Group 
and the Distinguished Flying Cross for General 
Olds. General George, and Cols. C.V. Haynes 
and Vincent J. Meloy flew three Fortresses to 
Bogota, Colonbia. in August, 1938. To settle on 
argument on the plane's range, a B-17 was flown 
1,400 miles non-stop from Bolling Field to Ber- 
muda and return. 

During the summer of 1938 military economic 
and political pressure threatened to end future 
development of the B-17 and might hove succeeded 
but for the performance of a Langley Field pi- 
lot. During a long range test a heavily locded 
B-17 was inadvertently stalled and spun through 
a heavy overcast. The plane’s wings were bent 
due to the excessive load developed during the 
maneuver but the pilot recovered from the spin 
and landed the plane safely. Recording instru- 
ments carried on the flight showed that the 
plane had held up under more strain than it wos 
designed to stand. 

This performance eliminated the necessity of 
static testing the 14th plane in the YB series. 
Maj . Gen. Oliver P. Echols, then chief engineer 
of the Materiel Division, ordered the static 
test plane converted into a flying model and 
equipped with turbo-superchargers to experiment 
with high altitude performance. At that time 
there were no further funds for B-17 develop- 
ment. If it were not for the unscheduled 
Langley Field performance, the Fortress might 
never have climbed into the stratosphere and 
proved the value of heavy bombardment . 

Engineers of the Air Forces and the Boeing 
Company collaborated on installation of the 
turbo-svperchargers on this plane and it took to 
the air over Seattle in January 1939 as the 
'YB-17A, the first stratosphere bomber. On the 

basis of the YB-17A’s performance, the 39 B-lTBs 
were ordered equipped with turbo-superchargers. 

During the summer of 1939 the growing Fortress 
family smashed a series of national and interna- 
tional records to celebrate the 30th anniversary 
of the Air Corps. General Olds began the record 
breaking on July 23, piloting a YB-17 to 24,034 
feet with a payload of 5,000 kilograms. This 
performance set three national records. Two 
days later Lieut. Col. Alva Harvey, piloting 
another Langley Field YB-17, carried a 5,000 kg 
payload for 2,000 kilometers averaging 200 mph 
to set eight national records. 

August 1 of 1939 was a big day for the B-17s. 
Copt. C. S. Irvine in a 17A carried a 2,000 kg 
payload 'or 5,000 kilometers, averaging 166 mph 
to break the international record set the year 
before by two Italian airmen. On the some day 
Capt. Irvine reached 34,025 feet in the B-17A 
carrying a 5,000 kg payload to smash the inter- 
national record set by two German pilots in a 
Junkers model in 1938. 

That some day the first B-17B to roll off the 
Boeing production line arrived in New York just 
9 hours, 14 minutes and 30 seconds out of Los 
Angeles averaging 265 mph to smash the old 
transcontinental record of 221 mph made by the 
Douglas DC-1 in 1935. Col. Stanley Unstead and 
Lieut. Col. Leonard F. Harman, now chief of the 
Bombardment Branch, Production Division at 
Wright Field, were the pilots. Their flight was 
made at on overage altitude of over 26,000 feet. 

The XB-15 which made its first flight in Octo- 
ber 1937, also took part in the record breaking. 
Piloted by Col. Haynes and Maj. Old the XB-15 
carried 31,180 pounds payload to 8,200 feet on 
July 30 to set an international record for pay- 
lood at 6,000 feet. On August 1-2 Col. Haynes 
and Maj . Old set on international speed record 
of 166 iqjh over 5,000 kilometers with a 2,000 kg 
payload. The 6-15 flew steadily for 18 hours 
and 40 minutes over a closed course between 
Patterson Field and the MacChesney airport near 
Rockford, 111. 

Col. Haynes also flew the B-15 from Langley 
Field' to Santiago, Chile with a ton of Red 
Cross supplies to relieve victims of the Septem- 
ber 1939 earthquake in Chile. He received the 
Distinguished Flying Cross for this performance. 

The B-17C appeared in 1940 with flat paneled 
gun position replacing the blisters in the early 
models and a "bath tub" gun position slung luide: 
the fuselage. Armor plate protected all giumers 
and the engines' horsepower was boosted. Early 
in 1941 20 B-17C's were diverted to the RAF in 
England and Egypt. 

About the time the B-17D was making its debut 
with leakproof fuel tanks, engine cowl flaps for 
better cooling in fast climbs, 1200 hp. engines 
and speed of more than 300 mph, the B-17C was 
making its combat debut as the Fortress I of the 

France was basking in the warmth of early sum- 
mer. Shimmering heat waves rippled over the 
countryside aroiuxi Brest. Only around the great 


JUNE 1942 



The New AT-15 

T WO new twin-engine advanced trainers for 
combat crew inst r uct ion- - t he AT-13 and 
AT-15--are being delivered to the Air Forces. 

The AT- 13- -already accepted by the Air Forces 
for quantity product ion- - is made by the Fair- 
child Corp. It is a midwing monoplane of dura- 
mold plywood construction, powered by radial, 
air-cooled engines. It will be used for the 
training of crews of four to six men, including 
pilots, bombardiers, navigators and gunners. 
Equipment includes tricycle landing gear, ma- 
chine gun turret, internal bomb racks, bomb 
scoring camera, radio, compass, marker beacon 
and a complete interplane communication system. 
Wing span is about 52 feet and weight about 
11,000 pounds. 

The AT-15--still in the test stage--is being 
manufactured for the Air Forces by Boeing's new 
Midwestern plant. Like the AT-13, it is de- 
signed for the integrated training of pilots, 
co-pilots, bombardiers, navigators and gun 
crews. Equipped with constant speed props, 
radio compass, automatic pilot, radio, flexible 
machine gun, gun camera, power turret and bomb 
bay, the AT-15 looks like a small twin-engine 
bomber. It is constructed of steel tubing with 
wood-faired, fabric covered fuselage and plywood 
covered wings and surfaces. Powered with Pratt 
and Whitney engines, it has a speed of over 200 
miles an hour. Wing span is 59 feet, length, 42 
feet . 


Miniature airplanes of both Axis and Allied 
powers are being constructed by special con- 
tractors to the Army Air Forces. With these mo- 
dels, built to a scale of one inch to six feet, 
high altitude bomber crews learn how to identify 
each nation's warplanes. Models now under con- 
struction cover the military and naval aircraft 
of the United States, Great Britain, Australia, 
France, Italy, Germany and Japan. 

W ITHIN the next few months color photographs 
will be possible from altitudes of from five 
or six miles. Color film ordinarily used for 
photos from 12,000 to 15,000 feet will not work 
at all from five to six miles- -too muddy and un- 
balanced. This problem is being solved with the 
use of a three-lens camera with matched lenses 
and special combinations of films and filters 
which vary from day to day with weather condi- 
tions . 

Wright Field engineers also report that color 
photography is now possible at night--with the 
aid of brilliant flash bombs of colored light. 
The flashes of these bombs are so bright they 
con be seen for 200 miles. Photoelectric shut- 
ter trippers insure that the picture is taken 
at the peak intensity of the flash. 


Generator Lab 

In Wright Field's electrical laboratories. 
Materiel Command engineers hove developed air- 
craft generators which produce 800 percent more 
power than those of a few years ago. This has 
been accomplished while the weight of generators 
was being reduced from 32 to 27 pounds. This 
great increase in voltage per pound was made 
possible through perfection of design and in- 
creased generator speed. Aeronautical genera- 
tors now must supply power for from seven to 20 
miles of electrical wiring in Air Forces planes. 


JUNE 19^2 


^ -*v 


Drew Field's “Ersatz” Box Car 

A lthough the nearest railroad is six miles 
away, resourceful officers at Drew Field, 
Florida, have solved the problem of teaching en- 
listed men how to load and unload freight cars 
by erecting a "reasonable facsimile" on air base 
property. Shipping materiel by freight is a 
necessary part of Air Forces supply. 

The simulated box car was built under the 
supervision of Major Robert E. Slack, Base Sup- 
ply Officer, and was the idea of Colonel Melvin 
B. Asp, Commanding Officer of Drew Field. It is 
complete with ramp and side loading platform, 
and is portable. It can be converted from a 40- 
foot box car to a longer 50-foot flat car with 
very little effort. Sides may be adjusted to 
both B '/2 and feet widths. 

In a recent demonstration a picked crew of 
men were able to load over 9000 pounds of Air 
Forces equipment into the car in less than 11 
minutes. Another test crew moved two 10-wheel 
trucks aboard the car and prepared for movement 
in 20 minutes. 


T he largest wind-tee in the world guides 
pilots at the Air Forces Primary Flying 
School, Thunderbird Field, Arizona. The huge 
tee is patterned after the regulation Army tee, 
but is proportionately larger- -with an overall 
length of more than 71 feet. 

The wind finder may be used as a "convertible 
tee", turned by as little as one mile per hour 
of wind, or as a pattern tee. If used as a pat- 
tern tee, the device will turn only at a certain 

adjustable wind pressure- -which can be selected 
within a four to 30 mile per hour range. A 10 
mile per hour pressure is usually used. This 
means that the tee will remain in a pattern set- 
ting until a wind of at least 10 mile per hour 
velocity develops from a new direction. 

The tee was designed and constructed by Mr. 
George Frock, Maintenance Superintendent, and 
Roy Lindsey, Chief Mechanic at Thunderbird 
Field . 


T he new Aircraft Year Book for 1942, pub- 
lished by the Aeronautical Chamber of 
Commerce, has been printed and is now on sale. 

The year book contains a section on the Army 
Air Forces, one on the Navy Air Forces and 
another on air transport activities, in addition 
to a number of special divisions on all phases 
of aviation. A directory of airplane, engine 
and aviation equipment manufacturers is also 
included in the appendix. 

Eklitor of the Year Book was Howard Mingos, 
of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce. The 
Chamber is located at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York City. 

Engine Testing at Wright 

The picture above shows the way engines are 
tested at Wright Field. The six-bladed “object" 
hooked on the front of this engine is not a pro- 
peller. Materiel Command officers call it a 
"test club". After an engine has whirled this 
monster around for a couple of days, Wright 
Field experts have a pretty good idea what it 
can do for an airplane. 

JUNE 1942 




(Continued from Page 12) 
of the field and operation of airplanes becomes 
more difficult. 

Aircraft land and take-off into the wind de- 
creasing their speed relative to the ground, and 
hence, the distance required for toking-off or 
landing. However, it is not always possible to 
land directly into the wind. With light winds 
under 5 miles per hour, cross-winds are not 
serious, but as the velocity increases, it be- 
comes progressively more important to control 
the direction. Naturally, it will be impossible 
to meet every condition for the number of rtm- 
ways is limited. Although in peace a larger 
number can be built, in war, at a maximum, a 
field airdrome may have 3 runways, cmd normally 
2 runways will suffice. Only in regions of 
constant winds will a single direction field be 

The arrangement of runways must be such as to 
utilize the existing ground to maximum advan- 
tage. Conventional symmetrical and triangular 
intersecting layouts should be avoided. Not 
only are these patterns difficult to camouflage, 
but the intersections provide vulnerable tar- 
gets. Instead, a more irregular pattern without 
crossing intersections should be sought. 

Aircraft performance has a definite relation- 
ship to the si*ze of the landing and take-off 
area. In general, as the wing loading of an 
airplane is increased, the stalling speed of the 
airplane increases; consequently the speed which 
must be attained prior to take-off is greater 
and the minimum safe speed which must be main- 
tained in gliding in for a landing is also 
greater. It follows that the distance required 
for an airplane to take-off and land is in- 
creased. For each type of military airplane, 
the wing loading, as well as the ground roll 
required for toking-off and landing are given in 
official publications. As these figures are 
(Stained by experienced pilots under fovorcdile 
conditions, these take-off and landing distances 
should be increased 20 to 30 per cent to obtain 
the safe requirement for service conditions. 
Normally it will not be necessary to know the 
exact makes of airplanes and their character- 
istics, as by experience, standard runway re- 
quirements have been established for all general 
classes. The pilot naturally wants the maximum 
length possible, and the engineer, pushed 
for time, the minimum permissible. The final 
length selected will be a compromise, based not 
only on the type of aircraft which is to use the 
airfield (and any field may hove to take several 
types) but also on the condition of the ap- 
proaches. the obstructions and the altitude of 
the field. 

Although greater lengths are desirable for 
safety, especially for training units, at oper- 
ational airdromes the following are the minimum 
runway dimensions which should be equalled or 
exceeded . 

(1) Light Cbservation only: 

Length 2500 feet 

Width 100 " 

Shoulder. . . . 100 " (each side) 

(2) Pursuit 

Length 3500 feet 

Width 150 " 

Shoulder. . . . 150 " (each side) 

(3) Bombardment 

Length 4500 feet 

Width 150 " 

Shoulder. . . . 175 ” (each side) 

The c4>ove lengths apply at sea level only. In- 
creased length must be provided at higher alti- 
tudes for the take-off run and the landing run, 
as airplanes land and take-off at higher speeds 
and climb at flatter angles as the altitude 
d}ove sea level increases. As a rule of thumb, 
increase the distance required at sea level 10 
per cent for every 1000 feet increase in alti- 
tude . 

It should be noted that the shoulders are an 
essential part of the runway, and should be 
graded to the some grades. At field airdromes, 
it is not contemplated that the entire landing 
field will be leveled and seeded. With runways 
of adequate width, supplemented by this addi- 
tional cleared strip on each side, there appears 
to be no military reason demanding the leveling 
of the remainder of the area. If the ground is 
unsuited for use without runways, planes imcdile 
to land on the runways will gain little benefit 
by having the whole area graded. The cleared 
strip on either side of the runway should give 
ample margin of safety for planes temporarily 
out of control which run off the pavement. 

Although desircd>le to hove clearing continued 
to give a cleared strip 500' wide each side of 
the center line, at field airdromes vegetation 
and low trees which are not major hazards may be 
left within this 1000' strip. Where local ter- 
rain conditions require, airplane revetments may 
be located within 300 feet of the runway center 
line. No construction should be permitted in 
prolongation of the runway. 

In general, the maximum grade, longitudinally 
and transversely, should not exceed one per cent 
(1%). Grade changes should be gradual, not 
exceeding one-half of the one per cent ()^) in 
any one hundred foot interval. Runway longi- 
tudinal intersection grades should be joined by 
vertical curves at least 500 feet in length. 
Where practicable, the longitudinal tangent 
interval between vertical curves on runways 
should not be less than 1000 feet long. 

Runways must be sited to ovoid obstacles at 
their prolongation, as a clear glide path of not 
less than 1/20 is needed. When possible, a 
glide angle of 1/40 should be provided for the 
distance of two miles in the approach zone. For 
instrument, runways or where overload take-offs 
are planned, this glide angle should be 1/50 for 
the first 1000 feet. (This is the first of a series 
of three articles on wartime airdromes by Colonel 
Smyser , The second article will appear in the July 
issue . ) 


JUNE 1942 



neirly-openeci . and opening, schools throughout 
the vast 31-school Training Center. Each 
school, in turn, will eventually train its own 
mechanics . 

A mechanic cannot be thoroughly trained in 
such a short time. However, the fundamental 
or basic technical knowledge can be given 
without entering into too much detail. For 
example, the ability of a student to remove 
and re-install a magneto or carburetor and to 
understand the principle of operation and 
routine maintenance is sufficient. It is not 
necessary for him to know how to completely 
overhaul such equipment. With this foundation, 
he can quickly go on with his learning when 
he has been reassigned back to his squadron-- 
or should he decide to apply for advanced train- 
ing at one of the technical schools. 

From the time the new enlistee reports at 
Randolph until two weeks (9G hours of actual 
instruction) later, he is in the hands of First 
Lieut. W.C. Holton and his specialist-instructor 
faculty of 25 non-commissioned officers, each 
of whom is an expert in his own right. Lieu- 
tenant Holton himself is a veteran instructor- 
mechanic with 14 years of experience, including 
the eleven years which Randolph Field has been 
in operation. He has trained over 20.000 
Aviation Cadets in mechanics. He received his 
commission only last April. 

Students in the mechanics school are all 
volunteers, and are chosen by set quotas dis- 
tributed between Randolph Field and the other 
schools in the Training Center. “These men." 
says Lieutenant Holton, "represent the ‘forgot- 
ten men' of the Air Forces --the basic soldier 
whose ability would never be recognized if it 

W HETJ the Gulf Coast Air Force Training Cen- 
ter dropped airplane and engine operation 
from the Aviation Cadet basic flying curriculum 
in February, Randolph Field, the Army Air 
Forces oldest and largest of the basic flying 
schools, was left with one vast school - hangar , 
fully-equipped, but without a student to call 
its own. 

But only for four days. It took just that 
long to convert that part of fledgling train- 
ing into the new streamlined mechanics school 
which has been grinding out enlisted ground- 
crewmen with methodical regularity. 

They aren't expert mechanics, these newest 
graduates of the AAF’s new "Training Type 
Mechanics School for Enlisted Men", but they're 
definitely on the way, if the Training Center's 
theory of operation proves correct. And it 
has--up until now, at least. 

The purpose of the short, concentrated two- 
week course is to teach the basic soldier or 
newly-enlisted man the approved methods of 
inspection and maintenance of training planes, 
and such other technical duties normally per- 
formed in the school squadrons of the Training 
Center. No attempt is made to take the place 
of the Air Force Technical schools such as 
Chanute Field, 111., where a more comprehensive 
course is presented. The short course was 
designed specifically to meet the needs of 

JUNE I94i! 



were not tapped and brought to the Service in 
this manner. 

"Some of them hove never even seen the inside 
of a hangar, but that's nothing new to us. We 
make mechanics out of them just the same; all 
we ask is the willingness to learn." 

The curriculum of the course consists of 72 
hours of classroom lectures, highly effective 
visual training film instruction, demonstrations 
and practice jobs — supplemented by 24 hours of 
calisthenics and drill. A passing overage of 
70 must be maintained at all times. 

As for the actual instruction, this is roughly 
divided in the following manner: 

Six hours to fundamental engine, principles and 
engine construction; 12 hours to carburetion, 
fuel systems, and technical orders; 12 hours to 
ignition, generators, generator control panels, 
starters, spark plugs, etc.; six hours to hy- 
draulic systems, engine op>eration (starting and 
stopping, etc.); nine hours to aircraft con- 
struction, landing gear, wheels, and brakes and 
propellers; 18 hours to practice work on test 
blocks, such as practice installation of mag- 
netos, carburetors, fuel pumps, fuel pressure 
relief valves or combination fuel units, con- 
trollcdsle pitch propellers and trouble-shooting. 
The test block period also includes the practice 
work of performing a complete 50-hour inspection 
on the engine. 

The latter is the backbone of the course — 
where the student is taught the approved method 
of inspection and maintenance through the use 
of inspection forms which may mean the differ- 
ence between life and death of the man up in 
the air. 

"And they take pride in their work, as the good 
mechanic does," says Lieutenant Holton. “He 
may not know the man who flies the plane, but 
if he con put his own personal stomp of approval 
on the machine he's just as proud as the man 
who takes it up." 

The school is conducted right on the Randolph 
flying line, and is held in one of the hangars 
which is complete with classrooms, practice 
equipment, and actual training-plane wing and 
fuselage cut-aways. A complete museum exhibit 
of motors dating back to World War I helps re- 
mind the students of what remarkable strides 
military aviation has made in the last near-40 
years. In the course itself, the student will 
see service on motors ranging from the 450- 
horsepower BT-9 to 1000- and 1200-horsepower 
Allison motors used in the fastest pursuit 
ships . 

In the practice labs he will "ground-fly" a 
complete ground-built, control-operated “mock- 
up" of a training plane. He can also trace 
its entire electrical circuit through every 
tiny wire and switch; he can go back and trace 
fuel distribution by a system of glass -enclosed 
threads which show the direction of movement. 
He will tear down and reassemble starters, gen- 
erators, magnetos, and carburetors; he will 
learn how to moor a ship when no regular con- 

crete mooring rings are available. He will do 
all this and much more. 

Then, at the end of his two weeks he will 
receive his certificate, which usually reaches 
him the following week — after he has already 
reported to the flying line of his original 
field to assume his unheralded job as one of 
the nine men on the ground who keep one fly- 
ing . 


I NSPIRED by the desire to carry on the 
struggle against Nazi tyranny and to free 
their country, the Royal Greek Air Force has 
been working for many months to prepare itself 
for the day when it could form independent 
units to join the squadrons of the Royal Air 
Forces in the Middle East . 

That day has now arrived, and Hurricane 
fighters, ornamented with the colors of the 
standard of Greece, will soon be in action on 
the desert front. 

Many of the personnel, both air crews and 
ground staff, escaped from Greece and Crete dur- 
ing the campaign of the spring of 1941. Others 
followed when they heard of the formation of a 
Royal Greek Air Force in the Middle East. 
The stream of volunteers increases daily, and 
every man is Greek. 

The long period of training presented many 
difficulties, but schools were estcd>lished, re- 
pair centers organized and clerical and opera- 
tional branches were formed. 

All the pilots flew either on the Albanian 
front against the Italians or during the German 
invasion. They are looking forward to a renewal 
of contact with the Royal Air Force, with which 
they fought in Greece. 

These forces do not represent the total effort 
of the Royal Greek Air Force. Numerous pi- 
lots, ground crews, air gunners, observers, en- 
gineers and personnel of all categories are 
being trained for the expansion that is to come. 

In addition, bomber pilots of the Royal Greek 
Air Force have already helped in anti-submarine 
patrols over the Mediterranean, for many months. 
This Unit, which has the cooperation of Greek 
Naval officers, is also to be reinforced. 

-•RAF Journal 

• • 

Small models of German planes are used as 
practice targets at the Air Forces gunnery 
school at Harlingen, Texas. 


Students at Air Forces gunnery schools prac- 
tice first on stationary ground targets, then 
moving ground targets, before taking to the air. 


Fifty million square feet of blueprints were 
turned out during 1941 at Wright Field, which 
has the largest blueprinting plant in the world. 
The machines of this plant can turn out enough 
blueprints in one week to span the earth in a 
foot -wide circle. 


JUNE 1942 

Germany's Messersehmitt 

Dissecting the 109 

The Measerschmitt 109 is one of the German Luftwaffe's standard pursuits. 
It is a single seater, low wing, skin-stressed monoplane with a cantilever 
single-spar type wing. Its E model is powered by an 1150 horsepower Daimler 
Benz liquid-cooled inverted V-12 motor. A similar type 1200 horsepower 
motor is used in the F. It carries a three-bladed propeller and mounts a 20 
mm cannon and two machine guns which fire forward from the fuselage. Its 
normal flying weight is 6,050 pounds. Armor protects the pilot’s head and 

The following conclusions on the flying characteristics and maintenance of 
the 109 were reached by engineers of the Royal Air Force after extensive 
tests of captured models. The flying characteristics apply only to the E 

model. No flying experience had been 
repor t . 


E XAMINATIQ^I of the ME109 models indicates 
that great care has been token by German de- 
signers to insure ease of maintenance in the 
field by crews with a minimum of skill and ex- 
perience. Inspection doors are liberally pro- 
vided and are locked by a single fastener of the 
spring-loaded push button type. The doors open 
easily without tools and provide a good flush 
fit when closed. Wing guns are particularly ac- 
cessible through a large hinged door along the 
leading edge. 

Rigging points for plumb bolts, straight 
edges, etc., are marked by dome-headed rivets 
which stand out from the skin and are painted 
red. There is no adjustment for wing incidence. 
A simple and convenient jacking arrangement is 
provided by holes in opposite sides of the fuse- 
lage. A bar can be passed through these doors 
and supported on framework on either side. 

The universal use of multi-pin plug and socket 
electrical connections is an inportant factor in 
maintenance. These connections consist of 
shielded plugs held by wire yokes which are 
easily releasable by hand. Every detachable 
sub-assenbly involving wiring is served through 
such connections so that no dislocation of wir- 
ing is necessary when the sub-assembly is re- 
moved. On the 109F the sockets of all plug con- 
nections serving the engine are grouped on a 
single panel. 

No fuses are employed. Their places are token 
by a small group of switches controlled by tem- 
perature. Tripping any one of these switches is 
revealed by raising a button on the particular 
switch; resetting is done by pushing down the 
button. The time spent looking for and replac- 
ing ordinary blown fuses is eliminated. 

The combined hand and electric inertia type 
engine starter is very good and makes starting 
independent of the electrical system. Engine 
removal and replacement can be performed very 
quickly by virtue of the simple standardized 
mounting and the electrical plug connections. 

obtained on the F at the time of this 

T he general conclusion is that the 109 
handles well and has excellent response to 
the controls at low speeds. But all controls 
become far too heavy at speeds over 300 miles 
p>er hour. The ailerons become virtually solid 
at 400 miles per hour and maneuverability at 
high speeds is considerably restricted. 

The turning circle of the 109 is also poor. 
At 1200 feet the circle is 885 feet compared 
with 696 feet for the Spitfire. This is due to 
the higher wing loading on the German ship, 
which is 32 pounds per square foot compared to 
25 pounds on the Spitfire. The disadvantages 
resulting from high wing loading and aileron 
freeze detract considerably from its fighting 
qualities, the RAF reports. 

These disadvantages are to some extent offset 
by good performance at high altitude, excellent 
rate of climb, gentle and amply warned stalls. 
The 109 has an cd>solute ceiling of 37.500 feet. 
Its best rate of climb is developed at low air 
speed and consequently the angle of climb is 
very good. The 109 has a direct fuel injection 
engine which does not sputter or cut out under 
negative ”G" such as occurs when diving suddenly 
to seek cloud shelter. 

The stall is very gentle with no tendency to 
spin. Ample warning of the approach to the 
stall is given by aileron vibration and buffet- 
ting. Owing to the high wing loading the stall 
occurs at relatively high airspeeds. 

The take-off run is remarkably short and the 
initial rate of climb excellent. Flaps are 
lowered 20% on take-off. Landing is tricky un- 
til the peculiar feel of setting the tail down 
is mastered. Wheels are well forward of the 
center of gravity and heavy braking is possible 
immediately after the wheels touch without pro- 
ducing tail lift. The 109 can be taxied ex- 
tremely fast. 

The ship has an adjustcdsle stcdsilizer. Lack 
of an adjustable rudder results in additional 
pilot fatigue since there is a large change of 

JUNE 1942 



direction rudder trim required at high speeds 
and continuous of>piication of rudder controls to 
keep a straight course is very tiring. 

Slots open at very high air speed and their 
opening is accompanied by aileron vibration 
which is transmitted back to the stick and is 
sufficient to spoil a pilot's aim in combat and 
make accurate looping impossible. Vibration 
stops when slots are fully open. 

