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Issued October 31, 1914. 


United States Department of Agriculture, 
DeUee useing) et cen leeige Ne ee Ne Dein, Bele 
Drug-Plant and Poisonous-Plant Investigations, 


WASHINGTON, D. C. 


PRINCIPAL POISONOUS PLANTS OF THE WESTERN 
STOCK RANGES. 


By C. D. Marsu, Physiologist. 


While poisonous plants cause heavy losses of live stock on the 
western ranges, nearly all these losses are produced by a compara- 
tively small number of plants. It is true that the lst of plants 
which may possibly cause loss is very large, but most of these plants 
are of very little practical importance. 

It has been found as a matter of experience that while many 
stockmen recognize and avoid the plants which are likely to cause 
fatalities there are many others who do not know what plants to 
avoid. The names “loco,” “larkspur,” “parsnip,” and others are 
used frequently in a very indefinite way. It is believed that a brief 
publication giving recognizable pictures of the plants and the essen- 
tial facts in regard to their characteristics will aid the stockmen in 
avoiding losses. 

Bulletins on some of the plants have already been published, and 
these should be consulted for detailed information. The object of 
this circular is simply to call attention in a definite way to the plants 
which it 1s most necessary to avoid. 


Approved: 
Wm. A. Taytor, 
Chief of Bureau. 


a op ipa eee BS 


58967 °—14 


ZYGADENUS, DEATH CAMAS. 


Height of plant.—F rom 4 inches to 14 feet. 

Color of flowers.—Greenish yellow. 

Animals poisoned.—Sheep, horses, and cattle. Especially dangerous to sheep. 

Symptoms.—Frothing at the mouth, vomiting, trembling, sometimes spasmodic 
struggles for breath, great weakness, the animal sometimes lying 2 or 3 days 
before death. Death from respiratory paralysis. 

Part of plant poisonous.— All parts. The seeds are especially poisonous. 


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x 
vi 


PLATE 


r., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 


44 


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ZYGADENUS, OR DEATH CAMAS. 


LUPINE. 


Height of plant.—From 1 to 2 feet. 

Color of flowers.—Light blue or blue violet. 

Animals poisoned.—Sheep. 

Symptoms.—Nervousness, weakness, partial paralysis, sleepiness, convulsions, 
death. 

Part of plant poisonous.—Pods and seeds. 

Season when poisoning occurs.—Late summer and fall. 


Cir., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATD II. 





LUPINE. 


LOCO, WHITE LOCO, RATTLEWEED. 
[There are many locos. This is one of the worst. ] 


Height of plant.—From 6 inches to 1 foot. 

Color of flowers.—White to shades of purple and pink. 

Animals poisoned.—Horses, cattle, and sheep. 

Symptoms.—Erratic movements, constipation, progressive emaciation. Effects 
are chronic, extending over a time varying from a few weeks to 2 or 3 years. 
Death ordinarily results from starvation, the animal ceasing to either eat or 
drink. 

Part of plant poisonous.—All parts. 

Season when poisoning occurs.—At any time of the year when feed is short. 

Remedy.—Good food. Laxatives. Strychnine for cattle. Fowler’s solution for 
horses. 

See Bulletin 112, Bureau of Animal Industry, and Farmers’ Bulletin 380. 





Cir., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE III 





Loco, WHITE Loco, OR RATTLEWEED. 


7 


TALL LARKSPUR. 


Height of plant.—Irom 3 to 7 feet. 

Color of flowers.—Shades of violet blue and purple. 

Animals poisoned.—Cattle. 

Symptoms.—Repeated falling, accompanied with such weakness that for a 
variable period the animal is unable to rise. Staggering when up, spasmodic 
movements when down, constipation, nausea resulting in vomiting, and death 
from respiratory paralysis. 

Part of plant poisonous.—All parts above the ground. 

Season when poisoning occurs.—Mostly in spring and early summer. The 
plant loses its poisonous properties after blossoming. 

Remedy.—Keep the animal still, with head uphill. Give hypodermic injections 
of eserin and whisky. 

See Farmers’ Bulletin 5381. 





Cir., U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. PEAT Hive 





TALL LARKSPUR. 


9 


LOW LARKSPUR. 


Height of plant.—From 6 inches to 14 feet. 

Color of flowers.—Shades of violet blue and purple. 

Animals poisoned.—Cattle. 

Symptoms.—Repeated falling, accompanied with such weakness that for a 
variable period the animal is unable to rise. Staggering when up, spasmodic 
movements when down. constipation, nausea resulting in vomiting, and death 
from respiratory paralysis. 

Part of plant poisonous.—All parts above the ground. 

Season when poisoning occurs.—Mostly in spring and early summer. The 
plant loses its poisonous properties after blossoming. 

Remedy.—Keep the animal still, with head uphill. Give hypodermic injections 
of eserin and whisky. 

See Farmers’ Bulletin 531. 


10 


Cir., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 


PLATH VY. 





Low LARKSPUR. 


EL 


CICUTA, WATER HEMLOCK. 


[Sometimes called parsnip. ] 


Height of plant.—From 3 to 4 feet. 

Color of flowers.—White. 

Animals poisoned.—All higher animals, including man. 

Symptoms.—Excessive frothing at the mouth, gnashing of teeth, pain, nausea, 
violent convulsions, and death. 

Part of plant poisonous.—Root. 

Season when poisoning occurs.—At any season, but most commonly in spring 
and early summer. 

Remedy.—For domestic animals, none. For man, an emetic. 

See Department Bulletin 69. 





12 


Cir., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE VI. 





CICUTA, OR WATER HEMLOCK. 


WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICH : 1914 


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