Lowering flaps produces nose heaviness which 
is compensated by stcd>ilizer adjustment. Con- 
trols of flaps and stabilizer are made by a 
single handle which automatically makes adjust- 
ments for flap lowering. 

On the 109E the ailerons are connected with 
the flaps and come down 11 degrees with them. 
This does not detract from the effectiveness of 
the ailerons but makes them feel heavier. This 
inter-connection is not present on the 109F. A 
very simple and effective flop position indica- 
tor is used. Lines painted on the slotted flaps 
at 10 degree intervals lie imder the trailing 
edge of the wing and emerge into the pilot's 
view as the flaps are lowered. Take-off and 
landing positions are indicated by different 
colored lines. Flop operations are entirely me- 
chanical by screw and nut gear and ovoid the 
vulnerability of hydraulic systems. 

The 109 cockpit is too cramped for comfort. 
It is too narrow and has insufficient head room 
and a tiring seat position. The cramped posi- 
tion seriously restricts the force the pilot can 
exert on the controls, particularly side pres- 
sures for the ailerons. 

Extreme simplicity is feotured in the engine 
controls. The throttle arrangements are made by 
manipulating a single lever. Mixture control, 
supercharger speed, oil temperature and propel- 
ler pitch are all controlled automatically. 

Instruments are well grouped with flying in- 
struments on the left and engine gauges on the 
right. There is no artificial horizon. View is 
generally good but due to the cramped cockpit 
the rudder can be seen only by turning most of 
the torso. The cockpit hood hinges along the 
right side and cannot be opened in flight. A 
spring catapult con fling the hood clear and the 
radio aerial mast of the plane to make a para- 
chute escape easier. A panel arrangement dir- 
ectly in front of the pilot provides a two inch, 
draught free opening for direct vision. This 
facilitates maintaining high speeds while fly- 
ing through rain, sleet and snow. The cockpit 
glass is not bullet proof. 

• • 

Personnel of the Army Air Forces base "some- 
where in Costa Rica'' live in tents with mahog- 
any flooring and sidewalls. Although this may 
sound ultra-swank, it isn't. Mahogany is the 
cheop>est lumber in the vicinity. 

The Costa Rican Air Force base is a section 
of the Caribbean Defense Command, and the pilots 
regularly p>atrol the Pacific and Caribbean in 
that area. President Rafael A. Calderon of 
Costa Rica often visits the American flyers. 


A lieutenant is an officer , 

Or so some people say. 

He wears pink pants and shoulder straps 
And draws commissioned pay. 

But if you pause and ponder 

You will see that they are wrong; 

‘Tis such a cause for wonder 
That I’ve put it into song. 

The colonels live in quarters, 

The privates live in tents; 

By the post commander’ s orders 
The lieutenant merely rents. 

The USO gives dances 

For the poor enlisted men; 

The colonels’ wives plan parties 
Where each rooster has his hen. 

The college girls 
Cast their pearls 
Before the crude cadets; 

But the men of Mars 
With single Bars, 

‘Tis them the world forgets! 

To buy their meals they are allowed 
Just sixty cents per day. 

But they must mess in with the crowd 
And ten bits for it pay. 

And if a post commander 

Does, perchance, provide them quarters. 

He builds them out of tarpaper 
And living there is orders. 

What is the rent? 

Oh, it is meant 

To provide such quarters free-- 
Lieutenants merely do without 
A forty dollar fee! 

Oh, lieutenants they are officers. 

Or so some may have thought , 

They wear pink pants and shoulder straps 
But really they are nought. 

They must respect their betters , 

And 'tis numerous they are. 

Their bars are really fetters 
To an eagle or a star ... 

Rank without authority. 

Duty without power. 

Service without glory. 

Officer, for an hour! 

Lt. Donald E. Super 
Maxwell Field, Ala. 


JUNE 19^2 




. VOL. 25 JULY, 1942 NO. 5 



REVENGE OFF MIDWAY -- By Lt . Col. Walter C. Sweeney. Jr . .... 3 


GLIDERS FOR WAR By Capt . Herbert O. Johansen 5 

ROUGHING UP FOR COMBAT -- By Lt. Robert B. Hotz 8 


"OLE MISS*‘GOES TO JAVA -- By Capt. A1 Key 14 

THE NEXT RAID C»J JAPAN -- By James R. Young 20 


TWELVE POUNDS OF PREVENTION -- By Capt, Harry Barsantee. ... .27 

THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS -- By Oliver H. Townsend 30 

THE GREAT ZERO MYSTERY -- By Lt . John M. Jenks 32 

AIRDROMES IN WARTIME (PART II) -- By Lt. Col. R.E. Sayser. . . .35 





Technical and Art Director — James T. Rawls 

Airborne troopa are one of the moat potent atr iking forcea in modern warfare. Not 
neglecting thia vital department , theV.S. Army ia developing the beat airborne force in 
the world. The cover picture ahowa what our aerial troopa look like while they are be- 
ing loaded into one of their big tranaporta--Curt iaa-Wr ight’ a C-46 , chr iatened "The 
Commattdo”, The two powerful Wright enginea of thia plane are capable of hauling a large 
number of fully-armed troopa , complete with war equipemnt , deep into the heart of enemy- 
held territory. 


Curt iaa-Wr ight Corp, , cover; Boeing Aircraft Co,, inaide cover; U,S, Navy, p, 3, 4; 
Rudy Arnold, p, 10; Army Signal Cor pa , p, 18, 19; Fred Hamilton (Three Liona), p, 20; 
Sovfoto, p, 31, and official U,S, Army Air Forcea photoa. 










Richard Dana, 

Pr ivate , A .C , . 
Brookley Fiald, Ala. 


F ighter command head- 
quarters in on eastern city 

Brigade battling Franco' s troops. 
Stone was in the thick of war. 

recently got a new slant on air- 
craft identification. A 
feminine aircraft spotter tele- 
phoned in and excitedly reported 
the presence overhecri of “some- 
thing that looked like a couple 
of planes with their arms 
wrapped around one another. “ It 
turned out to be a P-38. 

powerful weapon for the Air 
Forces. The loss of one of 
them, like Maj . Gen. Clarence 
L. Tinker, commander of the 
Hawaiian Air Force, leaves a 
deep gash in our fighting ma- 
chine. So did the earlier 
deaths of Maj. Gen, Herbert A, 
Dargue and Brig. Gen. H. H. 
George . 

But when your generals are 
flying generals you can expect 
action, and therefore casualties. 
General Tinker was a good ex- 
ample of what we mean. It's no 
secret that he was itching for 
action, that he didn't have to 
participate personally in the 
Midway action, and that you 
couldn't have kept him out of it 
with a .50 calibre machine gun. 
They didn't come any tougher 
than "Tink, '* 

The name "general" has too of- 
ten been linked with brass 
hat." In the Air Forces it can 

grease and dirt every Cadet and 
mechanic knows cdiout . 

All told, there are 83 Air 
Force generals--five lieutenant 
generals, 23 major generals, 55 
B.G.'s, Every one of them is a 
pilot. Every one has been 
through the mill. The names 
Doolittle, Royce and Brereton 
stand out as generals who have 
personally led missions in this 
war. But you can exf>ect plenty 
of our other generals to be in 
the thick of it. They are built 
that way. 

der, so help us, called her 
soldier at Fort Bliss, Tex., 
all the way from good old New 
York, Company Headquarters 
informed her he was AWOL , 
She expressed her thanks for 
this information and hung up. 

A minute later the sweet young 
thing wa s ba ck on the line. 
"Is there any way to reach 
him at AWOh? ” , she asked, 


CCWBAT ACTION by Army air- 
craft is often announced through 
the newspapers in Navy de- 
pwrtment communiques. If you're 
wondering why, here’s the 
reason; the Navy controls all 
press releases covering com- 
bat activities which take place 
in a zone of action under Navy 
command . 

was wounded in action, lay in a 
Spanish hospital for a spell, 
and went back to the front again. 

Today Stone is a 27-year-old 
private. Air Corps, and a stu- 
dent gunner at the Harlingen 
(Tex.) gunnery school. He first 
joined up in the infantry but 
swimg over to the Air Forces and 
aerial gunnery and for good 
reason. As he explains it; 

“In Spain we were short of 
tanks, planes and equipment of 
all kinds; anti-aircraft guns 
were almost useless. I laid out 
there a thousand times--just 
taking it while they bombed and 
strafed us. I swore that if I 
ever got the chance that's where 
I'd be--up there, dumping it 
down on 'em. " 

Lt . Wilson M. McCormick , dir- 
ector of physical training , 
requires each cadet to pass a 
25-yard swimming test before 
completing primary training. 
"It is important that every 
cadet be able to swim/’ he ex- 
plains, “as it may mean his 
life in the event his plane is 
forced down into water.” 

hundreds of troops equipped only 

only be associated with leather 
helmets. The record of our 
general officers is a record of 
action--of dog-fighting in the 
last scrap, post-war barnstorm- 
ing and test piloting, of bail- 
ing out , crash landings and pio- 
neer long hops. Our generals 
are made of the same sort of 

BACK IN 1937 and '38. when 
the country still thought of 
pattern bombing in terms of 
paper dolls, Sam Stone of 
Wichita, Kansas, knew there was 
a war on. He was in one--a 
machine gunner with Loyalist 
Spain's volunteer International 

with small arms has played a 
major role in bringing down 
attacking aircraft along the 
Russian front. A purjjortedly 
secret document seized from the 
Germans by the Russians states; 
"It has been found that our loss 
of planes from small arms ground 
fire has been exceptionally high. 


JULY 1942 

In one of our air units which 
supported a ground attack, the 
loss from enemy small arms 
ground fire was 50 per cent. 
The reason for this lies in the 
well organized Soviet anti-air- 
craft fire." 

The Germans aren't familiar 
with this tactic themselves, 
even reporting that a Russian 
plane has been brought down with 
an automatic pistol. 

But the Russians seem to be 
the past masters of the art. 
Every Russian ground unit is 
said to attack low flying German 
planes with rifles and other in- 
fantry weapons. Russian cavalry 
dismount and fire from a stand- 
ing position with rifles placed 
on saddles. Infantrymen lie on 
their backs and fire. Even 
mortar fire is reported in use. 
Said to be especially effective 
are well camouflaged four- 
barreled machine guns. 

the men in advanced flying 
school are plugging for paper 
napkins with war zone maps 
printed on them for the mess 
hall tables. It seems that 
the "table generals” like to 
chart out new ways to surprise 
the enemy, and the linen is 
now taking a beating as the 
strategists gulp down their 
food. So, war zone napkins 
might do something to lower 
the laundry bills. 

"it has long been customary 
in this country to refer to the 
Navy as our First Line of De- 

*We of the Army Air Forces 
like to consider ourselves the 
First Line of Of fense. "- -A/a y . 
Gen, H.S, Harmon at Lubbock Field 
ded icat ion . 



McClellan Field, California: 
"One sentry shall walk this 
post continuously in opposite 
directions, ” 

OUR PRETTY cover girl of 
last issue. Miss Kathleen 
Nelson, Tyndall Field secre- 
tarial worker, appears to have 
scored a hit with the boys. 
Reports from Tyndall say her 
picture--showing Miss Nelson 
in the field's snappy new uni- 
form for women employees- -has 
been picked up by the nation's 
press . The result has been a 
flood of letters from male ad- 
mirers, young and old. One of 
them came from a 14 year old, 
who wrote "all the girls around 
here write to the fellows in 
the service and don't even 
bother with little me anymore. 
So, I wish to get back at 
them (the girls I mean) by 
writing a soldier lady and 
that is why I picked your pic- 
ture, . 

IT MAY do some good to 
mention that the swanky Ambas- 
sador Hotel in Los Angeles of- 
fers a flat 50 per cent dis- 
count for the duration on all 
rooms occupied by commissioned 
officers. The hotel has also 
waived cover and admission 
charges to its Cocoanut Grove, 
its theatre, and the Turf Field 

’TOKYO SHOULD be informed 
that our supply of Chennaults 
is practically unlimited,” 
comments Brig. Gen. Laurence 
S. Kuter. Deputy Chief of the 
Air Staff. 

What he means is this: Brig. 
Gen. Claire Chennault, famed 
for his leadership of the AVG 
"Flying Tigers" in China, has 
five sons helping to win the 
war. Captain John of the Air 

Forces commands a fighter unit 
in Alaska; Charles has just 
joined the Army, hoping to get 
in the Air Forces; another son 
is in the Navy; another in the 
Field Artillery reserve, and 
still another in the merchant 

hear and read about (page 34) 
are not widenings of the high- 
ways. They do not always run 
parallel or close to highways, 
as commonly believed. "Flight 
Strips" are near highways, all 
right, but completely independ- 
ent of them. The highways make 
it possible for supplies and 
troops to be rushed to these 
auxiliary landing areas. 

'HE WON’T SWEAR by this 
one, but the story is told 
about three Canadians , sleep- 
ing in a tent at one of the 
training centers in England, 
who were suddenly awakened by 
a terrific crash not far away. 
“What was it-- thunder or 
bombs?”, asked one, "Bombs,” 
was the sleepy reply. “Thank 
Go d , ” s a i d the third, “I 
thought we were going to have 
more rain.” 

Field's creator of the comic 
strip ’Reggie”, described in 
the last issue, scored such a 
hit with his art work that he 
has been ordered to temporary 
duty at headquarters in Washing- 
ton to produce on a national 
scale. His series of comic 
strips, features and cartoons, 
all on flight safety, hove been 
made available to the field and 
should show up presently in 
camp newspapers. The sergeant's 
deft touch is evident in this 
issue of the News Letter, which 
contains quite a bit of his 
work . 

Revenge Was Sweet Off Midway 

By Lfeiit. Colonel Walter C. Sweeney, Jr. 

E AEfl^Y in June it was my good fortune to be 
in command of three bombing flights against 
the Japanese fleet off Midway Island in two days. 
Every man in my command brought credit to him- 
self and to the Army Air Forces. We acted 
jointly with naval and marine personnel, and all 
of us have only the most profound admiration for 
the coolness, courage and bravery of such compe- 
tent officers and men. 

At Midway the morning of June 3 Navy patrol 
planes reported that a strong enemy surface 
force was approaching the island from a bearing 
of 265 degrees true. 

Positive information came in about noon, and 
our flight of nine B-17Es took off immediately. 
After flying about three and a half hours we 
found the Jap ships, some 600 miles out, just 
where we had expected them. 

It looked like an awful lot of ships down 
below. There were cruisers, transports, cargo 
vessels and other escort ships. We must have 
surprised them, and we felt so at the time, be- 
cause they started maneuvering at once. The 
maneuvering was orderly, but unquestionably vio- 
lent . 

This attack was made in flights at altitudes 
of 8.000, 10,000 and 12,000 feet, respectively. 
My flight picked out a large one and bombed it. 

At the bomb release line very heavy anti-air- 
craft fire was encountered. It continued through- 
out the attack, and, as in the attacks that 
followed, was plenty heavy. We didn't claim 
any hits in my flight on this one; we hit all 
around it, but we didn't see any evidence of da- 

Our second element , under the command of 
Captain Clement P. Tokarz, attacked a cruiser or 
battleship- -we weren't worried about identifica- 
tion at the time--and left it burning. 

The third element, led by Captain Cecil 
Faulkner, went after a cruiser and is believed 
to hit it at the stern. One pilot in the second 
flight. Captain Paul Payne, couldn't get his 
bombs away on the first trip in so he returned 
through the ack ack and got hits on a transport, 
setting it afire. 

Then we headed for home in high spirits, our 
only regret that we had no more bombs. On the 
way bacL, from about 30 miles away, we could see 
the heavy ship and the transport burning. They 
were both out of column and appeared motionless, 
with huge clouds of dark smoke mushroomed above 

We returned to Midway in the dark, got a 
little sleep and were up before daylight the 
next morning (June 4) to continue the attack. 

This time we had more B-17s, seven having 
come in overnight. We assembled in the vicinity 
of a small island and proceeded out to attack 
the same main body we had bombed the previous 
afternoon. Enroute to the target we got word 
that another enemy task force complete with 
carriers was approaching Midway from 325 degrees 
true and only a distance of about 145 miles from 
that base. 

We turned to intercept and climbed to 20,000 
feet. Cloud conditions were lower broken, bot- 
(Continued on Page 37) 

i ir v/ar in ttae ii^leutlans 

Fighting Fog and Jans 

A merican airmen are slugging it out with day the Jap came again, this time with 18 carrier- 
the Japs in a weird air-sea battle along based bombers and 16 fighters. In this attack, 
the Aleutian island chain where the rain drives he included Fort Glenn, an Army post about 70 
in sideways off Siberia at a mile a minute clip miles west of Dutch Harbor on the island of 
and volcanic islands jut out of a fog-covered Umnak. 

ocean like telegraph poles. He did better the second time, but all told. 

It's the soupiest flying country possible. according to the Navy report, the Jap accom- 
Daylight runs 20 hours a day, and the nights are plished only minor damage not impairing the 
never really dark but the fog is always around. military effectiveness of the American outposts. 
You chase the shore line in and out of bays. As this is written, no further attacks have 

coves and inlets and you dodge the cliffs. Or been reported on Dutch Harbor and the Army sta- 
you stay under the fog by hugging the water for tions. The enemy has occupied the undefended 
miles on end, never over 100 feet, sometimes as islands of Attu, Kiska and Agattu on the western- 
low as 10. Distances are great and the bad wea- most tip of the Aleutian chain and has con- 
ther eats up your gas. The fog hides your tar- structed temporary living facilities ashore. A 
get and blacks out your results. But you dump Navy-approved report states that here "The Japs 
your load and go back for more. After a while are getting set for what may become a major 
you get used to it. push against continental America." 

We’ve been fighting the enemy and the ele- Whatever the result, from the very first 

ments in that sub-Arctic muck since early June, move of the enemy, our Air Forces and our Navy 
when the Jap squeezed a task force into the were ready for him. On the day of the initial 
Aleutian chain while simultaneously pointing a attack our B-17 heavy bombers and the Navy’s 
spearhead toward Midway. PBY flying boats were searching for the Jap be- 

Our Navy states that the Jap invasion force fore his first plane appeared. Anti-aircraft 
in the Aleutians amounted to approximately two batteries at Dutch Harbor opened fire five min- 
aircraft carriers, several cruisers and des- utes before the first bomb was dropped, 
troyers, a couple of seaplane tenders and from Our bombers in Alaska are carrying the 

four to six transports. The presence of troop fight to the enemy, reported Brig. General 
transports indicates the attack was aimed at Laurence S. Kuter, Chief of our Air Staff, upon 
capture and occupation, the Navy reports. his return from the combat area. "American air- 

The first attack came on the morning of June men are also devising special means to put the 
3rd, when the Jap sent 15 Zeros and four Kokekiki Japs within range of fighter planes operating 
carrier-based bombers over the Dutch Harbor na- from our Aleutian bases. Never hove I seen such 
val base and the Army’s nearby Fort Mears . Next (Continued on Page 38) 


J UST a year ago at Elmira, N. Y. ■ Lieut. 
General Henry H. Arnold promised the nation 
that the Army Air Forces would have a glider, 
force second to none. 

A recent tour to centers of glider activity 
throughout the country shows that General 
Arnold's promise is being kept. The war-going 
glider is here. War-going glider pilots have 
been trained and are ready for action. 

The “Commandos of the Air" are no longer a 
promise but a reality. 

Everywhere one finds a serious and enthusias- 
tic acceptance of the glider as a military wea- 
pon and the glider pilot as a spearhead in mass 
air assaults on the enemy. 

A little more than a year ago no one took 
gliding seriously in this country, except the 
few sportsmen who enjoyed the thrills of thermal 
and ridge soaring. Now the factories that were 
then turning out a few small and impractical 
sailplanes are engaged in mass production of 
huge and business-like troop-carrying gliders. 

Today the glider is as much a part of our war 
plans as the Flying Fortress. 

The reason for the glider's coming of age is 
simple and obvious. Perhaps it was too obvious, 
for it embodies a principle mon has been using 
since the beginning of transportation: You con 

pull more than you can lift. The tug with its 
string of barges, the locomotive and its train 
of freight and passenger cars, and more re- 
cently, the automobile or truck and its trailer 
are all examples of the economy and increased 
efficiency of towing. Its adaptation to air 
transport was a long time coming but now is here 
in a big way. 

It is a startling fact that by towing a single 
glider, a cargo airplane can double its load 
with the loss of only about 12 per cent in effi- 
ciency. With a tow of two and three gliders, 
the advantage is naturally that much greater. 
Colonel David M. Schlatter. Director of Ground- 
Air Support, of the Army Air Forces, furnishes 
this excellent example: 

"It has been calculated," explains Colonel 
Schlatter, "that a single DC-3 transport plane 
flying the route of the Burma road can carry in 
a month the same amount of equipment that could 
be handled by 56 trucks. If you double the 
carrying load of the transport by having it tow 
a glider, you are doing the work of 112 trucks. 
Then instead of using one transport and glider 
team, have many. You con readily see what this 

means in the transport picture all over the 
world. " 

Going further. Colonel Schlatter predicts the 
day when single airplanes are an oddity, when 
planes with trailing baggage and passenger 
" cars" are common. 

Limitless Pessikilities 

Our whole thinking on the subject of gliders 
has changed almost overnight . We have suddenly 
awakened to the fact that in the widespread use 
of large gliders we have the solution of war- 
fare's complicated transportation problems--not 
only the transporting of cargo but of troops and 
equipment for invasion. The possibilities are 
limitless . 

There was a great deal of excited talk about 
Hitler's "Secret Weapon" when the Germans used 
gliders in the invasion of Belgium in 1940 and 
later in the taking of Crete in May 1941. Talk 
has now given way to action. 

At Wright Field there is a Glider Unit working 
day and night testing and flying and perfecting 
gliders of all types, from small trainers to 
large troop-carrying ships. 

At factories in Bt. Louis, Wichita, Elmira and 
a dozen other places gliders of a size and ca- 
pacity that will astonish even the glider con- 
scious Germans are rolling off the production 

At preliminary schools in Kansas. Arkansas, 
Oklahoma, and South Dakota thousands of men are 
being trained in power-off “dead stick" landings 
to prepare them for the job of piloting big war 
gliders . 

At advanced schools in Texas and California 
full fledged glider pilots are being graduated 
in large numbers, trained in the art of bringing 
down their gliders on any available patch of 

At our Tactical Training Centers huge troop- 
carrying gliders and their pilots rehearse with 
the air-borne troops that will be their “cargo". 

Yes, the American glider is definitely ready 
for war. 

Now a glider is of no earthly, or rather aer- 
ial use unless there are means for getting it 
aloft. The glider's power plant is the tow air- 
plane. In fact, an aeronautical engineer re- 
cently pointed out that a glider is simply an 
airplane with a remote power plant. 

The towing, once the glider is in the air, and 


I With pick-up arm lowered, the airplane pilot swoops 
down toward the ground station at more than 100 miles an 
hour. An Instant alter the first picture was taken, the 
grapple hook at the end of the arm snatched up the glider 
tow line seen suspended between the two posts. 

2 At the moment of contact, the airplane is only about 14 
feet off the ground. The pilot quickly gains altitude and a 
winch inside the plane goes into action, taking up the slack 
in the tow line which is attached at the other end to the glid- 
er seen in the background. A 2-place training glider, the 
TG-3, was used in this first actual demonstration of a non- 
stop glider pick-up at Wright Field. 

3 And up goes the glider with the greatest of ease as its 
pilot expertly guides his craft to one side of the ground sta- 
tion posts. The nylon tow rope and an attachment on the 
cable winch In the airplane act as automatic shock absorbers. 

the setting free by the pilot when the enemy ob- 
jective is reached, presents no real problems, 
but getting the glider aloft--the pick-up from 
the ground--does , or did, present its difficul- 
ties . 

First there was the problem of the take-off 
for the tow airplane. The added weight of the 
glider called for a longer runway. With a train 
of two or three gliders in tow it required a 
runway longer than is ordinarily practicable, 
especially for operations from our fighting 

Then there was the all-important corrollary to 
the first problem; getting the glider and its 
occupants off the ground again once the mission 
behind the enemy lines was accomplished. Were 
gliding missions to be one-way tickets with no 
means of getting out in a hurry? Were costly 
gliders to be destroyed or abandoned to the 
enemy in case of reversals? Wasn't there some 
way in which gliders landing in small fields 
could be emptied of their equipment and men and 
brought back to deliver more troops. 

Until recently these were both real problems. 
Now the Army Air Forces is experimenting with a 
non-stop glider pick-up by means of which our 
gliders that go to war will be able to come back 
when their job is done, and load up again. 

Pick-Up System 

This pick-up system is simplicity itself. It 
is an adaptation of the mail pick-up by an air- 
plane in flight, widely used for many years. 

A few weeks ago the writer witnessed a highly 
successful demonstration at Wright Field during 
which a two-place glider was picked up from the 
ground time and again by a power plane zooming 
low at more than 100 miles an hour. The demon- 
stration didn't attract much attention, but its 
significance from a military point of view is 

clear-cut. What is cx:complished by a small air- 
plane picking up a small glider can be dupli- 
cated by a large transport airplane picking up a 
war-going glider or train of gliders. The prin- 
ciple is the same. All that is needed is lar- 
ger and stronger equipment. 

The essential ground element of the non-stop 
pick-up device is a set of posts resembling the 
goal posts on a football field, except that in- 
stead of the cross bar a tow line--one end at- 
tached to the glider--is suspended between the 
poles . 

The actual pick-up mechanism is in the air- 
plane and consists of two parts, a revolving 
reel or drum on which 700 feet of light coble is 
wound and a 12-foot pick-up arm with a grapple 
hook on the end attached to the bottom part of 
the fuselage. 

The tow plane comes in and as it approaches 
the pick-up ground station, the pilot levels off 
much in the same manner as he would in making a 
landing, except that his speed is greater, any- 
where from 95 to 120 miles an hour. He lowers 
the pick-up arm, and as he swoops down the hook 
at the end catches the suspended tow-line. At 
the moment of contact, with the airplane from 12 
to 14 feet above the ground, the cable reel in- 
side the plane is permitted to spin freely, pay- 
ing out additional tow-cable to cushion the ini- 
tial load imposed by the dead-weight of the 
glider. Some of the shock is also taken up by 
the tow-line itself, which is made of nylon to 
give maximum strength with a high degree of re- 

Gradually the reel-brake is applied, the gli- 
der accelerates smoothly, and by the time the 
speeding tow-plane has levelled off, the glider 
is air-borne. Then the brake is locked and 
the glider is in full tow. If at any time while 


- p 

the glider is in tow the acceleration becomes 
greater than 1 G, an automatic shock absorber 
goes into action. 

No Shock or Strain 

During the demonstrations at Wright Field, 
even with the airplane making the pick-up at 
more than 100 miles an hour, there was no no- 
ticeable shock or strain on either the airplane 
or the glider. 

Lest this solution to the pick-up problem 
makes the job of the glider pilot seem simple, 
don't forget that there is no mechanical device 
that will bring the glider to a perfect landing 
within the limits of a small pasture behind the 
enemy lines. That is up to the skill and judg- 
ment of the pilot. 

When he once cuts loose from the tow-ship. 
5,000 or 10,000 feet up, miles away from the 
small pasture that is his objective, the glider 
pilot is on his own. He must know air currents, 
rate of glide, and the performance of his gli- 
der. As he silently glides down, carrying his 
precious cargo of men and guns and ammunition, 
responsibility for the success or failure of the 
mission is his alone. He must make his ap- 
proach just right. 

Top Man 

It is true that the Army Air Forces' troop- 
carrying gliders are equipped with flaps and 
spoillers to cut down the speed and increase the 
rate of glide, but if the pilot misjudges and 
undershoots his mark there is no engine to 
throttle and gain altitude for him. That is why 
the glider pilot will be the top man in the air- 
borne troop invasion on the books of our high 
command . 


A C'UY from the nailplam of th-.’ :;portcman hi thiF> 

9-p‘.ace transport glidt-T of tht- .'irmy .Mr r^orces, sh'iwn 
below. War-going gliders of this type will be the spearhead of 
our aerial offensive again;-.!, the enemy. The pilots, at their c-m- 
trols will be the key men when our “Commandoa of the .'.ir’'‘ go 
into action, 

'I'he advantages T transporting air-b.irr;e troops by gliders 
are many. One power airplane can tr;w of.-veral gliders of the 
type shown below and ‘•von larger onbo, each glider currying 
r;in«- or rnoreiully equip{>ed lighting mt-n, !^y cutting the glidrrs 
loose Lhousando of feet up and miles away frc;rn the enemy ob- 
jective, they can glide in noisele.nsly to strike their blows with- 
out warning. Also, gliders can be con;:tructed in a fraction .)f 
the time it takes to manufacture a power airplaru , with th<> use 
practically no strategic materials, and at ub nit one -fifth Uu- 
c )st. Th(.‘ cost of a glider of the type shown hcrre is between 
$10,000 and $1J^,000, while a transport airplane of the 
load capacity costs about $b0,000. 

Troop carrying gliders now being built for the .^rrny Air 
Forces are equipped with flying inotrum<-mts and l-.-wuy radio. 
In the larger gliders struolural provisions, have been made 
for the loading and carrying of mechani'’ed equipment. 


^ «!.. For €©»«*»** 

J" . .... 

l,leo». Kober 

„,.dqa.rlcr», »»» 

An improvised field headquarters, using packing crates for furniture. 
Below, elaborate hangars and runways are dispensed with at the front. 

T he gnats dive at you like Stukas and the 
flies sound like a heavy bomber formation. 
The swamp turns your GI shoes from brown to 
black. You eat standing up. sleep under mos- 
quito netting, and shake the snakes out of your 
shoes. Your workshop is a sweltering tent, and 
you wish you could find a job to do in the air 
conditioned trailer where flight instruments are 
checked . The heat bounces off the runways and 
hits you in the face. Sweat soaks your shirt 
and sand whirls up in your eyes. 

It might be an advanced airdrome on any one 
of a half dozen combat zones, but it is just a 
field somewhere in Florida where heavy bombard- 
ment groups of the Third Air Force Operational 
Training Units are learning how to rough it. 
The life is tough, designed to be as tough 
as anything a combat zone offers. All that is 
missing is an enemy raid. It's a long way from 
operating out of a fixed base with long con- 
crete runways, brick and steel hangars, and big 
permanent repair shops and barracks to running 
mission from a jungle clearing, filled-in swamp 
land or leveled hills. Here your control tower 
is a precarious camouflaged perch in a tree top, 
your repair shop a row of tents and trailers, 
your kitchen a hole in the ground with iron 
grates, and your quarters a bug-filled tent. 

Transition Training 

It is a transition that AAF outfits are mak- 
ing in increasing numbers as they swing into ac- 
tion on more battlefronts of the global war. It 
is training designed to teach them how to oper- 
ate under the worst possible field conditions 
without softening the blows they strike against 
the enemy. 

A heavy bombardment group always covers a 
lot of ground, but when it is dispersed to ca- 
mouflage all its ground installations it really 
spreads. Everything is on wheels: first, to co- 
ver the distances around the base; second, to 
enable the base to be evacuated in a hurry. By 
the time an outfit finishes its operational 
training it is able to evacuate its 200,000 
pounds of equipment on wheels in less than six 
hours . 

Improvising and making the best of what is 
available is the keynote of this type of field 
training. Furniture is made from old packing 
cases. Every bit of scrap metal is salvaged 
and used for something. An old tenant's shack 
near one field was converted into a beer garden 
for the PX. Traveling PX' s were rigged up in 
trucks to deliver cigarettes, candy and cokes to 
the group squadrons scattered under camouflaged 

The operations office and the weather sta- 
tion are a pair of tents in which lights burn 
all night. Field trunks have been rigged to un- 
fold as desks to hold weather and operations 
maps. A Link trainer is set up under a canvas 
and the pilots put in time on it in underwear, 
shorts and shoes. Model identification air- 
planes are strung from the trees. The guard- 
house is a log stockade made from native timber. 

Open Fire Co oking 

The cooks preside over great pots, grates 
and steam cookers heated by open fires. Mess 
tables are built for stand-up eating and the 
only utensils are those from individual mess 

Gasoline comes in drums from concealed un- 
derground storage depots instead of the conven- 
tional hose at a fixed base. Ammunition is also 
kept in underground storehouses. Barbed wire 
entanglements and machine gun nests surround vi- 
tal installations. A brake drum hung from a 
limb serves as a gas alarm and when its clang 
sounds on the field every man in the outfit 
wears his gas mask until the all-clear is given. 

Problems that are non-existent in an ordi- 
nary base tax the ingenuity of men in the field. 
A barber sets up shop with a packing case chair 
and a tree for a shop. His razor strop is hung 
from the trunk and a board wedged in a crotch 
holds his tools and soaps. The waiting room is 
a soft spot in the sand. The field de-lousing 
equipment is re-rigged to provide open air 
showers with hot water. 

First aid stations are set up in each squad- 
ron and a group hospital is fashioned from a 
pair of tents and mosquito netting. The group 
dentists operate their drills by band power. 
Chaplains hold services in the open air. A 
blackout proof screen is erected between a pair 
of trees to show training and entertainment 
films to the men at night. 

Out on the line another row of tents houses 
each squadron's armament, supply and repair 
units. There are no hangars for the big four- 
engined bombers scattered in the far corners of 
the field. Turrets and other vital parts are 
protected against the sun and sand on the ground. 
Sentries guard the planes at night. 

Planes operate day and night simulating all 
(Continued on Page 21) 

Polished desks are out when flight planning time rolls around. Above, 
in a rude operations building, a bomber crew gets its instructions. 


“Tent shops’’, (above) set up as they would be under combat conditions. 
Below, there won’t be any air-conditioned repair shops at the front. 


^-^oat J^untin^ . . . 

Hide and Seek Warfare 

T he airplane and the submarine are engaged 
in one of the war's strangest but most im- 
portant duels. 

It is a game of hide-and-seek that has few 
equals - -played along thousands of miles of 
rugged American coastline. 

The gome matches two unnatural enemies, pitted 
together because of a relatively defenseless 
third party--the surface vessel. It is the 
plane's job to defend it, the sub's job to des- 
troy it. But in defending, the plane must seek 
and get results. Against the plane, the sub has 
only to hide. 

If you stop to think of a duel between an air 
weapon and an underwater weapon it smacks of 
Jules Verne at his best. But when a sub is 
spotted down below, you really don't have time 
to stop and think. 

Sporadic Action 

In hunting submarines you swop hours of mono- 
tonous, nerve-wracking patrol for infrequent 
flashes of furious action, and doubtful rewards. 
You know the odds are against you, but you can't 
afford to give a damn. Day in and day out you 
continue to skim low over the water, looking for 
a needle in an ocean haystack, always hoping to 
get a shot at the needle and strike oil. 

If a U-boat's silhouette is painted on the 
nose of your plane, feel free to carry a puffed- 
out chest. And if by any chance you're sprout- 
ing the Air Medal, burst your buttons--you' ve 
had it coming. 

The plan of action in sub hunting is logically 
shaped around the known facts concerning the 
submarine's method of operation. Subs usually 

hunt in packs- -somet imes as many as 10 or 12 U- 
boats concentrated in one shipping lane. During 
the daytime they cruise at periscope depth, or 
with decks awash and the conning tower visible. 

On surface passage, a sub proceeds on diesel 
power at about 10 knots an hour. The noise of 
its motors makes it virtually impossible for the 
U-boat to hear an approaching aircraft before 
seeing it. That's a definite advantage. But at 
night, when the sub has surfaced and is idling 
about charging batteries, an aircraft can be 
heard as far as three miles away before it is 
seen, even in bright moonlight. And remember 
that U-boats do a lot of their dirty work at 
night . 

The theory is that if depth charges or bombs 
are placed reasonably close to a U-boat, the at- 
tack is never wasted. But spotting the sub is 
the first big job. And that, in itself, is fast 
getting to be an exact science. 

The U-boat lookout system is so thorough that 
two out of three times the sub will sight an 
aircraft and dive before it can be sighted by a 
plane. Three members of the U-boat crew usually 
stand in the conning tower, arranged back-to- 
back in such manner that each man commands a 
120-degree view. 

When the sun is bright, you hove your trou- 
bles. Try looking for U-boats against the glare 
in a mighty big expanse of water and find out 
for yourself. You learn to play “hard-to-f ind" 
in broken cloud formations on the clear days; 
and if the underparts of your ship are painted 
white you become much less visible from the 
water . 

In thick weather you can moke the heavy spray 
(Continued on Page 29) 


LT. GEU. GEDRGE H. BRETT--".4s United States Army member of 
War Councils in England, Egypt, Burma, China, Java and Aus- 
tralia, as Deputy Commander- in Chief of the Southwest Pacific 
and as Commander- in-Chief of the United States Army Forces 
in Australia he has shown a keen perception of existing con- 
ditions, excellent judgment and a superior quality of leader- 
ship, thus rendering exceptionally meritorious service to the 
Government in a position of great responsibility.’' 


LT. OOL. CHARLES A. SPRAGUE--For exceptional valor inac- 
tion against the Japanese in the battle of the Philippines, 
Colonel Sprague has been missing since February after engaging 
Japanese fighters over Bali. (Also awarded the Purple Heart.) 



For gallantry in action against the Japanese , while stationed 
somewhere in Australia, No details available. (Captain 
Bostrom was also awarded the D.F.C.) 


For gallantry in action again 
avai lable. 



f the Japanese. No details 




CAPt «40?v a SPBm^Z 



JULY 1942 



For gallantry in action against the Japanese. No details available. 




For bravery while participating in a successful bombing raid on 
an enemy airdrome north of Australia. 

LT. SAMUEL W. BISHOP- -For bravery during the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor. 

SWAIN- -For extraordinary heroism and bravery in an aerial fight 
against an armed enemy. These gunners shot down two Jap Zeros 
when their plane was attacked over New Guinea on May I. 

PVT. FRANCIS J. CARVEY--For bravery in saving the life of an Aus- 
tralian soldier on Mar. 16, when Japanese planes attacked an 
airdrome at Port Darwin. 

PVT. HEJJRY E. SMITH- -For conspicuous bravery and courage in ac- 
tion. (Posthumous) Private Smith was killed while repairing 
airplanes at Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack. 


LT. OQL. ELMER P. ROSE--For bravery during the Japanese attack on 
Hawaii. Colonel Rose attempted to take a plane off in the face 
of enemy fire. Wounded in the first part of the attack, he re- 
ceived first aid treatment and went back to duty as post oper- 
ations officer to direct for several hours the work of defense 
and aid to the wounded. Other Air Forces men to win this award 
for bravery during the attack on Hickam Field are; 




CAPT. DEAN HOEVET--For outstanding skill and achievement in an 
aerial fight against an armed enemy. While piloting a B-17 
bomber on Feb. 21 against a Jap convoy approaching Bali, the 
plane developed engine trouble 170 miles out over sea. Captain 
Hoevet dived from 28,000 to 4,000 feet and on his approach to 
Java was informed of the expected Jap attack on his base. He 
managed to keep the plane in the air an hour with the engines 
almost failing, and when the field was clear, landed safely. 

CAPT. FlAYMOND SWENSCS'I- -For his cool leadership during a 45-minute 
engagement with the enemy while on a night attack against Jap 
installations at Rabaul on Feb, 23. 

bravery in aerial combat over Horn Island north of Australia 
on March 14. Although wounded in an attack by 9 Jap fighters , 
they continued to fight, knocked down one attacker and got safely 
back to their base. 


^Ole Miss^ Giles to Java 

By Captain A1 Key 

Back in 1935 the Key brothers, A1 and Fred, established a heavier- than- air endurance 
record by flying a low powered Stinson monoplane , "Ole Miss", continuously for 653 
hours and 34 minutes over their home town of Meridan , Miss. 

Jsnuary 1 of this year Captains A1 and Fred Key of the Army Air Forces, pi loting 
the most powerful long range bombardment planes in the world, took off a few minutes 
apart from a Florida airfield. They had dubbed their ships "Ole Miss 11" and "Ole Miss 
111.” They were bound for Java. 

The brothers, flying in the same squadron, bombed and fought the enemy all over the 
South Pacific until the evacuation to Australia. Fred stayed to carry on the fight 
from Australian bases. A1 was ordered back home for combat instruction duties. At 
this writing he is stationed at Barksdale Field, La. His story adds another chapter to 
the story of that heroic handful of American airmen who waged the Battle of Java--The 
Edi tor . 

T he first stop in our flight to the Far 
East was to be the West Indies. I told the 
crew as we passed over Miami to take a good look 
down because it was going to be the last 
lighted town they'd see. I was just joking at 
the time, but it turned out to be true. 

The Navigator said we would arrive at our des- 
tination in the West Indies at 2:05 P. M. We 
did, and my opinion of navigators rose 100 per 
cent right then and there. It was his first 
long distance trip as a navigator, too. 

Sometime later on, over water and headed for 
Africa, the navigator called me on the phone 
system and said, “Captain, you've passed the 
point of return." 

That meant that we were out too far to turn 
back, even if we'd wanted to. Just then a storm 
struck and we flew on instruments for almost an 

Just as the weather cleared I got a call on 
the radio. It was Fred. ”A1, where in the hell 
are you? "he asked. 

That's a fine question to ask a man who is 
right out in the middle of the ocean. I thought 
a second and said. “You see that cumulous cloud 
ahead; well, I'm just going into it." Fred 
said, “I'll be damned; so am I." I looked out 
and saw Fred's plane right on my wing. We 
hadn't moved 100 feet apart. 


As it turned out, our ship was delayed due to 
engine trouble, and when we landed in Java Fred 
was on hand to greet us. He already had been 
bombing the Japs, who at that time were advanc- 
ing on the Indies. 

I was a little shaken up from the flight 
across the Indian Ocean, but the commanding of- 
ficer informed me that I would go on my first 
bombing mission the next morning. I didn't 
sleep a wink that night. 

Takeoff come next morning before daylight, and 
we found the Japs at Macassar straits. We 
dropped our bombs and on the way back were 
jumped by pursuits. We were flying the first 

B-17E's that the Japs had come up against and 
they didn't know we had those stingers in the 
tail. We managed to shoot down everything that 
attacked us. Fred's plane was shot up pretty 
badly, but he wasn't hurt, nor was his crew." 

^erican flyers kept shuttling back and forth 
from Java for about 10 days. But no matter how 
many Japs were killed they kept coming. 

Next the Japs started on the Celebes and the 
Dutch set fire to the oil wells on those is- 
lands. One night the Dutch reported that the 
Japs were attacking and that the light from the 
burning oil wells would serve as a good beacon. 

Three flights of us took off that night, and 
the Japs were right where the Dutch said they'd 
be. Fred, Lieutenant Hillhouse and I were in 
one flight. I told the other two to fly around, 
and I'd see if I could stir up some trouble. We 
“sashayed" around and let go some bombs. Then 
the Japs turned on their flood lights. 

Fred hadn't cut off his radio, and I could 
hear him giving orders to Soupy, his bombardier. 
The bombardier's name was Campbell, so Fred 
nicknamed him Soupy. 

■’Soupy", said Fred, “you see those lights down 
there? Well, put 'em out." A few seconds later 
I heard Soupy say. "Captain, they ought to go 
out soon; there's eight bombs on the way down." 
The lights went out. 

When the Japs started moving in on Sumatra, a 
squadron of American flyers caught thousands of 
them in small barges in some of the narrow 
straits. The Americans dropped bombs from 1,500 
feet and blew Jdps, barges and water almost as 
high as the planes. 

But the Japs kept coming. And since American 
and Dutch flyers had to take time to refuel and 
service their planes, the Japs could get con- 
siderable troops through. 

After Sumatra come Bali. Americans sank 16 
Jap ships at Bali. In one raid we destroyed an 
airfield which had fallen to Jap troops, to- 
gether with a number of Jap planes. Then, when 
it became certain that the Indies couldn't be 
held, the evacuation to Australia began. 

All in a Day«*« 

A few of the trials and tribulations of a 
student mechanic have been caught by Pri- 
vate Paul Snyder, of Kessler Field. Miss., in a 
series of cartoons reproduced here. Inspired by 
the technical training course at Kessler, they 
show what the neophyte mechanic has to contend 
with before he is graduated. Hard work, boners, 
constant study- -all are part of the picture. 
But they all combine to make good mechanics - -and 
AAF mechanics have to be good. 

ELIMINATION of the red circle in U. S, 
military aircraft markings in no way effects the 
design of the AAF shoulder patch. The red dot 
was removed because it could be mistaken for the 
Japanese rising sun emblem. . . .but the dot in 
the shoulder patch is still with us. 

RESERVE officers , coomiaaioned before Sept. 
26, 1941, are now entitled to the $150 uniform 
allowance, PROVIDED they had not completed any 
three periods of active duty (of three months 
each or leas) when called to extended active 
duty. The grant does not extend to National 
Guard officers : to AUS officers commissioned 
since Sept. 26, 1941 who had prior commissioned 
service , or to AUS officers above the rank of 
captain. But it still holds for AUS officers 
ORIGINALLY commissioned since Sept. 26, 1941. 

THE old Army cot is OUT-- tossed into limbo 
for the duration. The infamous steel torture 
device, cleverly designed to look like a piece 
of furniture, is to be replaced soon by a wooden 
contraption arranged to form one-half of a 
doubledecker . The new bed promises no more mid- 
night collapses ; no more smashed fingers, no 
more pain-wracked forms. It’s wonder ful . 

YOU can now perpetuate the name and memory 
of your lost or missing buddy through the AAF 
Aid Society. Your cash contribution to the So- 
ciety's trust fund will be acknowledged in your 
behalf to the bereaved widow or family. A card 
will explain that you have donated an undis- 
closed amount, to be added to the general fund 
that the Society will use for post-war assis- 
tance to AAF personnel and dependents. Send any 
amount to the AAF Aid Society, Room 703, Mari- 
time Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THE Adams apple emerges from official ob- 
scurity under the terms of a ruling which now 

permits your C. O. to make the open neck-band 
without tie legal for the dturat ion- -when circum- 
stances warrant. Within proper restrictions 
governing neatness , the C. O. may now dispense 
with the tie when personnel are engaged in 
duties that must be continued at maximum speed 
regardless of mid-day heat. And on the subject 
of ties, have you seen the blue and gold striped 
jobs now available at moat Post Exchanges? 
These are intended for off-duty wear by AAF’ers, 
under the same restrictions that apply to civi- 
lian dress. (Wear only when participating in 
sports, or in private quarters with leas than 
three persons present) . 

YOU, too, may be entitled to wear that 
yellow faille ribbon with red and blue stripes 
that recently made its appearance over left 
breast pockets. It's the African Defense Ser- 
vice Ribbon, and as widely publicized, appeared 
to be restricted to officers and men who com- 
pleted a year of active service between Sept. 8. 
1939 and Dec. 7, 1941. Actually, however, ANY 
officer or soldier who STAKTED active service at 
any time within the above dates is eligible to 
wear the ribbon and receive the award of the 
American Defense Service Medal. 

WELL, the word "Air Corps’’ is back again. 
That is, for use on signatures . The name Army 
Air Forces still goes, and the designation of 
General Arnold remains Commanding General, Army 
Air Forces. But for the rest of us, the offi- 
cial moniker is now John Doe, Lieutenant, Air 
Corps. It was that way for years and years, but 
changed over to John Doe, Army Air Forces, a few 
months ago. It seems that the name Air Corps is 
a designation of an arm of the service fixed by 
an act of Congress and would need an act of Con,- 
gress to change it. The name Army Air Forces 
was adopted for administrative purposes by exe- 
cutive order. 

JULY 1942 




you cash a money order at a post office win- 
dow, don’t be a sucker and pay the fee ordi- 
narily charged for this service. The rule re- 
garding collection of the fee has been sus- 
pended for the duration of the war, for properly 
identified service 
men. . . .1 f you were 
a Federal employee 
before joining the 
Army, any accrued 
leave to which you 
may have been entit- 
led can be converted 
into CASE, according 
to WD Bulletin No. 

19 (4-16-42). . . .A 
free legal service is 
being maintained for 
officers and enlisted 
men at McChord Field, Washington. The service, 
which includes the otherwise costly preparation 
of wills, powers of attorney and other legal 
documents, will be extended to other fields. . . . 
All soldiers honorably discharged for injury or 
disease incurred in line of duty, (or aggravated 
thereby) and not the result of their own miscon- 
duct, are entitled to apply for pension benefits 
with the Veterans Aehiinistration. Organisations 
conananders will help prepare application papers 

, , , ,A pamphlet , ’’Are You a Responsible Per- 
son?" is available by mail (100) through the 
Book Dept,, Command and General Staff School, 
Ft. Leavenworth, Kan, It furnishes a valuable 
check list of things- to-do to put your personal 
affairs in order, anticipating service overseas. 

SAFE arrival of U. S. Army personnel over- 
seas will be heralded in the future by "arrival** 
cards, which the soldier fills out and addresses 
to Mom and Pop, the girl friend and relatives 
before leaving. The cards stay right here, and 
when the safe arrival of the contingent abroad 
has been confirmed, the cards are mailed by the 

SPEAKING of Officer Candidate Schools , 
note that a ten-day leave of absence is author- 
ised for all graduates before repor t ing for 
duty. If you insist on the official wording, 
struggle through Par. 21, AR 605-115 and Par. 12 
C, WD. Cir. 126, cs, 1942, 

IF you draw the short straw and get your- 
self captured, don’t forget that an effec- 
tive procedure exists for communicating with 
relatives and friends. Within the framework 
of the* Japanasi interpretation of these codes, 
contact with the luckier ones left behind can be 

arranged through the 
Red Cross. Captors 
are required to per- 
mit the prisoner to 
send his name, rank, 
serial number and ad- 
dress of prison to 
the International Red 
Cross Committee at 
Geneva, Switzerland, 
postage free. Let- 
ters only are al- 
lowed; parcels are 
banned. Mail to 
prisoners of war works the other way. If you 
want to write to a captured civilian, the full 
amount of postage must be attached to the enve- 
lope. Standard forms are supplied by your Red 
Cross representative; they limit the message to 
25 words. 

WHQJ a pretty young stronger sends you a 
sweet-scented letter, describing herself as 
"Rich, lovely and lonely**- -run, don*t walk, to 
the nearest ash can. Deposit the billet-doux 
firmly therein, to avoid Uncle Sam*s frown. 
Correspondence between Army personnel and un- 
known civilians (sex not specified) is out for 
the duration. No approval will be given "Lonely 
Heart** clubs or other plans intended to incour- 
age such correspondence. However, this policy 
is not designed to discourage normal letter 
writing between soldiers and friends, relatives, 
or — of course--the girl back h(»ie. 

A soldier who is physically qualified can 
now be appointed directly to an Officer Candi- 
date School of his choice without having to ap- 
pear before the usual board of officers for ac- 
ceptance. Any general officer is now authorized 
to direct in orders that an enlisted man under 
his command, who has been especially selected 
by reason of his demonstrated fitness, will be 
detailed as an Officer Candidate. Such appoint- 
ments are limited to ten per cent of the quota 
currently alloted to the command for the school. 




T> eing a good neighbor to the rest of the who hav 

Americas is one of the specialties of the Most of 

Army Air Forces. or soldi 

In the effort to help build a united Ameri- trainin' 
can air front against aggression, AAF train- In ad 

ing centers have opened their facilities to ram, ai; 
flying students from our neighbor countries refresh( 
south of the Rio Grande. flying ol 

In cooperation with the CAA and the Coor- in orde 

dinator of Inter -American Affairs, the study A 

Gulf Coast Training Center is training a ques. S 

large number of Latin American cadets are amc 


Venezuela (above) is taking a 
refresher course at Kelly Field, 
Below, a student from Argen- 
tina handles the control tower 
at Randolph Field. 

en sent here to win their wings, 
se students are either civilians 
who have had no previous flight 

to this fledgling training prog- 
F training centers are offering 
;ourses to a number of junior 
rs of Latin American countries 
) give them an opportunity to 
icon flying and training techni- 
of these refresher students 
he best flyers in Latin America. 


3EATH TO THE AXIS” is the 
edge of AAF fliers and Mexican train- 
s at Foster Field, above. Lt. Edmundo 
argas, of Nicaragua, Heft below) and 
. R. K. Simeral. AAF. 



BRAZIL sends these student fliers 
'above) to Randolph Field. 


MODEL PLANES play a big part in teach- 
ing aerodynamics to these Uruguayan students 
(above) and a trainee from Cuba (below). 
Study is directed by A A F instructors at 
southern training centers. 


The author, for 13 years a noted foreign correspondent stationed in Japan, was held 
captive by the Japanese government for two months prior to his return to this country a 
year ago. He is the author of two books on the Orient, Behind the Rising Sun and Our 
Enemy, and has appeared before lecture groups throughout the nation, including several 
Air Forces units. The views expressed in this article are the views of Mr, Young and 
must not be considered the official views of the War Department or of the Air Forces 
News Letter- -TTie Editor. 

I N the next American flight to Japan, two years ago inside the Palace grounds by the Im- 
strategic spots must be bombed--the highly perial Household, under direction of Baron 

fortified Imperial Palace at Tokyo, and the Tsuneo Matsudaira, father-in-law of Prince 

Grand Shrine of Imperial Ancestors, located at Chichibu. 

Ise, near the Nagoya aircraft plants. One of the city’s modern fire fighting units 

The Palace is located on a 531-acre plot of is stationed in the Palace precincts. The army, 
ground in the center of the world's most vul- standing watch, is under an Imperial Prince, 
neroble capital. Some cavalry are kept there in the barns, for 

The Imperial Palace and environs are as mili- ihe Imperial Polo grounds, 
tary in nature as a munitions dump. The entire Jap war machine, functioning as a 

A small artillery unit is barracked in the joint board under the title of Imperial Head- 
grounds. The Imperial Bodyguard, the elite of quarters, presided over by the Emperor and two 
the Jap army, is stationed therein. The central Imperial Prince's of the Blood, meets in the 
telephone switchboard is a clearing house and Palace. 

signal station for air raid alarms. Wires run All plans formulated for attacks on the United 

north about four blocks to the notorious Gestapo States, China, Australia, Alaska and India, are 
headquarters. The main dug-out is across the mapped in the special room which might hove been 
moat, in the basement of the Dai Ichi Life In- occupied on that April mid-day Doolittle at- 
surance Building. tacked; the Imperial commission always convenes 

Germany's best Zeiss and Bosch anti-aircraft a.m. and adjourns about 1 p.m. 

equipment were purchased and installed five The supreme Imperial network of tactics. 

JULY 1942 



strategy, conununicat ions and planning, all cen- 
ter in the Palace grounds- -the most military da- 
jective of the Japanese Einpire. 

The Palace must be pulverized. On the next 
trip. Our airmen must bomb the Palace as vi- 
ciously as the Sumida river arsenals or the Yo- 
kohama chemical rubber, tank and auto plants. 

The Grand Shrine at Ise is the burial place 
for Japanese ancestors of the Imperial Family. 
If the Palace is bombed, and the Shrine demo- 
lished, a wholesale hara-kiri will follow, and 
the entire government will be overthrown. 

Mass Hari-Kir i 

Imperial Household authorities would commit 
suicide. The head of the Metropolitan Police 
Force would kill himself. Premier Gen. Hideki 
To jo and his Nazi trained staff would resign. 
The Minister of War and the head of the Imper- 
ial Western Defense Command would be put in 
shame. The Board of Shinto would be tossed out. 
Hysteria would prevail. 

The fact that a high placed general resigned 
after the first American attack, and that the 
chief of the defense command was out from loss 
of face, proves the vulnerability of the Imper- 
ial system. Others hove been thrown into pri- 

A close study of the report by Brig. Gen. 
James H. Doolittle on the epic flight of his 80 
men over Japan, the third attack on Japan since 
1937, points up the extreme vulnerability of the 
Axis empire partner, and reveals that the Japs 
are not the calm, composed residents they have 
been interpreted. 

Often, it is said, the Japanese are a people 
who can endure floods, earthquakes, typhoons, 
monsoons, tidal waves, landslides, volcanic 
eruptions, great conflagrations and epidemics. 
Such were natural events. Air raids are not in 
the Japanese book of rules of experiences al- 
though air raid drills hove op>erated since 1934. 

The first raid, on Formosa, Japan's giant Gi- 
braltar of the Pacific, the spring-board for her 
Philippines attacks, and earlier the debarkation 
point for Hainan and Indo China, caused severe 
damage to a field near Taihoku, the capital, in 
1937. Chinese, and it is believed some Soviet 
pilots, did the trip. Though nearly 2000 miles 
distant, Tokyo ordered a blackout for two nights 
following that attack. 

Chinese appeared over western Japan in 1938 to 
drop pamphlets instead of bombs. The psychology 
of the pamphleteering was poor for it advised 
the Japanese farmer peasants to "overthrow the 
Imperial shackles." Workers who fear the Jap 
police and revere their god-emperor, instead of 
carrying through the Chinese hint, picked up the 
handbills and carried them to nearby police sta- 
t ions . 

A year ago I began a research job for Flying 

and Popular Aviation, on a pattern of air attack 
on Tokyo. The result, in 5000 words, was pub- 
lished in Flying for December, under the title 
“Stop Japan Now", the theme being to "give her 
Hobson's choice otherwise drop our compromise 
policy and face the dilemma with firmness and 
force. " 

Gen. Doolittle remarked in Washington that 
there was little difficulty in finding the as- 
signed targets. My research job stated "a 
flight of bombers will find, in one glance, 
three vehicular bridges and approaches of the 
mile-wide Shinagawa river south of Tokyo. 
Tokyo's suburbs have mushroomed thousands of 
armaments factory smokestacks." 

Japan cannot have effective air defenses be- 
cause it will be practically impossible to or- 
ganize Sufficient anti-aircraft defense on boats 
to strike at enemy craft before they arrive at 
their objective. 

One month after the Tokyo bombing, a great and 
famous Japanese ship, the Nagasaki Maru, hit a 
mine in Nagasaki harbor and was destroyed. The 
Captain, a veteran in the Japanese marine ser- 
vice, shot himself in the offices of the N.Y.K. 
line. Three months after Pearl Harbor, a well- 
known Jap diplomat, Satomatsu Kato, "fell" from 
a window in his Paris embassy and was killed. 

To bcxob the Imperial Palace on the next trip 
will hasten an end of the war and by suicide, 
many of Tokyo’s leaders will save the day of .an 
Axis hanging. 

Roagtaing Up 

(Continued from Page 9) 

types of combat missions. Nearby towns used as 
enemy installations day after day are "annihi- 
lated" by the squadrons in training. Missions 
are changed while planes are in the air, and 
all hands are taught to operate while under 
fire. Ground crews learn to cut servicing time 
to a minimum to prevent planes being caught on 
the ground by enemy attack. 

A comprehensive plan for defense of the 
field against enemy bombers, paratroops or 
ground attack is worked out; constant drill in 
defending the field and its installations accom- 
panies the rest of the training routine. 

This field practice is designed to make AAF 
units bound for combat duty able to operate en- 
tirely on their own, to build them into self- 
sustaining units that can provide their own sup- 
ply and maintenance wherever they may be and can 
defend themselves against any type of attack. 
Anyone who has seen the Air Forces in action in 
the bug- filled blistering sand and swamps of 
Florida will know that when these men go into 
action on foreign soil they will be ready for 


A partial list of iicers and men of the Army Air Forces offlcially repdrtMl 
to have died in the service of their country since December 7, 1941. 

Lieutmnaat CoIoimJk 
Stanley K. Kobinson 



Teclmical Smrgetknta 
John A. Potter Herman C. 


Staff Sergeant a 

Clarence R. Davis 

Hugh F^ 'McCaf fetjr 

T. ; 

Timothy J. Sargeant 

Karl F. Har^pHj^ 
George C. ^od(]{e . 
Cilio S. <|^errl%re 
Dalton R. 'Hardy 

‘:QiaiT«»s^. Page ■ 
Qiairlas wAVa® Eeuweri 
Foster %M.,Walfcer. 

Clay^iin C*Jayotte‘Hei<|| 

Captains ' 

Waite* W. Sparks > Jr 

E Ime r ,Mi itCMn- , ' ‘J,t 

amn, ' 

Oscar D, 

Melvin wC: 


Stewart Li»F ” 

Real Carter ,^hoa^ 

Andrew John Franctp«e^. 
Richer^ James Sandner./ 
Melvin L. Rake ’ ^ 

Frank G.J. Micietl , 

Jesse Peter Ottoseq 
Boyd Vaughn Mann 

. a; /' .*> 

Rudd Van Mann" . i ^ 
Lewi* Howard Miller 
Joseph Benedict; Maloney 
Harry W, Moseley 
William Thorpe Morgan 
Francis Kinner McAllistei 
Jack Thomas LaUghlin 
Erwin Roy Kriel 
Ralph R. Johnson 
William Rawls Hogg 
John Ernest Linwood Huse 
Conner Garth Hopkins 
Owen R.S. Graham 
Philip D. Freeman 
Lucius Diebrell Edwards 
Robert H. Markley 


I^oy W. Smith’- ' 

^d*e J. Hogwfl ^ ^ 

T.J. ‘'Majors - '^01 
James J^ flrr -. -f^0% 
Randall RV' Scham^,' * 1 1 
Harold WillIam’’Wol'l^S^ 
Darrell Stewart Wing 
Rush Howard Wi-llard 
ifranci* H^ McAllisteir 




* '£‘ '>* ‘ yi-iseiiwan 




Shoemake ^,,1 

L. Finney ,4 
'|?ii4kfc'’il W. Green 

La Verne jr" Need ham 
E«n<-iiorr.|s’* . 

v^tanWy A.' JUgj^od 

X J-f ! 

Andrew A. Walcsynski 
Joseph E. Good 
Harold C. Elyard 
Virgil W. Dickey 


George M, Martin 
Morris Stacey 
Robertip. Sherman 
Joseph J. Chagnon 
Benjamine W. Kerr 


/ Lumus E. Walker 
John Ri' vBotelho 
' William -H. Offcutt 
Csi 'Mitchell 


William T. Morgan 
Gail Thomas Gpdegraf’jP 
Harris Ai’^ S^tuart: , .1;', 

.Oiarfes Stden/ Jr. |.i;i%A'^Af-:^4er^on^A. Tennison' _,Fr^ 

Richard Spotswodd 
'Herbert F. Soest >t 
Leroy Earle Gritidle 
.John Bradley Rush 
James 0. Reed 
Donn, William Piatt 
Samuel Seay Pattillo 


Charles K. Nelson ^ 
Norman Richard Meeks 


James Edward May I . ? 


Elmer Munn, Jr. 

Frank Andrew Kobal 
Harry Lamar Matthewa 
Gordon Durfey McKenney 
Lathon E, Henson 
Fergus .O'Conher Luscombe 
Gordon Otto Kibbee 
Walter C. Iseiy 
Gordon E. ifouston, 

James Valentine Hamilton 
Henry Thomas Horton 
William Thomas Gardner 
Robert William Finwell 
Louis G, Moslener, Jr. 
George A. Whiteman 

...'x/ ■* 

-■fj'-i.'- ,-.\V 

- V? 

X/.C. J.||S^^rks 'h,: 

; Joseph ifriczko "■‘f 

William F. Briggs 
-.George. J.* Smith 
Roger A.' Vaillencourt 
Boyd E. Halcom 
Howard L. Ellis ' 

„ Leo Surrells X; 

' Frank B. Cooper 
I Paul L. StatotiXjS 
“ Felix S. Wegrzyn 
RUssell Ei^ Gallagher 
Frank J. Lango 
'Richard L. Coster *■ 
Paul R. Eichelberger 
Leroy R. Church 
George W. Baker 
Frank R. Dallas 
Martin Vanderelli ' 
Allan G. Rae 
Andrew Jv Kinder 
William F. Shields 
Joseph G. Moser 
Merton I. Staples 


John R. ^^^tcher 
Julian C. Stult’t 
’Merrill W. Riner 
William C. Klllin 
John R. Leyerly ; ^ 

Privates - ^ 

Joseph M. Ve liner 
Robert A. Bailpy 
Jasies L. Bartlett 
Jackson A. Chitwood 
Edwin Cor such 
David C. Lyttle 
Robert 'L. Palmer 
James A. Ross 
Robert H. Westbrook 
X M. Walker, Jr. 

Joseph S. Zappala 
Rutisell P. Vidoloff 

Elme r W . South 

' 'I 

Harry E. Smith 
George A. Moran 
Maurice J. St, Germain 
Victor L. Meyers 





I N January. 1943. the 
pay raise finally 
caught up with Pvt. 
(N4I) Doakes. One Mon- 
day morning he couldn't 
get up for sick call, so 
his Sergeant, a kindly 
man. called on ambulance. 

The Medical Officer 
gave Doakes a long, 
diagnostic look and 

"Spots before your eyes. Private?" he asked. 
'Well, not exactly spots, sir. "Doakes 
whispered. "More like dollar signs they are." 

"Hm. And you feel tired at Reveille?" 

"Yes. sir." 

"I see. When, exactly did you start feeling 
like this?" 

Doakes considered. "As near as I con remem- 
ber. sir. it was back in August, a couple of 
months after the pay raise went into effect. 
That was when I started to slip behind." 
"Slip behind?" 

"Yes. sir. I suddenly noticed it was coming 
in faster than I could spend. And then. sir. I 
decided to take steps. I stayed up in my room 
all one evening tearing up my old budget and 
making out a new one. It took a lot of figur- 
ing. sir. I con tell you." 

"I can imagine. " said the Medical Officer. 
"Go on." 

"Well. sir. I had this old budget worked out 
exactly to twenty-one dollars a month- -right to 
the last penny. Fifty cents for photographs, 
two- fifty for laundry, three dollars insurance, 
three dollars beer, seventy cents haircuts, 
eighty-five cents toothpaste, soap, blades and 
so on. twenty-five cents stationery, twenty 
cents shoe polish, fifty cents papers and maga- 
zines. two dollars movies, three dollars cokes 
and four bucks fifty cigarettes." 

"A good, conservative, sound budget." said 
the Medical Officer, approvingly. 

"Yes, sir. Well, I got to thinking-- just a 
little, of course, sir. I could see there were 
a lot of items in my old budget I couldn't pos- 
sibly spend any more on-- 

"So I saw I*d have to spend lots more on 
some things. I ran my insurance premiums up to 
seven dollars and bought only the best engraved, 
monogrammed stationery. Instead of fifty cents 
for photos, I got five bucks worth and sent 
them out. special delivery air mail, to a lot of 
people whose names I found in the phone book. 
Along with my haircuts. I got shampoos, facials. 

manicures, shines and violet ray treatments. 
Instead of comic books and newspapers. I bought 
Fortune and Harper's Bazaar. I only used each 
razor blade once and took to drinking cokes be- 
fore breakfast. If a fellow asked me for a 
cigarette, I gave him the whole pack. But of 
course the other fellows were getting fifty a 
month, too, and pretty soon they stopped asking. 
The best I could step it up to was forty-one 
seventy-five. " 

"Surely that didn't make you as sick as you 
look, Doakes." 

"I haven't told you about December yet. 
sir, "Doakes said, painfully. 

"What cdbout Decen^er?" 

“That was when I ran into real trouble, sir. 
Almost all through the month I suffered rever- 
ses. sir. First there was a long session of KP-- 
I'd had a little trouble with an MP--then I got 
a series of special duties that kept me busy all 
the time. Firsl thing I knew pay day was here 
again, and I hadn't even gotten into my November 
pay. " 

"Tsk, tsk, " said the Medical Officer. 

"Well, sir, last week I really went to town. 
On my feet all day long I was, sir, trying to 
catch up with myself. But my heart wasn't 
really in it. I knew when I was licked, sir. 
Haircuts every day, pictures until I couldn't 
stand up to pose any more and had to have them 
lying down. Cokes for the Squadron. Then came 
the dawn this morning, sir, and I just couldn’t 
seem to get up." 

Doakes closed his eyes and shuddered. 

"Nurse!" the Medical Officer shouted, "nurse! 
Wheel this man into the contagious ward and pull 
down the blinds. He's to have absolute quiet, 
and on no account is anyone to rattle any coins 
near him. And--oh, yes--mark his card 'in line 
of duty' so he won't have his pay docked." 




T he men in the picture below get a terrific "bang" out of their 
work. They are looking for unexploded bombs on the practice 
range at Kelly Field. The bombs are left over from World War I, 
and some of them have remained underground for over 25 years. 

The man in front is operating a metal locator which signals him 
when he is over a shell. The men behind are carrying a litter 
containing a dynamotor and batteries, used to operate the locator. 
When the searching crew finds a bomb, a demolition sguad moves in 
with TNT and explodes it. 

Pilot Toaster 

T his is the Air Forces 
new electrically-heated 
flying suit, described in 
the May News Letter. Little 
heavier than an ordinary 
uniform, it will keep air- 
crews warm down to BO de- 
grees below zero. Several 
thousand of these suits will 
be in use by next winter. 

The new suits will re- 
place the bulky woolen uni- 
forms now used for high- 
altitude flying. 

Engineers Use Hair Forces 

T his P -43 is covered with hair- -but it didn't grow there. The 
hairy tufts visible in the photograph are really pieces of 
string which were fixed on the plane by engineers who use them to 
study air-flow direction during wind-tunnel tests. Pictures taken 
of the tufts while the plane is undergoing tests show up inefficien- 
cies in aerodynamic design. 


T his is a before-after series showing how steel landing mats and aviation engineers together 
can turn a rubble pile into a modern runway, even in such out-of-the-way places as this far 
northern outpost. 

Landing mats such as these are making it possible for Air Forces planes to land and take-off 
in the farthest corners of the earth--sometimes where planes were never seen before. These 
mats were laid on roughly leveled subgrade, which was later ballasted with clean cinders, making 
the surface smooth and hard. 

The picture above shows the kind of ground that greeted the aviation engineers. The completed 
runway in use is shown below. 



LVJLtrol tower operators know their job before 
they are permitted to play for keeps. To do 
this student operators are provided with a 
miniature airport, complete with runways, build- 
ings and control tower, to practice on. 

In the above picture Private Ferdin F. Terry 
brings in a B-24 while Private Jack V. Nelson 
operates the control tower. They communicate 
over a standard two-way radio. 

The control-tower course lasts three weeks, 
and is taught by Staff Sgt . Glen Mackay. It 
is patterned after the system developed by the 
Civil Aeronautics Administration for the control 
of commercial airline operations. 


Learning to Spot at Tyndall 

S O they won't blast the wings off a friendly 
plane, prospective AAF gunners down at 
Tyndall Field, Florida, learn what both Allied 
and Axis planes look like by making a close 
study of wall charts and models. Here Private 
Francis Grant is getting tips on aircraft recog- 
nition from Corporal Harold Ellis. 


JULY 1942 

Raft and Equipment 

Transportation at Ogden 

D ispersed parking lots for employees are no 
problem at Ogden Air Depot. Colonel R.J. 
Minty, Engineering Officer at the depot, has 
put the “elephant trains" shown below into 
use carrying employees from the parking lots 
to headquarters and supply buildings. The 
trains operate on a 24 hour basis, and accommo- 
date all shifts. 

C REWS of Army bombers patrolling over water 
aren't going to drown if Air Forces engi- 
neers can help it. One of the latest life- 
saving devices developed is the collapsible 
rubber raft shown above. The raft can carry 
five men comfortably, plus emergency rations. 
20 feet of line and a waterproof bag containing 
a Very signal pistol. The raft is inflated by 
pulling a lever which releases carbon dioxide 
into the tubing. The oars are collapsible and 
may be stored away. 

Twelve Pounds of Prevention 

By Captain Harry Barsantee 

directorate of Flying Safety 

B ack in college we had a course in English 
Literature and the textbook was on enormous 
tome entitled "Twelve Centuries of English Prose 
and Poetry. *' 

After lugging it to class a few days we re- 
named it "Twelve Pounds of English Prose and 
Poetry. ” 

I was reminded of this when I arrived in Wash- 
ington a short time ago and somebody handed me a 
stack of manuscripts a foot high and weighing a 
round dozen pounds. (I know: I’ve toted them 
back and forth from home to the office a number 
of times.) This pile of manuscripts was the an- 
swer to General Arnold’s recent directive asking 
pilots of the AAF to write and submit to him ac- 
counts of their narrowest escapes from fatal 
airplane accidents. 

“Here they are, ” I was told. "See what you 
con do with them.” 

The manuscripts were already somewhat dog- 
eared through constant study by statisticians, 
engineers and other experts in the field of ac- 
cident control who had gleaned much valuable 
data on accident causes from them. My task was 
to select the most typical narratives and re- 
write them for publication in booklet form. 

Prevention Wholesale 

"Talk about an ounce of prevention," I mused 
to myself after leafing through the first few. 
"Here's at least twelve pounds of it!" 

Actually, some 500 narratives were submitted, 
ranging from a couple of p>aragraphs to 10 pages 
in length. The narrators included raw cadets 
who hadn’t yet soloed and two-star generals who 
were flying before World War I. Virtually every 
type of ship ever used by our Army was men- 
tioned; the locales ranged from Alaska to Fhierto 
Rico to France; just about every conceivable 
situation in which a pilot would ever find him- 
self was described. 

Naturally, it looked like a rich vein of in- 
formation on accidents and their causes; a tech- 
nician’s bonanza and a writer’s dream. 

A few days of refining, however, brought the 
realization that the lode was not as rich as it 
appeared. There was a sameness about the 
stories which soon grew almost monotonous. 
There weren’ t 500 basic causes of accidents, I 
soon discovered; as a matter of fact, there 
weren’t 50, or even 25. Lieutenants with a 
dozen hours made the same mistakes as did Col- 

onels with thousands of hours, and these errors 
caused trouble in heavy bombers and basic 
trainers alike. Ships changed greatly in de- 
sign, but accident hazards common in 1917 were 
still prevalent in 1942. 

However disappointing this discovery, it cer- 
tainly was illuminating. If accident causes are 
BO few, so basic and so simple, surely correc- 
tive methods can be equally basic and simple. 
Of this I am thoroughly convinced after poring 
hour after hour over these hundreds of narra- 

Cockiness and over-confidence, it seemed, 
popped up in one out of every two or three man- 
tiscripts. Listen to this; 

My most hair-raising experience came one 
tine clear day while I was making sport of 
sailboats by blowing them off course with 
prop wash. About the third pass around, I 
became just a little too much interested in 
the boat’s reactions and before I had time 
to realize what had happened my prop hit the 
water. There was a roar, a jerk, a huge 
spray and one moment of a thousand years. 

So ended my days of blowing sailboats! 

Weather was a factor in a good 20 per cent of 
the near-accidents, but in almost every single 
case the pilot admitted that he deliberately in- 
vited disaster by digressing from the regula- 
tions or the rules of common sense. For in- 

My face is red as I write this, but I 

must admit that the very same weather report 
that I got after landing had also been 
available at my point of departure and I 
hadn’ t even bothered to check! Only luck 
and a crazy hunch had prevented what cer- 
tainly would have been a nasty smear. 

Improper preparation on the grotmd before tak- 
ing off is a major cause of accidents, as every 
experienced pilot knows. Stories in support of 
this fact were legion. This excerpt from one 
is typical: 

In my eagerness to get started on that long- 
cherished trip I jumped into the newly re- 
paired plane and took off in the general 
direction of Detroit. No maps, you under- 
stand; no drawn course of any kind, no 
flashlight-- and , I realize now, no brains! 

The accounts having to do with just plain 
’’boners" made a sizeable pile in themselves. 
Typical is this fragment: 



JULY 1942 

j4s I taxied up to the line, burning to cru- 
cify the inspector who had passed on a plane 
in that condition, the clerk ran out. 
“Lieutenant", he yelled , “you took the wrong 
plane. I said number so-and-so but you took 
number this- and- that . This plane hasn’t 
even been finished by the assembly depart- 
ment!” Kes , sir; I had been flying a ship 
that was literally falling apart, and the 
horse was 100% on me. 


Inattention, carelessness, thoughtlessness — 
call it what you will — it is the reigning cause 
of accidents in our Air Forces. Not more than 
15 per cent of all mishaps reported can be at- 
tributed to forces over which the pilot himself 
has no direct control. I rather expected, since 
it would be only human, that many of the pilots 
would have a tendency to place the blame on 
their ships in order to cover their own mistakes 
or shortcomings, but such was not the case. 

pilot error and faulty supervision is respon- 
sible for the vast majority of accidents. 

In view of this, it would certainly seem that 
the remedies are obvious and not too difficult 
to apply. Education will do the trick among 
those amenable to it; disciplinary action must 
be taken among those who will not respond to 

One of the first steps in the program of edu- 
cation is a booklet which is now being distri- 

buted. Entitled "Lessons that Live, as Told by 
AAF Pilots”, it contains eighteen of the most 
typical among the hundreds of accounts sub- 
mitted . 

There is nothing of an admonitory nature in 
the book except that each story naturally points 
a moral by implication. 

The theme of the brochure is aptly pointed up 
in a foreword by Colonel S. R. Ifarris, who heads 
the Directorate of Flying Safety. 

There is an old axiom to the effect that 
experience is the best teacher. It’s a good 
axiom and I wouldn’t quarrel with it. Where 
accidents are concerned , however, experience 
is likely to be bitter and costly. The 
first lesson can be and often is the last. 

In flying, it’s a whole lot better to learn 
from the mistakes of others than to make 
them yourself. Presented here are true 
stories of accidents or near- accidents , 
written by Air Force Pilots who lived 
through them. Each could have resulted in 
one or more fatalities if Lad^ Luck had not 
smiled at precisely the right moment. Read 
them; yes, study them and resolve right now 
that you will never make the same mistakes . 
This booklet should help you to grow old in 
the business of flying! 

The booklet also contains a vital message from 
General Arnold, as well as charts, tables and 
other oddments of information of especial in- 
terest to pilots. It is profusely illustrated 
in full color. 

JULY 1942 



Hide -Seek Warfare 

(Continued from Page 10) 
and whitecops work for you. Lookouts on U-boats 
surface cruising on such days hove difficulty 
locating aircraft that jjatrol near the water be- 
cause seaspray gets in their binoculars, forcing 
them to go below now and then to dry out their 

In case this suggests that U-boats lie around 
on the surface like decoy ducks, consider that a 
submarine can make a crash dive 25 seconds after 
it spots you. And within 40 seconds after a U- 
boat submerges, count on it as being out of 
range. That gives you a total of 65 seconds ac- 
tual working time, not very long; so spotting a 
sub is just the beginning. 

It all means that you can't have too much 
speed. And it also means that you can't relax, 
because that crowded 65 seconds may come any- 
time--sometimes after eight hours of patrol 
duty--and you don't want to miss the fun. 

To counteract the speed with which a U-boat 
con submerge, you usually make for the sighted 
vessel in a straight line, hoping to drop your 
eggs before the sub has dived. Once it has 
dived, the only aiming mark for the bombardier, 
is the swirl left behind on the surface, caused 
by the conning tower 

The after-effects of on attack on a U-boat are 
usually informative, although often dishearten- 
ing. But they do give the bomber crew an oppor- 
tunity to evaluate the success of the hunt. 
Depth charges themselves give off an oily resi- 
due after they explode, so a slight smear of oil 
and minor debris is not considered significant. 
Even a considerable quantity of oil may mean 
only that the relatively flimsy external fuel 
tanks on the sub have been broached, or that the 
bellows-action of the depth charge blast has 
forced some oil through the self -compensating 
system. Appearance of large quantities of oil. 
however, are considered evidence of a "near 
miss", and the escaping oil leaves a trail by 
which the sub can sometimes be followed for 
hours . 

Bubbles Can Fool You 

Don't get too excited over bubbles rising to 
the surface in a small stream. They may only 
mean that the U-boat is adjusting a temporary 
upset by "blowing" some of its air or water bal- 
last to regain even keel. But bubbles in large 
and continuous quantity are evidence of damage 
to the external connections of bottles of high 
pressure air, often carried in the casing under 
the upper deck and above the pressure hull. 
While this is annoying to the sub creW, it is 
seldom serious. 

Large bubbles that produce an active boiling 
of the water's surface over an extended period 
intimate that Hitler & Co. is having its trou- 
bles down below. Such commotion generally means 

that serious internal flooding is taking place 
in the U-boat, and that its commander is blowing 
Out the main ballast in an effort to restore 
buoyancy. When accompanied by large masses of 
oil. it may even mean that the fuel tanks are 
being emptied. It is possible, however, for a 
Sub to fill and sink without any considerable 
external evidence such as large quantities of 
debris. Consequently, the bombardier always 
tosses over an extra egg or two for good meas- 

A submarine under attack frequently will break 
Surface momentarily at large angles, either 
stern up or bow up- -but this may only be due to 
temporary loss of trim or control, and in itself 
is not conclusive evidence of serious damage. 

All in all, with speed at a premium, you get 
to work on the “shoot first and talk about it 
later" basis. It is not surprising to hear that 
depth charges hove been tossed on unsuspecting 
whales. And no one should complain at this. It 
might have been a U-boat, and it's always worth 
an explosive egg or two to find out. 

And you must remember that more U-boats are 
being bagged than are announced in the papers. 
It's hard enough getting them without reporting 
to Hitler each time it happens. 


G ermany's newest heavy bomber, the Hein- 
kel HE- 177, appears to have two radial, but 
actually has four liquid cooled engines. Two 
are placed side by side for each nacelle, with 
o circular nose radiator. Dive-brakes are a 
notable feature of the new plane. 

The Russian Caucasus 

By Oliver H. Townsend 

Headquarters, AAF 

J UST north of the Holy Land, in the very 
shadow of ancient Mount Ararat where Noah 
ended his nautical ”cross*country*V lies the 
rich Transcaucasian valley of the Soviet Union. 

Stretching along the border between Russia 
and Turkey, where Europe ends and the oriental 
East begins, the Caucasus is the focal point of 
German drives through Russia and the Middle 

And for good reason. Here are the great oil 
fields that feed the mechanized forces of the 
Russian Army. Here also is the world's largest 
supply of high-grade manganese- -enough to keep 
the wheels of the steel industry of Europe and 
America turning for centuries. 

Tucked away between the two great mountain 
ranges that run from the Black to the Caspian 
Sea. the Transcaucasian valley has remained 
pretty much of a mystery to the outside world. 
Even the natives themselves know little about 
their homeland. 

Americans, like everyone else, have never 
bothered to find out much about the Caucasus. 
Now they must, however, as they join the rest of 
the United Nations in the defense of this area 
from the Axis pincer drives. 

Although the Caucasus has a much more tropi- 

cal climate, it is actually in 
about the same latitude as New 
York City. You could get there 
by going out to Mitchel Field, 
taking a plane and heading due 
east for about 5,000 miles. 

The trip would take you out 
over the Atlantic, then over the 
northern tip of Portugal, ^ain, 
the Mediterranean, Italy, 
Greece, Turkey, and finally the 
Caucasus itself. Once there, 
you would probably "set her 
down” at Baku, the oil capital 
of the Soviet Union. 

Baku is a big, bustling, 
cosmopolitan city. Located on 
the shores of the great inland 
Caspian Sea, it is the shipping 
point for the tons of oil sent 
every day up the Caspian water- 
ways to the industrial cities to 
the north, and westward through 
the great pipelines across the 
Caucasian isthmus to the Black 
Sea ports of Batum and Poti. 

Baku is a modern, yet an an- 
cient city. The job of getting 
the oil out of the ground and 
into the boats and pipelines has 
brought a western industrial air 
to the old oriental town. 
Streetcars, busses and automo- 
biles whirl passed donkey-riding 
peasants. Modern business cen- 
ters have sprung up among the ancient shops and 
dwellings, and modern homes and parks are making 
residential suburbs out of the city's outskirts. 

The thousands of workers and adventurers 
that have been attracted to Baku by the oil in- 
dustry give it a gay, holiday air even in war- 
time. Most of the 800,000 to a million people 
speak Russian, mixed in with the scores of na- 
tive dialects that stamp Baku as a crossroads 
between the East and West . 

Look Like Forests 

At night the oil wells that fill the coun- 
tryside around Baku look like great forests 
against the moonlit sky. Out beyond the oil 
wells there's desert--desert that stretches 
westward for miles toward the foothills of the 
Caucasian mountains. 

Back in this "hill country'', west of the de- 
sert, outside the big centers of population, 
many of the ancient customs of the natives are 
still preserved. Ekich small community has its 
own language, few of which were ever reduced to 
writing until a few years ago. Russian is not 
even spoken, and is rarely understood, by most 

JULY 1942 



of these people. Up imtil a few years ago they 
knew very little of the ’’outside", and few of 
them realized there was any country in the 
world except Russia. Parts of the Giucasus even 
remained unexplored until recently. 

Although the benefits of sanitation and 
cleanliness are still largely unappreciated in 
the Caucasus, the natives are very friendly, 
and, like their country, very picturesque. 
Their horsemanship, their black lamb-skin caps, 
their long black coats and knee-high boots are 
echoes from the day when the Cossacks were the 
pride and the scourge of southern Russia. 

The Soviet government in recent years has 
brought many of the benefits of western civili- 
zation to the Caucasus, including education, the 
Russian language and rural electrification. 
Such westernization, however, hasn't changed the 
native taste for foods. If you want to eat 
their food, you'll have to be educated to it. 
Che of the favorite dishes is bread made out of 
corn meal and water, finished off with a swig or 
two of sour milk. 

Li fe Not Bad 

The life for the men, though, isn’t bad. 
They let the women do all the work. Between 
wars they sit in the village squares smoking and 
swapping stories while the women raise the chil- 
dren, do the housework and till the fields. To- 
day the village squares are empty--the men are 
in the Red Army. 

In the middle of the Caucasian isthmus, be- 
tween the Black and Caspian Seas, is the second 
city of the region- -Tif lis . Tiflis is even 
more of a Babel than Baku, with Armenian. Tur- 
kish, Jewish, Greek, Russian, Iranian, German 
and scores of Caucasian dialects all mingled in 
the market places and cafes. 

Tiflis is the capital of the Soviet Social- 
ist Republic of Georgia. Russia's Georgia, al- 
though not as large as our own, has nearly as 
many people- -and Tiflis is almost twice as big 
as Atlanta. The other two Russian Republics 
that comprise the southern Caucasus are Azerbai- 
jan. where Baku is located, and Armenia, in the 
mountain’s south of Georgia. The money used in 
these Republics is the same as that used all 
over Russia--rubles , worth roughly about 20 
cents . 

The climate of the Caucasus varies greatly. 
Along the Caspian it’s dry and hot. Along the 
Black Sea it’s tropical, and up in the mountains 
it’s cold - -especially in the Greater Caucasus 
range, running just north of the Transcaucasian 
valley. These mountains are higher and wilder 
than the Alps (they contain the highest peak in 
Europe- -Mount Elbrus) and form an effective 
barrier to an invasion force heading southward 
across the great barren steppe from Rostov, 
Kerch and the Don River basin. 

And the Russians know how to use the moun- 
tains as a barrier. For years they’ve trained 
special troops to fight their way across the 
glaciers and crevices of this forbidding range. 
They know they have to defend the Caucasus not 
only for itself--but also because it is a step- 
ping stone to Iraq and Iran, and a link in the 
German attempt to join forces with the Japs in 
southern Asia. 

There are two other gateways to the Cauca- 
sus besides the isthmus--the Black Sea to the 
west and the Holy Land, to the south. The 
fight to gain these approaches is a tough one. 
Americans who get in the battle will have some 
of the best fighters in the world on their side-- 
and some of the United Nations’ most prized 
possessions to defend. 

By Lieut. John M. Jenks 

Headquarters, AAF 

J APAN'S "How to Fool the Enemy" Department 
must have stayed up nights working on its 
wacky system of aircraft designation. But once 
you hove the key, the great Zero mystery folds 
up like a jxirachute. 

The so-called Zero is generally described as 
a fast, highly maneuverable fighter plane. Its 
chief claim to fame was gained in action against 
Allied aircraft in the Southwest Pacific. Mat- 
ter of fact, it is one of the best operational 
fighters in the world. Actually, there is no 
single Japanese plane with the exclusive desig- 
nation of Zero. Every Jap plane of every type 
placed in service during 1940 is a Zero. To 
make it more complicated, this includes both 
Army and Navy ships. 

The Japanese designate their military air- 
craft with two numerals representing the year 
the plane went into service. To start with, the 
Jap calendar begins at 660 B, C. As a result, 
our year 1940 becomes 2600 (according to the Son 
of Heaven) , Only the last two numerals are ap- 
plied to plane designation. Conseguently, 1940 
models are designated by "00", or just plain 
"Zero." The letter T which precedes the numer- 
ical designation stands for "type". 

“Strange Setup” 

This strange setup appears to be a deliber- 
ate attempt to baffle '’ususpecting foreigners, 
but even the Japs must stew and fret to under- 
stand it. For example, there is a Navy single 
seater fighter: an Army single seater fighter; 
on Army heavy bomber; a Navy torpedo bomber; an 
Army light bomber and a four-engined Navy flying 
boat--all designated as T-97. This designation 
merely means that they all went into service 
during the Jap year 2597 (our 1937) . 

The Zero fighter generally referred to is a 
single seater Navy ship made by Mitsubishi. It 
is sometimes called the Mitsubishi Zero. Its 
official Japanese name is the "Mitsubishi Navy 
Fighter T. 0. " 

The Zero looks like a North American AT-6 
with a slimmer fuselage and wing guns. It re- 
tains its raw metal silver color and is often 
identified by the sun flashing on its duralumi- 
num stressed skin. It carries one 20 mm cannon 

and a 30 caliber machine gun in each wing and a 
pair of 30 caliber machine guns mounted to fire 
through the propeller. Early models of the Zero 
lacked pilot armor and were extremely vulnerable 
to machine gun fire. Later Zeros carry some pi- 
lot armor but offer much less protection for the 
pilot than standard American pursuits. It 
carries a jettisonable auxiliary fuel tank slung 
under the fuselage which adds about 500 miles to 
its normal cruising range of 1500 miles. 

One of the United Nations* leading authori- 
ties on the Navy Zero is Lieut. Col. Boyd D. 
(Buzz) Wagner of the AAF, who has had consider- 
able contact with them both in the air and on 
the ground. He describes the Zero as follows: 
Descri pt ion 

"It’s not a wonder plane, but it has the re- 
spect of all oUr pilots. The Zero's wings and 
fuselage are made in one piece, which means the 
Japs can't change wings if they are damaged, but 
must replace the whole job. The system has an 
advantage in less weight and speed of manufac- 
ture if the Japs can make enough for replace- 
ments, which I doubt. I doubt if even we could 
with that system. 

"The landing gear folds completely into the 
fuselage, creating no additional drag, and the 
plane is entirely flush riveted with only a few 
drag-creating protuberances. The cockpit is 
roomy and comfortable. Armament is controlled 
by a lever on top of the throttle which permits 
the pilot to fire either cannon or machine guns 
or both. 

The Zero is credited with a top speed of 
well over 300 mph and does pretty well up to 
3.0,000 feet. It can dive as steeply as AAF 
fighters but has trouble pulling out as rapidly. 
It has outclimbed AAF pursuits, however, and a 
favorite maneuver in the early days of the war 
was for a 2^ro to allow on enemy pursuit to get 
on its tail and then go into a steep climb, flip 
over in a sharp loop and come out on the tail of 
its opponent. The Zero's cannon have not proved 
effective against other fighters but have caused 
considerable damage to heavy bombers. 

AAF fighters have an advantage over Zeros in 
their sturdier construction, pilot armor, leak- 
proof tanks and heavier armament, 50 caliber ma- 
chine guns and 37 mm cannon. 

Other Jap Planes Now in Service 

AICHI T,99 - Deck- landing, Low-wing 
Torpedo Bomber 

T he AAF has opened its first flight 
strip, “somewhere on the middle 
Atlantic seaboard." The strip, shown 
above, is 8,000 feet by 500 feet, with 
a runway down the center 7,000 feet 
long and 150 feet wide, paved with 
concrete eight inches thick. 

Roomy enough to accommodate the 
flight operations of two full squad- 
rons, the number one strip is also 
capable of handling the largest of AAF 
planes, as shown by the Flying For- 
tress taking off at right, and landing 

Flight strips such as these are 
being erected in many defense areas as 
auxiliary landing fields and dispersal 

Airdromes in Wartime 

By Lieut. Col. Rudolph E. Smyser 

A^atiOD EBfllnecrs 

P EACE- time practices governing the construc- 
tion of airdromes hove followed a conven- 
tional pattern. A large tract of land is ob- 
tained and the entire area is graded and leveled. 
The runways are laid out in rigid geometric 
patterns, every effort being made to obtain 
pleasing symmetry. Special efforts are taken to 
make the runways conspicuous. 

All this, of course, is undesirable on an 
operational airfield. 

Regardless of the shape of the landing area or 
the relationship of the runways to each other, 
taxiways are necessary to permit maximum utili- 
zation. All runways should be connected to each 
other and to the dispersal parking or revetment 
area to permit the rapid movement of airplanes 
from dispersed positions to the runway. Taxi- 
ways in general follow the perimeter of the 
lending area, but like runways should avoid 
conventional patterns; whenever possible, they 
should follow the trace of existing roods. The 
required width is 50 feet, with a clearance of 
15 feet from wing tip of plane to nearest tree 
or obstacle; paving thickness may be slightly 
less than for the runway. Taxiways should be 
laid out in a series of tangent, rather than in 
a sinuous trace. A two per cent grade is accept- 
able. These taxiways also serve as service 
roads for supplying airplanes at their dispersed 

a gas attack, regardless of protective cover, 
this type of revetment becomes a gas trap. No 
type of construction should be permitted to 
interfere with the free and rapid egress of the 
aircraft . 

Whether the revetment will be covered depends 
on local climatic conditions and the supply of 
materials. A removable, fire and chemical 
resistant covering will give protection against 
weather and liquid chemical; it is also valudsle 
in deceiving the enemy as to whether or not the 
revetment is occupied. Considerations of major 
maintenance, such as engine changes, must not be 
permitted to influence the height of the roof. 
The covers must be as low as possible to permit 
concealment. The impracticability of concealing 
a large structure mitigates against such covers 
for bombing planes. Considering the clear span 
required, the provision of a cover becomes a 
definite engineering task of some magnitude. 
Air raid shelters for the combat and maintenance 
crew are a necessary part of a revetment. 

Puraui t Remains 

Pursuit aircraft will remain on the actual 
airdrome area, near the down wind ends of the 
runways, as they must be able to take-off with 
minimum loss of time. Although not desirable, 
it may be necessary to permit parking these 
planes within 300 feet of the centerline of the 

For bombardment and observation airplanes, the 
ability to take the air rapidly is less nec- 

Except when undergoing major repairs, air- 
planes at operational airdromes will be dis- 
persed. generally in protective pens or revet- 
ments. Hard standings and route of access to 
these dispersal areas are essential . For safety 
and control, dispersed airplanes not in revet- 
ments should be in groups of three planes, each 
plane at least 150 yards from the next, and with 
no group closer than 200 yards at any point to 
any airplane or another 'group. Revetments 
should be 150 feet opart, and must not be laid 
out on straight lines nor be in prolongation of 
the runway or other natural bombing runs. The 
floor of the revetment should provide a hard 
standing and be above ground surface. Sunken 
revetments can be built, but are operationally 
unsuited. Not only does the depression become a 
sump unless underground drainage is provided, 
but the difficulty of getting aircraft in and 
out of the revetment is increased. In event of 

essary. Accordingly, it is these airplanes that 
can well be dispersed some distance from the 
airdrome proper. No exact guide to this dis- 
tance can be given as it depends not only on 
local terrain, but also on the requirements for 
protecting the dispersed aircraft from sabotage 
by local inhabitants, or from possible hostile 
airborne action. One mile is not excessive if 
it facilitates concealment. 

So far it has been assumed that the landing 
area can be seen by the pilot, but in actual 
practice, a great proportion of landings will be 
made at night or under cxiverse weather condi- 
tions. for which provision must be made. Peace- 
time systems of lighting, visible for miles, are 
manifestly inappropriate. Present practice is 
to place beacons, visible fron certain positions 
only, some distance from the airdrome. Having 
located the beacon, by means of a series of 
hooded lights, designed to be visible at varying 



JULY 1942 

altitudes, the pilot is brought to the proper 
runway at the desired altitude. Further hooded 
lights, of minimum intensity, frequently with 
colored filters, give the pilot his angle of 
glide, and indicate the edge of the runway. A 
few floodlights may be available, but are not 
employed except under unusual conditions, the 
additional illumination needed being obtained 
from the landing lights of the plane. Whenever 
possible, lights will be set flush with the 
ground, but only under unusual conditions will 
elaborate underground conduits be used to carry 
the power. Noraially a flexible cable to a port- 
able generator in a trailer unit will suffice. 

Servicing and Storage Facilities 

Fixed servicing and supply facilities ore not 
built at field airdromes. Not only do these 
elaborate systems take larger quantities of 
material and require much time to install, but 
they are tactically unsound in the presence of 
an enemy. Gasoline, small arms ammunition, 
bombs, and other supplies must be delivered to 
aircraft at their dispersed locations. For this 
purpose air force tactical and service units are 
provided with special trucks, trailers, and 
dollies. The construction of the storage units 
of the following types is normal; 

Storage of gasoline will be preferably in 
underground tanks not exceeding 25,000 gal- 
lon capacity. Tanks should be in pairs with 
individual tanks separated by 3 feet of 
earth or equivalent concrete wall with the 
same amount of overhead cover. Pairs should 
not be closer than 100 feet with duplicate 
but separated pipe connections. If under- 
ground units cannot be built, above ground 
tanks should be dispersed, and surrounded by 
a protective earth traverse on all sides. 
Tanks of 25,000 gallon maximum cap>acity, if 
given this protective traverse, should be 
spaced- at least 150 feet apart; without pro- 
tection individual tanks or storage piles 
should be spaced not closer than 200 yards. 
Regardless of spacing, all above ground 
tanks must be located in woods or other 
areas suitable for camouflage. In lieu of 
large capacity tanks , storage frequently 
will be in drums. Piles of drums should be 
treated the same as above ground tonks. 
Wiere opportunity presents, gasoline may be 
delivered in tank cars to a railroad siding 
near the airdrome. This siding should be at 
least mile from the airdrome, and on a 
road suitable for heavy trucks. In lieu of 
delivering to tank trucks at the siding, it 
may be necessary to lay a temporary pipe- 
line from the siding to a distributing point 
on a road nearer the airdrome. 

Underground storage of small arms ammu- 
nition, bombs, pyrotechnics, and chemicals 

will be exceptional. Normally, all storage 
will be dbove ground in dispersed and con- 
cealed splinterproof magazines or igloos. 
For bombs and other supplies which are not 
affected by weather, open storage in re- 
vetted traverses is ample. Whenever pos- 
sible, the standard safety distances given 
in Ordnance Technical Manuals should be fol- 
lowed, but modification will hove to be mcrie 
to fit the actual terrain. 

Spore parts for engines, airplanes, wings 
and other items of Air G>rps Supply require 
protection primarily from weather. Although 
valuable, the quantity (m hand at field air- 
dromes will not justify attempting to give 
protection against small arms fire or bombs. 
Theater of Operations type warehouses only 
should be built, care being taken to get 
maximum camouflage by the fullest possible 
use of any existing structures, or by siting 
to dstain the maximum inherent concealment. 
These warehouses need not be on the landing 
area itself, but should be on roads within 
500 yards of any repair hangar that may be 
erected. (This ia the aecond of a aeriea of 
articles on wartime airdromes by Colonel Smyser , 
The third article will appear in the August 

Lieut, General H , H. Arnold, flanked by 
Brig. General James B. Doolittle , awarding me- 
dals to Tokyo raid flyers at Bolling Field, 
D. C. , on June 27, 

JULY 1942 




(Continued from Page 3) 

toms at 1,000 feet, tops at 6,000 feet with high 
thin-scattered at 18,000 feet. The carriers 
were circling under the clouds and we had to 
search for them. There isn't much doubt that 
they had seen us and were trying to ovoid our 
planes . 

All elements of the main body of the fleet 
could be daserved except the carriers; then, af- 
ter a search, three carriers were seen to break 
cloud coverage. Again it was Captain Payne who 
spotted the first carrier. He directed us over 
his radio, and we went in to attack. 

The enemy started firing as soon as we opened 
our bomb bays. The fire wasn't effective, but a 
bit disturbing. The fighters came up to attack, 
maneuvering beautifully, but they failed to fol- 
low through. It appeared that their heart was 
not in their work, and in no case was the attack 
pressed home. 

We divided our ships into three groups. 
Each group was instructed to take a carrier, and 
we bombed away. We are fairly certain we hit 
the first carrier, but we didn't claim it. The 
second group, under command of Captain Cecil 
Faulkner, hit its carrier amidships. Lt. Colonel 
Brooke Allen, commanding the last flight, se- 
cured hits on the third carrier. We didn't hove 
time to wait and see them sink, but we left 
knowing they were badly crippled. 

Captain Faulkner's tail gunner sustained 
the only injury, a cut finger. There was some 
damage to the ships from machine gun fire and 
anti-aircraft fire, but we all returned to Mid- 
way successfully. We found the island had been 
attacked in our absence. During this attack we 
lost a crew chief and an officer who remained on 
the ground. 

Japs Sink Their Own 

That afternoon (June 4) we went out again to 
attack a troop ship convoy reported to be ap- 
proaching from 265 degrees true and estimated to 
be <d)out 260 miles from Midway. Enroute we got 
orders to attack a carrier bearing 334 degrees 
true and cdsout 180 miles from Midway. We searched 
that vicinity, but although a burning carrier 
and a burning capital ship were sighted, no com- 
missioned carrier was located. We learned later 
that the others we had hit sank or were sunk by 
the« Japanese. 

As sunset was approaching we decided to at- 
tack a heavy cruiser. All remaining units of the 
enemy fleet were now deployed and weaving. We 
attacked at 25,000 feet. Visibility was perfect 
and the bombing run excellent. At the bomb re- 
lease line an anti-aircraft shell burst at our 
altitude off the wing of the number three plane 
followed by fairly heavy fire. As soon as our 
bombs were dropped we adopted evasive tactics. 

We scored hits on the cruiser and left it 

burning, a heavy cloud of smoke issuing amid- 
ship. Numbers two and four planes were unable 
to release their bombs on the first run so they 
returned and attacked another ship. They did 
not remain to determine the results of their at- 
tack as the Japs had gotten a bracket on them 
and the fire was extremely intense and all 
around them. About 25 enemy fighters were 
sighted below on a northerly heading as we put 
out for Midway, but none reached our altitude. 

This some afternoon Major George Blakey led 
another flight of B-17s in and attacked the 
burning carrier. Attacking at very low altitude, 
they Succeeded in scoring many hits. 

Fortresses Blast 'Em 

All told, on the afternoon of June 4 our 
B-17 s are credited with scoring three hits on a 
damaged carrier, (probably the AGAKI) ; one hit 
on a large ship; one hit on a cruiser which was 
left burning, and to have damaged one destroyer, 
believed to hove sunk. 

Other B-17s carried on the attack the next 
day (June 5) , contacting an enemy contingent of 
battleships and cruisers to the westward of Mid- 
way despite unfavorable flying weather. (Noting 
the Navy's official report on that action by our 
Army bombers; 

‘They attacked, and scored a direct hit on 
the damaged cruiser. Another bomb damaged the 
same cruiser's steering gear. She was last ob- 
served listing badly and turning in tight cir- 
cles. This attack was followed quickly by a sec- 
ond Army Air Force attack which scored a hit on 
the stern of a heavy cruiser. Meanwhile, at 
about noon (June 5) U.S. Marine Corps aircraft 
located the damaged enemy cruiser and delivered 
one direct hit . 

‘In the afternoon of June 5, Army 'Flying 
Fortresses' attacked enemy cruisers again and 
scored three direct hits upon one heavy cruiser. 
On the return trip, one of these planes was 
lost: a second was forced down at sea 15 miles 
from Midway. All except one of the crew of the 
second plane were rescued . " 

Our morale was high throughout, but after it 
was over we were os tired a bunch of flyers as 
you ever wish to see. 



JULY 194 


(Continued from Page 4) 
a belligerent, bristling and scrappy outfit as 
we have up there." 

Army fighters and bombers were up after the 
enemy from the outset of the June raids. That 
is reported by newsman Keith Wheeler of the 
Chicago Times, whose series of Navy-approved ar- 
ticles have come straight from the Aleutian 
theatre, where Wheeler has lived and flown with 
the airmen. 

"A ranging P-39 encountered two Jap cruiser 
type observation planes in Umnak Pass and shot 
one down in flames, " writes Wheeler. 

During the second day's raid. Army fighters 
shot down two of nine enemy pursuits which 
strafed Fort Glenn installations; the remaining 
seven attackers withdrew without inflicting dam- 

That same day, Wheeler reports, “Catalinas 
led Army bombers through the fog to two carriers 
hanging out 250 miles south of Umnak island. 
That day a torpedo-carrying B-26 established 
contact long enough to attack. He bored in at 
the carrier's looming hulk, one of Japan's lar- 
gest, and cut loose his tin fish. Instead of 
going into the water, where it could aim itself, 
the torpedo dropped on the carrier's flight 
deck, and worked as much destruction as a 2,000 
pound weight can work anywhere it happens to 
fall. It did not explode." 

B-26 Torpedoes 

Wheeler describes "our first sizeable lick 
at the enemy" as action by two B-26 bombers 
“ that suddenly found themselves out of the mist 
and sitting over a 10-gun heavy cruiser, one of 
Japan's best. They attacked and hit her bow and 
stern with two torpedoes. It appeared, they re- 
ported laconically, as though 'destruction 
seemed certain. " 

Impossible weather made contacts with the 
enemy few and brief after those first grueling 
48 hours, until June 10, when a scouting Cata- 
lina located the invaders in Kiska harbor. 
Then, five B-24s launched the first concentrated 
attack on Kiska. Describing this action, Wheeler 
states that the 24s came in low over the harbor, 
got caught in heavy anti-aircraft fire, climbed 
back to 18,000 feet to dr<^ their loads, "and 
left one heavy cruiser flaming in the harbor, 
hit squarely by heavy bombs." Later that same 
day, he adds, B-24s made direct hits on two 
cruisers and a destroyer and left them burning. 
Two of the 24s were lost. 

A battle-scarred B-17 bagged an enemy trans- 
port ship and a fighter plane in a single flight 
to Kiska in mid-June, according to Wheeler, who 
reports: “The fighter went down in flames af- 

ter trading blows with the bomber's gunners. 
The transport was lying in the harbor when a 

500-pounder caught it squarely amidships. The 
next plane to visit the island found the Jap 
transport belching a mile-high tower of flame 
and black smoke. The next day only her stern 
showed above water." 

Our aircraft have continually attacked enemy 
shore installations. On one raid Army bombers 
dropped 56 eggs on the Japs at Kiska. But, as 
always, the glue-thick fog made it difficult to 
determine results. 

Based in the Alaskan theatre, according to 
Wheeler, are our B-17 and B-24 heavy bombers, 
P-40, P-39 and P-38 fighters, B-26 medium bombers 
also used as torpedo planes, and airliner DC-3s 
converted into Army transports. 

The same writer describes the "workhorse" 
Navy PBY Catalinas, whose squadrons are making 
history by tirelessly flying patrols and searches, 
shadowing Jap surface ships, fighting Zeros, 
loosing torpedoes, strafing subs, carrying cargo 
and troops, and even serving as makeshift dive 
bombers. Wheeler reports that some Catalina 
airmen flew 102 hours in two weeks, with the 
planes beached for repairs only when they would 
no longer fly. Meanwhile, the Navy's submarines 
search for underwater targets, and are credited 
with sinking several destroyers. 

Land-based aircraft, fighting under unified 
Navy command, often operate from bases cut out 
of areas Wheeler picturesquely describes as 
"mucky morass that looks like land God plowed ex- 
perimentally and then wisely decided to throw 
away. " ' 

It is a "blindman's bluff" sort of aerial 
warfare, waged hour after hour in the pea- thick 
soup. You fly clad in heavily-lined rubberized 
parka and pants, high boots and thick wool un- 
derwear. You sleep in tents and burrows and 
pare living down to its lowest essentials. An 
underground chamber is likely to serve as “HQ " 
Canned sausage , canned corn beef , canned salmon 
become the order of the day. You gulp down 
steaming black coffee between flights. The pi- 
lot calls the navigator "the key man up here;* 
the navigator says a mile visibility "is all we 
need." When crossing the dateline you argue 
j about whether the bombs will be dropped today, 

I tomorrow or yesterday. 

Heading the Air Forces bomber command in 
the Alaskan theatre is Colonel William O. Eareck- 
son, who not only directs but leads bombing mis- 
sions, and has served as co-pilot, squadron 
leader, navigator and even gunner. An Alaskan 
fighter unit of the Air Forces has all its 
planes decorated with the sign of the "Flying 
Tiger", and is commanded by Captain John S. 
Chennault, son of Brigadier General Claire 
Chennault. whose Flying Tigers of China have 
made themselves well known to the enemy. 

As General Kuter expresses it: The Japanese 

are now between two Flying Tigers, "and both 
of them clawing," 




^ VOL. 25 AUGUST -SEPTEMBER, 1942 NO. 6 









"WE FOUGHT AT MIDWAY" -- By Capt . Charles E. Shelton 4 

TAILOR MADE FOR COMBAT -- By Capt. Selby Calkins 8 

WE SCOUR THE SEAS -- By Air Vice-Marshal G.B.S. Baker, RAF 10 

HUNTING FOR ONE IN A MILLION --By Lieut. John M. Jenks 12 


THE TRICYCLE LANDING GEAR -- By Capt. James A. Johnston 16 


RED SENTRIES OF THE SKIES -- By Major N. Denisov .Russian Air Force .23 
AIRDROMES IN WARTIME (PART 111) -- By Lt. Col. R.E. Smyser ... .27 

FRIEND OR FOE? -- By Capt. F.W. Warlow 30 

EXjYPT -- By Oliver H. Townsend 33 




TECHNIQUE .... .24 

Technical and Art Staff: 

James T. Rawls, Director - Capt. Raymond Creekmore 
Sergt. William T. Lent - Paul Reed 

Photos from official Army Air Forces sources 



s r 

Hi66t Peute^ifiU Weapm 



force our enemies must face. 


the parts of the internal mechanism of a fine watch, any error 



and gunners must stop functioning as individuals the minute 



TO A GOOD many 
the term Kivi 
(kee-wee) won't 
mean a thing, 
and we aren't 
much concerned 
about it. The 
name Kiwi right- 
ly belongs to a non-flying, 
witch-like New Zealand bird 
about hen size, and although it 
popped up some 25 years ago as 
the slang description of non- 
flying Air Force personnel, we 
are not sure it means all that 
it did bock then in view of the 
recognized importance today of 
earthbound officers and men in 
the Air Forces. 

We are concerned at the 
moment with the mechanical Kiwi, 
or what we like to call the 
Mekiwi, and which we will hove 
no truck with and don't mind 
saying so. In fact, we are 
about to suggest on open season 
on the flocks of Mekiwis now 
roosting throughout the Air 
Forces . 

The Mekiwi, if you please, 
is on airplane mechanically un- 
fit to fly because someone 
flunked his j<^ or became care- 
less or failed to realize the 
importance of maintenance in 
aerial warfare. 

If our useless Mekiwis 
nested primarily in the combat 
areas, we might be tempted to 

dig up some excuses. But when 
this country has three to four 
times as many available planes 
out of commission as have such 
spots as Alaska. Hawaii and 
Panama, we haven't much of an 
argument . 

To hunt down the Mekiwis and 
keep more planes in the air. 
Headquarters needs ammunition 
in the form of ideas and sug- 
gestions from the field, espe- 
cially from officers and men 
directly engaged in maintenance 
and technical inspection work. 

Mekiwi hunting demands, 
first of all, a general buckling 
down to work, but we do need to 
hear more about the specific 
boners that have come to your 
attention. Send in suggestions 
for a series of *do's" and 
"don'ts". Shoot us ideas for 
articles, cartoons and posters 
that might help improve the 
standard of maintenance. 

Reports tell us the Mekiwis 
are thriving on such earthworms 
as these: 

Bodily removing a generator 
when a slight adjustment of 
the voltage regulator would 
have corrected the trouble. 

Warming up a plane where loose 
rocks or gravel can cause 
serious injury to nearby 
planes and crews. 

Failing to ground the magneto 
wire and thus preventing the 
engine from being stopped. 

Using improper cleansing 
agents that ruin equipment or 
endanger life and property. 

Failing to make proper no- 
tation on Form One when re- 
moving a plane part, thus 

prompting a crash after a 
pilot has taken up the plane 
in good faith. 

Bolding up a IQO-hqur in- 
spection for lack of such 
simple “10-cent store” i terns 
as washers and gaskets. 

That merely scratches the 
Surface of easily correct ible 
boners that dqily ground our 
planes and breed Mekiwis . How 
about passing on information 
concerning the maintenance 
bottlenecks that are gumming 
up the works? Jot down your 
ideas and suggestions and send 
them to Headquarters in care of 
the Sews Letter. It will help 
eliminate the Mekiwis. 

firmed war stories to come our 
way features a British fighter 
pilot who downed two Nazi planes 
without firing a shot. His re- 
port; "Owing to the position 
of my Hurricane and that of 
another machine of my squadron. 
I crashed into a Do. 215 (Ger- 
man) with my right wing. The 
wings of both planes broke up. 
■I then crashed into another 
Do. 215 on my left with my 
left wing. I then went into a 
rocket (wingless) dive." While 
the Nazi planes were crashing to 
earth, the Hurricane plunged 
down out of control. The 
English pilot landed safely by 
parachute, his only injury a 
sprained ankle . 




DICTIONARY of British 
slang: “Mickey Mouse, ” bomb 

dropping mechanism; "brolly," 
parachute; "bus driver,” bomb- 
er pilot; "dust bin,” rear 
gunner's position; "George," 
automatic pilot; "balbo,” 
large formation of aircraft ; 
"completely cheesed," no hope 
at all; “collect a gong," get 
a medal; "crabbing along,” 
flying near the ground or wa- 
ter; and "Kipper Kite," coas- 
tal command aircraft used to 
convoy fishing fleets in the 
North and Irish seas. 

ther important that pilots know 
the voice of their flight dir- 
ector. The Japs are old hands 
at radio deception. At Midway 
the Japs were talking a lot of 
English on frequencies used by 
American planes Anti-air- 
craft fire directed at one plane 
has been known to pass right 
through and hit the following 
aircraft. In strafing of any 
kind, it is important not to 
follow exactly in the path of 

the ship ahead Jop Zeros 

are believed to be landing on 
carrier decks without the use of 
hooks Last minute checks be- 
fore combat on such items as 
guns charged, carburet ion and 
proper engine RFW are very es- 
sential. A check-off sheet 
mounted on the instrument board 

has been recommended Full or 

partial deflection shots are ac- 
counting for the great percent- 
age of planes downed in fighter 
combat . 

AN informant from the South- 
west Pacific Area warns against 
running for shelter when the 
bombs begin to fall on an air- 
drome. Lie flat on your face 
behind small protection s\x:h as 
sand bags or in shelter trenches 
says he, and your chances of 
getting nicked are less likely. 
Take this advice, we are told, 
and you will be surprised how 
close a bomb can hit without 
doing you wrong. 

enlisted ranks have given us 
cause for smiles. The one, at 
a southern comp, nervously asked 
the Sarge what that AUS meant 
after his name, and was told it 
stood for Army of the United 
States. "Whew, " mumbled the re- 
cruit, *I thought it meant 
flJSTRALIA. •* The other, re- 
portedly at Keesler Field, and 
nervous for another reason, 
walked into a post building, 
hesitantly peered about, and 
asked a nearby Corporal if there 
happened to be a men's room 
around. The Corporal pointed 
toward the door marked “En- 
listed Men." The recruit sor- 
rowfully shook his head and 
said: "I can't go there; I was 

drafted " 

WE PICKED this one up at 
least fifth hand, but an Avia- 
tion Cadet at some field or 
other, after being transferred 
to another field for advanced 
training , is said to have 
written his former tactical 
officer in this fashion: 

"At last, after weeks of 
silent suffering, I am now far 
from the range of your juris- 
diction and as far as I am 
concerned you and all of your 
staff can take a jump in the 
lake. " 

Not long after, so the story 
goes, the Cadet got this 
reply: "All information as 

to troop movements must be 
submitted on Form 245B.” 

A teletype report pass- 
ing over our desk was cause 
for a second glance. It read: 
281600Z END. Just when we 
thought the faithful Link had 
finally soloed, we learned 
that the message referred to 
Link trainer operators. 

too much about the Swiss Air 
Force. Neither did we, until 
we ran across such incidental 
information as this: The Swiss 

Air Force was originally a 
branch of the Army but was made 
independent in 1936. Since 
September, 1939, it has been in 
a state of partial mc^ilization. 
Under the Swiss militia sys- 
tem, each young male citizen, 
unless he pays a special mili- 
tary tax, enters the armed 
forces. After serving as a pri- 
vate soldier for six months, 
he may volunteer for flying 
duty. If so, he enters a fly- 
ing school, progressing to ad- 
vanced training. Active duty 
can come only in the event of 
mobilization. The Swiss Air 
Force is organized solely for 
defense, has no bomber command. 
Flying personnel are reported 
extremely proficient. Equip- 
ment is either German Me 109s 
or French Morane 405/6s, both 
manufactured under license in 
Switzerland, Swiss pilots are 
said to prefer the French ships. 









A memorandum calling our 
attention to Army Regulations 
on the conservation of val- 
uable material , including a 
reminder against the use of 
duplicate paper clips, didn’ t 
carry the punch it might 
have, inasmuch as the memo was 
weighted down with two shiny 
paper clips. 1 / / / 

V — 




WE CAN’T PROVE i t , bu t 
the report comes from the Mid- 
land (Tex.) bombardier school ’* 
that more practice bombs are 
dropped every day on Texas ^ 
prairies than the daily aver- , 
age of real bombs dropped by 
the Germans in the September , ^ 

1940, Battle of London. 


American Fireworks Over Europe 

A nd there we were, upside down at ten feet 
dropping our bomb", and so goes the old line 
without which any aerial gunner would feel as 
naked as though he were without his clothes, but 
back of those lines lies a story that entitles 
most winged warriors to tell their own stories 
in their own way. 

Through the events' of the past four months 
it has been my good fortune to become an aerial 
gunner, and through consequent events, to be a 
member of the first American codbat crew to drop 
bombs on occupied Europe. Because of these 
events. I have been requested to set down on pa- 
per as nearly as possible the trend of events 
that reached their climax with the Fourth of 
July raid on Holland. 

I entered the Army Air Corps in June of 
1940, at Chanute Field, Rantoul, Illinois. I 
had been a newspaperman on the Fredonia (Kansas) 
Herald and someday after the war I hope to be a 
newspaperman again. It wasn't long before I be- 
gan to move about, leaving Chanute a month later 
to attend the Aircraft Armorers school at Lowry 
Field, Colorado. 

Training Was Valuable 

Later, that training which I received at 
Lowry was to be one of the most valuable pieces 
of time which I have ever spent. However, at 
the time it was a lot of hard work figuring out 
how so many little gadgets put together in one 
’’shell" could cause twelve hundred rounds a min- 
ute to come out the muzzle. 

After graduating from Lowry Tech., my jour- 
neys really began, and from that time, October 
25, 1940, until J^ril 29, 1942. I was stationed 
at eight different stations for varying periods 
of time--Brooks Field, Kelly Field, Goodfellow 
Field, Sherman-Dennison Air Base, all in Texas; 
Will Rogers Field, Oklahoma City. Oklahoma; 
Hunter Field, Savannah, Georgia; Lawson Field. 
Fort Benning Georgia, and Fort Dix, New Jersey. 

In all this time, I was on and off combat 
status rather spasmodically, but even at that 
time, I hod definitely made up my mind, that one 
way or another, should I ever get into the com- 
bat zone, I'd either become a gunner or some 
other part of a combat team. 

After landing in England, which was pre- 
ceeded by a boat ride that was by no means un- 
eventful. things began to move rapidly and 
things happened fast. Early in June of this 
year orders came through from the commanding of- 

ficer that eighteen men would proceed immediate- 
ly from our base to one occupied by British per- 
sonnel for the purpose of a short but intensive 
period of instructions as aerial gunners. 

The training which we received from the 
R.A.F. instructors at this base, has and will 
continue to be. one of the guiding factors in my 
present and future operational flights. Too 
much cannot be said about the tireless way in 
which these boys, none of them over 25. unfolded 
for our observation and discussion stories which 
theretofore they had never discussed even among 
themselves. Stories of actual experiences by 
men from Malta; of sweeps ogainst the Norwegian 
coast; of low-altitude attacks against shipping 
in the channel and the North Sea. It was from 
these men that we learned what to expect from 
“Jerry". Through mistakes that had cost the 
R.A.F. lives, we profited. 

We were gr.eatly pleased to find that the 
particular British squadron, with whom we were 
to coordinate our efforts, was flying ’’Bostons", 
the British version of the Douglas A-20. But 
suddenly we discovered that we were a long way 
from being ready to go on ’’Ops", the British 
term for operational missions. There was the 
job of each crew getting to know each other, to 
learn the little pecularities , which tend to 
make one individual different from another; the 
radio men had to learn the English procedure, 
and in general we all had a lot to learn. 

Met Sgt, Cunningham 

It was at this point of progress in events 
that I first got to really know Sgt. Bennie B. 
Cunningham. Bennie is a quiet-spoken lad from 
Tupelo, Mississippi, who says very little, but 
always does his job plus just a little more. 
Beanie and I were crewed up with Captain Charles 
C. Kegelman. ’ who was commanding this particular 
operational group. 

It had been my good fortune to know the cap- 
tain for some time before we come overseas, and 
having seen several demonstrations of his fly- 
ing. I knew he was tops when it came to being 
skipper of a plane, either in the air or on the 
ground. Believe me. it means a lot to have a 
C.O. like that. 

The observer was Lt . Randall Dorton, Jr., 
who, in the captain's absence was more or less 
mother to his little brood, and continually kept 
after Bennie and myself to keep training, rain 
(Continued on Page 35) 

S TAFF Sgt, John J. Gogoj 
of Bellrose. N.Y. , was the 
top gunner in one of the Air 
Forces* B-26 torpedo planes 
that put their tin fish into a 
Japanese aircraft carrier during 
the Battle of Midway. His pi- 
lot, Lt . James Muri, of River- 
side, Calif., was guiding his 
plane to the scene of battle 
several hundred miles from Mid- 
way. When the B-26 was about 
25 miles from the Jap task 
force, which included at least 
four carriers, Sgt. Gogoj *s 
story began. 

"We were sailing along, 
headed right for the Japs' ships 
out ahead of us. Me, and my 
guns were pointing forward, out 
over the pilot's cabin, ready 
for any trouble from in front 
of us. That's where the Japs 
were, and that's where I ex- 
pected trouble from, "Gogoj 
said . 

“Then I heard Ashley, -- 
that's Earl Ashley, a pfc, he's 
from Williamstown, South Caro- 
lina, --start shooting his gun 
in the tail. I swung around, 
and there about 500 feet away 
was a Jap pursuit plane right 
on our tail. It was one of 
those Zeros. 

"He was shooting right into 
us, I could see the flame com- 
ing out of his wing guns and 
that cannon was lit up plenty, 
too. All I know is that I 
swung my guns on him and 
squeezed the trigger , --then 
hell started popping. 

“He hit my left gun with 
one pf those coiuion shells. My 
turret cover was all busted. 
Pieces of it hit me. Pieces 
of it cut my scalp, " he said 
pointing to a half dozen cuts 
on his scalp. "I put my hand 
up to my head. Then I felt 
something kind of sticking to 
my right temple. It was sticky 
and wet. I tried to brush it 
off, but I couldn't get it 
loose. It was under the skin. 
I picked at it like this," he 
indicated, making a tweezer- 
action with his thumb and fin- 
ger. "It was a bullet that had 
gone in under the skin. I got 
ahold of it and pulled it out . 

"Then I went down below 
into the plane and took some 
sulfanilimide and started to 
bandage my head. I had the 
bandage all ready and just 
ready to put over the cuts when 
a bullet hit my hand here,"— 
and Gogoj pointed to a scarred 
nick on his left middle fin- 
ger, --"and bounced off, I guess, 
and hit me here over the left 
eye. Boy I tell you that made 
me mad. I was sure bloody then. 
You might say that after that 
I was immune to pain, but I 
sure looked bad with blood all 
over my face and coveralls. 

"Then I went back up to my 
guns. The right one was still 
working. And it was a good 
thing because another Zero was 
on us. He wasn't actually 
shooting at us. but was up cdjove 
us about a thousand yards. I 
could see that he was trying 
to get just a little more alti- 
tude so that he co\ild zoom down 
on us. I figured he was ready 
to drop on us. so I opened up 
with the right gun. I pulled 
the trigger. 

"Tracers went up into him 
right around the pilot's com- 
partment. I think I got him 
all right because he just plain 
disappeared .- -just left com- 
pletely. I'd like to go back 
to Midway to look at our plane. 
You know we had more than 500 

bullet holes in her. She isn't 
much good now, but it was worth 
it. putting that torpedo into 
that carrier. It sure was 
worth it . " 

All members of the B-26 crew 
were awarded the Distinguished 
Service Cross for their per- 
f ormance . 

“We got in 54 hours of fly- 
ing time in four days," said 
Capt . Charles E. Gregory, of 
Houston. Texas, after his re- 
turn from piloting a B-17 in 
the Midway battle. “At one 
time we were as close to Yoko- 
hama as we were to Honolulu. 
But not as close to Yokohama 
as we'd like to be." 

Copt. Gregory and his crew 
scored definite hits on a Jap 
battleship and a carrier. Dur- 
ing the height of battle Sgt. 
Bernard Carroll, of Tom's River, 
New Jersey, upp>er turret gunner, 
calmly spoke to Capt. Gregory 
over the inter-phone. Said 
Sgt. Carroll: “Some Zero's 

right behind us. Sir. If you'll 
slow down a little bit, Lomax 
and I'll get 'em." Cpl. Melvin 
Lomax, of Wichita. Kansas, was 
the rear gunner. 

Sergeant George Scherba, a 
Pittsburgh boy who htis three 
brothers in the service, tells 
what a belly-gunner in a B-17 
went through off Midway. 

"After weeks of 'special 













eltou, Hlckam Field 

alerts' we were given orders," 
Scherba said. "Take-off was 
scheduled. No one seemed to 
know where we were going- -lots 
of rumors about Australia. 
Once in the air, we found out 
where we were going and why. 
As we were flying along I spent 
most of my time jumping in and 
Out of my lower ball turret. 
I practiced tracking diligently 
because something told me I 
was going to use it. I thought 
the world of that turret before 
we left and before we got back 
I was 'nuts' about it. 

"Just as the sun was on the 
horizon, I heard someone say 
over the inter-phone, 'There 
they are, boys!' I swung my 
turret to the front and saw 
clouds of smoke coming up from 
burning ships down ahead of 
us. It was a good sight because 
I knew someone had done a f ine 
job. We were at least 10 to 
15 miles away when I saw the 

first bursts of anti-aircraft 
dot the sky. 

"I saw the shropotel spatter 
all over the ocean," Sgt. 
Scherba continued. "They kept 
firing like this while we got 
the Sun behind our backs for 
our bombing run. As we got 
closer every boat seemed to be 

opening up on our planes. We 
were so low that the Japs 
couldn't get it through their 
skulls to shorten their range. 
It seemed all their shots were 
bursting above us. A carrier 
that was burning at the stern 
was firing heavily from the 

"A plane headed for it, but 
before I could see what happened 
I noticed a heavy cruiser im- 
mediately below us. I opened 
up on it. The guns started at 
the stern and went over the 
whole length of it, I was fir- 
ing bursts of 6 to 10 rounds 
at it steadily. The cruiser 
seemed to suck the tracers right 
into its deck. All the while 
the Japs were shooting at us 

Sketches by 

Capt. Raymond 
AAF Artist 

and it was a funny feeling to 
be looking down into their gun 
barrels from my position. 

"Then I heard 'Enemy Air- 
craft' over the inter-phone. 
Looking out I sow a Zero fighter 
coming up about a thousand yards 
away. The tail -gunner let him 
come up to about 400 yards. I 
opened up too. From the tall 
stories c^out fanatical Japanese 
pilots, I thought he would close 
in fighting. Not this Jap. 
Tracers were flying all around 
him as he broke away. Just at 
that point three groups of 
tracers hit him. He started a 
zigzagging glide towards the 
sea with black smoke pouring 
out of him. I did not see him 
crash because I started looking 
for other targets. All in all 
I saw just three Zeros. When 
we landed a tail -gunner from 
another plane told us that he 
saw our Zero f ighter crash in 
the sea." 

A hard luck story was told 
by 2nd Lt . Bernard E. Anderson 
of Fayette, Utah, a bombardier 
on a B-17. Anderson's plane, 
piloted by 1st Lt. Fred Wesche 
of New Jersey and 2nd Lt. Arthur 
, L. McMullen of Akron, 0., joined 
a flight of 16 other planes 
sent oyt from Midway in chase 
of the fleeing Japanese navy. 

“After searching for five 
hours we finally sighted two 
Japanese vessels which I think 
were cruiser s ," Anderson re- 
counted, "Three planes up in 
front of our formation went 
after the first ship below and 
I don't think a single one of 
their bombs missed, because 
the vessel just buckled up in 

(Continued on Page 37) 

onE-mnn li 

'^HE Army Air Forces’ 
^ newest safety device is 
a seat cushion for sitting 
down purposes that becomes 
a one-man raft for life sav- 
ing purposes. 

The gadget was demon- 
strated for Wright Field 
officers recently by Lt. 
David Alien, of Ft. Benning, 
who leaped into Indian Lake, 
Ohio, from 5000 feet and 
paddled ashore. 

At the right is Lt. Allen 
poised for his jump. On 
his back is his main para- 
chute; in front is strapped 
his emergency chute and 
under the Allen rump is 
the rubber life raft. 

On arriving in the water 
(picture 2) Lt. Allen dis- 
engages himself from his 
chutes, and turns the valve 
of a small gas tank attached 
to the raft, inflating it in- 

He then pulls himself 
into the raft (picture 3) and 
proceeds to bail out the 
water shipped during the 
boarding operation. 

In the final photo, we see 
the Lieutenant ready to go 
places by means of paddles 
strapped to his hands. 


Tailor-Made for Combat 

By €aptain Selby Calkias 

Wright Field 

A torpedo- carrying B- 26 medium bomber 

T he scene might be enacted in any one of a 
dozen or so cities in the United States, 
from the Mexican to the Canadian border, A 
group of young workers, lunching within hearing 
of a steady roar of aircraft engines, have the 
day's newspaper on the table in front of them 
and are discussing yesterday's successful attack 
by American Air Forces over France or Germany or 
Libya or some far outpost in the Pacific. 

The discussion is less one of words than an 
exchange of knowing smiles. Then: 

"C'mon, you guys, lets get back to the shop 
and do it some more," says one of them. 

Maybe the combat "show" they have been read- 
ing about was a torpedo attack by an Array plane 
known heretofore as simply a medium bomber. Or 
maybe they had been reading of the exceptional 
Success of an already obsolescent-- from our 
standpoint here at home- - f ighter plane which has 
proved to be a pretty good ground strafer and 
light bomber in the North African desert. 

These lads are young but skilled. It is 
likely that their supervisory heads are veterans 
in aircraft construction and maintenance. Cer- 
tainly they are every one of them artisans, for 
they are employes of one of the U.S. Army Air 
Forces Modification Centers, set up and operated 
for the Materiel Command's Production Division. 

General Wolfe Is Chief 

The Materiel Command is the Army Air Forces' 
agency for supplying our far-flung fighter com- 
mands with the airplanes and the equipment needed 
in this global war. And the Production Division 

is its "shirt-sleeves" organization. From Brig- 
adier General K.B. Wolfe, Chief of the Pro- 
duction Division, down to the newest apprentice 
to skin his knuckles on a cylinder stud in a 
factory, the one objective is more airplanes, 
more guns, more bombs --more sudden death for 
the Axis. It takes rolled up shirt-sleeves, and 
sweat and daring thinking, to do the job as 
rapidly as it has to be done. That is the "why" 
of the Modification Centers. 

Does an idea for a telling blow against the 
Japs form in the alert brain of General Doolittle? 
He and General Wolfe go into a huddle. Some- 
where in the United States a number of airplanes 
start touching down on an airport and taxiing up 
to huge shops, one by one. Engineers and proj- 
ect officers armed with rolls of blueprints and 
technical instructions filter in from Wright 
Field, and another Modification Center project 
is under way. 

No telling what happens after that maybe 

Tokyo will get bombed again. Maybe Jap aircraft 
carriers will be sinking all over the Pacific 
because the Nips didn't know that land based 
bombers carried torpedoes. Or maybe ships that 
the Luftwaffe “knew" had a range of only a few 
hundred miles, suddenly strike at key industries 
a thousand miles from the nearest Allied air 
base. Let 'em guess! 

Colonel Bryant L. Boatner, Chief of Special 
Projects at Wright Field, passes over the spe- 
cial projects of our Modification Centers with: 
"We don't say much about past jobs--we might 
want to do 'em again"! Then he boils down the 




broad Modification Center program with a homely 

“Siq^Kwe you aKike kitchen stoves.** he says. 
"Your factory is all tooled up for one model on 
a mass production basis ond you're turning out 
thousands of them. Then your salesmen tell you 
that you've got to add another gadget or your 
competitors are going to put you out of busi- 
ness. Which is easiest --retooling your plant 
or adding another little shop where the gadget 
con be installed on the mass production stoves 
before they meet their competition?** 

“That's the basic function of all our Mod- 
ification Centers- -we add. subtract and change 
to meet and beat our competition- -the Axis. We 
can take production airplanes and fit them for 
Arctic or desert <^ration. increase their range 

or build up their boad) loads sometimes fix 

up little surprises for the yellow Aryans in 
Asia and the poperhanger *s stooges in Europe.** 
he explains . 

Broadly, the purpose of the Modification 
Centers (exclusive of special projects in the 
“surprise** category) is to permit up-to-the- 
minute developments to be incorporated in combat 
aircraft without interrupting the flow of pro- 
duction from factories. Of course when a number 
of these changes merits inclusion in all pro- 
duction airplanes, steps are taken to provide 
tools and manufacturing methods for the change. 
All preparations are made without interrupting 
the flow of production. Then, when everything 
is ready, the change in tooling and methods is 
mode literally overnight- -and from that point 
forward the uninterrupted production stream from 
the factory is a stream of the more advanced 
type airplanes . 

Personnel Are Experts 

Such procedures in one airplane does not 
wipe out the affected Modificotion Center. On 
the contrary, it continues to operate- -perhaps 
with the some airplanes coming in for even never 
installations --perhaps with another type, from 
another manufacturer, getting the attention of 
the experts assembled there. 

The word "experts'* is used advisedly. Per- 
sonnel of the Modification Centers are not be- 
ginners. In the search for facilities which 
could be used at the earliest possible moment 
and used to the greatest advantage, the terminal 
overhaul shops of the nation's airlines loomed 
like beacons in the night. The Army Air Forces 
knew that these airlines had for years been 
training crews of skilled mechanics in the need 
for speedy, yet perfect, overhaul and repair and 
even major modification of their transports. An 
organization which can take a work-weary pas- 
senger transport and turn it out a few hours 
later in factory-new condition, is an organiza- 
tion which has been trained to perfection. 

Thus it was that the airlines were approached 

with a proposal that they operate these Mod- 
ification Centers under contract with the Army 
Air Forces. They voiced assent with the same 
eagerness that gave our war effort their air- 
planes and their pilots and their experience 
in so many other phases of the war's demands 
upon their industry. 

Today the airlines operate exactly half our 
Modification Centers. Others are operated by 
manufacturers themselves, and a few by the Army 
Air Forces at Air Depots. By and large, the 
airlines hove carried the major load in volume 
of modification work perform^ to date. 

Geography A Factor 

By design. Modification Centers operated by 
airlines have geographical advantages. For 
instance bombers manufactured on the Pacific 
Coost m»H destined for ferrying to a c<»dbat zone 
via a South Atlantic route, may be flown from 
the factory to a Center in Texas. They arrive 
there os plain “production jobs"--but they'll 
leave ready for combat against the type of com- 
petition they'll meet and equijqsed for the kind 
of weather or terrain they'll find at their des- 
tination. Too. there are Modification Centers 
geographically close to North Atlantic jump-off 
points, and in the Pacific Southwest and North- 

Do Intelligence reports advise us of con- 
ditions in North Africa which our ships are en- 
countering? There's a Modification Center in 
Arizona, perhaps, where those conditions can be 
exactly duplicated for test purposes. Would it 
be wise to plan on operating certain types of 
ships imder Arctic conditions? We con take care 
of that too, knowing that when we send our ships 
away to fight they'll do what they are intended 
to do. 

Finally, our Modification Centers serve us 
in another woy. We know that Army engineers 
here at Wright Field, or engineers in the air- 
craft industry, can't foresee every condition of 
combat in a global war. or every trick of a wily 
enemy. But they can cancel those tricks out and 
develop new ones. 

Everyone knows that tite Japs found no tail 
guns in the earliest “Flying Fortress'* bombers 
they met over the Philippines. True, the Jap 
guns downed but few of the big Boeings in flight. 
But our pilots out there clamored for tail guns-- 
and got then. They were production jobs, for 
there were no Modification Centers then. But 
now such pleas would be answered from Modifica- 
tion Centers in the interim before the produc- 
tion change could be made. 

The Modification Center organization is 
expanding in size and scope. There's no inti- 
mating whet surprises in the way of speedy alter- 
ations “to meet the competition*' are in store 
for the Axis. 

C CMPARATIVELY little of the work of Coas- Catalina of the Royal Air Force broke cloud a 
tal Command receives the limelight of publi- few hundred feet above her. Those on board the 
city because of necessity what happens at sea is Bismarck had no illusions as to what her pres- 
not everybody’s business, at least not until ence meant. Every A. A. gun and some of the main 
long after it has ceased to be spot news. As a armament as well opened up: the aircraft was 

result less is known of the duties of the air- hit, a shell fragment passing up between the two 
craft of the Command than is the cose with other pilots: but the sighting report was made none 

Commands of the Royal Air Force. It is not un- the less, and the lost contact was re-estab- 

commonly thought tbat their role is defensive lished. The Schornhorst in 1940 ond the Lutzow 
and that their main objective is the protection in 1941 both attempted to break out. But their 
of the Coasts of the British Isles. freedom was' short lived, and they returned to 

In point of fact nothing is further from the port for prolonged repair as the results of en- 
truth. The Coastal pilot, passes over the Brit- counters with Coastal Aircraft, 
ish coasts on his. outward mission to return. The fortunes of war ebb and flow, and at 

hours later, to his aerodrome or anchorage. In times the dice are too heavily loaded. Later 
the meanwhile he moy have been operating any- the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau broke out of 
where on the coastline of Germany or German Oc- Brest in a dash to the German ports. They made 

cupied territory from the North of Norway to the run at high speed under cover of bad weather 

Gibraltar: or out deep in the Atlantic, 600 and relays of shore-based fighters concentrated 

miles or more. over them throughout the passage in overwhelming 

numbers. They effected their escape, not with- 
First Duty out damage, in circumstances which clearly fa- 

vored success. 

The first duty of the Command is recon- Such actions are incidents which stand out 

naissance, searching for the enemy on the sea, against a background of weeks and months of in- 
under the sea ond in harbor; but the matter does tensive reconnaissance of the harbors and dock- 
not end there, for, once he hos been located, yards in which the German Navy shelters, and 
the enemy is attacked with all the means avail- which provides the necessary information on 
able. The command is equipped not only with which to anticipate projected movements. In ad- 
long range flying boats and reconnaissance air- dition patrols must be mointained to search for 
craft but also with aircraft capable of bombing and locate convoys of merchant ships which pass 
or dropping torpedoes, in addition to long up and down the North Seo Coastline. Shipping 
range fighters. Many of the types used are of plays a substantial part in the German econ- 
American origin--the Hudson, - which has done yeo- omy: it eases the overloaded and somewhat 

man service throughout the war on medium range groaning German controlled railways: it carries 

general reconnaissance and U-boat hunting, the supplies of food and ammunition to German troops 
Catalina and the four-engined Liberator. abroad and it brings back from the occupied 

What then are the problems with which Coas- countries spoils in the form of iron ore, farm 
tal Command have to deal? There is a German produce, fish and other necessities for the Ger- 
Navy, which is powerful enough to cause consid- man people ond their war effort. Bitter ex- 
erable trouble if it gets out of control and perience has caused them to arm their ships 
breaks out onto the crowded Atlantic trades heavily and to form them into convoys closely 
routes. The escaf>e of the Gneisenau and Schorn- escorted by flok ships mounting A. A. guns and 
horst in March 1941. resulting in the sinking of covered by shore-based fighters. Nevertheless 
at least 19 merchant vessels, provides an ex- they are continually harassed and attacked by 
ample of the damage which major naval units are day and night, at times not without losses, 'with 
capable of inflicting. The Bismarck set out on the result that many a ship carrying a German 
a similar voyage which ended less happily for cargo lies at the bottom of the North Sea. 
her. After sinking H.M.S. Hood, she tried des- The convoys make their journey in stages, 

perately to make a port in the Bay of Biscay in putting into harbors on their route. But even 
a damaged condition. In the bad weather she had here, protected by shore defenses they ride un- 
shaken off the following British fleet and her easily at anchor, alert for the drone of air- 
chances of escape were favorable. And then a (Continued on Page 29) 

st. Lieut. P.L. Moore 

Maj . C.C, fCegelman 

Capt. R.L, Morri 

MAJORS Conrad Necrason, Hervey H. Whitfield. 
FIRST LIEUTENANTS Robert Taylor Hanson, Randall 
Dorton. SERGEIANTS Bennie B. Cunningham, Robert 
Golay . 

MAJOR Charles C. Kegelman, CAPTAINS James J. 

George E, Kiser, Robert L. Morrissey. 
FIFiST LIEUTENANTS James B, Morehead, Herbert C. 
Mayes (Post.), Pren L. Moore, James P. Muri 
SECC^D LIEUTENANTS Richard R, Birnn (Post.), 
Gerald J. Barnicale (Post.), William D. Harbis,’ 
Jr. (Post.), A.T. House, Jr., Russell H. Johnsen, 
William W. Moore, Garrett H. McAllister (Post.), 
John P. Schuman (Post.), Colin 0. Villenes,' 
William S. Watson (Post.), Thomas N. Weems, Jr..’ 
Uonard H. Wittington (Post.). SERGEANTS Raymond 
S. White, Salvatore Battaglia (Post.), Richard 

C. Decker (Post.), John J. Gogoj , Jack D. Dunn, 
Ernest M. Mohon, Albert E. Owen (Post.), James 
Via (Post.). CORPCRALS John D, Joyce, Frank L. 
Melo, Bernard C. Seitz (Post.). PRIVATES Earl 

D. Ashley, Benjamin F. Huffstickler (Post.), 
Roy W. Walters (Post.). 

Lynch, Harold J. Martin, Lawrence R. Mesereau, 
Andrew J. Reynolds, Jacob P. Sartz, Richard 
Werner, Merle C. Woods, Claude Lee Dean. SER- 
GEANTS William P. Bonner, William P. Campbell, 
Durward W, Resmire, Henry J, McElderry. Glen 
Beard, William E. Bostwick, Earnest E. Creach 
Kullervo T. Aaltonen, Ralph B. Baldridge, William’ 
D. Bettis. Orville W. Kiger, James 0, Mink, 
Robert A. Mocklin, Michael J, Novello. COR- 
PORAL James L. Shannon. PRIVATES George W. 
Motley, James W. McCabe, Ralph C. Riddle, Albert 
A. Wagner, Francis J. Marvey. 


COLONEL Hilmer C. Nelson, CAPTAINS Carl M. 
Sidenblad, John J. Webster. FIRST LIEUTENANTS 
Cha rles C. Johnson, Harry J. Schreiber. SECCND 
LIEUTENANTS Keith B. Brown, Eddie W. Hayman, 
Wallace F. Pickard, Melville Pound, Kenneth T. 
Taylor. WARRANT OFFICER Gottlieb J. Kaercher. 
SERGEANTS William L. Bayham, Robert G. Eidem, 
Charles A. Fay, Kraig L. Van Noy, Vernon c’. 
Rider, Glover Burke, John M. Diehl, Arthur W 


Haynes, William D. Old, Robert L. Scott, Jr.. 
Birrell Walsh. MAJCRS Julian M. Joplin, Robert 
D. Van Auken. CAPTAINS Dalene E. Bailey, N.H. 
Blanton, Bert M. Carleton, Walter Coss, Fred 
Eaton, Felix M. Hardison, W.J, Hennon, J.J. 
Kruzel, Guilford R. Montgomery, Edward I. Pratt, 
Jr., Wayne K. Richardson. FIRST LIEUTENANTS 
Frank E. Adkins, Ben S. Brown, James A. Gibbs, 
Donald J. Green, John H. Posten, Eugene A. Wahl,’ 
Varian K. White. SECCND LIEUTENANTS J.J. Boll, 
Paul F. Conroy, Robert L. Hartzell, Thomas J. 

Norgaard, John F, Dorondo, Milton J. Dunn, 
Ethelbert E. Lovell, John J. Ostrum, Gerald l’. 
Suprise, George J. Van Gieri, Theodore E. Wesala, 
Lewis Coburn, Ira Pickingpaugh, David Runager. 
CORPORALS Robert A. French, George C. Ames, 
Robert Stewart. George Tillett, Bryson C. West,’ 
Ford Everett Dodd, Frederic W. Sprague, Merritt 
Wimsett. PRIVATES Daniel A. Mahoney, Russel 
C. Thompson. 


Samuel C. Dragone. PRIVATE Woodrow W. Ravenscraft. 

Hunting for One in a Million 

By Lieiii. •Jiihn M. Jenks 

Headquarters, AAF 

T he man in Colonel Leon B. 

Lent's office set a dis- 
tracted pigeon on the desk and 
pointed to it triumphantly. 

"Suicide pigeon squadrons) '* 
he yelled. "Just think of it! 
Thousands of birds--each with 
a little bomb tied to its leg! 
Then all we have to do is train 
'em to fly into the propellers 
of enemy airplanes! It'll win the war for us!'' 

Colonel Lent, who is used to this sort of 
thing, ran fingers through his snowy hair and 
explained gently that the idea just wouldn't work. 
What he didn't explain was that the pigeon man 
belonged to the lunatic fringe of visitors who 
almost daily wander into his office at the Na- 
tional Inventers Council in Washington--like the 
man who proposed that battalions of skunks be 
posted around airfields to guide night fliers in 
by sense of smell, 

"We get them all the time," says Colonel 
Lent, "but each one is given a sympathetic hear- 
ing and courteous treatment, because we never 
know when the one idea in a million will come 
along . " 

Definitely not in the "big idea" class are 
such screwball proposals as a bridge around the 
world for the swift movement of troops and sup- 
plies, or "death ray" devices that capture so 
many addled imaginations. 

A Plane That Never Stops 

One " inventor " proposed a perpetual motion 
airplane that would run forever by means of an 
electrical motor hooked up to the prop which 
would run generators, which in turn would supply 
juice for the electrical motor, which in turn 
would spin the prop, and so forth, ad nauseum. 

Not all of Colonel Lent's visitors are crack- 
pots, however. In fact, nearly five thousand 
inventions submitted to the Council within the 
past two years hove been considered sufficiently 
meritorious to be referred for development to 
Various branches of the Army, Navy and other 
government agencies. 

This is roughly 5% of the total of 90,000 
inventions, suggestions, ideas and what-have-you 
that the Council has reviewed since its organ- 
ization in October of 1940. Of the acceptable 
5%, about one quarter are in the field of mili- 
tary aeronautics with the remainder divided among 
Ordnance, Signal Corps, Engineers, Medical Corps 
and other government departments connected with 
the war effort. 

After Colonel Lent and his staff of seven 

highly trained engineering and technical experts 
refer an invention or idea to the Army or Navy, 
it is swallowed up in the mists of official se- 
crecy, and the clamp-down is impenetrable. Even 
the Colonel rarely knows what happens to them. 
It is possible that many instruments, devices 
and gadgets now used in our military aircraft had 
their origin on Colonel Lent's desk. 

Among the practicable proposals now going 
through the appraisal mill are jet propulsion 
devices of the "rocket" type to add power for 
aircraft take-offs on short runways, and refuel- 
ing equipment designed to increase the effective 
range of fighter planes. 

Other ideas and devices which have interested 
the Army Air Forces include engines, construction 
methods, de-icing equipment, flying instruments 
of many types, lubricants for armament and other 
things that must function properly at both high 
and low temperatures, and photographic equipment. 

“Most of the stuff that is being developed 
at the present time is good," states Colonel 
Lent. "So good, in fact, that we don't dare 
speculate on the extent to which they may someday 
affect our military proficiency. 

"Unlike some other branches of the armed 
service, most good inventions useful to the Air 
Forces come from Air Forces personnel--so tell 
the boys to keep up the good work." 

Right after Pearl Harbor, the number of ideas 
that funneled into the Council's offices in the 
Dept, of Commerce building in Washington spiralled 
astronomically . 

From a daily overage of 200 before December 7, 
1941. the volume of suggestions grew to more than 
2500 a day, and the flow has only recently begun 
to ebb. The quality of ideas submitted also im- 
proved after the Jap stab in the back, indicating 
the more serious members of our society, out- 
raged at the sneaking attack, were thinking along 
invent ive lines. 

Civilian Thinkers 

Unusual though it seems, some of our most 
important military weapons and devices hove been 
invented by civilians without military experi- 
ence. The airplane, for example, was invented 
by the Civilian Wright brothers, the submarine 
by Civilian Simon Lake, and so on. 

Were it not for the National Inventors Coun- 
cil. the flood of inventions and ideas from civ- 
ilians would have to be reviewed and passed upon 

by officers of the Army and Navy a task 

which would distract needed talent from its war- 
time duties. Into this breach steps the Council, 
(Continued on Page 29) 

M iami Beach has gone to war. The Technical 
Training Command has converted this luxu- 
rious playground into a gigantic war factory 
producing thousands of trained ground officers 
and men for the Army Air Forces. The conversion 
of Miami Beach's civilian facilities into a vital 
part of the Army Air Forces war effort is as 
spectacular and effective as any that private 
industry has made. 

The streets are still lined with ultra-modern 
glass and steel hotels and the ghosts of night 
clubs. The sea still pounds along the long 
stretch of white sandy beach and the full moon 
and tropical nights are still better than any 
of the Tin Pan Alley songs written about them. 
But the streets now resound to the tramp of G.I. 
shoes and the cocky stanzas of the Air Corps 
song roared by hundreds of sunburned marching 
men. The empty night clubs are classrooms. 
The hotels stripped of former furnishings are 
barracks. The beaches and golf courses are full 
of sweating soldiers getting whipped into shape 
with drill and calisthenics. Few see the moon 
except on weekends. Call to quarters sounds at 
8 p.m. and taps at 10. 

Every available scrap of space has been 
pressed into use by the Technical Training Com- 
mand. Much valuable time has been saved by 
avoiding new cons t ruct ion . A large modernistic 
department store is now a classification center. 
Air conditioned theaters are used as lecture 
halls in the mornings before the matinees begin. 
Many night clubs are classrooms during the day 
and blossom at their old trade after dark. The 
former burlesque theater has been converted into 
a USO clubhouse. Former brokers offices, stores, 
ballrooms and hotel courtyards have all been 
converted into classrooms. 

Biggest of the three Technical Training Com- 
mand installations at Miami Beach is the Replace- 
ment Center commanded by Col. Mert Proctor. 

Tens of thousands of Air Forces recruits flow 
through the center for three weeks processing 
and classif icat ion before assignment to perma- 
nent posts. The Officers Candidate School or- 
ganized by Col. James Stowell trains men to be 
commissioned as administrative officers in the 
Army Air Forces. It offers a three months course 
based on a streamlined West Point curriculum 
adapted to Air Forces needs. 

Most interesting of the three installations 
is the Officers Training School organized by 
Lieut. Col. W.A. Roberts. Here officers com- 
missioned from civilian life because of special 
talents which can be utilized by the Air Forces 
are put through six weeks training to whip them 
into the physical and mental condition necessary 
for the assumption of their responsibilities 
as Air Forces officers. 

To learn how to command soldiers, these men 
commissioned directly from civilian life, are 
soldiers themselves for six weeks. They are 
organized into squadrons, stand guard, police 
their quarters, act as orderlies and are trained 
So that any man can take over command of his 
squadron at any time. 

Anybody who thinks assignment to Miami Beach 
means lolling in the lap of luxury is due for a 
shock . 

Sweat and study is the theme of the new Miami 
Beach . The war is close to the men at Miami 
Beach. Patrol planes are constantly buzzing over- 
head. Sentries patrol the beaches and the black- 
out descends every night at dusk. Men of the early 
OTS and CCS can remember the days when they saw 
torpedoed tankers blazing hardly 10 miles from 
their hotel barracks. From early morning until 
dark the officers and men of Miami Beach are work- 
ing hard at their task--to turn out trained 
officers and men to match the flow of weapons from 
our great industrial system. 

Before you sink any base pay 
in the purchase of a new win- 
ter service coat, be sure your 
tailor designs it according to 
the new approved style. War 
Dept, specifications now au- 
thorize only one typ>e of coat-- 
basically the same as that worn 
heretofore by other than Air 
Corps officers. The approved 
coat is provided with side 
pleats in the back, has a fully 
detachable cloth belt supported 
at the side seams by removable 
cloth belt loops, and the fourth 
button will be bone or plastic 
instead of ornamental. In the 
enlisted men's department, 
service coats will be worn 
without the pleated bi-swing 
back, to save wool. 

KIT; --If Representative 
Durham of N.C. has his way, 
a Pharmacy Corps will be esto±>- 
lished in the Army for the pur- 
fH)se of eliminating an overlap 
of authority among other med- 
ical branches that reportedly 
confuses the purchase and han- 
dling of drugs and medicines. 
It's not likely that you phar- 
macists now on latrine duty 
will learn much about this op- 
portunity before late Fall, as 
the proposed bill is now under 
consideration by the Military 
Affairs Committee of the House. 
More proposed legislation, re- 
quested of Secretary Stimson, 
would remove the necessity of 
obtaining a new oath of office 
and acceptance of a commission 

Misuse of military insignia 
is currently plaguing offi- 
cial circles, and all person- 
nel returning to this country 
from foreign stations or from 
coodiat units preparing to go 
overseas are warned to avoid 
displaying squadron, group or 
other identifying markers for 
the benefit of press photog- 
raphers--as well as for any 
enemy agents who read news- 
papers. And in connection with 
insignia, note that “any person 
wearing military insignia or 
any colorable imitation there- 
of without proper authority 
shall.... be punished by a fine 
not exceeding $250, or by im- 
prisonment not exceeding six 
months." Yes--this applies to 
the, girl friend. 

J/y you were in World War I, 
be advised that the draft 
registration cards you and 
23,999,999 others signed 25 
years ago have been transferred 
from the War Dept, archives 
to the Census Bureau, where 

home, or drove the neighbors 
wacky with trumpet toots, 
they've made it a bit easier 
tor you to turn your talent 
into tunes for Uncle Sam. Lib- 
eralized regulations regarding 
eligibility of military person- 
nel for attendance at the Army 
Music School have recently been 
announced, and they provide 
that candidates must be at least 
25 years of age and not more 
than 44 years and eight months 
at time of examination for ap- 
pointmeit. In addition, three 
months service in the armed 
forces is required. Previously, 
only non-commissioned applicants 
with three years service as 
Army bandsmen, plus other 
qualif icat ions , were accepted. 

from an officer each time he 
is promoted. The thought be- 
hind the suggestion is not to 
make it easier for you career 
boys to leap up the ladder, 
but to save the War Dept, con- 
siderable paper work. 

time limit on railroad 
tickets used on furlough has 
been extended from 60 to 90 
days, and now the boys are won- 
dering when furloughs them- 
selves will be extended to 90 

days Officers who have 

faced the danger of sleeping 
on park benches in overcrowded 
Washington will be happy to 
learn that a Billeting office 
has been set up in the War Dept, 
to which they can apply in ad- 
vance for hotel or residential 
accommodations at the Nation’s 

Qipital All members of the 

armed forces will be granted 
spjecial concessions in computing 
their income taxes, under the 
terms of the new war revenue 
bill now before Congress. The 
bill provides an additional 
$250 personal exemption for 

single men and $300 for married 

they are available as a source 
of evidence on age and place of 
birth for persons lacking birth 
certificates. Also, veterans 
of the last conflict who served 
overseas are now entitled to 
wear a service ribbon attesting 
to that fact. The ribbon has 
a black center with a wavy red 
and blue stripe at either end, 
and may be purchased at most 

<^TYLE NOTE : - -G . I . footwear 
will undergo structural 
changes soon, but the appear- 
ance of your clodhoppers is 
not likely to be improved, nor 
their weight lessened. In- 
stead of the quarter pound of 
crude rubber that now is used 
in composition soles and heels, 
about 10% of uncured tire scrap 
will be used. Less bouncy, 
but lots of badly needed rubber 
will be saved. 


Link Getm Tniigli 

D own at the AAF Advanced Flying School at 
Moore Field, Texas, they have fitted out 
three Link Trainers with high-velocity B.B. ma- 
chine guns, and the boys are shooting lead pel- 
lets at moving targets that look like Heinkel 

It's a brand new idea, developed by Lt . Col, 
German P. Culver, as part of his plan to im- 
prove students' gunnery before they are assigned 
to outdoor ranges with . 30-calibre ammo. The 
gadget works so well that the Gulf Coast Train- 
ing Center has given its assistance, and all ad- 
vanced flying schools in the southwest may be 
equipped with the indoor gunnery ranges before 

Thirty-seven feet away from the gun-equipped 
Trainers is a target range, where a small elec- 
tric locomotive pulls the targets along a small 
railway track. Traveling at nine feet per sec- 
ond, the target moves at a speed which, to 
scale, represents 120 miles per hour. This will 
soon be steppied up to 140 miles per hour. Eighty 
pounds of compressed air enable the students to 
blast away with a muzzle velocity of about 300 
feet per second . 

First Photos of Hew Range 

^HE novel compressor shown at top 
furnishes 80 pounds of pressure for 
the air gun mounted on the Link Trainer, 
enabling the student to fire B.B.’s with 
machine-gun rapidity. The tube on top 
of the hood is where B.B.’s are inserted. 
At left, Lt. Col. German P. Culver, in- 
ventor of the device, is shown demon- 
strating it. Note that the hood of his 
trainer has been removed for “contact 
flying”. At left below is a close-up of 
the target, traveling a circuitous course 
wliich the trainee must follow constantly 
with his sights, as shown in the photo 
below. The muslin drapes in the back- 
ground collect pellets that miss, and 
they are used over again. 

Xhe Trieyele Landing Gear 


T he tricycle landing gear is almost as old 
as heavier- t han-air flying. On the first 
man-carrying powered airplane, the under- 
carriage consisted of a set of sled-runners, 
wide enough and long enough to prevent the fly- 
ing machine from tipping over in landing. This 
contraption made it necessary to launch the 
plane from a greased track; upon landing it 
came to a stop as abruptly as a sled fresh out 
of snow. 

Airmen soon found that construction of launch- 
ing tracks at every open field desired for land- 
ings and take-offs was impractical. They added 
light bicycle wheels. And in the first old 
pusher type airplanes, it was natural that the 
two main wheels should be located beneath and 
behind the airplane motor on the lower wing, 
with a third wheel up in front to support the 
nose. Thus the tricycle gear came into exis- 
tence . 

Further experiments in flying, however, led to 
tractor propellers and f ron t -mounted engines. 
In such types, the two main wheels usually were 
located by designers to follow the weight. 
Pusher airplanes were seen less and less often, 
until finally the type almost disappeared- -and 
with the pusher went the tricycle gear. 

Some Changes ifade 

This condition existed during World War I, 
through the boom era of tr ans-At Ian t ic hops and 
on until about 1937. Then, with prospects of an 
air war on the horizon, there were increasingly 
loud whispers of 2,000 horsepower engines and of 
400 - or - mo re- mi le per hour fighters. Drastic 
changes in airplane design began to receive real 
at tention. 

Out at the Douglas aircraft plant in Santa 
Monica, Calif., an old Dolphin began slapping 

the runways with three wheels for an under- 
carriage. The laughs continued when a steel 
tricycle-gear frame cooked up by North American 
Company’s engineers, the frame loaded to the li- 
mit with sand bags, turned over during a test 
one bright morning while being towed behind an 
automobile. But the tricycle landing gear was 
staging a come-back. It has since gone on the 
Consolidated B-24 heavy bomber, the North Amer- 
ican B-25 and Martin B-26 medium-bombers, and 
the Douglas A-20 light bomber, the Bell P-39 
and Lockheed P-38 pursuits, and the Douglas 
DC-4 and DC-5 transports. 

Among pilots, vague opinions about tricycle 
landing gears still are prevalent. Praise, 
fear and criticism vary with each group using 
such equipment. It is the writer’s opinion that 
few know exactly why the gear is on improvement, 
or the best way to handle it. 

It is particularly important to understand 
that with the tricycle gear, and its compara- 
tively short nose wheel arm and broad base of 
support, the center of gravity is ahead of the 
main wheels. In the conventional gear, having a 
long tail arm and small tail wheel, the center 
of gravity is behind the main wheels. 

Let’s assume that we are in an airplane with 
conventional gear and forced to land in a cross 
wind. If we have not straightened out before 
touching the runway, or a gust happens to have 
hit the rudder while we are still taxiing fast, 
or the pilot has over-corrected with motors or 
brakes, we are almost certain to find the tail 
swinging to one side. And since the airplane 
will tend to exaggerate this tendency, if we 
don’t correct promptly, we are going to have a 
"ground loop." 

Scientifically speaking, the danger is in the 




center of gravity going outside the radius of 
the turn and outside the 1 ine- of - inert ia move- 
ment. When this occurs the airplane must be 
"flown” every second to prevent a "ground loop' 
or possible accident . 

"Crab-Wise” Approach 

It's different with a tricycle gear. You can 
come in “crab-wise" for a landing right down to 
the approach and even on to the runway until the 
wheels touch. Your airplane actually will 
straighten out and assume a runway heading equal 
to the ground track being made good on the ap- 
proach . 

Provided the runway or landing surface is not 
so slick that the wheels are unable to get trac- 
tion, it is impossible to "ground loop” a tri- 
cycle landing gear in the accepted sense of the 
word. Tests have been made, locking one brake, 
or gunning one motor. Under such abnormal con- 
ditions the airplane either continued straight 
ahead or changed course slightly and held that 
new course. Continued application of a motor 
will, of course, slowly swing the airplane 
around in a long-radius turn, but normally the 
tricycle gear will safely withstand abuse from 
amateurish operation which would wreck a conven- 
tional -geared airplane. 

Blown tires are always a danger in aircraft 
landings, but a tricycle gear will not ground 
loop with a blown tire. When a tire blows at 
the highest possible speed on the ground, the 
airplane will change course not over 15 degrees 
and will hold the new course. 

Wet asphalt, grass and icy runways constitute 
a very real danger to modern airplanes, and 
those equipped with conventional gear often have 
accidents in landing under such conditions. 
With the tricycle gear, when one brake is ap- 
plied as the wheels touch a very slippery run- 
way, the airplane may change heading and some- 
times will spin around, but it will not change 
course off the runway--it will continue on the 
path it was making good when the skid began. 

Many pilots appear apprehensive of the nose 
wheel of a tricycle gear, usually because they 
have heard it is subject to failure without 
warning. This is the worst misconception that 
exists. Nose wheels will "take it" when treated 
with normal caution, having respect for design 
limitations. Most nose wheels have failed when 
operated on muddy ground, soft sand or deep snow 
or when a pilot attempts to taxi against a 
turned wheel or a wheel having improper position 
of the towing pin lock. 

Most nose wheels "caster "--that is, they trail 
from the pull of the strut in spite of the fact 
that the nose wheel strut has a forward slant. 
Muddy fields, sand, snow and high grass all tend 
to eliminate the caster effect of the nose 
wheel. When anything of this nature "builds up" 

in front of the wheel to a point in line with 
the strut, the castering effect is destroyed. 
As a result, the accumulation becomes a pure re- 
sistance, tending to twist the nose wheel side- 
ways until it is crosswise to the taxi direc- 

Here is a major cause of nose gear failures- - 
pilots attempting to pick up speed in rough 
going, or. in trying to pull out of the spot, 
gunning the motors against a turned nose wheel 
and snapping the strut. It is easy to see how, 
unless excessively heavy braces are installed, 
the retraction strut can "snap” under the pull 
of 1,700 horsepower engines when the nose wheel 
is turned sideways. 

Operation Hints 

A few hints on operation with tricycle gear 
seem to be in order, so here goes: 

When entering your airplane look at the nose 
wheel --be sure it is straight. 

Roll straight ahead for several feet before 
beginning a turn and lay off the brakes and 
motors as much as possible. Sudden brake appli- 
cations jerk the nose wheel around. 

In approaching intersec tions for turns, anti- 
cipate the turn sooner than with conventional 
gear. Put on the outside motor well before the 
turn; hit the inside brake easily. 

Always stop with the nose wheel straight. 
This is best accomplished by rolling straight 
into the stopping point and applying both brakes 
equally . 

Check the motors before coming to the end of 
the runway prior to the take-off. After the 
check, roll on to the end of the runway and be- 
gin the turn at slow speed, using the outside 
motor, with as little brake as possible. Keep 
rolling and before completing the turn bring the 
inside motor up to a speed equal to that of the 
outside motor. 

On take-offs , once on the proper heading, ease 
the motors up to 1500-1 700 revolutions and hold 
them there for three or four seconds , al lowing 
the airplane to pick up speed-- this gives the 
nose wheel a chance to begin "tracking” pro- 

Most t r icyc 1 e - gear ed planes will not take 
themselves off, so when elevator control is 
gained at 60 or 70 miles an hour, ease the con- 
trols back, letting the nose wheel lift off the 
ground, and run on the main wheels until take- 
off speed is gained. Don’ t trim the elevator 
tab to the tail-heavy position for take-off; the 
gain in speed and the retraction of the landing 
gear after take-off would make a stall imminent . 

In landing, set in with more than stalling 
speed and land on the main wheels, nose wheel 
off. After landing, hold the nose where it is 
until a little speed is lost and then let the 
(Continued on Page 38) 


■p OR every AAF man in the sky, at least 
ten must remain on the ground, per- 
forming the thousand and one tasks required 
to “Keep ’Em Flying”. 

The AAF has confidence in its mechan- 
ics. It is betting millions of dollars worth 
of equipment and thousands of lives that 
they know what they're doing. In order to 
make this a safe bet the AAF makes sure 
its mechanics are the best. Only the cream 
of the enlisted personnel of the Army can 
be Air Forces mechanics --and then only 
after months of intensive training. In 
return for his services the Air Forces 
pays the mechanic well --up to $150 per 
month plus clothing, food and shelter. 

The AAF mechs not only “Keep ’Em 
Flying” in the United States--they follow 
their planes right into the toughest combat 
zones. Thelr’s is no soft life, but they 
have the safisfaction of knowing that they’re 
good, and that they’re doing one of the 
biggest jobs in the Air Forces. 

Constant care keeps ’em -humming. 

A meehauic-armorer puts the stinp into n pursuit. 

Oh! We are the lads of the 
Air Corps 

Nuts to you! Mud in your eye! 

We’re the guys who made 
’em fly, 

The grease balls of the Air 

It takes a crew like me and 

To keep the planes up in the 

Grease balls keep rolling 
the Army. 

We’re the vital “Ten” and 
something more, 

You’re hot on the stick when 
we make ’em tick, 

But you’ll come home when 
the weather gets thick. 

To the mechs, the grease 
balls of the Air Corps. 

From the song "Mechs of the 
Air Corps," by Robert Crawford k 


of a B«I7 are given last rainute pre«flight inspection 

Thousands of screws m\i«t be inspected 

Through Briiish Eyes 

The Luftwaffe Today 

Front View of " FW 190" 

A n examination of Germany's present air 
strength suggests that the Luftwaffe of 1942 
is inferior, both in numbers and in quality, to 
the Luftwaffe of 1941. 

Such a statement may appear to be born of 
optimism, yet the more the facts are probed the 
more certain the condition appears. The flying 
equipment of the Luftwaffe has been improved dur- 
ing the past year, but the introduction of new 
fighters and bombers cannot make good short- 
comings in other fields. 

Briefly the reasons for the present short- 
comings are: (1) Loss of valuable leaders and 

experienced pilots, (2) Less thorough training, 
(3) A wider distribution enforced on the Luft- 
waffe, (4) Heavy losses in Russia and over Malta, 
(5) Curtailed production as the result of R.A.F. 
bombing, and (6) A falling aircraft production 
relative to Allied production. 

The backbone of the Luftwaffe's flying per- 
sonnel has been the several thousands of ex- 
members of the Condor Legion who fought in Spain. 
They were the first European airmen to gain ex- 
perience of air tactics in modern war. Almost 
all the well-known Commodores and Wing Commanders 
of Jagdgeschwader Pursuit Groups and practically 
all the fighter pilots with more than 70 vic- 
tories to their credit, belonged to that crack 
formation. The late Colonel Molders, the late 
Majors Wick and Balthasar, the present Inspec- 
tor of Fighters, Colonel Galland, and the Com- 
modores of Pursuit Groups, Lieutenant Colonel 
Lutzow, Majors Trautloft and Oseau, all belonged 
to the Condor Legion. Most of the holders of 
the Knight's Insignia of the Iron Cross flew in 
the Spanish War. 

Like the German Army, the Luftwaffe suffered 
heavy losses during the Russian Winter offensive. 
It has paid a heavy price for its raids on Malta, 
and in meeting the daylight challenge of the 
R.A.F. over France and the Low Countries. The 
number of obituary notices in German papers an- 
nouncing the death of Luftwaffe personnel who 
fought in Spain rose sharply during the Winter 
months. There were many fatal accidents, and 
the Luftwaffe's fighting strength was drained 
still more by transfers of experienced airmen to 
training schools or to the staffs of Air Divi- 
sions, Air Corps or Air Fleets, and other admin- 


istrative posts where their experience was con- 
sidered of great importance. Moreover, several 
Luftwaffe of f icers- - their number will remain un- 
known until the end of this War--were drafted 
to other services, and there is at least one in- 
stance of a former pilot of the Condor Legion be- 
coming a submarine commander. 

Airmen trained since the outbreak of war 
have been sent into action by the thousands. 
Although many of them have shown courage and 
skill as high as that of their older comrades, 
they lack the long experience which the "Span- 
iards " gained . Moreover, they are not as well 
trained as the regular airmen or those who joined 
a front-line unit during the first 18 months of 
t he War . 

Since the Battle of Britain, when the Luft- 
waffe suffered its first severe losses, training 
has had to be accelerated to match the output of 
the British Commonwealth Joint Air Training Plan. 

Before the War, German pupils averaged about 
200 flying hours before they received their 
wings, and underwent special operation instruc- 
tion before going to a Staffel, an operational 
squadron. Now, the average pupil obtains his 
pilot's certificate after 100 hours, and most of 
the operational training is gained on active 
service. As the selection of candidates is now 
less strict than before the War, the average 
German pilot of today cannot be as efficient as 
the overage airman of a year ago, and still less 
than at the beginning of the war. 

Equ i pmen t 

Squadrons of the Luftwaffe fighting on the 
principal fronts--in particular over the Channel 
area--are equipped with better aeroplanes than 
they had a year ago. The ME 109F1 and F2, and 
the Focke-Wulf FW 190H single-seat fighters hove 

Three-quarter View of FW 190" 

better performances than the earlier ME 109E. 
The ME HOC is being replaced by the ME 210, and 
reports from Germany indicate that the Focke- 
Wulf company is still experimenting with the FW 
187 Zerstorer (Destroyer) . The Henschel HS 126 
is no longer in quantity production and is being 
replaced by the more efficient FW 189 twin-boom 
type built for tactical reconnaissance and ground 




attack. Of the new bombers, only the Dornier 
DO 217 multi-purpose bomber is yet in service. 
Comparatively few of the queer - looking three- 
seat Blohm and Voss BV 141, the four-motor HE 177 
and the new Junkers JU 91 four-motor bombers 
hove been in service so far. These typos are 
only just coming into quantity production and few 
are likely to be seen for some time--unless 
there is truth in the report that German air- 
craft factories in former Polish territory have 
been building new types in large numbers for 
some time 

Perhaps the most important point of all is 
the numerical strength of the Luftwaffe. The 
Luftwaffe of 1942 is certainly inferior in num- 
bers to the Luftwaffe at the outbreak of the 
Russian campaign. At that time the operational 
strength of the Luftwaffe was about 6,500 first- 
line aeroplanes. This fell to about 4,000 ma- 
chines by the end of 1941 and the first-line 
operational strength can now hardly exceed 5,000. 

This deficiency in numbers is not offset by 
the higher quality of the equipment. More effi- 
cient fighters and bombers can make good a defi- 
ciency in numbers only when the opposing air 
force cannot command aeroplanes of equal quality, 
or when the force with superior quality can con- 
centrate at a few vital points while the more 
numerous force is widely scattered. Neither con- 
dition applies to the Luftwaffe. Allied Air 
Forces are using aeroplanes at least equal in 
quality, and the Luftwaffe is now widely scat- 
tered and unable to concentrate as it could in 
the early days of the War. 

Di s t r i bu t i on 

At the start of the Russian campaign in 
June, 1941, the bulk of the squadrons of the 
Luftwaffe were stationed along the Eastern Front, 
waiting for reinforcements, particularly in 
fighters, from Marshal Sperrle's Luftflotte (Air 
Fleet), which had had to guard the Western Front. 
The units did not arrive before the middle of 
July in the Southern and Central sectors of the 
front . 

Elsewhere there were only comparatively 
small Luftwaffe contingents. General Geissler’s 
Air Corps had been recalled from Sicily and had 
gone East. North Africa held a bare 200 fighters, 
reconnaissance machines, Stukas and bombers; 
more were not required as the opposing British 
forces did not receive reinforcements until some 
months later. Practically all the Luftwaffe 
units which had fought in the Balkans and over 
Crete had been transferred to the Ukraine. 

Probably fewer than 50 German first-line 
aeroplanes were stationed in Greece and Crete, 
and even the Italian air units which could be 
spared for newly occupied countries were small 
because of the heavy losses which Mussolini's 
"White Eagles”, had suffered from the attacks of 

the Royal Air Force in Africa. 

Inside Germany, fighter--and in particular 
night f ighter--protection was poor. General 

Side View of " FW 190” 

Kammhuber was busy forming his Night Fighter Di- 
vision which was to be equipped with more suit- 
able types. Until then, the chief German night 
fighters were the elderly Arado AR 68 and Heinkel 
HE 51 single-seat fighter biplanes, although a 
few HE 113s and ME llOs were used. The new 
Night Fighter Division was to be equipped with 
ME 109s for interceptor work, with ME 110s for 
pursuit, and with JU 88B night fighters for pur- 
suit and intruder work. 

The pauses in air operations during the 
Winters of the first two years of the War were 
not accidental. The Germans used them to over- 
haul their war machine, to improve its organiza- 
tion according to the lessons learned, to train 
and re-equip the troops, and to prepare for com- 
ing offensives. Something like a million and a 
half men were sent to the factories in each of 
the two first Winters of the War in order to 
speed up production, but in the third Winter the 
Russian offensive upset the Nazis’ plans and de- 
manded the recall of thousands of German sol- 
diers who had been sent home on industrial leave. 
In consequence, armament production schedules 
were not fulfilled, and still sterner measures 
had to be enforced to raise factory outputs. 
One of the new rules made absenteeism a crime 
almost as great as treason. 

Shortage of labor is Germany's most serious 
problem--as it was in the last War. In an at- 
tempt to overcome it, the Germans are employing 
still more women in industry and still more for- 
eigners . 

Despite all the measures taken, aircraft 
production from June, 1941, to the end of the 
first quarter of 1942 fell far short of German 
needs. Output increased by a bare 10 per cent, 
and was attained only by extending existing 
plants. Though higher than a year ago, produc- 
tion is inadequate to meet the increased commit- 
ments of the Luftwaffe and, judged side-by-side 
with Allied production, shows a comparative de- 
cline that may soon become catastrophic. 

But it is too early to assume that the symp- 
toms now visible are comparable with those that 
marked the decline of German air power in the 
last war .- -Reprinted from Aeroplane . 

A iMurtial list of officers and men of the Army Air Forces officially reported 
tdhave died in the service of their .country since December 7, li41. 

Richard E. C^b 

Matter Sergeanta 
Fred Peoples 

Lieutenant Colonel 
Otto C|l 

Fir at Sergeants 
Herbert B. Martin 

Edward Flanick 

Technical Sergeanta 


Rosa Thomas Hopkins 
David P. Laubach 
Mark K. Lewis.«^ 
Charles L. R'^iii^, 
Jack S. Ms]^^' 

Daniel A. Dyer, Jr 
Monroe M. Clark 

j.HiC. ■T8e|OTtob,;,;_..^ 

f]L^ j,’ ^11 j y* 

Cl^iH^^' WcpherkM 

Staff SergeiSnts 

Cebrge K. Gannam 
y I Felix Bonnie 

William Charleil JOne 
Edsnind B; Le-pper 
Jasies L, Reed ' 
Edward R.' White 


H, Gearin" 

^nald S. MacKay, Jr, 
iy[.IM>es X , . Maddoe 


Robert- 0 * .Corkery 
l^rnon E. .^lidker. 
Earl R.Sbve^M. 

, ihrold W. ; 9 boiBaso 

^^ohn ifc. Crut birds ‘ z*' 
^orige'^,.'Howa^ ^ 
^Leuis Scdhleiier 
Richard S. Livingstoc 
.Donal V. ‘OtSpnatn 
■'Theodore 'F^ '-Byrd, .. Jr*, 

•*A&^w -Slaiw 

#b'|iry MerriB'/t ' , C 

' K^VSon H. ucxkiewicz 
v^"*^or**s Pr Ice ■ I 

• James I. Lewis- 


Eugene L. Chambers 

' .':- *» *«• v|!*»s,„ J ^ 

Dexter C. WoodsMijf’y 
' Alan Thibido / 
Charles £. HcNaty 

^ Sec 00# Juis^egenSk 

Wnb Jasws ,ns#a|ii • ' .-Donald Lawon Qtaae *'* Is 

Turner Earnest, Savjgie Benjamin Harry Sharsain\ 

WeiMier C. Von Dor eke l« left H, Dewitt Kelley „ ' 
Roy^lhtrrel' CroVhers James Sherrill Carithers 

John Fergu 8 oii''Stovenson Charles Allen Kinzle >; ;4 
Jack Windham Pounds ' Richar.d'Rda'ard Baldslefb 

' m ' je 

Newton Henry Sinntaon RaymRn ‘ttajit ClSient - 

A I J 

David Allen Southard TVMSlIO^.JoClCSO^ Barber * 

Wm. Walter Bennett, Jr>' Frjtnk Baskoll Pulley * 
James Irven White > ■, Dana Rm* Bradford ■ ■ 

Angus Martin Johnston vRonald Charles HoCklbp: 
James Wm. LaucK John Samuel FeiutoU 

Robert Gay Kaspar „ Qkorge Hemiogsray Betuleisjb 

Mario Lawrence Biava l^ank SavaiiMVMtliilli^f^fk-^T. 

Duane Tripo Crosthwaite Glen' Roy Me't#^ 4 ^ jp.|| 

Lawler Clyde Neighbors Albert Lumen 

'-^ 1 * ^ ^ 

Jay E. Pietzsch John S. Greene fl 

Privates i 

William M, Northway 
^Donald D, Plant 
i William H. Manley 

Lawrence P. Lyons , Jr 
Joseph Jedrysik 
.» Theodore K. Joyner 
Otto C. Klein 
, Rex Nelson 
*' I^slie V. Long 

Robert R. McLennan 
Robert L. Jennings 
Carroll P. Foster 
Lawton Jay Woodworth 

;'iAtlaon<.E*’;. I^bbins 

JRitselj U^^9etsiw 
‘'HirBert-R.> lielM^lin 
4worge G« ^Leslie 
’‘‘Mdward N. Lusk 
Jamgs R. Johnson 
..Marion E. King 
Earl Hood 
'Hugh Rice;. Jr. 

Emory G. Lasseter 
iJeslie D. Meyers 
’■■DarrieBP'’!. Edwards 
Diri^ley B. Williams - 

Red Sentries of the Skies 

By Major I¥. Denisov 

Russian Air Force 

A ir patroling is a very important phase 
of the combat duties of fighter planes. Pa- 
trol fighters can safely cover their own ground 
troops on the battle-field, on the march and in 
bivouac. Properly executed patroling prevents 
the enemy planes from reaching military objec- 
tives. The following is based on the combat ex- 
perience of our fighters: 

During combat it is impossible to have 
forces everywhere. The main mission of fighters 
is to support the assault groups or echelons and 
parties raiding enemy rear. It does not mean, 
however, that other ground troops are without 
protection; these latter simply hove less air 
cover . 

Combat plans for fighters must include a 
careful study of meteorological conditions. A 
cloudless sky simplifies our fighter problem but 
also permits higher altitudes and greater maneu- 
verability for the enemy. Clouds at overage al- 
titudes require close coordination between pat- 
rol ships. If it is very cloudy the methods de- 
cided will depend on the altitude of the clouds; 
if our patrols are improperly employed, the 
enemy planes can approach under cover of the 
clouds and. breaking through them, make sudden 
attacks. Conditions of visibility, light and 
other meteorological factors, studied before 
hand by the commander, frequently permit the 
fighters to gain a tactical advantage over the 
enemy: and also permits anticipating the attack, 
nullifying the element of surprise. 

Very important is the schedule of flights 
based on consumption of fuel. For clarity. I 
shall cite an example. A squadron under command 
of Captain Potanin was covering our ground 
troops attacking an important objective. The 
captain organized his command on a two-altitude 
and two-relief plan. The schedule called for 
half of the planes to be in the air while the 
other half was refueling. When the fight started 
the beautiful schedule become practically a 
worthless piece of paper. What happened was 
that most of the unit was over the ground troops 
at the same time so that when refueling was nec- 
essary the ground troops were left undefended. 

During the critique of the battle it was 
learned that all the pilots operated their 
planes at maximum speed all the time. Naturally 
the schedule, which was based on average speeds, 
was worthless. Although the number of take-offs 
was more than the schedule called for, at times 
most of the planes were in the air and at other 
times the ground troops were without protection. 

This occurred because the personnel of this 
squadron was accustomed to fly at maximum speed 
forgetting cd>out the flight time and the effect 
on the mission. Maximum speed, which consumes 
the most fuel, is applied to overtake the enemy, 
for acrobatics and the air fight itself. Using 
maximum speed in any other cose causes the pilot 
to remain in the air a shorter time and burns up 
considercd)le fuel unnecessarily. 

In one case, one or two flights can be in 
the air at the same time to cover a very limited 
areo at all altitudes; in another case patrols 
may be disposed in groups echeloned in altitude. 
A combination of these two methods may be used. 
One cannot prescribe one method for all cases., 

The Germans hove tried different methods in 
attacking our troops. Sometimes they concen- 
trate their attack in one place and, echeloning 
their flights of four to six planes on a time 
basis, try to bomb our troops. Sometimes they 
use the so-called tactics of nuisance bombing-- 
their bombers, mostly singly, periodically fly 
over our troops dropping bombs promiscuously. 
It is evident recently that, fearing losses, the 
Germans have applied the principle of force in 
their attacks. For example, in several sectors 
of the Southwestern Front recently it was no- 
ticed that the bombers were accompanied by a 
considerable number of fighters. Such mixed 
groups of 25 to 30 planes were mode iq> of Junkers 
and Messerschfflitts. 

One of Our squadrons had six Laggs cruising 
over the front line. The upper flight was fly- 
ing in a 5 - 6 point cloud density and the other 
under the clouds at a 1,200 meter altitude. 
There appeared four Junkers-87's. flying in 
pairs, at a distance of 1% kilometers and just 
under the clouds. 

Thd first attack was made by our lower 
flight on the leading pair of Junkers. One of 
them caught on fire and plunged to the earth; 
the other, expending his ammunition, disappeared 
into the clouds. The second pair came on and, 
not changing their course, went into the clouds. 
The lower flight commander, knowing that the 
other flight was above, kept his altitude and 
continued observation. The succeeding events 
proved the correctness of his actions. 

Emerging from the clouds a Junkers plane 
from the first pair headed for his own lines but 
was observed by our upper flight. Our leading 
plane began pursuit and the remaining two Laggs 
continued to patrol. (Continued on Page 38) 


T he P-47s are girding for action. 

These big. tough packages of firepower, long 
looked forward to as "the best fighter planes in 
the world",